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Author: Mink, Michael
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Mink, Michael
Wang, Jong-Yi
Bennett, Kevin J.
Moore, Charity G.
Powell, M. Paige
Probst, Janice C.
Early Alcohol Use, Rural Residence, and Adult Employment
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 69,2 (March 2008): 266-274.
Also: http://www.jsad.com/jsad/article/Early_Alcohol_Use_Rural_Residence_and_Adult_Employment/2226.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Employment; Rural Areas; Rural Youth; Rural/Urban Differences; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: Rural residence was once perceived as protective regarding youthful alcohol use and its effects. Our study examined whether the relationship between alcohol use in youth and early adulthood and subsequent employment outcomes differed for rural and urban youth. Method: Data from a 20-year panel survey, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, were used to address the association between alcohol use between the ages of 17 and 26 and employment outcomes during adulthood. Early drinking experiences and misuse symptoms were used as drinking behavior measures. Rural was defined as living outside any Metropolitan Statistical Area. Employment outcomes were defined using employment status and employment quality. Analyses were weighted to reflect the stratified sample design (N = 8,399). Results: Drinking behaviors did not differ by residence. In bivariate analysis, alcohol use measures during youth were consistently associated with working more than 40 hours per week and earning irregular compensation. For three of seven employment quality measures examined, interactions between residence and alcohol use were observed in multivariable analysis. Rural youth were more likely to suffer adverse employment consequences. Conclusions: Rural residence does not appear to provide protection from the effects of drinking during youth on adulthood employment and was associated with adverse outcomes. Further research is needed to ascertain whether such differences stem from different availability of services or other characteristics of the rural environment. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs 69: 266-274, 2008).

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Bibliography Citation
Mink, Michael, Jong-Yi Wang, Kevin J. Bennett, Charity G. Moore, M. Paige Powell and Janice C. Probst. "Early Alcohol Use, Rural Residence, and Adult Employment." Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 69,2 (March 2008): 266-274.
2. Mink, Michael
Wang, Jong-Yi
Bennett, Kevin J.
Moore, Charity G.
Powell, M. Paige
Probst, Janice C.
Early Alcohol Use, Rural Residence, and Adulthood Employment
Report 7, South Carolina Rural Health Research Center, University of South Carolina, October 2005.
Also: http://rhr.sph.sc.edu/report/%283-6%29%20Early%20Alcohol%20Use,%20Rural%20Residence,%20and%20Adulthood%20Employment.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Employment, Youth; Risk-Taking; Rural Areas; Rural/Urban Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Executive Summary
Study Purpose
Early onset of alcohol consumption may increase the risk of physical disease and psychological disorders. The relationship between alcohol consumption during youth/early adulthood and subsequent employment is not fully known. With fewer opportunities for corrective intervention, the consequences of abusive drinking during youth or young adulthood may be greater for rural residents. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alcohol use in youth and early adulthood was more likely to result in adverse employment outcomes among youth living in rural areas than urban youth. The study draws information regarding youth alcohol use patterns and adult employment from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – 1979, which has been following a panel of young persons recruited in 1979 for more than 20 years. Rural was defined as living outside any Metropolitan Statistical Area. In the analysis, residence was defined as the area where the person resided in 1982-1984, when the drinking behaviors occurred.

Recommendations
Urban and rural youth share pressures from multiple sources to engage in risky behaviors. Present findings, regarding behaviors from twenty years ago, parallel analysis of more recent data concerning teen exposure to violence and drug abuse, which was found to be as high or higher in rural areas when compared to urban and suburban settings (Mink, Moore, Johnson, Probst, 2005). Reducing youth drinking and thus its potential effects on long-term employment status requires multiple simultaneous approaches. Programs geared towards youth that address drinking or drug prevention, enforcement of appropriate behavior and, when necessary, recovery from alcohol or drug problems must be available to rural as well as urban youth.

Future Research
The apparent tendency for rural youth to exhibit higher alcohol dependence symptoms needs to be explored more fully. Factors such as environment, availability of alcohol, activity and leisure activities, income, and social influences may all affect rural youth differently than urban youth, leading to a higher rate of alcohol dependence.

Further analysis needs to be done on the link between early onset of drinking and quality of employment among rural residents. Other factors, such as educational opportunities, employment opportunities, and economic infrastructure need to be taken into account. Even though this analysis did not find a significant link between early onset of drinking and income, the stability of income may be important.

Bibliography Citation
Mink, Michael, Jong-Yi Wang, Kevin J. Bennett, Charity G. Moore, M. Paige Powell and Janice C. Probst. "Early Alcohol Use, Rural Residence, and Adulthood Employment." Report 7, South Carolina Rural Health Research Center, University of South Carolina, October 2005.