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Author: Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna
Resulting in 1 citation.
1. Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna
Still Penalized? Parity, Age at First Birth and Women's Income in Later Life
Journal of Women and Aging 24,3 (2012): 227-241.
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Income; Life Course; Marriage; Motherhood; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite policies aimed at decreasing old-age income inequality, such as Social Security and Supplemental Security Income, research consistently finds that later-life poverty is highly concentrated among women. While the early-life economic disadvantages of motherhood are well established, little work has examined whether these disadvantages persist into later life. Life course research consistently demonstrates the relationship between early-life choices and later-life inequality, but few studies have examined whether the reproductive phase of a woman's life is associated with her later-life income. Using data from the 2003 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women cohort, this research examines whether women's age at first birth and parity are associated with her later-life income within the context of marriage. From a set of multivariate analyses, I find that despite a marginal statistically significant effect, substantively for the women in this cohort the effects of childbearing are not particularly consequential for later-life income. The results suggest that as women age the economic penalties associated with motherhood are less important to financial well-being than are other factors.
Bibliography Citation
Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna. "Still Penalized? Parity, Age at First Birth and Women's Income in Later Life." Journal of Women and Aging 24,3 (2012): 227-241.