Search Results

Cohort: NLSY79
Resulting in 6556 citations.
1. Aassve, Arnstein
Economic Resources and Single Motherhood: Incidence and Resolution of Premarital Childbearing among Young American Women
MPIDR Working Paper No. 2000-015, Max-Planck Institute for Demographic Research, December 2000.
Also: http://www.demogr.mpg.de/Papers/Working/wp-2000-015.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Earnings; Family Formation; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Wage Rates; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyses the impact of economic resources on the likelihood of out-ofwedlock childbearing and the consequent family formation behaviour after such an event. The analysis is undertaken by specifying a multi-state, multi-spell duration model, with dynamic interactions. The results suggest that the economic resources which young women face are indeed important, not only as determinants of premarital childbearing, but also for how out-of-wedlock childbearing is resolved. Simulations indicates that welfare generosity and family resources are the most important determinants, whereas personal earnings potential plays a less important role.
Bibliography Citation
Aassve, Arnstein. "Economic Resources and Single Motherhood: Incidence and Resolution of Premarital Childbearing among Young American Women." MPIDR Working Paper No. 2000-015, Max-Planck Institute for Demographic Research, December 2000.
2. Aassve, Arnstein
The Impact of Economic Resources on Premarital Childbearing and Subsequent Marriage among Young American Women
Demography 40,1 (February 2003): 105-126.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a46465334436xm34/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Earnings; Family Formation; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Parental Marital Status; Parents, Single; Wage Rates; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper extends previous work on premarital childbearing by modeling both the entry rates and the exit rates of unwed motherhood among young American women. In particular, I investigate the impact of economic resources on the likelihood of experiencing a premarital birth and then of subsequent marriage. Using a multiple-destination, multiple-spell hazard regression model and a microsimulation analysis, I analyze the accumulating effects of various economic variables. The results show that the economic resources are indeed important both for premarital childbearing and for subsequent marriage. However, the simulations show that large changes in these economic variables do not necessarily translate into large changes in nonmarital childbearing. Copyright: 2003 The Population Association of America. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Aassve, Arnstein. "The Impact of Economic Resources on Premarital Childbearing and Subsequent Marriage among Young American Women." Demography 40,1 (February 2003): 105-126.
3. Abbott, Brant
Gallipoli, Giovanni
Meghir, Costas
Violante, Giovanni L.
Education Policy and Intergenerational Transfers in Equilibrium
NBER Working Paper No. 18782, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2013.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w18782
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Credit/Credit Constraint; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Costs; Financial Assistance; I.Q.; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Transfers, Family; Transfers, Financial

This paper compares partial and general equilibrium effects of alternative financial aid policies intended to promote college participation. We build an overlapping generations life-cycle, heterogeneous-agent, incomplete-markets model with education, labor supply, and consumption/ saving decisions. Altruistic parents make inter vivos transfers to their children. Labor supply during college, government grants and loans, as well as private loans, complement parental transfers as sources of funding for college education. We find that the current financial aid system in the U.S. improves welfare, and removing it would reduce GDP by two percentage points in the long-run. Any further relaxation of government-sponsored loan limits would have no salient effects. The short-run partial equilibrium effects of expanding tuition grants (especially their need-based component) are sizeable. However, long-run general equilibrium effects are 3-4 times smaller. Every additional dollar of government grants crowds out 20-30 cents of parental transfers.
Bibliography Citation
Abbott, Brant, Giovanni Gallipoli, Costas Meghir and Giovanni L. Violante. "Education Policy and Intergenerational Transfers in Equilibrium." NBER Working Paper No. 18782, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2013.
4. Abbott, Brant
Gallipoli, Giovanni
Meghir, Costas
Violante, Giovanni L.
Education Policy and Intergenerational Transfers in Equilibrium
Journal of Political Economy 127,6 (December 2019): 2569-2624.
Also: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/702241
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Financial Assistance; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Influences; Student Loans; Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF); Transfers, Parental

We examine the equilibrium effects of college financial aid policies building an overlapping-generations life cycle model with education, labor supply, and saving decisions. Cognitive and noncognitive skills of children depend on parental education and skills and affect education and labor market outcomes. Education is funded by parental transfers that supplement grants, loans, and student labor supply. Crowding out of parental transfers by government programs is sizable and cannot be ignored. The current system of federal aid improves long-run welfare by 6 percent. More generous ability-tested grants would increase welfare and dominate both an expansion of student loans and a labor tax cut.
Bibliography Citation
Abbott, Brant, Giovanni Gallipoli, Costas Meghir and Giovanni L. Violante. "Education Policy and Intergenerational Transfers in Equilibrium." Journal of Political Economy 127,6 (December 2019): 2569-2624.
5. Abbott, Karen
When Dad's Away the Kids and Family Will Pay
Rocky Mountain News, August 21, 1994, Spotlight, Ed. F; Pg. 65A
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Denver Publishing Company
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Employment; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Influence; Fathers, Involvement; Maternal Employment; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article discusses the conflict between parental employment and child development from the perspective of the father's employment. Toby Parcel and Elizabeth Menaghan's study of the effects of paternal employment is referenced. Analyzing NLSY79 data, Parcel and Menaghan discovered that children whose fathers routinely worked more than 40 hours a week were less verbal and that children whose fathers worked less than full-time tended to have more behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Abbott, Karen. "When Dad's Away the Kids and Family Will Pay." Rocky Mountain News, August 21, 1994, Spotlight, Ed. F; Pg. 65A.
6. Abdel-Ghany, Mohamed
Sharpe, Deanna L.
Racial Wage Differentials Among Young Adults: Evidence from the 1990s
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 15,3 (September 1994): 279-294.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/379978974712q620/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Human Capital; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Labor Market Segmentation; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Sex Roles; Wage Differentials; Wage Equations

Using 1991 data drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience, wage differentials between black and white male young adults (N = 930 and 1,825, respectively) are decomposed into those related to labor market discrimination and those resulting from human capital endowments. The importance of testing for significant differences in wage equations before conducting decomposition analysis is emphasized. Results demonstrate that ignoring correction for the sample selection bias resulting from black-white differences in the probability of being employed would lead to an underestimation of the size of wage differentials. Findings also show that the results of models based on different assumptions regarding the nondiscriminatory wage structure might lead to different conclusions pertinent to the extent of labor market discrimination. Implications for public policy development are discussed. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Abdel-Ghany, Mohamed and Deanna L. Sharpe. "Racial Wage Differentials Among Young Adults: Evidence from the 1990s." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 15,3 (September 1994): 279-294.
7. Abe, Yasuyo
Changes in Gender and Racial Gaps in Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: The NLSY97 versus the NLSY79
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 339-378
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Teenagers

Chapter: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 and 1979 Cohorts (NLSY97 and NLSY79, respectively), this study examined the frequency and types of antisocial activity among teenagers and compared findings from the 2 surveys in order to identify how youth behavior changed over 2 decades. The samples included 4,210 Ss (aged 12-18 yrs) from NLSY97 and 3,831 Ss (aged 15-23 yrs) from NLSY79. Cross-sectional gender and racial patterns were also explored. It was found that a nontrivial proportion of the youths interviewed committed various antisocial acts and that the patterns of participation varied by race and gender and type of activity. While there were some differences in racial patterns between NLSY79 and NLSY97, the overall findings were consistent. Indices reflecting the volume and the severity of antisocial activity, and the percentage of males who participated in antisocial activity are appended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Abe, Yasuyo. "Changes in Gender and Racial Gaps in Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: The NLSY97 versus the NLSY79" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 339-378
8. Abe, Yasuyo
Betesh, Hannah
Datta, Atreyee Rupa
A Longitudinal Analysis of Early Self-employment in the NLSYs
Small Business Administration Research Summary 367, August 2010.
Also: http://www.sba.gov/advo/research/rs367.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Small Business Administration
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Entrepreneurship; Family Background and Culture; Family Characteristics; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Self-Employed Workers; Small Business (Owner/Employer); Work Histories

