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Author: Heiland, Frank
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Heiland, Frank
A Dynamic Analysis of Women's Labor Supply, Fertility and Child Development: Is Maternal Employment Bad for Child Development?
Working Paper, Department of Economics, State University of New York-Stony Brook, January 2002.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, SUNY-Stony Brook
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Children, Mental Health; Cognitive Development; Family Size; Fertility; Infants; Maternal Employment; Methods/Methodology; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Preschool Children; Siblings; Simultaneity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper I analyze women's employment and fertility decisions in the context of infants' physical and cognitive development. Specifically, I investigate whether maternal employment during the first year of the child's life and the existence of siblings are detrimental for children's cognitive development as suggested by recent work. Applying a similar reduced-form approach to the health production relation and using a larger sample of children, the negative effect of being late in the birth order or of having a (narrowly-spaced) younger sibling on a child's cognitive health is confirmed but the direct maternal employment effect is found to be smaller than suggested by some recent studies. Since the simultaneity of maternal employment, fertility and child health cannot be analyze in the single-equation framework, I formulate and estimate a discrete-time, discrete-choice dynamic programming model in which women's labor force status and fertility are choice variables. The effect of maternal time on the physical and cognitive health of a child during early childhood is embedded in the model via an innovative two-step health production technology. The model is estimated using individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979 cohort). Preliminary simulations indicate that a policy that provides paid maternal leave during the first year after birth leads to a small improvement of the developmental outcomes of children. Also, policies that allow births to be spaced less narrowly are shown to be beneficial for young children's cognitive ability.
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank. "A Dynamic Analysis of Women's Labor Supply, Fertility and Child Development: Is Maternal Employment Bad for Child Development?" Working Paper, Department of Economics, State University of New York-Stony Brook, January 2002.
2. Heiland, Frank
A Dynamic Analysis of Women's Labor Supply, Fertility and Child Development: Is Maternal Employment Bad for Child Development?
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York - Stony Brook, 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Child Health; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Fertility; Hispanics; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Simultaneity

In my thesis I analyze the effects of time and material resource on children's cognitive development. Specifically, in the first part of the thesis I analyze whether the birth order, the completed family size, and mother's time spent in the labor market is detrimental for young children's cognitive development. Unlike previous work, I use a sample of all children born to a women based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979 cohort). Employing panel estimation techniques I find that the 'effect' of maternal employment on child development varies by age of the child (stage of development), as well as by race/ethnicity and educational attainment of the mother. The estimates show that the findings in the previous literature primarily pertain to the situation of children of mothers with no post-secondary education. I also find evidence that the number of older siblings in the family during infancy (birth order), a closely-spaced younger sibling, and the completed family size are detrimental for children's cognitive development. In the second part of the thesis, I formulate and estimate a discrete time and discrete choice dynamic programming model of labor supply in which fertility decisions and woman's time allocated to the labor market are explicit choice variables. In this framework I incorporate child development as a two stage production process consisting of the determination of physical health and cognitive ability. The behavioral predictions based on the estimates from the NLSY data show that the model can capture the decline in women's labor force participation during the first year of the child's life. The negative effect of maternal employment during the first year of the child's life and the disadvantage of being late in the birth order is confirmed by the structural estimates. Policy simulations show that a legislation that supports paid maternity leave during the year after birth reduces the risk of having a low ability child b y 6% among white and Hispanic families. Moreover, policies that provide incentives to have larger families are shown to have adverse effects on the cognitive development of children.
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank. A Dynamic Analysis of Women's Labor Supply, Fertility and Child Development: Is Maternal Employment Bad for Child Development? Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York - Stony Brook, 2002.
3. Heiland, Frank
Does the Birth Order Affect the Cognitive Development of a Child?
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Birthweight; Child Development; Cognitive Development; Ethnic Differences; Family Size; Hispanics; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was also presented in Tours, France, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, XXV International Population Conference, July 18-23, 2005.

We investigate the effects of birth order on child cognitive development, using large child and sibling samples obtained from the mother-child data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Controlling for various determinants of cognitive development we find that having a high birth rank is detrimental and that the gap between adjacent siblings is larger for children early in the birth sequence. The pattern is strongest for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children. Among African-American children no difference between the first- and the second-born child is found. The negative birth order effects are robust to specification that control for family fixed effects, use a sibling first difference approach, or account for subsequent siblings.

Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank. "Does the Birth Order Affect the Cognitive Development of a Child?" Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
4. Heiland, Frank
Does the Birth Order Affect the Cognitive Development of a Child?
Applied Economics 41,14 (June 2009): 1799-1818.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036840601083220
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Cognitive Development; Family Size; Family Studies; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings

This article investigates the link between position in the birth order and early scholastic ability. Using matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979 cohort, NLSY79), I find that being the first-born is beneficial even after controlling for (nonlinear) effects of family size and child characteristics. The verbal ability of first-borns is about one-tenth of a SD higher than for children in the middle of the birth order. There is no evidence that last-borns fare better than intermediate children. The first-born advantage is confirmed by estimates from within-family variation models and I argue that the findings are consistent with the resource dilution hypothesis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank. "Does the Birth Order Affect the Cognitive Development of a Child?" Applied Economics 41,14 (June 2009): 1799-1818.
5. Heiland, Frank
Effects of Women's Employment and Fertility Decisions on the Cognitive Development of Young Children: The Role of Mother's Education
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper I investigate the effects of time and material resources on children's cognitive development conditional on the educational attainment of the mother. Specifically, for two broad classes of mothers educational attainment separately, I analyze whether the birth order, the completed family size, mother's time spent in the labor market, and poor health of a child at birth are detrimental for young children's cognitive development. Recent studies by Blau and Grossberg (1992), Han et. al (2001), and Waldfogel et al. (2002) concluded that there exists a negative relationship between maternal employment during the first year after the child's birth and the child's cognitive ability as measured by the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R). However, no negative effect was found for employment during the second and subsequent years after the childs birth. To the contrary, Blau and Grossberg (1992) and Waldfogel et al. (2002) provided evidence that suggested that employment is beneficial after the first year. None of the previous studies examined whether these employment effects are consistent across educational groups.

