Search Results

Author: Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Alternative Opportunities in the Female Labor Market and Teacher Supply and Quality: 1940-1990
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Teachers/Faculty; Tests and Testing; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, I estimate the effect of changes in teacher earnings relative to professional earnings opportunities on teacher supply and teacher quality. I analyze data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series of 1940-1990, the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Men, Young Women, and Youth-79, and the CIRP Freshman Surveys from 1971-1995 of college freshmen from more than 1,700 institutions.

I find that teacher performance on standardized exams declines between 1970 and 1990. Prospective education majors are increasingly being drawn from less selective institutions. Ceteris paribus, a 10 percent increase in entry teacher earnings relative to professionals raises the probability that skilled women choose teaching by 32 to 47 percent for blacks and 18 to 40 percent for whites. Raising relative teacher wages also significantly attracts teachers who perform better on standardized tests and prospective education majors from highly selective institutions. Specification checks imply that the results are robust to various identifying assumptions.

Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla. "Alternative Opportunities in the Female Labor Market and Teacher Supply and Quality: 1940-1990." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002.
2. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Do Alternative Opportunities Matter? The Role of Female Labor Markets in the Decline of Teacher Quality
Review of Economics and Statistics 89,4 (November 2007): 737-751.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40043097
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Teachers/Faculty; Tests and Testing; Wage Rates; Wages, Young Women; Women's Education; Women's Roles

This paper documents the widely perceived but little investigated notion that teachers today are less qualified than they once were. Evidence of a marked decline in the quality of young women going into teaching between 1960 and 1990 is presented, using standardized test scores, undergraduate institution selectivity, and positive assortative mating characteristics as indicators of quality. In contrast, the quality of young women becoming professionals increased. The Roy model of self-selection highlights how occupational differences in the returns to skill determine teacher quality. Estimates suggest the significance of increasing professional opportunities for women in affecting the decline in teacher quality.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla. "Do Alternative Opportunities Matter? The Role of Female Labor Markets in the Decline of Teacher Quality." Review of Economics and Statistics 89,4 (November 2007): 737-751.
3. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Essays on Teacher Supply and Quality, and School Quality: Evidence from the United States and the Philippines
Ph.D. Dissertation University of California - Los Angeles, 2002. DAI-A 63/07, p. 2645, Jan 2003
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): School Quality; Teachers/Faculty; Women's Education; Women's Studies

The dissertation is comprised of two loosely related essays in the economics of education. An extensive literature of education production function studies offers mixed evidence on the effects of school inputs on student performance in both developed and developing countries. The first chapter addresses two aspects in this literature. Quantile regressions are applied to Philippine data to estimate the differential impact of inputs on students at various points on the conditional achievement distribution, that is, at points other than the mean. Variation in the students who attend public schools outside their barangay (district) of residence, students who do not attend the nearest school, and students who transferred schools are used to identify these differential impacts and control for selection. Results suggest that a policy of reducing student to teacher ratios will have a positive effect on raising students' math achievement, but may also benefit high achievers more than the average or low achievers. In contrast, the impact of class size reductions on English achievement may impact the average or median student more relative to the tails. Given that teachers constitute a major input in education production, the second chapter explores the impact of the expansion in professional opportunities that American women faced on teacher supply and teacher quality. Data for the analyses include one-percent census samples from 1940 to 1990, three National Longitudinal Surveys, and the CIRP Freshman Surveys. Using standardized test scores, undergraduate institution selectivity, and positive assortative mating characteristics as measures of quality, evidence of a marked decline in the quality of young women going into teaching is documented. In contrast, the quality of young women becoming professionals increased. The more teachers are paid relative to professionals, the more likely educated women are to choose to teach. When wage opportunities in teaching become relatively less attractive, the quality of teachers and prospective teachers declines. These results are robust to fixed effects and difference strategies, as well as to the use of instrumental variables. Results suggest that the driving force leading to these changes are demand-side shocks, including industrial shocks that favored skilled individuals and women.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla. Essays on Teacher Supply and Quality, and School Quality: Evidence from the United States and the Philippines. Ph.D. Dissertation University of California - Los Angeles, 2002. DAI-A 63/07, p. 2645, Jan 2003.
4. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Blum, Bernardo S.
Strange, William C.
Elements of Skill: Traits, Intelligences, and Agglomeration
Working Paper, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, April 2009.
Also: http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/conference/2009/jrs/Strange.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem; Skilled Workers; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There are many fundamental issues in regional and urban economics that hinge on worker skills. This paper builds on psychological approaches to learning to characterize the role of education and agglomeration in the skill development process. While the standard approach of equating skill to worker education can be useful, there are important aspects of skill that are missed. Using a measure of skill derived from hedonic attribution, the paper explores the geographic distribution of worker traits, intelligences, and skills and considers the role of urbanization and education in the skill development process.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla, Bernardo S. Blum and William C. Strange. "Elements of Skill: Traits, Intelligences, and Agglomeration." Working Paper, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, April 2009.
5. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Blum, Bernardo S.
Strange, William C.
Skills in the City
Journal of Urban Economics 65,2 (March 2009):136-153.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119008001083
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Geocoded Data; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Occupational Choice; Rural/Urban Differences; Rural/Urban Migration; Skilled Workers; Urban and Regional Planning; Urbanization/Urban Living