While the existing literature on self-employment offers a wealth of information on the characteristics of self-employed workers at a single point in time, to date few studies have taken workers' patterns of self-employment as their unit of analysis. Few studies describe how involvement in self-employment is changing for the new generation of workers. The purpose of this research is to provide policy-relevant analysis of the characteristics and career paths of those Americans who have chosen self-employment. Specifically, this study will (a) provide new empirical findings regarding the dynamics of self-employment that underpin individual entrepreneurship during early adult work life; and (b) document generational changes in self-employment patterns in early adult work life between two cohorts born in the second half of the 20th century.To address these research issues, this study utilizes two National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, the 1979 Cohort (NLSY79) and the 1997 Cohort (NLSY97), which offer extensive information on economic activity, as well as data on personal and family backgrounds, and allow detailed longitudinal investigation of self-employment activities.
Bibliography Citation
Abe, Yasuyo, Hannah Betesh and Atreyee Rupa Datta. "A Longitudinal Analysis of Early Self-employment in the NLSYs." Small Business Administration Research Summary 367, August 2010.
9. Aber, J. Lawrence
Gershoff, Elizabeth Thompson
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Social Exclusion of Children in the United States: Identifying Potential Indicators
In: Beyond Child Poverty: The Social Exclusion of Children. A. Kahn and S. Kamerman, eds., New York: The Institute for Child and Family Policy at Columbia University, 2002: 245-286
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: The Institute for Child and Family Policy at Columbia University
Keyword(s): Child Health; Children, Poverty; Children, Well-Being; Family Environment; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we will very briefly describe several current conceptual definitions of social exclusion of children, noting that most now consider social exclusion to be a dynamic, multidimensional concept. The main portion of the paper will lay out for American audiences descriptions of eight potential domains of exclusion and identify numerous specific measures of social exclusion in each domain. Throughout, we also identify: (1) national data sources when they exist in the U.S.; (2) if U.S. sources do not exist, European sources as exemplars; and (3) critical features of social exclusion for which we have been unable to identify any data sources.
Bibliography Citation
Aber, J. Lawrence, Elizabeth Thompson Gershoff and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Social Exclusion of Children in the United States: Identifying Potential Indicators" In: Beyond Child Poverty: The Social Exclusion of Children. A. Kahn and S. Kamerman, eds., New York: The Institute for Child and Family Policy at Columbia University, 2002: 245-286
10. Abma, Joyce C.
Alcohol Use Among Young Adults in 1988: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavioral Problems; Family Influences; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Racial Differences

This report describes some aspects of the drinking behavior of a nationally representative cohort of men and women in the United States in 1988. The data are drawn from the 1988 round of the NLSY, which include interviews with 10,466 men and women who were 23 to 30 years of age. The descriptive analyses showed that males drank both more frequently and in heavier quantities than females. Blacks drank less heavily and less often than whites and Hispanics. Socioeconomic status is associated with less abstaining, but more modest drinking patterns. Men and women who were married and those who were parents were less likely to drink, in terms of both frequency and quantity. Twenty percent of the sample reported experiencing at least one alcohol-related problem in the past year. About 15 percent of the sample experienced alcohol-related aggression problems, and the same proportion experienced problems involving loss of control over alcohol intake. Alcohol-related problems in the workplace were rare, with only 3.5 percent reporting any of those problems. A substantial proportion of the men and women had relatives whom they defined as having been alcoholics or problem drinkers - about 50 percent. Males with alcoholic relatives were slightly more likely to either abstain or drink more heavily. As the number of reported alcoholic relatives increases, so does the percentage of respondents having experienced alcohol-related problems in the past year, and this relationship pertains to both males and females. Further analyses should clarify these descriptive relationships by performing multivariate analyses, including a full range of factors associated with drinking.
Bibliography Citation
Abma, Joyce C. "Alcohol Use Among Young Adults in 1988: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1991.
11. Abma, Joyce C.
Mott, Frank L.
Determinants of Pregnancy Wantedness: Profiling the Population from an Interventionist Perspective
Review of Policy Research 13,1/2 (March 1994): 39-62.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-1338.1994.tb00578.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Policy Studies Organization
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Family Background and Culture; Fertility; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Status; Racial Differences; Religious Influences; Self-Esteem; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although the incidence of unwanted pregnancies has declined since the early 1970s (Pratt and Horn, 1985; Anderson, 1981; Westoff, 1981), large proportions of women continue to experience unwanted pregnancies (Forrest,1987; Pratt, 1985). Of particular concern to researchers is the well-being of mothers and children from pregnancies that are unwanted or unplanned. In 1982, among women who were ever married, 10 percent of all births were unwanted, and 28 percent mistimed. Among never-married women, fully 25 percent of all births were unwanted, and about half the remaining births were mistimed (Pratt and Horn, 1985). The focus of this research is the exploration of determinants of wantedness among women whose first pregnancies result in live births. Our analyses reflect interest in whether and how pregnancy wantedness is affected by family background characteristics, early formed attitudes, value systems, and socioeconomic aspirations, as well as maternal socio-demographic status at the time of the pregnancy. Policy implications emerge from the findings, particularly concerning differences and similarities in the process determining unwanted first births for blacks and whites. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. Sociological Abstracts
Bibliography Citation
Abma, Joyce C. and Frank L. Mott. "Determinants of Pregnancy Wantedness: Profiling the Population from an Interventionist Perspective." Review of Policy Research 13,1/2 (March 1994): 39-62.
12. Abma, Joyce C.
Mott, Frank L.
Is There a 'Bad Mother' Syndrome? Evidence of Overlapping High Risk Behavior During Pregnancy Among a National Cross-section of Young Mothers
Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Alcohol Use; Birthweight; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Deviance; Drug Use; Fathers, Absence; First Birth; Household Composition; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Growing evidence documents that significant proportions of mothers engage in behaviors considered detrimental to fetal development and infant health. These risk factors include neglect of prenatal care, excessive alcohol use, and the use of nicotine or other substances. This study explores the extent to which mothers who combine two or more of the behaviors during pregnancy, constitute a subset potentially distinct from those who engage in only one or none. The authors investigate the background factors and behaviors which differentiate these groups of mothers. The 1979 through 1986 waves of the NLSY are used for analysis of first births for about 2000 younger mothers. The study points to the limitations of population statistics on prenatal behavior patterns that present each behavior separately, and investigates the potentially compounding effect multiple risk factors can have on infants.
Bibliography Citation
Abma, Joyce C. and Frank L. Mott. "Is There a 'Bad Mother' Syndrome? Evidence of Overlapping High Risk Behavior During Pregnancy Among a National Cross-section of Young Mothers." Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990.
13. Abma, Joyce C.
Mott, Frank L.
Pregnancy Wantedness and Pregnancy Resolution: Profiling the Population from an Interventionist Perspective
Presented: Pittsburgh, PA, International Symposium on Public Policies Toward Unwanted Pregnancies, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Childbearing; Family Background and Culture; Fertility; First Birth; Household Composition; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Issues related to the well-being of mothers and children from pregnancies that the mother deems unwanted are of continuing concern to researchers and policy makers. Using data on a cohort of young mothers from the NLSY, this paper investigates the determinants of wantedness among women whose first pregnancies resulted in live births. A nontrivial proportion of women reported that they did not want their pregnancy at that time--34 percent. Multivariate analysis tested for the independent effects of demographic factors as well as the mother's family background characteristics, other attributes and behaviors at the time of the pregnancy, and maternal attitudes and aspirations, including fertility and education/work expectations. The analyses showed that family background characteristics were not independently related to pregnancy wantedness, but being black, young and never married retained their importance for a lower likelihood of pregnancy wantedness. It appears that motivation to limit or postpone childbearing exists for white women, but for black women, orientations toward work are less incompatible with childbearing. Regardless of motivations for childbearing, large numbers of white and especially black women continue to have unwanted pregnancies, a phenomena which deserves continued research and policy attention.
Bibliography Citation
Abma, Joyce C. and Frank L. Mott. "Pregnancy Wantedness and Pregnancy Resolution: Profiling the Population from an Interventionist Perspective." Presented: Pittsburgh, PA, International Symposium on Public Policies Toward Unwanted Pregnancies, 1990.
14. Abma, Joyce C.
Mott, Frank L.
Substance Use and Prenatal Care During Pregnancy Among Young Women
Family Planning Perspectives 23,3 (May-June 1991): 117-122.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135823
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Deviance; Drug Use; Hispanics; Household Composition; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Substance Use; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data on a cohort of young mothers from the NLSY were examined for use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana during pregnancies leading to first births. A substantial proportion of women (45 percent) were found to have used at least one of these substances. White women were more likely to use a substance during pregnancy than were Hispanic or black women; women with a prospective father present in the household were less likely than other women to use a substance. Compared with well-educated and older women, less-educated and younger women were more likely to smoke cigarettes or marijuana during pregnancy, but were less likely to drink alcohol. Only about 13 percent of women used more than one substance. Nineteen percent of the women received no prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. Less-educated and younger women were least likely to receive early prenatal care. Multivariate analysis found no association between neglect of prenatal care and substance use. Ra ther, the analysis revealed that the two behaviors shared likely antecedents, such as whether the prospective father was in the home prior to the pregnancy. Copyright: 1991 Alan Guttmacher Institute
Bibliography Citation
Abma, Joyce C. and Frank L. Mott. "Substance Use and Prenatal Care During Pregnancy Among Young Women." Family Planning Perspectives 23,3 (May-June 1991): 117-122.
15. Abma, Joyce C.
Mott, Frank L.
Substance Use and Prenatal Care During Pregnancy Among Younger Mothers: Linkages and Antecedents
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, February 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Deviance; Drug Use; Fathers, Absence; Hispanics; Household Composition; Mothers; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Substance Use

