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Author: Hay, Carter
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Forrest, Walter
Hay, Carter
Life-Course Transitions, Self-Control and Desistance from Crime
Criminology and Criminal Justice 11,5 (November 2011): 487-513.
Also: http://crj.sagepub.com/content/11/5/487.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Control; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Life Course; Marital Status; Neighborhood Effects; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In recent years a number of studies have observed empirical associations between the occurrence of key life events such as marriage, employment, and military service, and desistance from crime. The relationships between these life-course transitions and changes in criminal behaviour have been cited as evidence in support of social control and social learning theories of delinquency and in contradiction to alternative theoretical perspectives that downplay the significance of life events in the development of criminal behaviour over the lifespan. In this paper we develop and test an alternative explanation for the apparent impact of marriage on criminal and delinquent behaviour. We argue that transitions such as marriage might also promote desistance, in part, by enabling offenders to develop and exercise increased self-control. We then test this hypothesis using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and explore the implications of our findings for the study of desistance and for self-control theory.
Bibliography Citation
Forrest, Walter and Carter Hay. "Life-Course Transitions, Self-Control and Desistance from Crime." Criminology and Criminal Justice 11,5 (November 2011): 487-513.
2. Forrest, Walter
Hay, Carter
Widdowson, Alex O.
Rocque, Michael
Development of Impulsivity and Risk‐seeking: Implications for the Dimensionality and Stability of Self‐control
Criminology published online (11 June 2019): DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12214.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12214
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Risk-Taking; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Gottfredson and Hirschi's self‐control theory, introduced in 1990, they contend that self‐control is a unidimensional construct that develops early in childhood and remains stable throughout the life span. According to findings reported in recent research, however, these arguments are now being challenged, with scholars pointing to ways in which self‐control may be multidimensional in nature and may change beyond the period of alleged stabilization. In this study, we draw on Steinberg's dual systems model, introduced in 2008, to consider this issue further. We examine that model's two key elements of low self‐control--risk‐seeking and impulsivity--to determine whether they are empirically distinguishable from one another and have differing developmental trajectories from childhood to early adulthood. We also consider the consequences of changes in risk‐seeking and impulsivity for within‐individual changes in crime. We examine these issues with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) for individuals from 10 to 30 years old. The results of our analyses show support for a multidimensional and dynamic conception of self‐control—from age 10 to age 30, risk‐seeking and impulsivity are empirically distinct and develop in divergent ways that are consistent with the dual systems model. Changes in risk‐seeking and impulsivity also affect changes in crime, but their effects vary with age and changes in the other element. We discuss these findings and their implications for self‐control and the development of life‐course criminology.
Bibliography Citation
Forrest, Walter, Carter Hay, Alex O. Widdowson and Michael Rocque. "Development of Impulsivity and Risk‐seeking: Implications for the Dimensionality and Stability of Self‐control." Criminology published online (11 June 2019): DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12214.
3. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
Implications of Family Poverty for a Pattern of Persistent Offending
In: The Development of Persistent Criminality. Joanne Savage, ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Household Income; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Table of Contents:
1. Joanne Savage: Understanding Persistent Offending: Linking Developmental Psychology with Research on the Criminal Career
Section 1: The Family, Poverty, and Stressful Life Events
2. Linda S. Pagani: The Influence of Family Context on the Development and Persistence of Antisocial Behavior
3. Carter Hay and Walter Forrest: The Implications of Family Poverty for a Pattern of Persistent Offending
4. Stephanie Ellis and Joanne Savage: Strain, Social Support, and Persistent Criminality
5. Timothy O. Ireland, Craig J. Rivera and John P. Hoffman: Developmental Trajectories, Stressful Life Events, and Delinquency
6. Paul Millar: The Effects of the Family on Children's Behavioural Difficulties
Section 2: Biosocial Influences on Persistent Criminality
7. Patick Sylvers, Stacy R. Ryan, S. Amanda Alden, and Patricia A. Brennan: Biological Factors and the Development of Persistent Criminality
8. John Paul Wright and Kevin M. Beaver: A Systematic Approach to Understanding Human Variability in Serious, Persistent Offending
