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Author: Lim, Misun
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Budig, Michelle Jean
Lim, Misun
Cohort Differences and the Marriage Premium: Emergence of Gender-Neutral Household Specialization Effects
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Differences; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research finds marriage premiums for men, occasionally women, attributable to Becker's theory of household specialization. We ask, do these premiums 1) persist among the millennial cohort of workers, 2) reflect changing selection into marriage across cohorts, and 3) differ by the gender division of spousal work hours? Using fixed-effects models and NLSY79 and NLSY97 data, we compare cohort, gender, and household specialization differences in the marriage premium. Despite declining gender-traditional household specialization, the millennial cohort reveals larger marriage premiums, for both women and men. While positive selection on unobserved factors explains less of the marriage premium among millennial men, it fully explains millennial women's marriage premium, relative to baby boomers. Household specialization matters only among millennials, where it is gender neutral: both male and female breadwinners earn significantly larger marriage premiums, while husbands and wives specializing in nonmarket work earn no premium, or even a marriage penalty, when employed.

Also presented at Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.

Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean and Misun Lim. "Cohort Differences and the Marriage Premium: Emergence of Gender-Neutral Household Specialization Effects." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
2. Budig, Michelle Jean
Lim, Misun
Cohort Differences and the Marriage Premium: Emergence of Gender-Neutral Household Specialization Effects
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1352-1370.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12326/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Differences; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Differentials

Using fixed-effects models and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 data, we compared cohort, gender, and household specialization differences in the marriage premium. Do these premiums (a) persist among millennials, (b) reflect changing selection into marriage across cohorts, and (c) differ by the gender division of spousal work hours? Despite declining gender-traditional household specialization, the millennial cohort garnered larger marriage premiums for women and men. Positive selection explained millenial women's marriage premiums, but less of men's. Household specialization mattered only among millennials, where it is gender neutral: Male and female breadwinners earned significantly larger marriage premiums, whereas husbands and wives specializing in nonmarket work earned no premium, or even penalties, when employed. Results show increasing disadvantage among breadwinner households, with dual earners most advantaged among millennials.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean and Misun Lim. "Cohort Differences and the Marriage Premium: Emergence of Gender-Neutral Household Specialization Effects." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1352-1370.
3. Budig, Michelle Jean
Lim, Misun
Hodges, Melissa J.
Racial and Gender Disparities in the Wage Returns for Educational Attainment
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do race and gender intersect with educational attainment to influence earnings? Do women and minority men earn less than white men because of lower educational attainment or degrees in less lucrative majors, or because they receive lower returns to the same qualifications? Using a longitudinal national probability sample, we test whether earnings returns to education differ among white men, black men, white women, and black women. To examine the role of racial and gender segregation in field of degree, we consider multiple specifications of education: years of education, highest degree obtained, and level-by-field of degree obtained. Covariates include local labor market and demographic characteristics, family structure, human capital, and job characteristics. Findings reveal a robust labor market for less educated white men, such that white men's greater returns to secondary and college educational attainment only emerges with controls for human capital, labor supply, and job characteristics. White women also receive stronger wage returns for educational credentials, but only for post-graduate degrees. Black men receive significantly lower returns for most of their educational credentials, and this can be attributed to the disadvantageous sorting of educated black men into jobs with low-paying characteristics. Finally, black women, who appear to receive stronger returns for educational attainment in baseline models, are uniformly undervalued for their educational attainment in more saturated models. This indicates that that educational attainment may propel black women's success in the labor market in terms of human capital accumulation and occupational attainment, but compared to white women and men with equivalent characteristics, black women's education is strikingly under-rewarded in terms of pay.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean, Misun Lim and Melissa J. Hodges. "Racial and Gender Disparities in the Wage Returns for Educational Attainment." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
4. Budig, Michelle Jean
Lim, Misun
Hodges, Melissa J.
Racial and Gender Pay Disparities: The Role of Education
Social Science Research published online (16 May 2021): 102580.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X21000570
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Wage Gap