Data on a cohort of young mothers from the NLSY were examined for use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana during pregnancies leading to first births. A substantial proportion of women (45 percent) were found to have used at least one of these substances. White women were more likely to use a substance during pregnancy than were Hispanic or black women; women with a prospective father present in the household were less likely than other women to use a substance. Compared with well-educated and older women, less-educated and younger women were more likely to smoke cigarettes or marijuana during pregnancy, but were less likely to drink alcohol. Only about 13 percent of women used more than one substance. Nineteen percent of the women received no prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. Less-educated and younger women were least likely to receive early prenatal care. Multivariate analysis found no association between neglect of prenatal care and substance use. Rather, the analysis revealed that the two behaviors shared likely antecedents, such as whether the prospective father was in the home prior to the pregnancy.
Bibliography Citation
Abma, Joyce C. and Frank L. Mott. "Substance Use and Prenatal Care During Pregnancy Among Younger Mothers: Linkages and Antecedents." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, February 1991.
16. Abrams, Barbara
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Cohen, Alison K.
Headen, Irene
Hubbard, Alan
Ritchie, Lorrene
Rehkopf, David
Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention
American Journal of Public Health 107,9 (September 2017): 1463-1469.
Also: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28727522
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Modeling; Mothers, Health; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults.

METHODS: We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009).

RESULTS: A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births.

CONCLUSIONS: Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

Bibliography Citation
Abrams, Barbara, Jeremy R. Coyle, Alison K. Cohen, Irene Headen, Alan Hubbard, Lorrene Ritchie and David Rehkopf. "Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention." American Journal of Public Health 107,9 (September 2017): 1463-1469.
17. Abrams, Barbara
Heggeseth, Brianna
Rehkopf, David
Davis, Esa M.
Parity and Body Mass Index in U.S. Women: A Prospective 25-year Study
Obesity, V.21, No. 8 (August 2013): 1514–1518.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.20503/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Body Mass Index (BMI); Childbearing; Life Course; Obesity; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To investigate long-term body mass index (BMI) changes with childbearing.

Design and Methods: Adjusted mean BMI changes were estimated by race-ethnicity, baseline BMI and parity using longitudinal regression models in 3943 young females over 10 and 25 year follow-up from the ongoing 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort.

Results: Estimated BMI increases varied by group, ranging from a low of 2.1 BMI units for white, non-overweight nulliparas over the first 10 years to a high of 10.1 BMI units for black, overweight multiparas over the full 25-year follow-up. Impacts of parity were strongest among overweight multiparas and primaparas at ten years, ranges 1.4-1.7 and 0.8-1.3 BMI units, respectively. Among non-overweight women at 10 years, parity-related gain varied by number of births among black and whites but was unassociated in Hispanic women. After 25 years, childbearing significantly increased BMI only among overweight multiparous black women.

Conclusion: Childbearing is associated with permanent weight gain in some women, but the relationship differs by maternal BMI in young adulthood, number of births, race-ethnicity and length of follow-up. Given that overweight black women may be at special risk for accumulation of permanent, long-term weight after childbearing, effective interventions for this group are particularly needed.

Bibliography Citation
Abrams, Barbara, Brianna Heggeseth, David Rehkopf and Esa M. Davis. "Parity and Body Mass Index in U.S. Women: A Prospective 25-year Study." Obesity, V.21, No. 8 (August 2013): 1514–1518. A.
18. Acemoglu, Daron
Pischke, Jorn-Steffen
Minimum Wages and On-the-Job Training
NBER Working Paper No. 7184, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Minimum Wage; Skilled Workers; Training, On-the-Job; Wages

Becker's theory of human capital predicts that minimum wages should reduce training investments for affected workers, because they prevent these workers from taking wage cuts necessary to finance training. We show that when the assumption of perfectly competitive labor markets underlying this theory is relaxed, minimum wages can increase training of affected workers, by inducing firms to train their unskilled employees. More generally, a minimum wage increases training for constrained workers, while reducing it for those taking wage cuts to finance their training. We provide new estimates on the impact of the state and federal increases in the minimum wage between 1987 and 1992 of the training of low wage workers. We find no evidence that minimum wages reduce training. These results are consistent with our model, but difficult to reconcile with the standard theory of human capital.
Bibliography Citation
Acemoglu, Daron and Jorn-Steffen Pischke. "Minimum Wages and On-the-Job Training." NBER Working Paper No. 7184, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 1999.
19. Acs, Gregory P.
Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions
Report, Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., May 1, 1994.
Also: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=405097
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Birth Rate; Fertility; Parenting Skills/Styles; Poverty

This study examines the relationship between Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and fertility by focusing on births to women through age 23 using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It focuses on the impact of AFDC on births directly associated with AFDC, on out-of-wedlock births, and on all births. In addition, it examines the importance of AFDC on subsequent births to women who already have a child. The author uses these data to examine whether AFDC promotes out-of-wedlock birth or encourages welfare mothers to have more children either to increase their incomes or to remain on the welfare rolls.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. "Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions." Report, Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., May 1, 1994.
20. Acs, Gregory P.
The Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions
Working Paper, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, May 1993.
Also: http://osu.worldcat.org/title/impact-of-afdc-on-young-womens-childbearing-decisions/oclc/033027490
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Health; Childbearing; Fertility; First Birth; Household Composition; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Sexual Activity; State Welfare; Welfare; Women

Also: Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.

The young woman, dependent on public assistance, having child after child has reemerged as the favorite symbol for politicians decrying the U.S. welfare system. Since the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program provides support to poor families with children, with larger grants going to households with more children, concern over AFDCs pro-natalist effects have a strong theoretical foundation--AFDC lowers the cost of having children. Research in this area has focused on first births to unwed teenagers and has found scant evidence supporting the contention that AFDC promotes out-of-wedlock births. This paper seeks to re-evaluate the relationship between AFDC and childbearing by focusing not just on births to teenagers but also on births to women in their mid-twenties using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Using discrete time hazard models, I examine the impact of AFDC on births directly associated with welfare receipt, on out-of-wedlock births, and on all births. I also examine the importance of AFDC on subsequent births--births to women who already have a child. I find that AFDC generosity has very modest pro-natalist effects at best on first births and virtually no effect on subsequent births. Furthermore, exposure to AFDC does not encourage future childbearing although mothers who received AFDC in the past are more likely to receive AFDC upon having a second child.

Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. "The Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions." Working Paper, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, May 1993.
21. Acs, Gregory P.
The Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions
Discussion Paper No. 1011-93, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, November 1993.
Also: http://osu.worldcat.org/title/impact-of-afdc-on-young-womens-childbearing-decisions/oclc/28629000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Health; Childbearing; Fertility; First Birth; Household Composition; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Sexual Activity; Welfare; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Contrary to popular belief, unmarried women do not bear children in order to obtain welfare benefits, and women who are on welfare do not have additional children in order to collect more money. The major welfare program for single mothers -- and the program most people have in mind when they think of welfare -- is Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Every state operates its own AFDC program, which pays a monthly cash benefit to mothers who apply for and qualify for assistance. Research by Gregory Acs of the Urban Institute finds that the size of a state's AFDC benefit has no impact on the decision of an unmarried woman to have a child or on the decision of a mother who already receives AFDC to have another child. Politicians, the press, and the public have latched onto the argument that the welfare system encourages childbearing. The cost of raising a child, however, is substantial, and the amount of money a woman would receive from the AFDC program would hardly defray that cost. According to Acs, restricting benefits for welfare recipients who have additional children may send a significant symbolic message--that long-term dependence on welfare is not an acceptable way to live--but it is unlikely to have any effect on childbearing. Consequently, restricting or sharply reducing AFDC benefits for needy women and children is difficult to justify.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. "The Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions." Discussion Paper No. 1011-93, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, November 1993.
22. Acs, Gregory P.
The Impact of Welfare on Young Mothers' Subsequent Childbearing Decisions
Journal of Human Resources 31,4 (Fall 1996): 898-915.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146151
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Benefits; Childbearing; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Fertility; Income; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Welfare

Politicians, the press, and the public have become increasingly worried about welfare becoming a "lifestyle" in which women have multiple births both to increase their incomes and to prolong their stays on the welfare roles. Such concerns have given rise to policy proposals such as the "family rap" which would deny welfare recipients higher welfare payments if they have another child while on welfare. This paper examines the relationship between welfare and births to women who already have a child. using data on young mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). I find that variations in welfare benefit levels and the incremental benefit have no statistically significant impacts on the subsequent childbearing decisions of young mothers in general, nor on the subsequent childbearing decisions of women who received welfare in particular. Furthermore, mothers who received welfare to support their first children are no more likely to have additional children in any given year through the age of 23. Copyright Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System 1996
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. "The Impact of Welfare on Young Mothers' Subsequent Childbearing Decisions." Journal of Human Resources 31,4 (Fall 1996): 898-915.
23. Acs, Gregory P.
Welfare, Work, and Dependence: Analyzing the Potential Effects of Work-Related Welfare Reform
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1990. DAI-A 51/07, p. 2477, January 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavioral Differences; Educational Returns; Employment; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Training; Wages; Women; Work Experience

