Search Results

Author: Ganzach, Yoav
Resulting in 20 citations.
1. Ganzach, Yoav
A Dynamic Analysis of the Effects of Intelligence and Socioeconomic Background on Job-Market Success
Intelligence 39,2-3 (March-April 2011): 120-129.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289611000237
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Intelligence; Mobility; Socioeconomic Background; Wage Growth; Wage Models

We compare the effects of socioeconomic background (SEB) and intelligence on wage trajectories in a dynamic growth modeling framework in a sample that had completed just 12 years of education. I show that the main difference between the two is that SEB affected wages solely by its effect on entry pay whereas intelligence affected wages primarily by its effect on mobility. I argue that a major issue that has been at the center of the debate about the roles of intelligence and SEB in social success -- the difficulty in accurately measuring SEB -- is to a large extent resolved by these results.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav. "A Dynamic Analysis of the Effects of Intelligence and Socioeconomic Background on Job-Market Success." Intelligence 39,2-3 (March-April 2011): 120-129.
2. Ganzach, Yoav
Adolescents’ Intelligence Is Related to Family Income
Personality and Individual Differences 59 (March 2014): 112-115.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019188691301341X
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Educational Attainment; Family Income; Intelligence; Parental Influences

In a recent article Lemos, Almeida & Colom (LAC, 2011) argued that adolescents’ intelligence is related to parents’ educational levels but not to family income. We examine their finding in two large, nationally representative American samples and find that in these samples (log) income had a strong positive relationship with intelligence.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav. "Adolescents’ Intelligence Is Related to Family Income." Personality and Individual Differences 59 (March 2014): 112-115.
3. Ganzach, Yoav
Cognitive Ability and Party Affiliation: The Role of the Formative Years of Political Socialization
Intelligence 61 (March-April 2017): 56-62.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289616302677
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Intelligence; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Political Attitudes/Behaviors/Efficacy

We study the effect of time on the relationship between intelligence and party affiliation in the United States. Our results indicate that time affects this relationship, and that this effect is due to the formative years in which political preferences were developed rather than the time in which the survey was conducted. For people who were born in the 20th century, the later their formative years, the more positive the relationship between intelligence and Democratic, as opposed to Republican, affiliation. The current results shed light on recent conflicting findings about the relationship between intelligence and party affiliation in the US, and suggest that the effect of intelligence on party affiliation changes with time.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav. "Cognitive Ability and Party Affiliation: The Role of the Formative Years of Political Socialization." Intelligence 61 (March-April 2017): 56-62.
4. Ganzach, Yoav
Intelligence and Job Satisfaction
Academy of Management Journal 41,5 (October 1998): 526-539.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/256940
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academy of Management
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Education; Intelligence; Job Satisfaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Suggests that cognitive variables, and intelligence in particular, may be important determinants of job satisfaction. The relationship between intelligence and job satisfaction was analyzed on the basis of a model in which intelligence has a direct negative effect on job satisfaction, an indirect positive effect, mediated by job complexity, and an interactive effect with job complexity. The roles of background variables, in particular education, and the implications of the findings for theories of job satisfaction were also examined. Data was drawn from reports by 5,423 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results show that intelligence was associated positively with job satisfaction. However, intelligence also is associated negatively with satisfaction when job complexity is held constant. This negative direct effect of intelligence on job satisfaction is mediated by job complexity: the effect decreases with an increase in job complexity. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav. "Intelligence and Job Satisfaction." Academy of Management Journal 41,5 (October 1998): 526-539.
5. Ganzach, Yoav
Intelligence and the Rationality of Political Preferences
Intelligence 69 (July-August 2018): 59-70.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289617303392
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): General Social Survey (GSS); I.Q.; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Political Attitudes/Behaviors/Efficacy; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study/H.S. Panel Study (WLS)

