Search Results

Author: Paternoster, Raymond
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Apel, Robert John
Bushway, Shawn D.
Brame, Robert
Haviland, Amelia
Nagin, Daniel S.
Paternoster, Raymond
Unpacking the Relationship Between Adolescent Employment and Antisocial Behavior: A Matched Samples Comparison
Criminology 45,1 (February 2007): 67-97.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2007.00072.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Crime; Employment, In-School; Employment, Part-Time; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study reexamines the consistent linkage between first-time employment at age 16 during the school year and problem behaviors. Group-based trajectory modeling is used to stratify youths based on their developmental history of crime and substance abuse. Data (N = 1,185) were taken from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Contrary to most prior research, results revealed no overall effect of working on either criminal behavior or substance abuse. There is some indication, however, that work may have a salutary effect on these behaviors for some individuals who had followed trajectories of heightened criminal activity or substance abuse prior to their first-time employment.
Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert John, Shawn D. Bushway, Robert Brame, Amelia Haviland, Daniel S. Nagin and Raymond Paternoster. "Unpacking the Relationship Between Adolescent Employment and Antisocial Behavior: A Matched Samples Comparison." Criminology 45,1 (February 2007): 67-97.
2. Apel, Robert John
Bushway, Shawn D.
Paternoster, Raymond
Brame, Robert
Sweeten, Gary
Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 24,4 (December 2008): 337-362
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Child Labor; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; High School Dropouts; Legislation; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor laws governing the number of hours per week allowed during the school year as instrumental variables. We find that these work laws lead to additional number of hours worked by youth, which then lead to increased high school dropout but decreased delinquency. Although counterintuitive, this result is consistent with existing evidence about the effect of employment on crime for adults and the impact of dropout on youth crime. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Quantitative Criminology is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert John, Shawn D. Bushway, Raymond Paternoster, Robert Brame and Gary Sweeten. "Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 24,4 (December 2008): 337-362.
3. Apel, Robert John
Paternoster, Raymond
Bushway, Shawn D.
Brame, Robert
A Job Isn't Just a Job: The Differential Impact of Formal Versus Informal Work on Adolescent Problem Behavior
Crime and Delinquency 52,2 (April 2006): 333-69.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/52/2/333
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Council on Crime and Delinquency
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavioral Problems; Child Labor; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Employment, Youth; Job Patterns; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research consistently demonstrates a positive correlation between hours of employment and problem behavior for adolescents. In response, the National Research Council (1998) proposed limits on youth work involvement, and its recommendation forms the basis for proposed legislation to amend federal child labor provisions. An unanticipated consequence may be to increase the amount of time that youths spend in the informal labor market because child labor laws only govern youth employment in the formal labor market. In this article, the authors attempt to address this policy implication and fill a gap in the extant literature by examining the impact of both formal and informal employment on delinquency and substance use. Because work patterns tend to be very different by gender and race or ethnicity, the authors estimate separate models for these subgroups. The authors use longitudinal data to deal with the possibility that there are unobserved differences between those that work and those that do not.
Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert John, Raymond Paternoster, Shawn D. Bushway and Robert Brame. "A Job Isn't Just a Job: The Differential Impact of Formal Versus Informal Work on Adolescent Problem Behavior." Crime and Delinquency 52,2 (April 2006): 333-69.
4. Brame, Robert
Bushway, Shawn D.
Paternoster, Raymond
Turner, Michael G.
Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23
Crime and Delinquency 60,3 (April 2014): 471-486.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/60/3/471.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Gender Differences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we examine race, sex, and self-reported arrest histories (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97; N = 7,335) for the period 1997 through 2008 covering cumulative arrest histories through ages 18 and 23. The analysis produces three key findings: (a) males have higher cumulative prevalence of arrest than females and (b) there are important race differences in the probability of arrest for males but not for females. Assuming that the missing cases are missing at random (MAR), about 30% of Black males have experienced at least one arrest by age 18 (vs. about 22% for White males); by age 23 about 49% of Black males have been arrested (vs. about 38% for White males). Earlier research using the NLSY97 showed that the risk of arrest by age 23 was 30%, with nonresponse bounds [25.3%, 41.4%]. This study indicates that the risk of arrest is not evenly distributed across the population. Future research should focus on the identification and management of collateral risks that often accompany arrest experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Brame, Robert, Shawn D. Bushway, Raymond Paternoster and Michael G. Turner. "Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23." Crime and Delinquency 60,3 (April 2014): 471-486.
5. Brame, Robert
Turner, Michael G.
Paternoster, Raymond
Bushway, Shawn D.
Cumulative Prevalence of Arrest From Ages 8 to 23 in a National Sample
Pediatrics 129,1 (January 2012): 21-27.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/1/21.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Arrests; Comparison Group (Reference group); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Statistics

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cumulative proportion of youth who self-report having been arrested or taken into custody for illegal or delinquent offenses (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from ages 8 to 23 years.