This dissertation explores the impact of one welfare program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), on (1) young women's work and training decisions, referred to as investments in human capital, and (2) their wages, known as returns to human capital. As such, it holds implications for the potential success of work-related welfare reforms. Unobservable differences between women, like attitudes, may both reduce work effort and increase welfare use. The presence of such an unobservable fixed effect, as it is called, could induce an overestimate of welfare's negative impact on work. By using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I can detect such fixed effect and obtain unbiased estimates. In the presence of a fixed effect, the Least Squares Dummy Variable (LSDV) technique generates unbiased estimates because it exploits changes in women's behavior over time and ignores the variation between women. However, if the unobserved differences between women are random--not correlated with both work and welfare decisions--then they do not induce a bias, and a Generalized Least Squares (GLS) technique, which exploits both sources of variation, provides more precise estimates. If the true effect is random, then the LSDV and GLS estimators should yield similar results, and GLS should be used. If the two estimates differ, then a fixed effect is probably present and the LSDV technique is preferred. The Hausman Specification test formally makes this comparison. I cannot reject the random effects model--the coefficients are remarkably similar--and hence use the GLS technique. Using several different specifications and using both predicted and actual measures of AFDC use, I find that historical AFDC receipt has small, negative impact on women's work decisions. I also find that women who received AFDC enjoy substantially less wage growth over time than women who avoided the dole. However, this appears to be caused by lower levels of investment rather than lower rates of return on such investments. AFDC recipients experience slower wage growth because they acquire less experience, education, and training than other women. I conclude that since AFDC recipients can benefit from investments in human capital and the program seems to inhibit investments, work-related welfare reforms could reduce dependence on government aid. But the effects are likely to be quite small.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. Welfare, Work, and Dependence: Analyzing the Potential Effects of Work-Related Welfare Reform. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1990. DAI-A 51/07, p. 2477, January 1991.
24. Acs, Gregory P.
Martin, Steven
Schwabish, Jonathan A.
Sawhill, Isabel V.
The Social Genome Model: Estimating How Policies Affect Outcomes, Mobility and Inequality across the Life Course
Journal of Social Issues 72,4 (December 2016): 656-675.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/josi.12188/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Children, Poverty; Disadvantaged, Economically; Educational Outcomes; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Cycle Research; Mobility, Social; Poverty

Persistently high poverty among families with children, a lack of equal opportunity, stalled intergenerational mobility, and inequality have all risen up the agenda for federal, state, and local policymakers. Children born into low-income families face barriers to success in each stage of life from birth till age 40. Using data on a representative group of American children and a life cycle model to track their progress from the earliest years through school and beyond, we show that well-evaluated, targeted interventions can close over 80% of the gap between more and less advantaged children in the proportion that ends up middle class by middle age. These interventions can also greatly improve social mobility and enhance the lifetime incomes of less advantaged children.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P., Steven Martin, Jonathan A. Schwabish and Isabel V. Sawhill. "The Social Genome Model: Estimating How Policies Affect Outcomes, Mobility and Inequality across the Life Course." Journal of Social Issues 72,4 (December 2016): 656-675.
25. Acs, Gregory P.
Wissoker, Douglas A.
The Impact of Local Labor Markets on the Employment Patterns of Young Inner-City Males
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991.
Also: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/infoserv/catalog/detail/120886
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Geographical Variation; Inner-City; Labor Force Participation; Local Labor Market; Racial Differences; Residence; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment Rate; Unemployment, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past two decades, both people and firms have moved from centralized urban areas to the suburbs. Some argue that the resulting spatial isolation of those left in the inner-city has contributed to rising joblessness and concentrated urban poverty. In this analysis, the authors examine the relative importance of spatial isolation, individual characteristics, and the strength of local labor markets on the post-schooling employment patterns of young men using data from the NLSY. Although inner-city youth unemployment rates are higher than those of other youth, the authors found that this reflects differences in individual and city-wide characteristics rather than location within an urban area. Indeed, while living in an inner-city appears to have little effect on the employment patterns of youth, differences in the local economy measured by SMSA-level unemployment rates significantly affect the amount of time it takes youth to find jobs after leaving school and the stability of their employment.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. and Douglas A. Wissoker. "The Impact of Local Labor Markets on the Employment Patterns of Young Inner-City Males." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991.
26. Adachi, Takanori
A Life-Cycle Model of Entrepreneurial Choice: Understanding Entry into and Exit from Self-Employment
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, May 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Exits; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Self-Employed Workers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) show that self-employment (nonfarm and nonprofessional) accounts for as much as 7% of all yearly labor supplied by young white males (aged 20-39 in the period 1979-2000). On the other hand, nearly 30% of the individuals covered by the data have at least one year of experience as a self-employer in the relevant period. The goal of this paper is to develop a coherent framework that accounts for these two contrasting figures, which together indicate the importance of understanding not only entry into but also exit from self-employment. Specifically, I present and estimate a life-cycle model of entrepreneurial choice and wealth accumulation, using a subsample of white males aged 20 to 39 from the NLSY79. In addition, the model includes two basic components of human capital (educational attainment and labor experience) aimed at a better capturing the observed patterns of labor supply, as well as those of income profiles and wealth accumulation over the life cycle. Counterfactual experiments with the use of the estimated model indicate that relaxation of borrowing constraints increases the average duration of self-employment, especially for the non-college-educated, whereas injections of business capital or self-employment-specific human capital only induce entries into self-employment that are of short duration.
Bibliography Citation
Adachi, Takanori. A Life-Cycle Model of Entrepreneurial Choice: Understanding Entry into and Exit from Self-Employment. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, May 2009.
27. Adamczyk, Alicia
High-Earning White Women Face Steepest Motherhood Penalty
Time, December 2, 2016.
Also: http://time.com/4588806/high-earners-motherhood-penalty/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Time Inc.
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Motherhood; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Having children is one of the biggest drivers of the gender wage gap. And new research indicates some women have more income on the line than others. According to a report published in the American Sociological Review, the "motherhood penalty" for the highest earning, most skilled white women is an average wage loss of 10% per child, compared with a 4% decrease per child for mothers in general. Fathers, meanwhile, enjoy a bump in pay of around 6% per child. [News media article based on England, Paula A., Jonathan M. Bearak, Michelle Jean Budig and Melissa J. Hodges. "Do Highly Paid, Highly Skilled Women Experience the Largest Motherhood Penalty?" American Sociological Review 81,6 (December 2016): 1161-1189]
Bibliography Citation
Adamczyk, Alicia. "High-Earning White Women Face Steepest Motherhood Penalty." Time, December 2, 2016.
28. Adams, Michelle Janssen
Youth in Crisis: An Examination of Adverse Risk Factors Affecting Children's Cognitive and Behavioral/Emotional Development, Children Ages 10-16
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Dallas, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children, Poverty; Cognitive Development; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Hispanics; Intelligence; Parents, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Welfare

This longitudinal study investigates the effects of adverse risk factors, such as childhood poverty or poor parenting, on the cognitive and behavioral/emotional development of children between the ages of 10-16 in 1990. This study incorporates theories generated in the study of welfare, delinquency, and developmental psychology and uses the Mother-Child linked National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). A cross-lagged model is used to control for any intervening influences children's prior scores may have had on key parenting measures. Ordinary Least Squares multiple regression is used to estimate five separate, block-recursive models measuring 1992 children's reading and math comprehension, behavioral problems index scores, along with global and scholastic self-esteem scores. Through our research, we found a number of risk and protective factors exist which influence children's development. First, children were adversely affected the longer they lived in poverty/marginal poverty, even after controlling for individual parenting styles. Second, both Hispanic and black children were more negatively influenced by the detrimental effects of adverse risk factors. Third, a mother's own intellectual ability, in addition to her self-esteem, served as protective factors for children. Fourth, children with higher lagged global self-esteem also had higher cognitive aptitudes. Lastly, different parenting behavior, such as a more authoritative parenting style, affected children's outcomes. Parents who used a non-harsh form of discipline as opposed to spanking had children with higher global self-esteem scores. Additionally, direct parental interaction, such as doing one-on-one activities with children, increased children's cognitive and behavioral/emotional development. The results suggest a number of protective factors can be developed by parents, educators, and policy makers to reduce the many adversities children currently face. Successful interventions, such as parenting classes focusing on the importance of non-harsh methods of discipline and developing a child's cognitive abilities and self-esteem, should be implemented to enhance children's full development.
Bibliography Citation
Adams, Michelle Janssen. Youth in Crisis: An Examination of Adverse Risk Factors Affecting Children's Cognitive and Behavioral/Emotional Development, Children Ages 10-16. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Dallas, 1995.
29. Adamson, Dwight W.
Clark, David E.
Partridge, Mark D.
Do Urban Agglomeration Effects and Household Amenities have a Skill Bias?
Journal of Regional Science 44,2 (2004): 201-223.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.0022-4146.2004.00334.x
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Skilled Workers; Urbanization/Urban Living

