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Author: Jung, Haeil
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Jung, Haeil
Does Incarceration Impair the Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes of Men? Evidence from the NLSY79
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Research Conference, November 5-9, 2009
Also: https://www.appam.org/conferences/fall/archives.asp
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Economic Well-Being; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Minorities, Youth; Wage Rates; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The rapid increase in incarceration rates since the mid-1970s has given rise to a debate on how incarceration affects the economic activities of ex-prisoners. While theory suggests that the effect can be either positive or negative, most previous empirical research suggests that incarceration lowers subsequent labor market outcomes of men. Some recent research, however, shows that incarceration does not hurt the post-prison earnings and employment of men. Using data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), this paper tries to reconcile the conflicting evidence in the literature. Previous studies only use some labor market outcomes such as earnings, employment, or hourly wage. In order to fully understand the effect of incarceration on labor market outcomes, I investigate all three outcomes. I also show how using a valid comparison group for previously incarcerated men changes the estimated effect of incarceration. I improve the regression model by controlling for ever-incarceration status in order to compare previously incarcerated men with themselves prior to incarceration. This significantly changes the effect from negative to positive or null. Furthermore, I investigate whether the results I find change over time focusing on ever-incarcerated men. This paper finds that incarceration does not seem to hurt the marketable skills and employability of men. Post-incarceration earnings and average weekly work hours seem to reach pre-incarceration levels. Real hourly wage seems to increase after first incarceration. In addition, supporting these main findings, the marital status and family poverty rate before and after first incarceration indicate that the general well-being of men does not deteriorate after incarceration.
Bibliography Citation
Jung, Haeil. "Does Incarceration Impair the Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes of Men? Evidence from the NLSY79." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Research Conference, November 5-9, 2009.
2. Jung, Haeil
Essays on Incarceration and Labor Market Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harris School-Public Policy, The University of Chicago, 2009.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago
Keyword(s): Earnings; Economic Well-Being; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Minorities, Youth; Wage Rates; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The male incarceration rate in the U.S. has increased by a factor of 4.5 between 1970 and 2000. This increase in incarceration has disproportionately focused on young minority men. Legitimate labor market participation is key to the economic well-being of young men in society. Thus, one of the most important questions raised by a sharp increase in incarceration is whether incarceration actually impairs young men's career and labor market prospects.

The first essay in this dissertation examines how the length of incarceration in Illinois state prisons affects subsequent earnings and employment. After controlling for individual heterogeneity, I find that the length of incarceration is positively associated with earnings and employment even though these effects attenuate over time. The positive effects are stronger for individuals convicted of economically-motivated and less violent crimes such as property- and drug-related offenses than for those convicted of violent crimes such as person-related offenses. Also, the effect is stronger for men with self-reported drug addiction.

In order to evaluate whether extensive exposure to rehabilitation and training programs can generate a positive effect of time served in prison, the second essay examines the effect of Illinois' Adult Transition Centers (ATC) on the earnings and employment of male ex-prisoners after they are released. The paper finds that the availability of ATC is associated with a higher employability of prisoners after release and that time in ATC is positively correlated with post-prison earnings through employment. These associations, however, attenuate over time. Also, the finding that men with more marketable skills successfully finish their terms in ATCs suggests that there is selection and sorting through the process of ATCs.

The third essay tries to reconcile the conflicting evidence about the effect of incarceration on labor market outcomes in the literature. Using data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I investigate the effect of incarceration on earnings, average weekly work hours, and hourly wage. Comparing ever-incarcerated men before and after incarceration, this paper finds that incarceration does not seem to hurt the marketable skills and employability of men. Post-incarceration earnings and average weekly work hours seem to reach pre-incarceration levels. Real hourly wages seem to increase after first incarceration. In addition, the marital status and family poverty rate before and after first incarceration indicate that the general well-being of men does not deteriorate after incarceration.

Taken together, the essays suggest that incarceration does not harm the subsequent labor market outcomes of men. Especially, the length of incarceration is positively associated with earnings and employment even though these effects attenuate over time. It seems that rehabilitation and deterrence of incarceration are more effective for men convicted of property- or drug-related offenses and men with drug addiction.

Bibliography Citation
Jung, Haeil. Essays on Incarceration and Labor Market Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harris School-Public Policy, The University of Chicago, 2009..
3. Jung, Haeil
The Long-Term Impact of Incarceration During the Teens and 20s on the Wages and Employment of Men
Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 54,5 (2015): 317-337.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10509674.2015.1043480
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Wages

This article examines the long-term impact of incarceration during the teens and 20s on labor market outcomes and its causal pathways via education and job experience. Using the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this article finds that incarceration in youth correctional institutions significantly reduces wages and the total number of weeks worked per year at age 39 or 40 while incarceration during the 20s only lowers wages. Further, this study finds that incarceration in youth correctional institutions lowers education and job experience at age 39 or 40 while incarceration in the 20s only significantly depresses job experience.
Bibliography Citation
Jung, Haeil. "The Long-Term Impact of Incarceration During the Teens and 20s on the Wages and Employment of Men." Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 54,5 (2015): 317-337.
4. Pirog, Maureen
Jung, Haeil
The Changing Composition of Young Fathers and the Effects of Early Fathering on Education and Labor Market Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Education; Fatherhood; Labor Market Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines differences in the composition of teen (up to age 19) and young (ages 20-24) fathers using the 1979 and 1997 panels of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY). To make a valid comparison between two generations, we compare three cohorts (born between 1962 and 1964) from the 1979 NLSY with three cohorts (born between 1980 and 1982) from the 1997 panel of NLSY. Respondents were 15 to 17 years of age when they responded to the first survey in both panels. Initial estimates indicate that reports by teen males of fathering children are more common in the 1997 panel than in the 1979 panel, and that early fathering has likely moved from seriously disadvantaged backgrounds into the social mainstream. Using regression models, we also examine the changing impacts of teen fatherhood on education and labor market outcomes at age 25.
Bibliography Citation
Pirog, Maureen and Haeil Jung. "The Changing Composition of Young Fathers and the Effects of Early Fathering on Education and Labor Market Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
5. Pirog, Maureen
Jung, Haeil
Lee, Daewoo
The Changing Face of Teenage Parenthood in the United States: Evidence from NLSY79 and NLSY97
Child and Youth Care Forum 47,3 (June 2018): 317-342.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10566-017-9417-y
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Fatherhood; Parenthood; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: In this study, we provide an updated report on differences in adult cohabitation rates during past decades, examine the risk factors associated with becoming a teen parent, and track teen parents' educational and labor market outcomes until the age of 29 to examine whether the outcomes associated with become teen parents have changed in recent decades.

Methods: We select two nationally representative birth cohorts in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979 and 1997 (N = 9821). We use the difference-in-difference approach to examine whether the positions of teen parents have progressed or worsened across the two cohorts.

Conclusion: The birth rates to teenage girls remained unchanged across the two cohorts, but the reported rates of teenage fatherhood increased. The proportions of both unmarried teenage fathers and mothers increased between the two cohorts. Teen fathers and mothers came increasingly from single-mother families with disadvantaged backgrounds. The proportion of teen mothers or fathers living with partners has not changed, but there has been a major shift from marriage to non-marital cohabitation. The education and earnings of the 1997 cohort of teen parents showed some progress relative to the earlier teen parent cohort, but no progress relative to peers who were not teen parents.

Bibliography Citation
Pirog, Maureen, Haeil Jung and Daewoo Lee. "The Changing Face of Teenage Parenthood in the United States: Evidence from NLSY79 and NLSY97." Child and Youth Care Forum 47,3 (June 2018): 317-342.