Search Results

Author: Apel, Robert
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Apel, Robert
The Effects of Jail and Prison Confinement on Cohabitation and Marriage
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 665,1 (May 2016): 103-126.
Also: http://ann.sagepub.com/content/665/1/103.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Incarceration/Jail; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore the relationship between incarceration and the stability of cohabiting and marital relationships. Self-report dates of relatively short confinement in jail or prison (median one month) are linked with data on cohabitation and residential partnerships, by month, from ages 18 to 32. I estimate the effects of incarceration on transitions into and out of cohabitation and marriage while controlling for other salient life events (e.g., employment, parenthood). Findings indicate that incarceration precipitates an immediate and persistent disruption in residential partnerships and is also a long-term impediment to the transition to marriage (but not the transition to cohabitation). The long-term disruption in existing residential partnerships applies equally to females and males, as well as to whites, African Americans (males only), and Hispanics.
Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert. "The Effects of Jail and Prison Confinement on Cohabitation and Marriage." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 665,1 (May 2016): 103-126.
2. Apel, Robert
Sweeten, Gary
The Impact of Incarceration on Employment during the Transition to Adulthood
Social Problems 57,3 (August 2010): 448-479.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1525/sp.2010.57.3.448
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Crime; Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Transition, Adulthood; Work Histories

The research findings with respect to the relationship between incarceration and employment are consistent enough that it is tempting to conclude that incarceration causes deterioration in ex-inmates' employment prospects. Yet, causality remains tenuous for several reasons. For one, studies frequently rely on samples of nonincarcerated subjects that are not truly "at risk" of incarceration, which undermines their use as comparison samples and potentially biases estimates of the impact of incarceration on life outcomes. Additionally, even with confidence about causal identification, the field remains ignorant about the precise mechanism by which incarceration erodes employment and earnings. To address these gaps, this study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to estimate the impact of incarceration during late adolescence and early adulthood on short- and long-term employment outcomes. The subjects of interest are all individuals who are convicted of a crime for the first time, some of whom receive a sentence of incarceration following their conviction. Broad measures of legal and illegal employment are used to explore possible avenues by which incarceration affects individual work histories.
Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert and Gary Sweeten. "The Impact of Incarceration on Employment during the Transition to Adulthood." Social Problems 57,3 (August 2010): 448-479.
3. Appleby, Ashley
Apel, Robert
School Engagement, Attachment, and Performance: The Impact of Early Justice System Involvement
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; School Performance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Juvenile justice contact can have a sizable impact on education, for example, diminished educational attainment. However, much less is known about the short-term effects of early involvement in the justice system on education, short of stopout and dropout. As youth spend a substantial amount of time in school, it is crucial to consider how these contacts can influence their engagement, attachment, and performance in that domain. The current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to explore these questions.
Bibliography Citation
Appleby, Ashley and Robert Apel. "School Engagement, Attachment, and Performance: The Impact of Early Justice System Involvement." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
4. DeWitt, Samuel
Apel, Robert
Perceptual Deterrence and Deterrability: Individual Differences and Risk Perceptions in a National Sample
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Bayesian; Crime; Risk Perception

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current project aims to describe and explain change over time in individual perceptions of the risk of arrest in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). With an appeal to contemporary models of Bayesian learning, the degree to which risk perceptions are "updated" in response to personal and vicarious experiences with criminal behavior and arrest will be examined. Furthermore, this study will consider the degree to which perceptual updating in response to past experiences is moderated by a variety of measures of "deterrability" (e.g., present orientation).
Bibliography Citation
DeWitt, Samuel and Robert Apel. "Perceptual Deterrence and Deterrability: Individual Differences and Risk Perceptions in a National Sample." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
5. Hashimi, Sadaf
Apel, Robert
Wakefield, Sara
Familial Transmission of Gang Involvement
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Household Structure; Siblings; Social Contacts/Social Network

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The role of delinquent peer friendship networks in contouring gang membership has driven much of contemporary criminological research. Yet, during adolescence, siblings are also salient influences on one another, acting as potential social partners, mentors, and/or "gatekeepers" to delinquent networks. The current study uses nine waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the diffusion of gang membership among similar-aged siblings. We exploit the household-based nature of the survey, whereby all eligible household members sharing a primary residence completed a questionnaire. The study utilizes siblings' self-report gang involvement as a determinant of focal youths' self-report gang involvement. The analysis conceives of the family as a social network, and explores the way that household structure and respondent characteristics impact the process of gang diffusion.
Bibliography Citation
Hashimi, Sadaf, Robert Apel and Sara Wakefield. "Familial Transmission of Gang Involvement." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
6. Kaukinen, Catherine
Apel, Robert
The Effect of Variation in Intact Family Forms on Deviant and Antisocial Behavior
American Journal of Criminal Justice 42,2 (June 2017): 350-372.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12103-016-9361-7
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Structure; Parental Influences; Parental Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Family form sets the stage for a host of adolescent behavioral outcomes. We draw on research, theory, and methodology from within Criminology, Demography, and Family Sociology to examines the effect of variation in intact family form on antisocial and deviant behavior. We find higher antisocial and deviant behavior among youth residing in households where one of the parents has a child from a previous relationship and the parents are currently married but were cohabiting at the time of the birth of their eldest child.
Bibliography Citation
Kaukinen, Catherine and Robert Apel. "The Effect of Variation in Intact Family Forms on Deviant and Antisocial Behavior." American Journal of Criminal Justice 42,2 (June 2017): 350-372.
7. Powell, Kathleen
Apel, Robert
Long-term Filtering Effects of Juvenile Punishment
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course; Punishment, Criminal

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Formal processing of any given case through the American justice system involves a lengthy process and multiple decision points, each of which effectively serve as a 'filter' that keeps increasingly fewer cases active. The literature on punishment is predominated by the study of outcomes related to back-end system stages -- particularly, incarceration. This focus fails to fully capture the effects justice system contact in two ways: by estimating incarceration effects that compound the experience of all prior stages, and omitting cases only experiencing initial stages (such as arrest). Using the NLSY97, this paper proposes to explore the impact of system involvement at multiple key decision stages for a specific population: individuals formally processed before turning 18 years old. The analysis will tease out filtering effects to highlight the unique impact of each increasingly intrusive stage. Further, the focus on an adolescent population being processed during an important developmental period will assess the degree to which differing levels of involvement carries implications into adulthood and over the life course. Findings may nuance understanding of the nature of justice system contact for youth by highlighting accumulation processes or long-term enduring effects.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Kathleen and Robert Apel. "Long-term Filtering Effects of Juvenile Punishment." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
8. Ramakers, Anke
Apel, Robert
The Role of Familiar versus New Work Environments in the Likelihood of Rearrest During and After Transitioning into Adulthood
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Employment; Job Search; Re-employment; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While many studies focused on the weak labor market attachment of offenders, little attention is paid to the fact that many of them accumulated work experience before they came into contact with the criminal justice system. This motivates an examination of whether those who were employed at the time of arrest are able to hold down this job, especially because previous work showed that not the guidance to any job, but to stable employment helps to lower rearrest risks. Longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (1997 – 2012) were analyzed to examine to what extent criminal justice contact puts employees in search for a new job, and how old versus new jobs (e.g., familiar versus new work environments) affect future arrests. To connect to prior work in which the moderating role of age in work-effects was emphasized, attention is paid to whether younger or older offenders benefit differently from holding down their jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Ramakers, Anke and Robert Apel. "The Role of Familiar versus New Work Environments in the Likelihood of Rearrest During and After Transitioning into Adulthood." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.