There are several hypotheses why urban scale affects wages. Most focus on agglomeration economies that increase labor demand, especially for high-skilled workers (e.g., dynamic externalities stress knowledge transfers, and imply the urban wage gap favors skilled workers). Others stress urban amenities that increase labor supply and decrease wages. Amenities should have a stronger influence on affluent households if they are normal goods. By examining whether urban-scale affects net returns to education, it can be determined whether skilled workers are influenced more by urban productivity or amenities. Empirical results suggest net returns to education decline with urban scale, implying a key role for urban amenities in affecting skilled workers.
Bibliography Citation
Adamson, Dwight W., David E. Clark and Mark D. Partridge. "Do Urban Agglomeration Effects and Household Amenities have a Skill Bias?" Journal of Regional Science 44,2 (2004): 201-223.
30. Addison, John T.
Chen, Liwen
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Occupational Match Quality and Gender over Two Cohorts
IZA Discussion Paper No. 11114, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2017.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp11114.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Mobility, Job; Occupations; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Job mobility, especially early in a career, is an important source of wage growth. This effect is typically attributed to heterogeneity in the quality of employee-employer matches, with individuals learning of their abilities and discovering the tasks at which they are most productive through job search. That is, job mobility enables better matches, and individuals move to better their labor market prospects and settle once they find a satisfactory match. In this paper, we show that there are gender differences in match quality and changes in match quality over the course of careers. In particular, we find that females are mismatched more than males. This is true even for females with the best early-career matches. However, the direction of the gender effect differs significantly by education. Only females among the college educated are more mismatched and are more likely to be over-qualified then their male counterparts. These results are seemingly driven by life events, such as child birth. For their part, college-educated males of the younger cohort are worse off in terms of match quality compared to the older cohort, while the new generation of women is doing better on average.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Liwen Chen and Orgul Demet Ozturk. "Occupational Match Quality and Gender over Two Cohorts." IZA Discussion Paper No. 11114, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2017.
31. Addison, John T.
Chen, Liwen
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Occupational Skill Mismatch: Differences by Gender and Cohort
ILR Review 73 ,3 (1 May 2020): 730-767.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0019793919873864
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Occupational Choice; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Skills

The authors deploy a measure of occupational mismatch based on the discrepancy between the portfolio of skills required by an occupation and the array of abilities possessed by the worker for learning those skills. Using data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97), they report distinct gender differences in match quality and changes in match quality over the course of careers. They also show that a substantial portion of the gender wage gap stems from match quality differences among the college educated. College-educated females show a significantly greater likelihood of mismatch than do males. Moreover, individuals with children and those in more flexible occupations tend to experience a larger degree of mismatch. Cohort effects are also evident in the data: College-educated males of the younger cohort (NLSY97) are worse off in terms of match quality compared to the older cohort (NLSY79), even as the younger cohort of women is doing better on average.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Liwen Chen and Orgul Demet Ozturk. "Occupational Skill Mismatch: Differences by Gender and Cohort." ILR Review 73 ,3 (1 May 2020): 730-767.
32. Addison, John T.
Cotti, Chad D.
Surfield, Christopher James
Atypical Jobs: Stepping Stones or Dead Ends? Evidence from the NLSY79
The Manchester School 83,1 (January 2015): 17-55.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/manc.12052/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Employment; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Atypical work arrangements have long been criticized as offering more precarious and lower paid work than regular open-ended employment. An important British paper by Booth et al. (Economic Journal, Vol. 112 (2002), No. 480, pp. F189–F213) was among the first to recognize such jobs also functioned as a stepping stone to permanent work. This conclusion proved prescient, receiving increased support in Europe. Here, we provide a broadly parallel analysis for the USA, where research has been less targeted on this issue. We report similar findings for temporary workers in the USA as found for fixed-term contract workers in Britain.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Chad D. Cotti and Christopher James Surfield. "Atypical Jobs: Stepping Stones or Dead Ends? Evidence from the NLSY79." The Manchester School 83,1 (January 2015): 17-55.
33. Addison, John T.
Cotti, Chad D.
Surfield, Christopher James
Atypical Work: Who Gets it, and Where Does it Lead? Some U.S. Evidence Using the NLSY79
IZA Discussion Paper No. 4444, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Atypical work arrangements have long been criticized as offering more precarious and lower paid work than regular open-ended employment. In an important paper, Booth et al. (2002) were among the first to recognize that notwithstanding their potential deficiencies, such jobs also functioned as a stepping stone to permanent work. This conclusion proved prescient and has received increasing support in Europe. In the present note, we provide a parallel analysis to Booth et al. for the United States - somewhat of a missing link in the evolving empirical literature -and obtain not dissimilar similar findings for the category of temporary workers as do they for fixed-term contract workers.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Chad D. Cotti and Christopher James Surfield. "Atypical Work: Who Gets it, and Where Does it Lead? Some U.S. Evidence Using the NLSY79." IZA Discussion Paper No. 4444, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2009.
34. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
Promotion and Wages in Mid-Career: Gender, Unionism, and Sector
IZA Discussion Paper No. 6873, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Promotion; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions; Wage Growth; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers the role of gender in the promotion process and the impact of promotion on wages and wage growth, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79).
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "Promotion and Wages in Mid-Career: Gender, Unionism, and Sector." IZA Discussion Paper No. 6873, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2012.
35. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
The Occupational Feminization of Wages
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9078, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp9078.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender Differences; Occupations; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper updates the major study by Macpherson and Hirsch (1995) of the effect of the gender composition of occupations on female (and male) earnings. Using large representative national samples of employees from the Current Population Survey, cross-sectional estimates of the impact of proportion female in an occupation (or feminization) on wages are first provided, paying close attention to the role of occupational characteristics. Specification differences in the effects of feminization across alternative subsamples are examined as well as the contribution of the feminization argument to the explanation of the gender wage gap. An updated longitudinal analysis using the CPS data is also provided. This examination of two-year panels of individuals is supplemented using information from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth which has the advantage of offering a longer panel. Analysis of the former suggests the reduction in gender composition effects observed for females in cross section with the addition of controls for occupational characteristics becomes complete after accounting for unobserved individual heterogeneity. This is not the case for the latter dataset, most likely reflecting heritage effects of discrimination in what is an aging cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "The Occupational Feminization of Wages." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9078, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015.
36. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
The Occupational Feminization of Wages
Industrial Relations and Labor (IRL) Review 71,1 (January 2018): 208-241.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0019793917708314
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender Differences; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Wages

This article updates the 1995 study by Macpherson and Hirsch that used monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 1973 to 1993 to examine the effects of occupational gender composition on earnings. In the updating process, the authors correct for biases in this data set that are attributable to the inclusion of imputed earners and the misreporting of occupation. They use CPS data from 1996 to 2010 to provide cross-sectional estimates of the impact of the feminization of occupations on wages, as well as its contribution to the gender wage gap. Longitudinal CPS data indicate that the negative effects of gender composition on earnings observed in cross-sectional data are lessened when researchers control for observed heterogeneity and are much reduced when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. These findings are confirmed using much longer panels from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). Finally, the use of synthetic panels of aging cohorts suggests that wage penalties are largest for younger cohorts in predominantly female occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "The Occupational Feminization of Wages." Industrial Relations and Labor (IRL) Review 71,1 (January 2018): 208-241.
37. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
The Role of Gender in Promotion and Pay over a Career
Journal of Human Capital 8,3 (Fall 2014): 280-317.
Also: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/677942
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Job Promotion; Wage Growth

Using data from the NLSY79, this paper considers the role of gender in promotion and promotion-related earnings development over the course of a career. The raw data suggest reasonably favorable promotion outcomes for females over a career, but any such advantages are found to be confined to less educated females. Further, the strong returns to education in later career stemming from promotion-related earnings growth accrue solely to males. While consistent with fertility timing and choice on the part of educated females, this earnings result is not inconsistent with discrimination as well, reminiscent of findings from an earlier human capital literature.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "The Role of Gender in Promotion and Pay over a Career." Journal of Human Capital 8,3 (Fall 2014): 280-317.
38. Addison, John T.
Surfield, Christopher James
Atypical Work and Employment Continuity
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 48,4 (October 2009): 655-683.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.2009.00580.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Employment; Underemployment; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Workers Ability

