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Author: Bound, John
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Binder, Ariel J.
Bound, John
The Declining Labor Market Prospects of Less-Educated Men
NBER Working Paper No. 25577, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2019.
Also: https://www.nber.org/papers/w25577
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Male Sample; Marriage; Wage Growth

Over the last half century, U.S. wage growth stagnated, wage inequality rose, and the labor-force participation rate of prime-age men steadily declined. In this article, we examine these labor market trends, focusing on outcomes for males without a college education. Though wages and participation have fallen in tandem for this population, we argue that the canonical neo-classical framework, which postulates a labor demand curve shifting inward across a stable labor supply curve, does not reasonably explain the data. Alternatives we discuss include adjustment frictions associated with labor demand shocks and effects of the changing marriage market--that is, the fact that fewer less-educated men are forming their own stable families--on male labor supply incentives.

Our observations lead us to be skeptical of attempts to attribute the secular decline in male labor-force participation to a series of separately-acting causal factors. We argue that the correct interpretation probably involves complicated feedback between falling labor demand and other factors which have disproportionately affected men without a college education.

Bibliography Citation
Binder, Ariel J. and John Bound. "The Declining Labor Market Prospects of Less-Educated Men." NBER Working Paper No. 25577, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2019.
2. Bound, John
Self-Reported Versus Objective Measures of Health in Retirement Models
Journal of Human Resources 26,1 (Winter 1991): 106-138.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145718
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Data Quality/Consistency; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Morbidity; Mortality; Quits; Research Methodology; Retirement; Retirement History Study; Self-Reporting

Labor supply models are sensitive to the measures of health used. When self-reported measures are used, health seems to play a larger role and economic factors a smaller one than when more objective measures are used. While this may indicate biases inherent in using self-reported measures, there are reasons to be suspicious of more objective measures as well. A statistical model incorporating both self-reported and objective measures of health shows the potential biases involved in using either measure or in using one to instrument the other. The model is initially unidentified, but incorporating outside information on the validity of self-reported measures confirms fears about both the self-reported and objective measures available on such data sets as the Retirement History Survey or the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men.
Bibliography Citation
Bound, John. "Self-Reported Versus Objective Measures of Health in Retirement Models." Journal of Human Resources 26,1 (Winter 1991): 106-138.
3. Bound, John
Griliches, Zvi
Hall, Bronwyn H.
Brothers and Sisters in the Family and the Labor Market
NBER Working Paper No. 1476, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1984.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W1476
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Brothers; Family Influences; Gender Differences; I.Q.; Pairs (also see Siblings); Schooling; Siblings; Sisters; Wages

This paper investigates the relationship between earnings, schooling, and ability for young men and women who entered the labor force during the late 1960s and 1970s. The emphasis is on controlling for both observed and unobserved family characteristics, extending a framework developed earlier by Chamberlain and Griliches (1975) to the analysis of mixed-sex pairs of siblings. Using the NLS of Young Men and Young Women, which drew much of the sample from the same households, the authors were able to construct a sample containing roughly 1,500 sibling pairs. For several reasons, particularly the need to have data on two siblings from the same family, only one-third of these pairs had complete data; this fact led the authors to develop new methods of estimating factor models, which combine the data for several "unbalanced" covariance matrices. The authors' use the data on different kinds of sibling pairs (male-male, male-female, female-female) together with these new methods to investigate the question of whether family background, ability, or IQ are the same thing for males and females, in the sense that they lead to similar consequences for success in schooling and in the market place. With a simple two-factor model to explain wages, schooling, and IQ scores, the authors were able to test whether these factors are the same across siblings of different sexes and whether the loadings on the two factors are similar. The conclusion is that the unobservable factors appear to be the same and play the same role in explaining the IQ and schooling of these siblings, while there remains evidence of differences once they enter the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Bound, John, Zvi Griliches and Bronwyn H. Hall. "Brothers and Sisters in the Family and the Labor Market." NBER Working Paper No. 1476, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1984.
4. Colen, Cynthia G.
Geronimus, Arline T.
Bound, John
James, Sherman A.
Facing the Realities of the American Dream: Upward Maternal Socioeconomic Mobility and Black-White Disparities in Infant Birthweight
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association 133rd Annual Meeting and Exposition, December 10-14, 2005.
Also: http://apha.confex.com/apha/133am/techprogram/paper_115060.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Black Studies; Census of Population; Childbearing; Children, Well-Being; Family Income; Income Level; Infants; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Social; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the 1970 U.S. Census of Population and Housing to determine the extent to which upward maternal socioeconomic mobility reduces the probability of giving birth to a low birthweight (LBW) baby among Black and White women in the United States. Multivariate analyses are restricted to female respondents who were living in households at age 14 for which the income to needs ratio (INR) did not exceed 200% of the national poverty threshold. I estimate a series of logistic regression models to determine whether or not increases in family income during the year in which the respondent became pregnant are associated with the risk of low birthweight. Among White women who grew up in or near poverty, the probability of giving birth to a LBW baby decreases by 48% for every one unit increase in the natural logarithm of adult family income once the effects of all other covariates are taken into account. Among African American women who grew up in or near poverty, the relationship between adult family income and low birthweight is also negative; however, the coefficient on the independent variable of interest fails to reach statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Furthermore, maternal health behaviors, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, delayed prenatal care, and inadequate weight gain, appear to have a minimal impact on the association between upward socioeconomic mobility and the risk of low birthweight for both Blacks and Whites.
Bibliography Citation
Colen, Cynthia G., Arline T. Geronimus, John Bound and Sherman A. James. "Facing the Realities of the American Dream: Upward Maternal Socioeconomic Mobility and Black-White Disparities in Infant Birthweight." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association 133rd Annual Meeting and Exposition, December 10-14, 2005.
5. Colen, Cynthia G.
Geronimus, Arline T.
Bound, John
James, Sherman A.
Maternal Upward Socioeconomic Mobility and Black-White Disparities in Infant Birthweight
American Journal of Public Health 96,11 (November 2006): 1-11.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/96/11/2032
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Family Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Social; Poverty; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We estimate the extent to which upward socioeconomic mobility limits the probability that Black and White women who spent their childhoods in or near poverty will give birth to a low-birthweight baby.

Methods. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the 1970 US Census were used to complete a series of logistic regression models. We restricted multivariate analyses to female survey respondents who, at 14 years of age, were living in households in which the income-to-needs ratio did not exceed 200% of poverty.

Results. For White women, the probability of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby decreases by 48% for every 1 unit increase in the natural logarithm of adult family income, once the effects of all other covariates are taken into account. For Black women, the relation between adult family income and the probability of low birthweight is also negative; however, this association fails to reach statistical significance.

Conclusions. Upward socioeconomic mobility contributes to improved birth outcomes among infants born to White women who were poor as children, but the same does not hold true for their Black counterparts.

Bibliography Citation
Colen, Cynthia G., Arline T. Geronimus, John Bound and Sherman A. James. "Maternal Upward Socioeconomic Mobility and Black-White Disparities in Infant Birthweight." American Journal of Public Health 96,11 (November 2006): 1-11.