I use a sample of all children born to a woman based on data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). The previous findings relied on smaller samples and on samples from earlier rounds of the NLSY79. As a result their findings may reflect effects that are characteristic of the situation in which children of young and less-educated mothers are raised. Moreover, by using these data, family fixed-effects and sibling first-differencing panel estimates can be obtained which will correct for any potential bias that may arise from unobserved heterogeneity at the family level in the estimated input effects.

Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank. "Effects of Women's Employment and Fertility Decisions on the Cognitive Development of Young Children: The Role of Mother's Education." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
6. Heiland, Frank
Measuring the Value of Children by Birth Order and Infant Health
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, 52nd International Atlantic Economic Conference, October 2001.
Also: http://www.iaes.org/conferences/future/philadelphia_52/prelim_program/j00-1/heiland.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: International Atlantic Economic Society
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Birth Outcomes; Child Health; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Heterogeneity; Infants

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper estimates the value of children by infant health outcomes and birth order using a dynamic programming model. The structural model is estimated using longitudinal fertility choice data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979 Cohort). The estimation strategy adopts Rust's framework using a Nested Fixed Point Algorithm (see Rust (1994)). The model is estimated separetely by ethnicity and educational attainment to allow for heterogeneity. Using data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I estimate the model under the assumption that utility is logarithmic (risk averse agents) and child values are constant over time. The infant health measure is based on the number of serious illnesses during the first year of a child's life. (Source: http://www.iaes.org/conferences/future/philadelphia_52/prelim_program/j00-1/heiland.htm)
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank. "Measuring the Value of Children by Birth Order and Infant Health." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, 52nd International Atlantic Economic Conference, October 2001.
7. Heiland, Frank
Hock, Heinrich
Thrasher, William
Early Parenthood and Educational Trajectories: A Comparison of Men and Women
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Fatherhood; Fertility; Gender; Gender Differences; High School Dropouts; Parenthood; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While the negative consequences of teenage motherhood are well-documented, only a handful of studies have investigated the costs of early fatherhood. Using data from the NLSY79, we provide new estimates of the relationship between early parenthood and educational outcomes, considering high school and college completion, in addition to a continuous measure of completed schooling. Our study is the first to present estimates for both men and women obtained from a comparable statistical model, enabling us to investigate potential gender differences in the average education penalty associated with early parenthood. Our results suggest that, controlling for individuals' scholastic endowments and detailed family background characteristics, men face lower consequences of early fertility across the adolescent educational spectrum. Gender differences are also most pronounced during the early teenage years. Ongoing work that explicitly accounts for additional unobserved individual characteristics will examine the heterogeneous educational effects of early-lifecycle fertility in greater detail.
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank, Heinrich Hock and William Thrasher. "Early Parenthood and Educational Trajectories: A Comparison of Men and Women." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
8. Heiland, Frank
Price, Joseph P.
Maternal Employment and Mother-Child Interaction
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): American Time Use Survey (ATUS); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parent-Child Interaction; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLSY79, PSID-CDS, and ATUS, we estimate the effect of work hours on the total amount of quality time the mother spends with her children. Preliminary results suggest that full-time work is associated with about 40-50 minutes less quality mother-child time each day and specifically less time spent reading together. Differences in quality mother-child interactions for part-time vs. non-working mothers are less pronounced and are not robust to controls for basic demographic characteristics in some cases. Lastly, the results suggest that college educated mothers provide substantially more quality interaction than mothers with less education but this gap is significantly reduced among women who work full-time.
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank and Joseph P. Price. "Maternal Employment and Mother-Child Interaction." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
9. Heiland, Frank
Price, Joseph P.
Maternal Employment and Parent-Child Interaction
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): American Time Use Survey (ATUS); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parent-Child Interaction; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A number of studies have examined the effect of maternal employment on child outcomes. Many of these studies provide evidence consistent with a negative influence of maternal employment on child outcomes. We explore one of the mechanisms through which these effects may operate: changes in mother-child interactions. Using data from the NLSY (1979 Cohort), the PSID Child Development Supplement (CDS 1997), and the American Time Use Survey (ATUS 2003-2005), we test for differences in mother-child interactions based on the work hours of the mother. Specifically, using multivariate analyses that utilize the different strengths of the three data sources while emphasizing comparability, we estimate the effect of work hours on the total amount of (quality) time the mother spends with her children (PSID-CDS, ATUS) and the frequency she reads to them (NLSY, PSID-CDS, ATUS). Preliminary results suggest that full-time work is associated with substantial declines in quality mother-child interactions.
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank and Joseph P. Price. "Maternal Employment and Parent-Child Interaction." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.