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Atypical employment arrangements have long been criticized as offering more precarious and unstable work than regular employment. Using data from the Contingent and Alternative Employment Arrangement Supplement and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort, we determine whether workers who take such jobs rather than regular employment, or the alternative of continued job search, experience greater or lesser employment continuity. Controlling for unobserved individual heterogeneity, the advantage of regular work over atypical work and atypical work over continued joblessness dissipates. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T. and Christopher James Surfield. "Atypical Work and Employment Continuity." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 48,4 (October 2009): 655-683.
39. Addison, John T.
Surfield, Christopher James
Atypical Work and Pay
Southern Economic Journal 73,4 (April 2007): 1038-1065.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20111941
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Employment, Part-Time; Human Capital; Wage Differentials; Work, Atypical

Atypical work has long been criticized in popular debate as providing poorly compensated, precarious employment. Yet the empirical evidence is both incomplete and mixed. The main contribution of the present paper is to estimate wage differences for the full set of these alternative work arrangements while simultaneously controlling for observed demographic characteristics and unobserved person-specific fixed effects. The paper also allows for the skewness in atypical worker earnings while retaining the Mincerian human capital earnings function. Our improved estimates are consistent with some of the more optimistic findings reported in the literature, the caveat being that we are examining here only the wage component of the total compensation package. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Southern Economic Journal is the property of Southern Economic Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T. and Christopher James Surfield. "Atypical Work and Pay." Southern Economic Journal 73,4 (April 2007): 1038-1065.
40. Addo, Fenaba
Seeking Relief: Bankruptcy and Health Outcomes of Adult Women
SSM - Population Health 3 (December 2017): 326-334.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827316300842
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Women

This study examined the impact of declaring consumer bankruptcy on the physical and mental health of adult women and whether the effects differ depending on whether the filer received automatic debt discharge under Chapter 7 compared to a debt repayment plan with Chapter 13. Sample data consisted of women from the NLSY79 cohort who completed the age 40 and 50 health modules as of the most recent wave. Results indicated a negative effect of bankruptcy on self-assessed health, whereas prior health history explained its negative relationship with depressive symptoms. Debt liquidation under Chapter 7 was associated with poor physical health relative to those who did not file and with depressive symptoms relative to Chapter 13 repayment plan filers. Poor health is an unintended consequence for women who seek financial relief through bankruptcy.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "Seeking Relief: Bankruptcy and Health Outcomes of Adult Women." SSM - Population Health 3 (December 2017): 326-334.
41. Addo, Fenaba
Houle, Jason N.
Cross-Cohort Changes in Entry into First Marriage: Does Debt Matter, and Has This Association Changed over Time
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Family Formation; Marital Status; Marriage; Net Worth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For this study we use data from two cohorts, the Baby Boomer generation of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1979 Cohort, and the "Millennials" represented by the NLSY 1997 cohort to explore cohort changes in economic attributes predicting early union formation. We are particularly interested in examining how much more difficult debt and the increasing significance of net worth makes it to enter into a marriage directly relative to cohabiting first. We use event history methods, comparing men and women, to predict transitions into first union, cohabitation versus marriage. Our analysis highlights the growing influence of negative financial assets on family formation decisions in early and young adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba and Jason N. Houle. "Cross-Cohort Changes in Entry into First Marriage: Does Debt Matter, and Has This Association Changed over Time." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
42. Addo, Fenaba
Houle, Jason N.
Sassler, Sharon
The Changing Nature of the Association Between Student Loan Debt and Marital Behavior in Young Adulthood
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 40,1 (March 2019): 86-101.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9591-6
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we compared young adults from the NLSY 1979 and the NLSY 1997 to examine how the relationship between student debt and the likelihood of marrying changed across cohorts, in light of the growing acceptance of non-marital cohabitation. In the 1997 cohort, student loan debt among college-attending young adults was associated with delays in marriage, but not in the 1979 cohort. Among men, the positive association between education debt and marriage in the 1979 cohort was no longer evident for the 1997 cohort of young men. Our findings provide further evidence that rising student debt is reshaping relationship formation among college-going youth, and that as cohabitation has become more widespread, social and economic disparities in who marries without cohabiting first have increased.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Jason N. Houle and Sharon Sassler. "The Changing Nature of the Association Between Student Loan Debt and Marital Behavior in Young Adulthood." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 40,1 (March 2019): 86-101.
43. Addo, Fenaba
Sassler, Sharon
Williams, Kristi
Reexamining the Association of Maternal Age and Marital Status at First Birth With Youth Educational Attainment
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1252-1268.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12360/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; High School Completion/Graduates; Mothers, Adolescent; Parental Marital Status

We reexamined the association of maternal age and marital status at birth with youth high school completion using data from the Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and giving attention to multiple age categories and race and ethnic variations. Youth born to older teen mothers were no more likely to graduate from high school than those born to the youngest teen mothers. Although delaying childbirth to young adulthood was associated with greater odds of children's high school completion when compared with the earliest teen births, those born to young adult mothers were disadvantaged when compared with those born to mothers aged 25 years or older. Being born to an unmarried mother was associated with lower odds of high school completion. We found no evidence that maternal age at birth more strongly predicted high school graduation for White compared with Latino and Black youth.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Sharon Sassler and Kristi Williams. "Reexamining the Association of Maternal Age and Marital Status at First Birth With Youth Educational Attainment." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1252-1268.
44. Addo, Fenaba
Su, Jessica Houston
Unintended Fertility, Wealth, and Wealth Trajectories of U.S. Adult Mothers
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; First Birth; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The ability to control the timing and spacing of children is related to several aspects of economic and social mobility for women. Although a large body of research has evaluated socioeconomic outcomes related to access to contraception and teen childbearing, there is little research on (1) unplanned childbearing among adults and (2) the relationship between unintended childbearing and wealth trajectories. Using linear hierarchical growth curve models and panel data from the 1979 cohort of the NLSY (N=1,696), we estimate the wealth trajectories of U.S. mothers after the birth of their first child. Our analysis has three main results. First, mothers who had an unintended first birth have lower wealth than mothers who had a planned birth and these wealth disparities grow over time. Second, group differences in social and economic status explain half of the observed wealth differences. Third, the wealth trajectories of mothers with mistimed births decline over time.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba and Jessica Houston Su. "Unintended Fertility, Wealth, and Wealth Trajectories of U.S. Adult Mothers." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
45. Addoum, Jawad M.
Korniotis, George M.
Kumar, Alok
Stature, Obesity, and Portfolio Choice
Management Science 63,10 (October 2017): 3393-3413.
Also: https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2016.2508
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences
Keyword(s): Assets; Cross-national Analysis; Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Financial Investments; Health and Retirement Study (HRS); Height; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using multiple U.S. and European data sources, we show that observed physical attributes are related to participation in financial markets. Specifically, we find that individuals who are relatively tall and of normal weight are more likely to hold stocks in their financial portfolios. We consider several potential mechanisms that could drive the relation between physical attributes and portfolio decisions. We find that teenage social experiences as well as genetic and prenatal endowments that are fixed at birth are the two channels through which height affects financial decisions. Furthermore, we find that the relation between body mass index and portfolio decisions is largely driven by education and race.
Bibliography Citation
Addoum, Jawad M., George M. Korniotis and Alok Kumar. "Stature, Obesity, and Portfolio Choice." Management Science 63,10 (October 2017): 3393-3413.
46. Adelman, Clifford
Devaluation, Diffusion and the College Connection: A Study of High School Transcripts, 1964-81
Report to The National Commission on Excellence in Education, March 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
Keyword(s): Education, Secondary; Educational Attainment; High School Curriculum; Vocational Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This project reanalyzed existing transcript data from the Study of Academic Growth (High School Class of 1969) and the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience (High School Classes of 1975-1981) in terms of a variety of measures of the quantity of schooling, and in relation to changes in college graduation requirements between 1967 and 1974. The major findings include the following: (1) There has been a considerable decline in the average credit value of academic courses in American high schools since the late 1960s, indicating that comparatively less time is being allocated for them and that students are spending far less time in the academic curriculum than assumed in previous research. (2) High school students are spending more time in and receiving more credit for "personal service and development courses." This phenomenon accounts, in part, for the drop in the time students spend in the academic curriculum. (3) There has been a profound shift of students from both Academic and Vocational Tracks into the General Track, the curriculum of which is dominated by survey, remedial, and personal service courses. (4) The secondary school curriculum has become diffused and fragmented over the past 15 years--a mirror image of the proliferation of courses and degrees in colleges during the period in question. As smorgasbord distribution systems came to dominate the structure of college "general education" requirements, high schools "repackaged" their curricula to reflect higher education models. (5) Grade inflation, while significant, has not been as pervasive as assumed.
Bibliography Citation
Adelman, Clifford. "Devaluation, Diffusion and the College Connection: A Study of High School Transcripts, 1964-81." Report to The National Commission on Excellence in Education, March 1983.
47. Adibe, Patience Oluchi
Cognitive Attainment Among Older Children of Adolescent Mothers: Environments and Outcomes
M.A. Thesis, Michigan State University, 1998.
Also: http://www.mendeley.com/research/cognitive-attainment-among-older-children-adolescent-mothers-environments-outcomes/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Family Size; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intelligence; Mothers, Education; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between adolescents' verbal intelligence and maternal intelligence, maternal education, family size, poverty status, the quality of the home environment and neighborhood characteristics. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the study focused on 195 African American adolescent mothers and their 14 to 18 year-old children. Pearson product moment correlations were used to determine the relations between the dependent and predictor variables and to determine the extent to which the predictor variables are correlated with each other. Multiple regression analysis was employed to examine the combined effect of the predictor variables on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R). The following variables were predictive of adolescents' PPVT Scores in the multiple regression analysis: maternal intelligence, maternal education, and quality of the home environment.
Bibliography Citation
Adibe, Patience Oluchi. Cognitive Attainment Among Older Children of Adolescent Mothers: Environments and Outcomes. M.A. Thesis, Michigan State University, 1998..
48. Aedo, Mario C.
Schooling Decision: A Dynamic Model
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Attainment; Schooling

