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Author: Curtis, Lori
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Corak, Miles
Curtis, Lori
Phipps, Shelley
Economic Mobility, Family Background, and the Well-Being of Children in the United States and Canada
IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 4814, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), March 2010.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp4814.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Canada, Canadian; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Family Background; Family Income; Mobility, Economic; National Survey of American Families (NSAF); Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID); The International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This comparative study of the relationship between family economic background and adult outcomes in the United States and Canada addresses three questions. First, is there something to explain? We suggest that the existing literature finds that there are significant differences in the degree of intergenerational economic mobility between these two countries, relative mobility being lower in the United States. This is the result of lower mobility at the very top and the very bottom of the earnings distribution. Second, does this reflect different underlying values of the citizens in these countries? Findings from comparable public opinion polls suggest that this is not the case. The citizens of both countries have a similar understanding of a successful life, one that is rooted in individual aspirations and freedom. They also have similar views on how these goals should be attained, but with one important exception: Americans differ in that they are more likely to see the State hindering rather than helping the attainment of these goals. Finally, how do the investments these countries make in the future of their children through the family, the labour market, and public policy actually differ? Using a number of representative household surveys we find that the configuration of all three sources of investment and support for children differs significantly, disadvantaged American children living in much more challenging circumstances, and the role of public policy not as strong in determining outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Corak, Miles, Lori Curtis and Shelley Phipps. "Economic Mobility, Family Background, and the Well-Being of Children in the United States and Canada." IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 4814, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), March 2010.
2. Phipps, Shelley
Curtis, Lori
Poverty and Child Well-Being in Canada and the United States: Does it Matter How We Measure Poverty?
Working Paper, Human Resources Development Canada, September 2000.
Also: http://www11.sdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/arb/publications/research/2000-001273/page01.shtml
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Canadian International Labor Network (CILN)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Body Mass Index (BMI); Canada, Canadian; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Health; Children, Poverty; Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Schooling; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we examine the robustness of conclusions about the association between poverty and children's well-being to alternative choices about how we measure poverty. In particular, we focus upon the influence of data set chosen, sample selected and poverty line used. Throughout, the analysis is conducted for children in both Canada and the US, both to emphasize that the issues are not unique to the Canadian situation and to point out the influence of these measurement choices upon our understanding of Canada/US comparisons of children's poverty and/or well-being. We find that estimates of the incidence of child poverty are very sensitive to measurement choices. For example, we can come to conclusions as diverse as: 1) the incidence of child poverty is 10 percentage points higher in the US than in Canada; 2) there is no difference in the incidence of child poverty in the two countries. Reassuringly, however, these quite differences in estimates of the level of child poverty do not carry over so dramatically to estimates of the association between child poverty and child outcomes. In almost all cases, child poverty, regardless of how it is measured, is associated with worse outcomes for children (we consider body mass index, Peabody Picture Vocabulary scores, trouble concentrating and hyperactivity); these associations are stronger in the United States than in Canada. While estimated magnitudes of these associations are not the same across alternative measures of poverty, we argue that they are not generally significantly different in either a statistical or economic sense. The exception to this conclusion is that if poverty is measured using official US poverty lines, there is sometimes no relationship apparent between children's outcomes and poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley and Lori Curtis. "Poverty and Child Well-Being in Canada and the United States: Does it Matter How We Measure Poverty?" Working Paper, Human Resources Development Canada, September 2000.
3. Phipps, Shelley
Curtis, Lori
Social Exclusion of Children in North America
Working Paper, Dalhousie University, August 2000.
Also: http://www.econ.nyu.edu/iariw/papers/SOCEX1.PDF
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, Dalhousie University
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Level; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Social Emotional Development; Social Environment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Much of the social exclusion literature takes an adult-focused rather than a child-focused perspective (see Phipps, 1999). Of course, some dimensions of exclusion seem relevant in either case (e.g., low-income or social isolation). However, being excluded from productive employment or from political participation is something which an adult rather than a child might experience, though the parent's experience may of course affect the child. More relevant from a child's perspective might be feeling socially isolated at school or being excluded from 'extracurricular' activities such as clubs or sports teams. In the first major section of our paper, we build upon Phipps, 1999a and b to provide a conceptual discussion of what it means for a child to be 'socially excluded' and how we might measure this. In the second major section of the paper, we make use of 1996 data from the Statistics Canada Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) and the US National Survey of Youth -- Mother Child Survey to provide an exploratory empirical investigation of the extent of social exclusion among young children (age 6 to 13) in North America, where the concept has not yet gained the same prevalence as in Europe (though see, for example, Hatfield, 2000).

We want to assess, first, the extent of correlation across various aspects of the social exclusion of a child. How strong are the correlations? How many children experience exclusion in multiple dimensions? How does this compare across Canada and the US? We are also particularly interested in the link between parental social exclusion and childhood social exclusion. That is, if the parent is socially excluded, is her child likely also to be excluded? To examine such associations, we estimate tobit models of the number of exclusions experienced by the child as functions of measures of various measures of adult exclusion, controlling for other relevant sociodemographic characteristics. The final section of the paper offers some conclusions as well as suggestions for further research.

Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley and Lori Curtis. "Social Exclusion of Children in North America." Working Paper, Dalhousie University, August 2000.