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Author: Bould, Sally
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Bould, Sally
Black and White Families: Factors Affecting the Wife's Contribution to the Family Income Where the Husband's Income is Low to Moderate
Sociological Quarterly 18,4 (Autumn 1977): 536-547.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1977.tb01143.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Husbands, Attitudes; Poverty; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Wives, Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The economic role of the black wife in contrast to her husband's weak economic position is a key assumption in Moynihan's thesis of a black matriarchy. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of women, aged 30 to 44, in 1967, this paper examines the factors affecting the wife's contribution to the family income for both black and white families where the husband's income is below the median of all male-headed families. The results suggest that black wives and white wives respond similarly with respect to their overall contribution, the demand for female labor, and the effect of children. There is no support, moreover, for Moynihan's assumption that black wives are compensating for their husband's weak economic position. It appears, however, that the definition of the provider may differ among black families and white families.
Bibliography Citation
Bould, Sally. "Black and White Families: Factors Affecting the Wife's Contribution to the Family Income Where the Husband's Income is Low to Moderate." Sociological Quarterly 18,4 (Autumn 1977): 536-547.
2. Bould, Sally
Female-Headed Families: Personal Fate Control and the Provider Role
Journal of Marriage and Family 39,2 (May 1977): 339-349.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351129
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Support; Children; Control; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Mothers; Welfare

This study examines black and white female heads of families, ages 30-44. The results show that single mothers experienced significant difficulty in providing for their families. The source as well as the amount of income received affected their sense of personal fate control. In addition, poor women who relied upon AFDC, child support and other unstable sources of income, perceived themselves as less able to plan for their lives.
Bibliography Citation
Bould, Sally. "Female-Headed Families: Personal Fate Control and the Provider Role." Journal of Marriage and Family 39,2 (May 1977): 339-349.
3. Bould, Sally
Unemployment as a Factor in Early Retirement Decisions
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 39,2 (April 1980): 123-136.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1980.tb01622.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Assets; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Pensions; Retirees; Retirement; Rural/Urban Migration; Social Security; Unemployment; Work History

A study tested whether older male workers between the ages of 52-64 tend to retire early due to discouragement over unemployment. A sample of data on American males in these age groups was subjected to regression analysis for the year 1973. An earlier survey was done to isolate those planning to retire early in 1973. Over half of the white early retirees and over two-thirds of black early retirees had not expected early retirement by 1973. Both black and white early retirees that had not anticipated early retirement had greater experience of previous unemployment than did those who planned to retire by 1973.Early retirement for both racial groups is significantly related to the weeks of previous unemployment, even when controlled for social security and pension eligibility, assets, health limits, occupation, urban residence, family status, and changes in the unemployment rate. Early retirement for older workers may help them save face from the stigma of unemployment. Public policy should take into consideration the role of unemployment in early retirement. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Bould, Sally. "Unemployment as a Factor in Early Retirement Decisions." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 39,2 (April 1980): 123-136.