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Author: Bares, Cristina
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Bares, Cristina
Andrade, Fernando
A Longitudinal Analysis of Late Adolescent Co-Morbidity Between Cigarette Use and Mental Health Problems Using the NLSY
Presented: Tampa FL, Society for Social Work and Research 15th Annual Conference, January 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health, Mental; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background and Purpose: The prevalence of cigarette use and symptoms of depression and anxiety show high rates of co-morbidity, both undergo rapid onset during adolescence, and both work on the same brain receptors. Because studies both suggest that smoking increases the likelihood of developing depression/anxiety problems and depressed-anxious adolescents are at greater risk for smoking, this study examined the longitudinal progression of the co-occurrence of cigarette use and depression/anxiety problems. The purpose of the study is to understand the stability between and within these problems over time in U.S. adolescents. Because existing research suggests that female adolescents may be at increased risk of becoming heavy smokers, we were also interested in whether co-morbidities differed by gender.

Methods: We used the NLSY97 longitudinal study containing a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. The NLSY assesses adolescents' development in several areas; educational, labor market experiences, mental health, alcohol and other drug use, among other factors. NLSY measures of depression/anxiety are available only in waves 4, 6 and 8. Thus the analyses included data from these three waves. A total of 8,544 adolescents (Mean age at wave 4 = 17.9, SD=1.44, 49% female) were included in the analyses. To investigate the co-morbidity between depression/anxiety and cigarette use, latent factors of depression/anxiety and cigarette consumption were constructed at each wave. The depression/anxiety latent factors were based on five items measuring how often participants felt down, depressed, nervous, calm and happy. The cigarette use latent factors were based on two items measuring, in the previous month, the number of days they had smoked and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Finally, we estimated a three wave Bivariate Autoregressive Cross-Lagged Effect Model to test the conjoint trajectory of depression/anxiety and smoking. The fit of the final model was very good (CFI = 0.948, TLI=0.970 and RMSEA=0.059). Results: Prior depression/anxiety status influenced future depression/anxiety status between waves (0.685, p<0.001; 0.794, p<0.001) and previous cigarette use was a strong predictor of future cigarette use across waves (.925, p<0.001; 912, p<0.001). The model also suggested cross-lagged effects between waves 4 and 6. The greater depression/anxiety problems at wave 4, the more likely adolescents were to use cigarettes in the future (.268, p<0.01).The more cigarette use at wave 4 the more depression/anxiety at wave 6 (0.009, p<0.001). Separate models were tested by gender revealing same patterns between males and females.

Conclusions and Implications: The findings of this study showed that, both mental health and cigarette consumption influence each other during late adolescence. These findings could be explained by two hypotheses. First, adolescents with more depression/anxiety problems would use nicotine to treat their symptoms (self medication hypothesis). Second, common genetic factors may account for both the addiction to nicotine and vulnerability to depression/anxiety problems. Further research is needed to explore in more detail the mechanics of the co-morbidity of depression/anxiety and nicotine addiction. Major implications for prevention and treatment programs include considering both nicotine dependence and depressive-anxious disorders as two factors that jointly affect each other.

Bibliography Citation
Bares, Cristina and Fernando Andrade. "A Longitudinal Analysis of Late Adolescent Co-Morbidity Between Cigarette Use and Mental Health Problems Using the NLSY." Presented: Tampa FL, Society for Social Work and Research 15th Annual Conference, January 2011.
2. Bares, Cristina
Andrade, Fernando
Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Longitudinal Progression of Co-occurring Negative Affect and Cigarette Use: From Adolescence to Young Adulthood
Addictive Behaviors 37,5 (May 2012): 632-640.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460312000172
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; Health, Mental; Racial Differences; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Aims: This study examined the longitudinal progression of the co-occurrence of cigarette use and negative affect among the general population of U.S. adolescents and young adults and between racial/ethnic groups.

Methods: Data for this study consisted of Waves 4, 6, and 8 of the NLSY97 longitudinal study containing a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults. A total of 7,979 adolescents (Mean age at Wave 4 = 17.98, SD = 1.44, 49% female) were included in the analyses. To investigate the co-morbidity between negative affect and cigarette use, a latent factor of negative affect and single indicator of cigarette consumption were examined at each wave. A three wave Bivariate Autoregressive Cross-Lagged Effect Model was estimated to test the conjoint trajectory of negative affect and smoking.

Results: For all racial/ethnic groups prior negative affect status influenced future negative affect between waves and prior negative affect was positively related to increases in smoking in subsequent waves. The longitudinal trajectory of negative affect for the three racial/ethnic groups was the same, but racial/ethnic group differences were observed in the strength of the longitudinal relationship between previous and future cigarette use. Specifically, the following racial/ethnic differences were observed, even after controlling for the effect of SES; White young adults were found to exhibit the strongest association between cigarette use in the first two waves, followed by Hispanic individuals and lastly by African Americans. In the last two waves, African American young adults were found to have the strongest association between cigarette use at the latter two waves, followed by White individuals.

Conclusions: Both negative affect and cigarette consumption influence each other during the transition between late adolescence and young adulthood but the magnitude of the associations between cigarettes use across waves differed bet ween racial/ethnic groups. Implications for prevention and treatment programs include considering both cigarette use and negative affect as two factors that jointly impact each other and that should be targeted simultaneously.

Bibliography Citation
Bares, Cristina and Fernando Andrade. "Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Longitudinal Progression of Co-occurring Negative Affect and Cigarette Use: From Adolescence to Young Adulthood." Addictive Behaviors 37,5 (May 2012): 632-640.
3. Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.
Bares, Cristina
Delva, Jorge
Parenting, Family Processes, Relationships, and Parental Support in Multiracial and Multiethnic Families: An Exploratory Study of Youth Perceptions
Family Relations 62,1 (February 2013): 125-139.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2012.00751.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Chores (see Housework); Ethnic Differences; Family Characteristics; Family Decision-making/Conflict; Family Process Measures; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Racial Differences

Mixed-race or multiethnic youth are at risk for mental and physical health problems. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 to compare family characteristics of adolescents of a mixed-race or multiethnic background with those of a monoracial or monoethnic background. Mixed-race or multiethnic youth reported feeling less supported by parents and reported less satisfactory parent-adolescent relationships. Mixed-race/multiethnic youth were more like monoracial White youth in terms of being independent but were more like racial or ethnic minorities (African Americans, Hispanics) in regard to family activities. Reasons for these findings are explored. We discuss the need for future research on the experiences of mixed-race/multiethnic youth.
Bibliography Citation
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I., Cristina Bares and Jorge Delva. "Parenting, Family Processes, Relationships, and Parental Support in Multiracial and Multiethnic Families: An Exploratory Study of Youth Perceptions." Family Relations 62,1 (February 2013): 125-139.