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Author: Howell, Frank M.
Resulting in 1 citation.
1. Howell, Frank M.
Bronson, Deborah Richey
The Journey to Work and Gender Inequality in Earnings: A Cross-Validation Study for the United States
The Sociological Quarterly 37,3 (June 1996): 429-447.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Commuting/Type, Time, Method; Earnings; Gender Differences; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market, Secondary; Rural/Urban Differences; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It has been well-documented that women tend to not travel as far as men to work. One interpretation of this consistent finding has been that women face more spatially constrained labor markets than men and these constraints are thought to be a factor in the gender-gap in earnings. A recent study of Tel Aviv, Israel by Semyonov and Lewin-Epstein (1991) found that there is a clear tendency for working women to hold employment more in the vicinity of their homes than do men. Their observed deficits in earnings by employed women were thought to be exchanged for compliance with traditional gender role expectations. Our study cross-validates key portions of the Semyonov and Lewin-Epstein study for the U.S. by examining the location of labor markets and their relationship to gender inequality in earnings in the 1988 wave of the NLSY panel database. Using annual earnings as the dependent variable, we parallel their multiple regression analysis using similarly defined variables. The time-to-work reports of NLSY panel members are used to assess their commuting behavior and the results of this analysis are compared across four types of residential locations: rural, small urban, suburban, and large central city. We modestly confirm the gender inequalities in earnings produced by differential commuting behaviors for men and women but cannot fully generalize them to a broad set of residentially-defined labor market. For instance, women in suburban settings do have a higher return in earnings from time spent commuting but this effect is not significantly higher than the same returns for suburban men. A somewhat surprising negative effect of commuting time on the earnings of suburban women and men was also observed. Future research on this problem involving the "perceived constraint" hypothesis to explain the commuting gap between men and women is outlined.
Bibliography Citation
Howell, Frank M. and Deborah Richey Bronson. "The Journey to Work and Gender Inequality in Earnings: A Cross-Validation Study for the United States." The Sociological Quarterly 37,3 (June 1996): 429-447.