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Author: Ludwig, Jens Otto
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Ludwig, Jens Otto
Do Youths in Urban Poverty Neighborhoods Underestimate the Returns to Education?
Working Paper, Graduate Public Policy Program, Georgetown University, Washington DC, January 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Graduate Public Policy Program, Georgetown University
Keyword(s): Black Youth; Educational Returns; Intelligence Tests; Job Knowledge; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Poverty; Racial Differences; Role Models; Rural/Urban Differences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Urbanization/Urban Living

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper provides an empirical examination of W.J. Wilson's hypothesis that youths residing in concentrated urban poverty neighborhoods misperceive the returns to education due, in part, to a paucity of middle class role models within these communities. Three primary empirical questions are addressed using the NLSY: (1) Do youths in urban poverty communities, defined here as urban ZIP Code areas with 1980 poverty rates above 30 percent, have less information about the labor market than youths from other areas? Evidence is found for such information differences using a number of labor market information measures available with the NLSY. (2) Does residence within a concentrated urban poverty neighborhood per se depress labor market information, or are information differences due primarily to characteristics suck as race and socioeconomic status? Analysis of the NLSY suggests that urban poverty areas appear to matter primarily for African-American males. (3) Does labor market information influence educational outcomes? Both naive and two-stage estimation procedures suggest that the information which youths have about the labor market appear to influence high school graduation and years of school completed, even after controlling for other individual, family, neighborhood and school characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Ludwig, Jens Otto. "Do Youths in Urban Poverty Neighborhoods Underestimate the Returns to Education?" Working Paper, Graduate Public Policy Program, Georgetown University, Washington DC, January 1995.
2. Ludwig, Jens Otto
Information and Inner City Educational Attainment
Economics of Education Review 18,1 (February 1999): 17-30.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027277579700054X
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Inner-City; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) are analyzed to examine whether adolescents living in low-income urban areas have less accurate information about labor market institutions than teens in more affluent communities, and whether information influences educational attainment. All adolescents seem to implicitly underestimate the educational requirements of their occupational goals, and teens (particularly males) in high-poverty urban areas have less accurate information than those in other neighborhoods. Information varies across neighborhoods in part because of the effects of family socioeconomic status on information, including the education and employment experiences of parents. The labor market information measures available with the NLSY are related to schooling persistence, even after controlling for AFQT scores and family background.
Bibliography Citation
Ludwig, Jens Otto. "Information and Inner City Educational Attainment." Economics of Education Review 18,1 (February 1999): 17-30.
3. Ludwig, Jens Otto
Information and Inner-City Educational Attainment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Economics, Duke University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Background; Geocoded Data; Information Networks; Inner-City; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty; Residence; Role Models; Urbanization/Urban Living; Youth Problems

This dissertation provides an empirical examination of William Julius Wilson's 1987 hypothesis that youths residing in concentrated urban poverty neighborhoods may misperceive the returns to education and, in turn, underinvest in schooling. In the absence of useful longitudinal data capturing the earnings expectations of youths from central city poverty communities, this dissertation makes use of the labor market information measures available with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine Wilson's theory, under the hypothesis that youths' information about the labor market will be (imperfectly) correlated with the consistency of their expectations of the returns to schooling.

A model is developed which shows that even if central city youths are exposed to middle class role models, if the observed role models are different from themselves with respect to such income-altering characteristics as race, these youths may have difficulty in isolating the earnings effects of education.

Three primary empirical questions raised by Wilson's hypothesis are addressed using the NLSY data: (1) Do youths in urban poverty neighborhoods (defined as urban ZIP Code areas with 1980 poverty rates above 30 percent) have less information about the labor market than youths from other areas? Simple analysis-of-variance procedures indicate that the answer to this question is yes, and that these differences are statistically significant. (2) Does residence within a concentrated urban poverty neighborhood per se depress labor market information, or are information differences due primarily to characteristics such as race and socioeconomic status? Results derived using both naive and two-stage estimation procedures suggest that neighborhoods do not appear to affect information for the NLSY sample as a whole. However, urban poverty area residence did seem to negatively influence the information of youths from families that had received welfare. These results may suggest that neighborhoods become more important as sources of labor market information for youths as their families becomes less so. (3) Does the information a youth has about the labor market influence educational outcomes? Both naive and two-stage estimation procedures suggest that the information which youths have about the labor market may influence their likelihood to graduate from high school and their eventual total years of school completed, even after controlling for individual, family, neighborhood and school characteristics.

Bibliography Citation
Ludwig, Jens Otto. Information and Inner-City Educational Attainment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Economics, Duke University, 1994.