The theoretical literature has long recognized the sequential nature of the educational decision problem faced by individuals. However, applied research has always assumed that individuals face static optimization problems. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the relative importance of the main economic factors which affect the educational choices of individuals within a dynamic framework. To this purpose, the educational choices of individuals are modeled as a finite horizon, discrete time, dynamic programming problem. At each time period the individual makes a decision on whether to continue in school or not. This decision is conditional upon the individual choices up to the current period and upon the individual's forecast about the future. The structural parameters of the model are estimated by using the 1979 NLSY. Two samples, one of white males and another of black males, are used in the empirical analysis with estimation carried out separately for each. The analytical framework draws upon recent work on the estimation of discrete stochastic dynamic programming models. The estimation procedure involves the backward solution of a dynamic programming problem and the maximization of a nonlinear likelihood function. For each alternative value of the parameters of the model the dynamic programming problem must be solved and the maximization routine applied. [UMI ADG91-07412]
Bibliography Citation
Aedo, Mario C. Schooling Decision: A Dynamic Model. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1990.
49. Afxentiou, Diamando
Teenage Childbearing and AFDC Duration
Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; First Birth; Modeling, Probit; Mothers; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Teenagers; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Welfare

A theoretical background concerning teenage birth is developed based on the New Home Economics Model. An empirical investigation, using the probit model, is performed on the likelihood of a teenage birth as a function of a large set of independent variables for the year 1982. The dependent and independent variables are extracted from NLSY data. The probability of teenage birth depends on the teenager's sexual activity, thus a recursive model is estimated as well. The factors affecting teenage and nonteenage birth were examined and found to be different. A cross-sectional study concerning teenage birth is applied to the state of West Virginia. Data are extracted from the Statistical Abstract Supplement, County and City Data Book, 1983 and 1988. The dependent variable is the rate of teen birth by county. The regression analysis shows that educational attainment is the only significant variable with a negative effect on teenage birth. The AFDC duration for women who had their first child as teenagers is measured using NLSY data from 1979-85. Descriptive statistics and a hazard function model show that most individuals have short AFDC spells. Black and never married mothers have lower exit probabilities than non-black and ever-married mothers. Exit probabilities are estimated using Cox's Proportional Hazard Regression Model. Race, education, work experience, and age affect significantly the probability of exiting the AFDC rolls. This study suggests that the teenager's personal and family background characteristics, as well as the probability of sexual engagement are the factors that significantly affect childbearing. Never married and black mothers are the ones that stay longer on AFDC. Nonblack, ever married women with educational and previous work experience are likely to have shorter welfare spells. These findings suggest that in order to reduce the welfare duration, the focus should be on unmarried mothers and on mothers without previous work experience.
Bibliography Citation
Afxentiou, Diamando. Teenage Childbearing and AFDC Duration. Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1990.
50. Afxentiou, Diamando
Hawley, Clifford B.
Explaining Female Teenagers' Sexual Behavior and Outcomes: A Bivariate Probit Analysis with Selectivity Correction
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 18,1(Spring 1997): 91-106.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/url6l16117270q36/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing, Adolescent; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Sexual Activity; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data, this article estimates a model of teenage childbearing. The model recognizes that teenage childbearing is conditional on earlier sexual activity and that such activity is undertaken by only a portion of the female teenage population. Consequently, rather than estimate a single equation for birth probability as much past research has done, a bivariate probit model with selectivity correction is estimated to account for the sequential nature of the process. An important result of this research suggests that AFDC benefits play a role in the decision to become sexually active as well as to become a teenage parent.
Bibliography Citation
Afxentiou, Diamando and Clifford B. Hawley. "Explaining Female Teenagers' Sexual Behavior and Outcomes: A Bivariate Probit Analysis with Selectivity Correction." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 18,1(Spring 1997): 91-106.
51. Afxentiou, Diamando
Kutasovic, Paul
Does College Education Pay? Evidence From The NLSY-79 Data
Contemporary Issues in Education Research 3,1 (2010): 119-126.
Also: https://www.cluteinstitute.com/ojs/index.php/CIER/article/view/168
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Clute Institute for Academic Research
Keyword(s): College Education; College Graduates; Educational Returns; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines if the college wage premium favoring college graduates still exists. The NLSY-79 data is employed. The sample includes individuals who received their high school degree and college degree in 1980 and 1981. These individuals were followed until the year 2004. A cross sectional regression model was estimated for the years 1982, 1994, and 2004 and found that education, occupation, and gender were the primary determinants of wages. The income gap between college educated workers and high school educated workers has widen over time. Most interestingly, it is the stagnation of high school educated workers that accounts for the gap.
Bibliography Citation
Afxentiou, Diamando and Paul Kutasovic. "Does College Education Pay? Evidence From The NLSY-79 Data." Contemporary Issues in Education Research 3,1 (2010): 119-126.
52. Afxentiou, Diamando
Kutasovic, Paul
Is The Wage Gap Between High School And College Graduates Widening? A Panel Analysis
Journal of Business and Economics Research 7,12 (December 2009): 1-6.
Also: http://journals.cluteonline.com/index.php/JBER/article/view/2360
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Clute Institute for Academic Research
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Occupations; Wage Gap; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the wage growth of high school graduates and college graduates. The NLSY-79 data is employed. The data shows that college graduates earn a premium over high school graduates and the premium is widening over time. A panel regression model was estimated for the years 1982 until 2004. The results show that education has a significant positive effect on wages and it is the primary determinant of the wage gap. Also, age and gender were found to have a significant effect on wages. Testing the impact of occupation, only managerial, clerical, and service jobs had a significant effect on wages. Production jobs were statistically insignificant as suggested by the labor market polarization theory.
Bibliography Citation
Afxentiou, Diamando and Paul Kutasovic. "Is The Wage Gap Between High School And College Graduates Widening? A Panel Analysis." Journal of Business and Economics Research 7,12 (December 2009): 1-6.
53. Agan, Amanda Y.
The Returns to Community College
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Chicago, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Census of Population; College Characteristics; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Colleges; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Returns; Life Cycle Research; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Almost half of postsecondary students are currently enrolled in community colleges. These institutions imply that even amongst students with the same degree outcome there is considerable heterogeneity in the path taken to get there. I estimate the life-cycle private and social returns to the different postsecondary paths and sequential decisions made by the students using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). My approach highlights both the benefits and the costs of different postsecondary choices, as well as taking account of the fact that wage premia are not constant over the life-cycle. I find positive, significant social and private returns for most postsecondary paths and decisions. Significantly lower opportunity and direct costs for paths that involve community college make the internal returns to these paths high. Even for paths that lead to the same final degree, returns and present values are different due to different costs and earnings over the life-cycle. I also analyze the different programs and majors offered by community colleges separately. For this, I supplement the analysis in the NLSY79 with additional data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Survey (BPS), the Census, and the Current Population Survey (CPS). I estimate high returns to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, business, and health majors at community college as compared to other majors. I find that both occupational and academic associate's degrees give significant returns to men and women.
Bibliography Citation
Agan, Amanda Y. The Returns to Community College. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Chicago, 2013.
54. Agarwal, Sumit
Mazumder, Bhashkar
Cognitive Abilities and Household Financial Decision Making
FRB of Chicago Working Paper No. 2010-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, March 28, 2011.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1651312
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior; Cognitive Ability; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Literacy; Financial Market Participation; Health and Retirement Study (HRS); Household Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We analyze the effects of cognitive abilities on two examples of consumer financial decisions where suboptimal behavior is well defined. The first example refers to consumers who transfer the entire balance from an existing credit card account to a new account, but use the new card for convenience transactions, resulting in higher interest charges. The second example refers to consumers who face higher APRs because they inaccurately estimate their property value on a home equity loan or line of credit application. We match individuals from the US military for whom we have detailed test scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery test (ASVAB), to administrative datasets of retail credit from a large financial institution. We show that our matched samples are reasonably representative of the universes from which they are drawn. We find that consumers with higher overall composite test scores, and specifically those with higher math scores, are substantially less likely to make a financial mistake later in life. These mistakes are generally not associated with the non-mathematical component scores. We also conduct some complementary analyses using two other data sources. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to show that higher ASVAB math scores are associated with lower subjective discount rates. Finally, we use the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) to demonstrate that particular forms of cognitive ability matter for specific types of suboptimal behavior. We find that the mathematical component of the test is what matters most for financial decision making and financial wealth. In contrast, non-mathematical aptitudes appear to matter for non-financial forms of suboptimal behavior (e.g. failure to take medicine). The HRS results also demonstrate the large ramifications of low math ability on long-term economic success.
Bibliography Citation
Agarwal, Sumit and Bhashkar Mazumder. "Cognitive Abilities and Household Financial Decision Making." FRB of Chicago Working Paper No. 2010-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, March 28, 2011.
55. Agee, Mark D.
Atkinson, Scott E.
Crocker, Thomas D.
Multiple-output Child Health Production Functions: The Impact of Time-varying and Time-invariant Inputs
Southern Economic Journal 75,2 (October 2008): 410-428.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Asthma; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Disability; Environment, Pollution/Urban Density; Geographical Variation; Head Start; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Models; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Teachers/Faculty

