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Author: Leibbrand, Christine
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Leibbrand, Christine
Does Geographic Stagnation Correspond to Economic Stagnation? The Migration Decline and its Association with Economic Well-being
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Economic Well-Being; Geocoded Data; Migration; Mobility, Economic

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Internal migration has long played an important role in increasing individuals' and families' access to economic opportunities and, as a result, improving their economic wellbeing. However, the United States has been experiencing a continuous decline in internal migration rates since the 1980s, suggesting that migration may be less beneficial now than in the past or that recent generations of individuals are less able to migrate than their predecessors. In this study, I explore these possibilities and examine whether the migration decline is suggestive of harmful changes to the American opportunity structure and to individuals' chances for upward economic mobility. To do this, I utilize restricted, geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data and harmonize these data for the 1979 and 1997 cohorts. I find that the economic returns to inter-state migration have actually increased over time. However, non-migrants in the 1997 cohort are economically worse off than both migrants and non-migrants in the 1979 cohort. It may therefore be the case that the migration decline is due, in part, to migration becoming increasingly out of reach for some families and to the negative consequences of being "rooted" in place.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. "Does Geographic Stagnation Correspond to Economic Stagnation? The Migration Decline and its Association with Economic Well-being." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
2. Leibbrand, Christine
Flexibility or Constraint? The Implications of Mothers' and Fathers' Nonstandard Schedules for Children’s Behavioral Outcomes
Journal of Family Issues 39,8 (June 2018): 2336-2365.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0192513X17748693
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Parental Influences; Shift Workers; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Approximately 17.7% of the U.S. workforce is employed in a nonstandard schedule. Research thus far indicates that these schedules negatively influence children's behavioral development. However, few studies examine the roles of the child's gender and age. To broaden understanding of the relationships between nonstandard schedules and child behavior, and how these relationships may depend on the gender and age of the child, I analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 and its Child Supplement from 1992 to 2006. My findings show that some types of parental nonstandard shifts, such as evening and night shifts, are associated with fewer behavioral problems among children, though these results depend on the gender and age of the child. In contrast, parents' rotating and split shifts are associated with more behavior problems among children, indicating that it is relatively unstable and unpredictable work schedules that may have the most harmful associations with children's outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. "Flexibility or Constraint? The Implications of Mothers' and Fathers' Nonstandard Schedules for Children’s Behavioral Outcomes." Journal of Family Issues 39,8 (June 2018): 2336-2365.
3. Leibbrand, Christine
Migrating for Opportunity? Internal Migration and Economic Advancement among Black and White Women and Men
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Geocoded Data; Migration; Mobility; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Considerable research has shown that internal migration may benefit male partners' employment outcomes at the expense of female partners' employment outcomes, but that migration offers benefits for unpartnered, childless females that mirror the benefits experienced by both partnered and unpartnered males. Despite the considerable amount of research that has been conducted on the returns to migration among females and males, there are a number of important, open questions. In particular, much of the migration research has focused on the returns to migration for white men and white women. Analyses that do include minority men and women usually jointly analyze the relationship between migration and economic mobility while controlling for race, without disentangling the potentially unique and important economic trajectories of different minority groups. Using geocoded, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 data from 1979 to 2012, I am able to examine how migration across county and state lines influences the earnings trajectories of Black, Hispanic, and White females and males across their lifetimes, while accounting for previous earnings trajectories and unobserved characteristics. In doing so, I am also able to observe whether migration is associated with increases or decreases in the economic disparities between these groups.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. "Migrating for Opportunity? Internal Migration and Economic Advancement among Black and White Women and Men." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
4. Leibbrand, Christine
Non-Standard Work Schedules and Father Involvement: Moderating the Negative Impact of a 24/7 Economy on Child Behavioral Outcomes