METHODS: Self-reported arrest history data (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 7335) were examined from 1997 to 2008.

RESULTS: By age 18, the in-sample cumulative arrest prevalence rate lies between 15.9% and 26.8%; at age 23, it lies between 25.3% and 41.4%. These bounds make no assumptions at all about missing cases. If we assume that the missing cases are at least as likely to have been arrested as the observed cases, the in-sample age-23 prevalence rate must lie between 30.2% and 41.4%. The greatest growth in the cumulative prevalence of arrest occurs during late adolescence and the period of early or emerging adulthood.

CONCLUSIONS: Since the last nationally defensible estimate based on data from 1965, the cumulative prevalence of arrest for American youth (particularly in the period of late adolescence and early adulthood) has increased substantially. At a minimum, being arrested for criminal activity signifies increased risk of unhealthy lifestyle, violence involvement, and violent victimization. Incorporating this insight into regular clinical assessment could yield significant benefits for patients and the larger community.

Bibliography Citation
Brame, Robert, Michael G. Turner, Raymond Paternoster and Shawn D. Bushway. "Cumulative Prevalence of Arrest From Ages 8 to 23 in a National Sample." Pediatrics 129,1 (January 2012): 21-27.
6. Paternoster, Raymond
Bushway, Shawn D.
Brame, Robert
Apel, Robert John
The Effect of Teenage Employment on Delinquency and Problem Behaviors
Social Forces 82,1 (September 2003): 297-336.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598147
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Employment, In-School; High School Students; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

What happens to high school youths when they take on jobs during the school year, sometimes working long hours, while trying to maintain the role of student? There is a consensus in the empirical literature that teenage employment, particularly what is termed "intensive" employment, results in a constellation of detrimental consequences: lower school grades, diminished educational ambitions, and emotional alienation from parents. There is even more consensus that work and intensive work puts youths at great risk of committing delinquent acts and other problem behaviors such as smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and using marijuana and other drugs. In our view, the conclusion that either work or intensive work has a harmful net effect on youths is based on a thin empirical base. The problem is that previous empirical work has not adequately addressed the issue of possible selection effects. In this article, we reexamine the relationship between intensive employment and delinquency and problem behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We conduct two general types of analysis. First, we conduct what we term a traditional analysis wherein we employ observed covariates to capture the selection process. Here we find the same positive relationship between intensive employment and antisocial behavior that others before us have. Second, we conduct both a random and a fixed-effect analysis where we adjust for both observed and unobserved sources of population heterogeneity. In this second analysis, we find that the positive association between work and antisocial behavior observed in the traditional analysis disappears. We discuss the implications of these results both for analyses of the relationship between work and crime in general and for criminological theory. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Paternoster, Raymond, Shawn D. Bushway, Robert Brame and Robert John Apel. "The Effect of Teenage Employment on Delinquency and Problem Behaviors." Social Forces 82,1 (September 2003): 297-336.
7. Sweeten, Gary
Bushway, Shawn D.
Paternoster, Raymond
Does Dropping Out Of School Mean Dropping Into Delinquency?
Criminology 47,1 (February 2009): 47-91.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00139.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; Ethnic Differences; High School Diploma; High School Dropouts; Hispanic Youth; Racial Differences; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Approximately one third of U.S. high-school freshmen do not earn their high-school diploma on time. For African-American and Hispanic students, this figure nearly reaches one half. The long-term economic consequences of dropping out of school for both the student and the larger community have been well documented. It has also been argued that school dropouts put themselves at a higher risk for delinquent and criminal behavior when they leave school. Although it seems plausible that dropping out might increase the potential for delinquent conduct, another view states that dropping out is simply the final event in a long, gradual process of disenchantment and disengagement from school. Dropouts show evidence of school failure and developmental problems years in advance. It has been argued, therefore, that the actual event of finally leaving school has no causal effect on criminal or delinquent behavior because it has been so long in coming. In this article, we examine the effect of leaving school early, and the reason for dropping out, on delinquent behavior with the use of panel data models from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Through an appeal to identity theory, we hypothesize that the effect of dropping out is not uniform but varies by the reason for leaving school, gender, and time. This conjecture receives only partial empirical support. Implications for future work in the area are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Criminology is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary, Shawn D. Bushway and Raymond Paternoster. "Does Dropping Out Of School Mean Dropping Into Delinquency?" Criminology 47,1 (February 2009): 47-91.