I study the relationship between intelligence and the rationality of political preferences. Intelligence is operationalized as achievement in standard mental ability tests, rationality as consistency between political attitudes and political preferences and consistency as the effect of the interaction between intelligence and political attitudes on political preferences. Political preferences are measured by party affiliation -- support for the Democratic versus the Republican Party in the US -- and political attitudes are measured on a conservative-liberal dimension. I analyze three large representative American databases [and] I conclude with a discussion of possible causal processes underlying the observed relationship between intelligence and consistency of political attitudes.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav. "Intelligence and the Rationality of Political Preferences." Intelligence 69 (July-August 2018): 59-70.
6. Ganzach, Yoav
Intelligence, Education, and Facets of Job Satisfaction
Work and Occupations 30,1 (February 2003): 97-122.
Also: http://wox.sagepub.com/content/30/1/97.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Older Men
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; I.Q.; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Job Characteristics; Job Satisfaction; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The paper suggests that intelligence and education have differential effects on intrinsic job satisfaction and on pay satisfaction. Intelligence has a strong direct negative effect on intrinsic satisfaction, but a negligible effect on pay satisfaction, because it is positively associated with the level of desired job complexity, but not with the level of expected pay. On the other hand, education has a strong direct negative effect on pay satisfaction, but a small effect on intrinsic satisfaction, because it is positively associated with expected pay. These effects of intelligence and education are compared to their effects on global job satisfaction.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav. "Intelligence, Education, and Facets of Job Satisfaction." Work and Occupations 30,1 (February 2003): 97-122.
7. Ganzach, Yoav
Misleading Interaction and Curvilinear Terms
Psychological Methods 2,3 (September 1997): 235-247.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/met/2/3/235/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Fathers, Influence; Modeling; Modeling, Nonparametric Regression; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences

This article examines the relationships between interaction (product) terms and curvilinear (quadratic) terms in regression models in which the independent variables are correlated. The author uses 2 substantive examples to demonstrate the following outcomes: (a) If the appropriate quadratic terms are not added to the estimated model, then the observed interaction may indicate a synergistic (offsetting) relationship between the independent variables, whereas the true relationship is, in fact, offsetting (synergistic). (b) If the appropriate product terms are not added to the equation, then the estimated model may indicate concave (convex) relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable, whereas the true relationship is, in fact, convex (concave). (c) If the appropriate product and quadratic terms are not examined simultaneously, then the observed interactive or curvilinear relationships may be nonsignificant when such relationships exist. The implications of these results for the examination of interaction and quadratic effects in multiple regression analysis are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav. "Misleading Interaction and Curvilinear Terms." Psychological Methods 2,3 (September 1997): 235-247.
8. Ganzach, Yoav
Parents' Education, Cognitive Ability, Educational Expectations and Educational Attainment: Interactive Effects
British Journal of Educational Psychology 70,3 (September 2000): 419-441.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1348/000709900158218/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: British Psychological Society
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: The models that have been used so far to describe the process underlying educational attainment have been almost always linear. Little research has been aimed at studying interactions among the determinants of educational attainment. Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the interactions between parents' education, cognitive ability and educational expectations in determining educational attainment. Sample: Participants were 8570 Americans who were born between 1957 and 1964. Method: The information was taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Information about parents' education, cognitive ability and educational expectations was taken from the 1979 survey. Information about educational attainment was taken from the 1991 survey. Results: The findings indicate that there is an offsetting relationship between the education of the two parents in the formation of expectations, but not in the determination of attainment; and that, both for expectations and for attainment, the cognitive ability of the child has an offsetting relationship with mother's education but not with father's education. The findings also indicate that there is a synergistic relationship between cognitive ability and educational expectations in determining educational attainment. Conclusions: There are theoretically meaningful interactions between the determinants of educational attainment. The pattern of these interactions capture some of the intricate psychological processes underlying the combined influence of background variables and children's characteristics on educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav. "Parents' Education, Cognitive Ability, Educational Expectations and Educational Attainment: Interactive Effects." British Journal of Educational Psychology 70,3 (September 2000): 419-441.
9. Ganzach, Yoav
Amar, Moty
Intelligence and the Repayment of High- and Low-consequences Debt
Personality and Individual Differences 110 (1 May 2017): 102-108.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886917300387
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Debt/Borrowing; Intelligence