9. Steve G. Tibbetts: Perinatal and Developmental Determinants of Early Onset of Offending: A Biosocial Approach for Explaining the Two Peaks of Early Antisocial Behavior
Section 3: Special Topics and Populations
10. Asha Goldweber, Lisa M. Broidy, and Elizabeth Cauffman: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Persistent Female Offending: A Review of Theory and Research
11. Mary Ann Davis: Foster Care Youth: Aging Out of Care to Criminal Activities
12. Thomas G. Blomberg, William D. Bales, and Courtney A. Waid: Educational Achievement Among Incarcerated Youth: Post-Release Schooling, Employment and Crime Desistance
Section 4: Methodology for Understanding the Criminal Career
13. Alex R. Piquero: Methodological Issues in the Study of Persistence in Offending
14. Manfred H.M. van Dulm en, Elizabeth A. Goncy, Andrea Vest, and Daniel J. Flannery: Group-Based Trajectory Modeling of Externalizing Behavior Problems from Childhood through Adulthood: Exploring Discrepancies in the Empirical Findings
15. KiDeuk Kim: Sanction Threats and Desistance from Criminality
Section 5: Conceptualizing the Persistent Offender
16. Rudy Haapanen, Lee Britton, Tim Croisdale, and Branko Coebergh: Serious Juvenile Offenders and Persistent Criminality
17. Travis C. Pratt: Reconsidering Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime: Linking the Micro- and Macro-Level Sources of Self-Control and Criminal Behavior Over the Life Course
18. Deborah M. Capaldi and Margit Wiesner: A Dynamic Developmental Systems Approach to Understanding Offending in Early Adulthood
19. Per-Olof H. Wikström and Kyle Treiber: What Drives Persistent Offending? The Neglected and Unexplored Role of the Social Environment
Section 6: Conclusions
20. Joanne Savage: What Have We Learned? Directions for Future Research and Policy
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "Implications of Family Poverty for a Pattern of Persistent Offending" In: The Development of Persistent Criminality. Joanne Savage, ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009
4. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
Self-Control Theory and the Concept of Opportunity: The Case For A More Systematic Union
Criminology 46,4 (November 2008): 1039-1072.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2008.00135.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study is to advance the idea that low self-control — one of the strongest known predictors of crime—likely has effects that are conditional on the supply of criminal opportunities. Some scholars initially interpreted the theory to make this exact prediction, but Gottfredson and Hirschi (2003) have rejected this interpretation. They have insisted that the simplistic nature of most crimes ensures that opportunities are limitless and that variation in opportunity simply reflects variation in self-control. We trace the history of this uncertain position of opportunity in self-control theory and argue that it should play a significant role in the theory, even if Gottfredson and Hirschi did not originally envision this. Next, we draw on routine activities theory and applications of it to individual offending to offer a theoretical statement of how opportunity should be incorporated into self-control theory. Last, using data from a national sample of juveniles, we test the arguments that have been made. The analysis suggests that the effects of low self-control on delinquency partially depend on the availability of criminal opportunities, as indicated by the time juveniles spend with their friends or away from the supervision of their parents.
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "Self-Control Theory and the Concept of Opportunity: The Case For A More Systematic Union." Criminology 46,4 (November 2008): 1039-1072.
5. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis
Criminology 44,4 (December 2006): 739-774.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2006.00062.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research on self-control theory consistently supports its central prediction that low self-control significantly affects crime. The theory includes other predictions, however, that have received far less scrutiny. Among these is the argument that self-control is developed early in childhood and that individual differences emerging then persist over time. The purpose of this study is to provide a rigorous test of the stability thesis. First, we examine the extent of stability and change in self-control for a national sample of U.S. children age 7 to age 15. Second, we consider whether parenting continues to affect self-control during adolescence--a period after the point at which self-control differences should be fixed. The analysis revealed strong absolute and relative stability of self-control for more than 80 percent of the sample, and this stability emerged in large part as early as age 7. Contradicting the theory was a smaller portion of respondents (roughly 16 percent) who experienced substantial absolute and relative changes in self-control even after the age of 10. Moreover, parental socialization continued to affect self-control during adolescence, even after accounting for both prior self-control and exposure to parental socialization.
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis." Criminology 44,4 (December 2006): 739-774.
6. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis
Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Society of Criminology Meetings, November 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) self-control theory has inspired extensive new research, with most studies supporting its central prediction that low self-control significantly affects crime and deviance. The theory includes other predictions, however, that have received much less scrutiny. Included among these is the stability thesis—the argument that self-control is developed early in childhood as a result of parental socialization, and that individual differences emerging then persist over time. The purpose of this study is to provide a rigorous test of the stability thesis. First, we examine the extent of stability and change in self-control for a national sample of U.S. children age 7 to 15. We go beyond earlier studies by using a group-based modeling approach (Nagin, 2005) to consider that self-control may not develop in a uniform pattern for all individuals in the sample. Second, we consider whether parenting continues to affect self-control during adolescence—a period after the point at which self-control differences should be fixed. The analysis reveals evidence that both supports and contradicts the theory. Supporting the theory is the roughly 60 percent of respondents who have high levels of self-control from as early as age 7, and exhibit almost perfect stability (in both an absolute and relative sense) through age 15. Contradicting the theory, however, is a smaller portion of respondents (roughly 20 percent) who experienced substantial absolute and relative change in self-control even after the age of 10. Moreover, parental socialization continued to affect self-control during adolescence, even after accounting for both prior self-control and exposure to parental socialization.
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis." Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Society of Criminology Meetings, November 2005.
7. Widdowson, Alex O.
Hay, Carter
Siennick, Sonja E.
Romantic Partnerships and Criminal Desistance: Considering the Role of Partner's Socioeconomic Characteristics
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Crime; Marriage; Modeling, Random Effects; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past two decades, research examining the influence of romantic partners on criminal desistance has steadily increased, with most studies reporting crime-reducing effects of marriage, and to a lesser extent, cohabitation. Despite the advancement of this literature, far less research has considered the role that romantic partner's personal characteristics play in the desistance process. The few studies that have investigated this issue have focused on partner's antisocial behavior and negative emotionality. However, there are other partner characteristics that are likely important to adult offending. The current study extends this line of inquiry by investigating whether and to what degree the effects of marriage and cohabitation on criminal desistance depend on romantic partner's socioeconomic characteristics. Drawing on the life-course perspective, we suggest that entering into a romantic partnership with a financially stable partner provides individuals with tangible benefits (e.g., housing and material goods) that makes engaging in crime costlier, whereas partners who have fewer economic resources may fail to dissuade offending. We consider this issue with data from the NLSY97. Random-effects models are employed to examine within-individual effects of partner's education, employment status, and income on criminal arrest during young adulthood. Gender differences are examined.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O., Carter Hay and Sonja E. Siennick. "Romantic Partnerships and Criminal Desistance: Considering the Role of Partner's Socioeconomic Characteristics." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
8. Widdowson, Alex O.
Siennick, Sonja E.
Hay, Carter
The Implications of Arrest for College Enrollment: An Analysis of Long-Term Effects and Mediating Mechanisms
Criminology 54,4 (November 2016): 621-652.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12114/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; College Enrollment; High School Completion/Graduates; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study draws on labeling theory and education research on the steps to college enrollment to examine 1) whether and for how long arrest reduces the likelihood that high-school graduates will enroll in postsecondary education and 2) whether any observed relationships are mediated by key steps in the college enrollment process. With 17 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) and propensity score matching, we derived matched samples of arrested and nonarrested but equivalent youth (N = 1,761) and conducted logistic regression and survival analyses among the matched samples to examine the short- and long-term postsecondary consequences of arrest. The results revealed that arrest reduced the odds of 4-year college enrollment directly after high school, as well as that high-school grade point average and advanced coursework accounted for 58 percent of this relationship. The results also revealed that arrest had an enduring impact on 4-year college attendance that extended into and beyond emerging adulthood. Two-year college prospects were largely unaffected by arrest. These findings imply that being arrested during high school represents a negative turning point in youths' educational trajectory that is, in part, a result of having a less competitive college application. Implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O., Sonja E. Siennick and Carter Hay. "The Implications of Arrest for College Enrollment: An Analysis of Long-Term Effects and Mediating Mechanisms." Criminology 54,4 (November 2016): 621-652.