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Fathers, Involvement; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Nonstandard employment, such as work during the evening or night shift, has become more prevalent in the U.S. , with approximately 18 percent of jobholders now working a nonstandard schedule. Research indicates that a mother's nonstandard employment negatively influences her children’s behavioral development. However, rarely do workers remain in the same nonstandard schedule for more than a few years. Moreover, fathers and mothers may coordinate employment involving a nonstandard shift to solve childcare dilemmas. Work scheduling that permits this kind of "tag-team" parenting might increase father involvement with children, thereby leading to better child behaviors. This paper explores the impact of dual-earner parents' nonstandard work arrangements on mother's and father's involvement with children, and whether these effects mediate or offset any negative effect of maternal nonstandard employment on children's behavioral adjustment. I use data from the NLSY79 and its Child Supplement to estimate these effects for school-aged children between 1994-2006.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. "Non-Standard Work Schedules and Father Involvement: Moderating the Negative Impact of a 24/7 Economy on Child Behavioral Outcomes." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
5. Leibbrand, Christine
Parental Nonstandard Schedules and Child Academic Outcomes
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Educational Outcomes; Gender Differences; Parental Influences; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Approximately 1 in 5 working Americans are now employed in a nonstandard schedule that falls outside of the typical 7am to 7pm work day. Much of the work on these schedules indicates that they negatively influence children's academic development. However, the majority of studies focus on infants and toddlers, with elementary school-age children relatively understudied. Likewise, the role of the child's gender and of the father's shift schedule has been neglected. To broaden understanding of the effects of parental nonstandard schedules on children, and how these effects may depend upon the gender of the child, I analyze data from the NLSY79 and its Child Supplement from 1990-2006. Overall, the findings indicate that mothers' nonstandard schedules and fathers' irregular schedules harm girls' academic outcomes. For boys, fathers' rotating shifts tend to be associated with worse academic outcomes, with little evidence that mothers' nonstandard schedules are harmful for boys. In contrast, mothers' irregular shifts are positively related to reading comprehension outcomes for both boys and girls, hinting at the potential benefits associated with these schedules. None of these relationships are explained by parental closeness or involvement in schooling, however.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. "Parental Nonstandard Schedules and Child Academic Outcomes." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
6. Leibbrand, Christine
Parental Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Behavioral Outcomes
M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Fathers, Involvement; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Nonstandard work schedules, such as the evening and night shift, are prevalent in the United States, with approximately 17.7 percent of the workforce now employed in a nonstandard schedule. The research thus far indicates that these work arrangements negatively influence children's behavioral development. However, the majority of studies focus on infants and toddlers or on adolescents, with elementary school-age children relatively understudied. Likewise, the role of the father's work schedule and parental involvement has been neglected. To broaden understanding of the effects of nonstandard schedules on children, and how these effects may depend upon the age of the child and the level of parental involvement, I analyze data from the NLSY79 and its Child Supplement from 1994-2006. My findings show that older children whose mothers work rotating or irregular shifts exhibit more behavior problems, while other types of shift schedules do not harm children's behavioral outcomes. While differences in parental involvement and closeness do not explain these relationships, parental closeness has an important influence on behavior problems for all parental employment statuses.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. Parental Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Behavioral Outcomes. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, 2015.
7. Leibbrand, Christine
The Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Internal Migration Decline
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Migration; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Since 1980, internal migration rates within the U.S. have declined precipitously. Given the importance of migration for exposing individuals to economic and social opportunities, this decline is concerning. However, we have relatively little knowledge about how race/ethnicity and gender have structured declines in migration propensities and/or changes in the returns to migration over time. In this study, I utilize restricted, geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data and harmonize these data for the 1979 and 1997 cohorts in order to explore these relationships. I find that migration propensities have declined the most for black women and men and that the returns to migration have likewise declined more substantially for black women and men relative to other demographic groups. These findings are problematic, suggesting that internal migration, historically an important avenue for improving outcomes among blacks, may be a less viable means of reducing racial disparities in outcomes over time.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. "The Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Internal Migration Decline." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.