We study the relationship between intelligence and debt repayment of High Consequences Debt (HCD), such as mortgage debt, and Low Consequences Debt (LCD), such as credit card debt. We find that intelligence has a stronger negative effect on the repayment of HCD than on the repayment of LCD. Our results also indicate that personality has a stronger effect on HCD than LCD, and that the availability of financial resources has a stronger effect on LCD than on HCD. These results are explained by the effect of involvement on decision making processes in general, and financial decision processes in particular.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav and Moty Amar. "Intelligence and the Repayment of High- and Low-consequences Debt." Personality and Individual Differences 110 (1 May 2017): 102-108.
10. Ganzach, Yoav
Ellis, Shmuel
Gotlibovski, Chemi
On Intelligence Education and Religious Beliefs
Intelligence 41,2 (March-April 2013): 121-128.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289613000020#sec2
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Education; General Social Survey (GSS); Intelligence; Religion; Religious Influences

A number of authors have suggested that education mediates the negative effect of intelligence on religiosity. However, there is very little direct evidence for this mediation, and the indirect evidence is contradictory. The results of the current paper suggest that, by and large, education does not mediate the effect of intelligence on religiosity. However, the results also suggest that since education has a positive effect on religiosity when religious background is strong and a negative effect when religious background is weak, and since intelligence has a positive effect on education, the negative effect of intelligence on religiosity is stronger when religious background is strong than when it is weak. We examine this mediated moderation model in two large, nationally representative, databases.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav, Shmuel Ellis and Chemi Gotlibovski. "On Intelligence Education and Religious Beliefs." Intelligence 41,2 (March-April 2013): 121-128.
11. Ganzach, Yoav
Fried, Itzhak
The Role of Intelligence in the Formation of Well-being: From Job Rewards to Job Satisfaction
Intelligence 40,4 (July-August 2012): 333-342.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289612000396
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Intelligence; Job Rewards; Job Satisfaction; Modeling

In a longitudinal study, we investigate the moderating role of intelligence on the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and intrinsic and extrinsic satisfactions on global job satisfaction. The results support our hypotheses that: (1) intrinsic rewards and intrinsic satisfaction are more strongly related to global job satisfaction among individuals who are higher rather than lower in intelligence; and (2) extrinsic rewards and extrinsic satisfaction are more strongly related to global job satisfaction among individuals who are lower rather than higher in intelligence. We also suggest that these effects could be viewed in terms of a moderated mediation model in which facets' satisfaction mediate the effects of rewards on global satisfaction, and intelligence moderates the relationship between facets' satisfaction and global satisfaction. Implications of the results were discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav and Itzhak Fried. "The Role of Intelligence in the Formation of Well-being: From Job Rewards to Job Satisfaction." Intelligence 40,4 (July-August 2012): 333-342.
12. Ganzach, Yoav
Gotlibovski, Chemi
Individual Differences and the Effect of Education on Religiosity
Learning and Individual Differences 36 (December 2014): 213-217.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1041608014001861
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Educational Attainment; Intelligence; Religion

We study the complex relationships between education and religiosity by examining the effects of various individual differences on both these variables. We show that omitting individual differences, particularly intelligence, may lead to dramatic changes in the sign of the effect of education on religiosity. These findings may explain previous conflicting reports about the relationship between education and religiosity.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav and Chemi Gotlibovski. "Individual Differences and the Effect of Education on Religiosity." Learning and Individual Differences 36 (December 2014): 213-217.
13. Ganzach, Yoav
Gotlibovski, Chemi
Intelligence and Religiosity: Within Families and Over Time
Intelligence 41,5 (September-October 2013): 546-552.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289613000962
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Intelligence; Religion; Religious Influences; Siblings