We investigate whether white women, black women, and black men earn less than white men because of 1) lower educational attainment and/or 2) lower wage returns to the same levels and academic fields of attainment. Using the 1979-2012 waves of the American National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we examine how educational attainment and academic fields of study impact pay. Regression decompositions show that differences in attainment and in academic fields explain 13 to 23 percent of the racial pay gaps, but none of the gender pay gaps. Random effects models test for race and gender differences in the wage returns to education. Men of both races receive higher wage returns relative to women, while black women receive lower returns relative to all groups for master's degrees. Our intersectional approach reveals that equalizing educational attainment would reduce racial pay gaps, whereas equalizing wage returns to education would reduce gender pay disparities. Moreover, black women's earnings are multiply disadvantaged, both by their lower attainment relative to white women, and their lower returns to education relative to all groups studied.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean, Misun Lim and Melissa J. Hodges. "Racial and Gender Pay Disparities: The Role of Education." Social Science Research published online (16 May 2021): 102580.
5. Budig, Michelle Jean
Lim, Misun
Hodges, Melissa J.
Fugiero, Melissa
It’s Not Enough to Stay in School: Race and Gender Differences in the Wage Returns of Educational Attainment
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the 1979-2010 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we test whether African-Americans and Caucasians experience different returns to earnings for educational attainment. We examine multiple specifications of education: years of education, highest degree obtained, and field of degree obtained. Control variables include human capital, job characteristics, family structure, and demographic characteristics. We find African-Americans receive lower returns to education measured as highest grade completed, net of extensive control variables. Most of this racial difference in returns is concentrated among workers with graduate degrees, particularly among PhDs. Among men, whites receive significantly higher returns for MBAs and PhDs in the social sciences and humanities. Among women, whites receive significantly higher returns for graduate degrees in humanities and legal studies. Some of these racial differences are due to differential placement in occupations and industries after degree completion.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean, Misun Lim, Melissa J. Hodges and Melissa Fugiero. "It’s Not Enough to Stay in School: Race and Gender Differences in the Wage Returns of Educational Attainment." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
6. Lim, Misun
Cohort and Gender Differences and the Marriage Wage Premium: Findings from the NLSY79 and the NLSY97
M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Keyword(s): Cohort Effects; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Husbands, Income; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research has established a marital wage premium among men, and more recently, among women of the baby boom generation. It is unknown whether: 1) the marriage premium holds among more recent cohorts of men and women, 2) it differs by intensity of work hours among husbands and wives, and 3) cohabiters receive wage bonuses. Using fixed-effects models and data from the 1979-1989 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and the 1997-2010 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this paper compares cohort differences in the gendered marriage premium. While both women and men receive marriage premiums and these premiums are larger for more recent cohorts, men’s premiums are consistently higher and have doubled from the late baby boomers cohort (NLSY79) to the late Generation X (Gen X) cohort (NLSY97). While there was no wage premium for cohabitation among baby boom cohort women, I observe a premium among Gen X men and women. Household specialization matters: while among baby-boomers the marriage premium did not vary by household type, among the Gen X cohort men’s marriage premium is significantly larger among male breadwinner households, and surprisingly, I find marriage penalties for men in female-breadwinner households. Similarly, Gen X female breadwinners and female dual-earners receive the marriage premium while Gen X women in male-breadwinner households experience marriage penalty. In addition, the more highly educated receive larger marital bonuses.
Bibliography Citation
Lim, Misun. Cohort and Gender Differences and the Marriage Wage Premium: Findings from the NLSY79 and the NLSY97. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2015.
7. Lim, Misun
Motherhood Wage Penalty Across Life Course and Cohorts
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation explores the connections between changing family structures and economic inequalities in the United States. While previous research shows that motherhood lowers women's earnings, few studies explore how wage penalties for motherhood change over women's lives. Moreover, most research examines only the baby boomer cohort; consequentially, little is known about how millennials experience this wage penalty and how such burdens of motherhood have changed across cohorts. This study investigates whether and how the motherhood wage penalty changes both across women's life course and cohorts with these questions: (1) Does the motherhood penalty change over women's lives? (2) What are the transition patterns to motherhood among millennials? (3) Does the motherhood wage penalty vary between baby boom and millennial cohorts? and (4) What factors are associated with these variations in motherhood wage penalties?

Using panel data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I found that among baby boomers child penalty increases a few years after their first childbirth and peaks with having teenagers. Baby boom mothers no longer suffer significant wage penalties during their later years of motherhood. The findings also show that marriage is associated with a greater likelihood of transitioning to motherhood among millennials. Higher education correlates with a decreased likelihood of becoming a mother among white and Latina women, but not among black women. The last set of findings indicates that millennial mothers receive smaller or no child penalties compared to baby boom mothers. Married mothers within the baby boom cohort receive the largest wage penalty while conversely their millennial counterparts enjoy a wage boost.

Bibliography Citation
Lim, Misun. Motherhood Wage Penalty Across Life Course and Cohorts. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2019.
8. Lim, Misun
Mejia, Cristina Samper
Race and Cohort Differences in Family Status in the United States
American Sociological Association published online (26 March 2024).
Also: https://doi.org/10.1177/23780231241241041
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Divorce; Family Characteristics; Family Formation; Marriage; Parenthood; Parents, Single; Race/Ethnicity; Relationships/Partnerships

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this visualization, the authors show changes in family patterns by different race groups across two cohorts. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (born from 1957 to 1965) and 1997 (born from 1980 to 1984), the authors visualize the relationship-parenthood state distributions at each age between 15 and 35 years by race and cohort. The results suggest the rise of cohabiting mothers and the decline of married and divorced mothers among women born from 1980 to 1984. Black women born from 1980 to 1984 were more likely to experience single/childless and single/parent status compared with Black women born from 1957 to 1965. Although with some visible postponement in the recent cohort, white women in both cohorts were more likely to experience married/parent status than other race groups. The decline in married/parent status across the two generations was sharpest among Hispanic women. These descriptive findings highlight the importance of identifying race when discussing changes in family formation and dissolution trends across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Lim, Misun and Cristina Samper Mejia. "Race and Cohort Differences in Family Status in the United States." American Sociological Association published online (26 March 2024).