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Author: Jokela, Markus
Resulting in 4 citations.
1. Jokela, Markus
Flow of Cognitive Capital across Rural and Urban United States
Intelligence 46 (September-October 2014): 47-53.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289614000750
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Income; Migration; Mobility, Residential; Rural Areas; Urbanization/Urban Living

Socioeconomic status and other socio-demographic factors have been associated with selective residential mobility across rural and urban areas, but the role of psychological characteristics in selective migration has been studied less. The current study used 16-year longitudinal data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) to examine whether cognitive ability assessed at age 15–23 predicted subsequent urban/rural migration between ages 15 and 39 (n = 11,481). Higher cognitive ability was associated with selective rural-to-urban migration (12 percentile points higher ability among those moving from rural areas to central cities compared to those staying in rural areas) but also with higher probability of moving away from central cities to suburban and rural areas (4 percentile points higher ability among those moving from central cities to suburban areas compared to those staying in central cities). The mobility patterns associated with cognitive ability were largely but not completely mediated by adult educational attainment and income. The findings suggest that selective migration contributes to differential flow of cognitive ability levels across urban and rural areas in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Jokela, Markus. "Flow of Cognitive Capital across Rural and Urban United States." Intelligence 46 (September-October 2014): 47-53.
2. Jokela, Markus
Elovainio, Marko
Singh-Manoux, Archana
Kivimäki, Mika
IQ, Socioeconomic Status, and Early Death: The US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Psychosomatic Medicine 71,3 (April 2009): 322-328
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychosomatic Society
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Education; Household Income; I.Q.; Mortality; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the association between cognitive ability (IQ) and early mortality is mediated by socioeconomic status (SES) or whether the association between SES and mortality reflects a spurious association caused by IQ. METHODS: The participants were from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 11,321). IQ was assessed at age 16 to 23 years and the participants were followed up to 40 to 47 years of age. RESULTS: Controlling for sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, baseline health, and parental education, higher IQ was associated with lower probability of death (odds ratio (OR) per 1-standard deviation increase in IQ = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66, 0.91). This association disappeared (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.20) when adjusted for education and household income. Adjustment for IQ had no effect on the association between SES and mortality. These findings were similar in Hispanic, Black, and White/other participants and in women and men. Parental education moderated the IQ-mortality association so that this association was not observed in participants with low parental education. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ predicts early mortality in the US population and this association is largely explained by SES. The results do not support the alternative hypothesis that the socioeconomic gradient in early mortality would reflect IQ differences.
Bibliography Citation
Jokela, Markus, Marko Elovainio, Archana Singh-Manoux and Mika Kivimäki. "IQ, Socioeconomic Status, and Early Death: The US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Psychosomatic Medicine 71,3 (April 2009): 322-328.
3. Jokela, Markus
Kivimäki, Mika
Elovainio, Marko
Lower Fertility Associated with Obesity and Underweight: The US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88,4 (October 2008): 886-893.
Also: http://www.ajcn.org/content/88/4/886.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society for Nutrition (ASN)
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Childbearing; Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that body weight predicts the number of children that a person will have: obese and underweight persons are hypothesized to have fewer children than do their normal-weight counterparts.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively examine the association between body weight in young adulthood and achieved fertility in later life. DESIGN: A representative national sample of 12 073 American young adults (aged 17-24 y in 1981) were followed through 2004 (19 survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth).

RESULTS: Obese young women and men were less likely to have their first child by the age of 47 y than were their normal-weight counterparts [relative risk (RR) = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.78 in women; RR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.84 in men). Obesity also predicted a lower probability of having more than one child, particularly for women. These associations were partly explained by a lower probability that obese participants will marry. Underweight men were less likely to have the first, second, third, and fourth child than were normal-weight men (RRs = 0.75-0.88; 95% CIs: 0.61, 0.95). These associations were largely explained by the lower marriage probability of underweight men. Obese women and men and underweight men were less likely to have as many children in adulthood as they had desired as young adults.

CONCLUSIONS: Obesity may be an important risk factor for lower fertility because of its social and possibly biological effect on reproductive behavior. Further data are needed to assess whether this association holds in more recent cohorts.

Bibliography Citation
Jokela, Markus, Mika Kivimäki and Marko Elovainio. "Lower Fertility Associated with Obesity and Underweight: The US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88,4 (October 2008): 886-893.
4. Jokela, Markus
Rotkirch, Anna
Serial Monogamy Increases Reproductive Success in Men but not in Women
Behavioral Ecology 21,5 (2010): 906-912.
Also: http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/906.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Fertility; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Gender Differences; Marriage; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evolutionary theory predicts that males seek more sexual partners than females because of their higher fitness benefits from such a reproductive strategy. Accordingly, variance in numbers of partners and offspring is expected to be greater and association between mating and reproductive success to be stronger in males. Studies testing key predictions of this hypothesis in humans are lacking. Using data of 3700 men and 4010 women living in contemporary United States, we examined sex differences in the variance of number of spouses and offspring and in the association between spouse number and number of offspring. The results suggested a stronger selective advantage of serial monogamy in men than in women. Variance in spouse and offspring number was, respectively, 5% and 10% higher in men. In addition, the association between mating and reproductive success was stronger in men, so that men with 3 or more consecutive spouses had 19% more children than men with only spouse, whereas spouse number beyond the first partner was not associated with number of children in women. When the sample was stratified by ethnic group, the sex differences were stronger among Black and Hispanic participants than among White participants.
Bibliography Citation
Jokela, Markus and Anna Rotkirch. "Serial Monogamy Increases Reproductive Success in Men but not in Women." Behavioral Ecology 21,5 (2010): 906-912.