We study the effect of intelligence (General Mental Ability) on religiosity using research designs that allow for stronger causal inferences compared to previous research in this area. First, we examine how between-siblings differences in intelligence are related to differences in their religiosity. Second, we examine how intelligence is related to changes in religiosity over time. The results of both designs suggest that intelligence has a strong negative effect on religiosity. In addition, our results also suggest that intelligence interacts with age in determining religiosity: the more intelligent the person, the stronger the negative effect of age on religiosity.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav and Chemi Gotlibovski. "Intelligence and Religiosity: Within Families and Over Time." Intelligence 41,5 (September-October 2013): 546-552.
14. Ganzach, Yoav
Gotlibovski, Chemi
Greenberg, Doron
Pazy, Asya
General Mental Ability and Pay: Nonlinear Effects
Intelligence 41,5 (September-October 2013): 631-637.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289613001086
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Earnings; Economic Well-Being; I.Q.; Occupations

While many studies have examined the linear relationship between intelligence and economic success, only few, if any, examined their nonlinear relationships. The current study examines such relationships in a large, nationally representative sample, using pay as an indicator of economic success. The results show that the effect of General Mental Ability (GMA) on pay depends on occupational complexity; the greater the complexity, the stronger the effect. They also show that, by and large, there is a marginally decreasing (concave) effect of GMA on pay. Methodological and practical questions concerning the relationship between cognitive ability and pay are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav, Chemi Gotlibovski, Doron Greenberg and Asya Pazy. "General Mental Ability and Pay: Nonlinear Effects." Intelligence 41,5 (September-October 2013): 631-637.
15. Ganzach, Yoav
Pazy, Asya
Cognitive versus Non-Cognitive Individual Differences and the Dynamics of Career Success
Applied Psychology 64,4 (October 2015): 701-726.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apps.12038/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Cognitive Ability; Intelligence; Noncognitive Skills; Occupational Status; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the effects of cognitive and non-cognitive individual differences on the dynamics of career success (i.e. pay, occupational status) by comparing temporal changes in the validities of two measures of personality--Core Self Evaluations and the Big Five personality dimensions--to temporal changes in the validities of two standard intelligence tests. The main finding of two studies based on large representative samples is that the validity of intelligence clearly increases over time, whereas the validity of personality tends to be stable, indicating that intelligence, but not personality, drives career success. ©2014 International Association of Applied Psychology
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav and Asya Pazy. "Cognitive versus Non-Cognitive Individual Differences and the Dynamics of Career Success." Applied Psychology 64,4 (October 2015): 701-726.
16. Ganzach, Yoav
Pazy, Asya
Within-occupation Sources of Variance in Incumbent Perception of Job Complexity
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 74,1 (March 2001): 95-108.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1348/096317901167253/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: British Psychological Society
Keyword(s): Intelligence; Job Satisfaction; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, conducted with a sample of 12,686 people, this study shows that, when occupational complexity is controlled for, intelligence has a significant positive effect on Incumbent Perception of Job Complexity (IPJC), in contrast to the negative effect it has on job satisfaction. This result is interpreted to imply that a significant portion of the within-occupation variance in IPJC reflects true variance in job complexity. Implications for the measurement of job complexity and for the processes that determine job complexity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav and Asya Pazy. "Within-occupation Sources of Variance in Incumbent Perception of Job Complexity." Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 74,1 (March 2001): 95-108.
17. Ganzach, Yoav
Pazy, Asya
Gotlibovsky, Chemi
On the Scaling and Modeling of Pay
Working Paper No. 5/2012, The Faculty of Management,Tel Aviv University, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Tel Aviv University
Keyword(s): Wage Models; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A number of recent studies use nominal pay in estimating pay models. We show that this practice may lead to results that are substantially different from the results of log pay models, and that the differences between the two types of models are considerable when it comes to interaction effects, but less so when it comes to main effects. We conduct two constructive replications of previous studies that used either log pay or nominal pay to examine these differences. (This paper was partially financed by the Henry Crown Institute of Business Research in Israel.)
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav, Asya Pazy and Chemi Gotlibovsky. "On the Scaling and Modeling of Pay." Working Paper No. 5/2012, The Faculty of Management,Tel Aviv University, May 2012.
18. Ganzach, Yoav
Saporta, Ishak
Weber, Yaacov
Interaction in Linear versus Logistic Models: A Substantive Illustration Using the Relationship Between Motivation, Ability, and Performance
Organizational Research Methods 70 (July 2000): 419-441
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; I.Q.; Modeling, Logit; Modeling, Probit; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A binary performance measure (high school graduation) is examined as a function of motivation (educational goal), ability (scores in an intelligence test), and their interaction. The interaction was positive when a logistic model was used and negative when a linear probability model was used. The reason for the difference in the results of the two models is examined, and the conditions under which this difference occurs are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav, Ishak Saporta and Yaacov Weber. "Interaction in Linear versus Logistic Models: A Substantive Illustration Using the Relationship Between Motivation, Ability, and Performance ." Organizational Research Methods 70 (July 2000): 419-441 .
19. Mark, Gloria
Ganzach, Yoav
Personality and Internet Usage: A Large-scale Representative Study of Young Adults
Computers in Human Behavior 36 (July 2014): 274-281.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214001885
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Activities; Computer Use; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits

