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Author: Ginja, Rita
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Carneiro, Pedro M.
Ginja, Rita
Partial Insurance and Investments in Children
Working Paper 2012:20, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS), Department of Economics, Uppsala University, December 2012.
Also: http://swopec.hhs.se/uulswp/abs/uulswp2012_022.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, Uppsala University
Keyword(s): Family Income; Family Resources; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Insurance; Parent-Child Interaction; Parental Investments; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper studies the impact of permanent and transitory shocks to income on parental investments in children. We use panel data on family income, and an index of investments in children in time and goods, from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Consistent with the literature focusing on non-durable expenditure, we find that there is only partial insurance of parental investments against permanent income shocks, and we cannot reject the hypothesis full insurance against temporary shocks. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the estimated responses is small. A permanent shock corresponding to 10% of family income leads, at most, to an increase in investments of 1.3% of a standard deviation.
Bibliography Citation
Carneiro, Pedro M. and Rita Ginja. "Partial Insurance and Investments in Children." Working Paper 2012:20, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS), Department of Economics, Uppsala University, December 2012.
2. Carneiro, Pedro M.
Ginja, Rita
Preventing Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Evidence from Head Start
Presented: New York, NY, Society of Labor Economists Annual Meeting, May 2008.
Also: http://client.norc.org/jole/SOLEweb/8201.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; CESD (Depression Scale); Crime; Depression (see also CESD); Head Start; Health, Mental; Obesity

This paper shows that participation in Head Start decreases behavioral problems, grade repetition, and obesity of children at ages 12 and 13, and depression, criminal behavior, and obesity at ages 16 and 17. Head Start eligibility rules induce discontinuities in program participation as a function of income, which we use to identify program impacts. Since there is a range of discontinuities (they vary with family size, state and year), we identify the effect of Head Start for a large set of individuals, as opposed to a small set of people around a single discontinuity. We use data on females from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of the Youth (NLSY79) combined with a panel of their children, the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1979 (CNLSY79). We focus on the impact of the program in two age groups – children 12 to 13 (using the BPI scale and an indicator for smoking habits, indicators of grade repetition, special education attendance, and obesity) and adolescents 16 to 17 (using mental health and motivational outcomes using measures of depressive symptoms (the CESD), criminal behavior, smoking habits and obesity).
Bibliography Citation
Carneiro, Pedro M. and Rita Ginja. "Preventing Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Evidence from Head Start." Presented: New York, NY, Society of Labor Economists Annual Meeting, May 2008.
3. Ginja, Rita
Income Shocks and Investments in Human Capital
Working Paper, University College London, London, England, January, 2010.
Also: http://www.eief.it/files/2010/02/0304-rita-ginja_jm-paper.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University College London
Keyword(s): American Time Use Survey (ATUS); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Consumer Expenditure Survey (CEX); Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income Dynamics/Shocks; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Social Capital; Time Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also presented at the SOLE and EALE joint meetings, University College London, June 2010

How well can parents insure their children's future? This paper aims at answering this question by studying the link between income shocks and parental investments in children in terms of time and goods. The paper presents three main contributions: (1) it estimates the degree of response to income shocks in families with young children, without imposing an a priori insurance setup; (2) it analyzes empirically the mechanism behind the degree of insurance found, in particular, the role of wealth and public transfers, and heterogeneity in responses to shocks by education and family structure; (3) finally, it proposes a useful way to use common information in the NLSY79 and the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CEX) and the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to combine these three data sets and construct a panel of income, expenditures and time use. I use local business cycles as exogenous variation to families' resources. These are an unpredictable component of county unemployment rate, which I obtain after removing year and county effects from the time-series of county unemployment rate. I find that (1) families only partially insure against income shocks, but expenditures in education of children respond less to shocks than household consumption, as parents try to shield them against shocks because investments may be complements across children's life-cycle; (2) income elasticity of investments in terms of time is larger in families with young children than in families where there are only school-age children, because at early ages there is a larger substitutability between different uses of time; and (3) better off families use savings to buffer against shocks whereas poor families resort on public transfers.

Bibliography Citation
Ginja, Rita. "Income Shocks and Investments in Human Capital." Working Paper, University College London, London, England, January, 2010.