This paper documents the allocation of skills across cities and estimates the impact of agglomeration on the hedonic prices of worker skills. We find that large cities are more skilled than are small cities, but only to a modest degree. We also show that the increase in productivity associated with agglomeration, as measured by the urban wage premium, is larger for workers with stronger cognitive and people skills. In contrast, motor skills and physical strength are not rewarded to a greater degree in large cities. Urbanization thus enhances thinking and social interaction, rather than physical abilities. These results are robust to a variety of estimation strategies, including using NLSY variables that control for worker quality and a worker-MSA fixed effect specification.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla, Bernardo S. Blum and William C. Strange. "Skills in the City." Journal of Urban Economics 65,2 (March 2009):136-153.
6. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Hotz, V. Joseph
Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: Evidence from Three NLS Surveys
Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 351-373.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775706000240
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Family Background; Hispanics; Skills; Transition, School to Work; Wage Growth; Wages

This study examines the changes in the school-to-work transition of young adults in the United States over the latter part of the twentieth century. Their transition is portrayed using data from National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women, Young Men, and Youth 1979. In general, we find that indicators of educational attainment, working while in school and non-school related work increased across cohorts for almost all racial/ethnic and gender groups. This was especially true for young women. Furthermore, various indicators of personal and family backgrounds changed in ways consistent with an improvement across cohorts in the preparation of young men and women for their attainment of schooling and work experience and their success in the labor market. The one exception to this general picture of improvement across cohorts was Hispanic men, who experienced a notable decline in educational attainment and in a variety of personal and family background characteristics. With respect to hourly wage rates, we find that wages over the ages 16 through 27 declined across cohorts. However, the rate of growth of wages with age, particularly over adult ages, increased across cohorts, except Hispanic men. Our findings highlight the need for accounting for the endogeneity and selectivity of early skill acquisition. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR; Copyright 2006 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla and V. Joseph Hotz. "Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: Evidence from Three NLS Surveys." Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 351-373.
7. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Hotz, V. Joseph
Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: What Changed and What Consequences Did It Have for Wages?
Presented: New York, NY, Russell Sage Foundation Conference on "School-to-Work Transitions and School-to-Work Programs", May 2004.
Also: http://www.econ.ucla.edu/hotz/working_papers/cohort.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Schooling; Transition, School to Work; Wages

This study examines the changes in the school-to-work transition in the United States over the latter part of the twentieth century and their consequences for the wages of young adults. In particular, we document the various types of work and schooling experiences acquired by youth who came to adulthood in the U.S. during the late 1960s, 1970s, and through the 1980s. We pay particular attention to how the differences across cohorts in these transitions vary by gender and race/ethnicity and how these differences affected their subsequent wage attainment. Evidence is evaluated using data from National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women, Young Men, and Youth 1979.

In general, we find that indicators of educational attainment, working while in school and non-school related work increased across cohorts for almost all racial/ethnic and gender groups. This was especially true for young women. Furthermore, various indicators of personal and family backgrounds changed in ways consistent with an improvement across cohorts in the preparation of young men and women for their attainment of schooling and work experience and their success in the labor market. The one exception to this general picture of improvement across cohorts was Hispanic men, who experienced a notable decline in educational attainment, the acquisition of full time work early in their adult lives and in a variety of personal and family background characteristics.

Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla and V. Joseph Hotz. "Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: What Changed and What Consequences Did It Have for Wages?" Presented: New York, NY, Russell Sage Foundation Conference on "School-to-Work Transitions and School-to-Work Programs", May 2004.