Studies that have examined the relationship between personality and Internet use so far were largely conducted on the basis of small, non-representative samples, and have yielded conflicting results. In the current study we estimate the relationship of the Big 5 personality traits and Internet use in a large nationally representative U.S. sample of over 6900 young adults with average age of 26. Our results suggest that global Internet use is positively related to Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness. We also examine the relationship of the Big 5 with online communication, leisure, academic, and economic activities. Extraversion is correlated with the most different Internet activities. Our findings contrast with many of the relationships found in previous research which have used small, homogeneous samples. We discuss these differences in term of the size and type of samples which were used in previous research, in terms of the time periods of Internet development in which the research was conducted, and in terms of the Internet activities which were measured.
Bibliography Citation
Mark, Gloria and Yoav Ganzach. "Personality and Internet Usage: A Large-scale Representative Study of Young Adults." Computers in Human Behavior 36 (July 2014): 274-281.
20. Riza, Shoshana Dobrow
Ganzach, Yoav
Liu, Yihao
Time and Job Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of the Differential Roles of Age and Tenure
Journal of Management 44,7 (September 2018): 2558-2579.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0149206315624962
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Job Rewards; Job Satisfaction; Job Tenure

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between job satisfaction and time is a fundamental question in organizational behavior. Yet given inconsistent results in the literature, the nature of this relationship has remained unresolved. Scholars' understanding of this relationship has been limited because studies have generally not simultaneously considered the two primary time metrics in job satisfaction research—age and tenure—and have instead relied on cross-sectional research designs. In this study, we develop and test an empirical model to provide a more definitive answer to the question of how age and tenure relate to job satisfaction. Our analyses draw on longitudinal data from 21,670 participants spanning a total of 34 waves of data collection across 40 years in two nationally representative samples. Multilevel analyses indicate that people became less satisfied as their tenure within a given organization increased, yet as people aged—and transitioned from organization to organization—their satisfaction increased. We also found that job rewards, as exemplified by pay, mediated these relationships. We discuss empirical, theoretical, and practical implications of our findings.
Bibliography Citation
Riza, Shoshana Dobrow, Yoav Ganzach and Yihao Liu. "Time and Job Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of the Differential Roles of Age and Tenure." Journal of Management 44,7 (September 2018): 2558-2579.