Many production activities generate undesirable outputs in conjunction with the desirable outputs. In this paper we present the first estimates of a multiple-input, multiple-output directional distance function that relates good and bad inputs from home, school, and environment to good and bad outputs, measured as children's cognitive and behavioral development. This household directional distance function is estimated using a balanced panel of 369 families from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Sample for 1996 to 2000 using the generalized method of moments within estimator and instrumental variables. We recover consistent partial effects for the time-invariant variables in a second-stage regression and estimate their corrected asymptotic standard errors. We then compute and examine productivity differences among households defined as the increase (decrease) in good (bad) outputs that families could attain with constant inputs if they were operating on the technological frontier. Our estimates suggest the presence of significant inefficiency among sample families that diminishes over time.
Bibliography Citation
Agee, Mark D., Scott E. Atkinson and Thomas D. Crocker. "Multiple-output Child Health Production Functions: The Impact of Time-varying and Time-invariant Inputs." Southern Economic Journal 75,2 (October 2008): 410-428.
56. Agee, Mark D.
Atkinson, Scott E.
Crocker, Thomas D.
On the Technical Efficiency of Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output Child Outcome Production Functions
Working Paper, Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming, November 2, 2005.
Also: http://business.uwyo.edu/ECONFIN/Papers/ChildHealth.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Asthma; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Disability; Environment, Pollution/Urban Density; Geographical Variation; Head Start; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Models; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Teachers/Faculty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many production activities generate undesirable outputs in conjunction with the desirable outputs. We estimate a multiple-input, multiple-output directional distance function to analyze the relationship between parental home, school, and environmental inputs and children's cognitive and behavioral development. A household directional distance function is estimated using a panel of 206 families from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Sample for the years 1988 to 1990 using Hausman and Taylor's (1981) within-groups instrumental variables technique. We then transform our fitted model to compute marginal effects of any input on any output, and to compute technical inefficiencies of households, defined as the increase (decrease) in good (bad) outputs that sample families could attain from a given level of inputs if they were operating on the technological frontier. Our estimates suggest the presence of significant inefficiency (approaching 20 percent) among sample families? production (reduction) of good (bad) outputs. Given these inefficiencies, public provision of education services for young children such as Head Start or other health and welfare programs that target improvements in children's home environment may be the most effective means of improving child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Agee, Mark D., Scott E. Atkinson and Thomas D. Crocker. "On the Technical Efficiency of Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output Child Outcome Production Functions." Working Paper, Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming, November 2, 2005.
57. Agnone, Jon
Racial Inequality in Wealth: Do Labor Unions Matter?
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, June 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Collective Bargaining; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Hispanic Studies; Pensions; Racial Equality/Inequality; Racial Studies; Retirement/Retirement Planning; Unions; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Extant scholarship has identified the paths of racial wealth inequality to be primarily due to income differences, differential rates of home ownership, and intergenerational wealth transfers. A separate area of scholarly inquiry has highlighted the importance of labor unions in raising wages, increasing the availability of fringe benefits, and increasing pension/retirement assets. Since minorities experience wage returns on par with whites under labor union contracts "which helps to narrow the racial wage gap" it is possible that labor union employment may also help ameliorate the well-documented racial wealth gap. Prior research has failed to examine the possible effect of labor union employment on racial differences in pension/retirement wealth, home ownership, or total wealth. In the first assessment of its kind, I argue for the importance of labor unions as a labor market institution, which can increase the ability of workers to accumulate wealth by providing stable employment, increased wages and increased access to non-wage packages. Representing the synthesis of disparate research areas, I use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1988 to 2004 to examine several ways in which unions can affect wealth by race for whites, blacks and Hispanics. The results suggest that labor union employment increases access to and enrollment in pension plans, and constricts the racial pension/retirement wealth gap by limiting white pension/retirement wealth. Labor union employment increases the likelihood of home ownership for all races, but does not have an effect on the home equity in that home. Finally, labor union employment similarly constricts the racial gaps for non-pension and total wealth, also by limiting the wealth accumulated by whites, but leaving the wealth of blacks and Hispanics unchanged. Collectively, the results of this dissertation find labor unions do impact wealth, but in ways not anticipated prior to analysis of empiri cal data.
Bibliography Citation
Agnone, Jon. Racial Inequality in Wealth: Do Labor Unions Matter? Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, June 2010.
58. Agnone, Jon
Racial Inequality in Wealth: Do Labor Unions Matter?
Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Collective Bargaining; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Racial Equality/Inequality; Unions; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This project utilizes quantitative data from the NLSY79 to examine whether labor unions offer individual level wealth advantages to members above non-unionized workers. Labor scholars have noted several specific economic benefits of unions, such as increasing wages and access to pensions. However, scholarship has yet to address how labor unions may affect the wealth holdings of individuals working under a union contract. Separately, wealth scholars note that most Americans have little accumulated wealth, with the most common being housing equity and pension funds. Further, black households have significantly less wealth than comparable white households due to historical and contemporary factors that negatively impact life chances of black families. Uncovering a wealth premium accorded to unionism would be an important contribution to several areas of inquiry, as union membership may be an important factor in equalizing the wealth disparity between blacks and whites. As a part of my larger dissertation project, this paper will close by positing empirically informed theoretical considerations for both labor and wealth scholars, as well as delineating implications for the labor movement, public policy and poverty programs.
Bibliography Citation
Agnone, Jon. "Racial Inequality in Wealth: Do Labor Unions Matter?" Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2008.
59. Agostinelli, Francesco
Essays on Children's Skill Formation
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Arizona State University, 2018
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Home Environment; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Skill Formation; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The dissertation is composed by three chapters. In Chapter 2 (coauthored with Matthew Wiswall) I develop new results for the identification and estimation of the technology of children's skill formation when children's skills are unobserved. In Chapter 4 (coauthored with Giuseppe Sorrenti) I study the effect of family income and maternal hours worked on both cognitive and behavioral child development.
Bibliography Citation
Agostinelli, Francesco. Essays on Children's Skill Formation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Arizona State University, 2018.
60. Agostinelli, Francesco
Wiswall, Matthew
Estimating the Technology of Children's Skill Formation
NBER Working Paper No. 22442, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2016.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w22442
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Skill Formation

We develop a new estimator for the process of children's skill formation in which children's skills endogenously develop according to a dynamic latent factor structure. Rather than assuming skills are measured perfectly by a particular measure, we accommodate the variety of skills measures used in practice and allow latent skills to be measured with error using a system of arbitrarily located and scaled measures. For commonly estimated production technologies, which already have a known location and scale, we prove non-parametric identification of the primitive production function parameters. We treat the parameters of the measurement model as "nuisance" parameters and use transformations of moments of the measurement data to eliminate them, analogous to the data transformations used to eliminate fixed effects with panel data. We develop additional, empirically grounded, restrictions on the measurement process that allow identification of more general production technologies, including those exhibiting Hicks neutral total factor productivity (TFP) dynamics and non-constant returns to scale.

We use our identification results to develop a sequential estimation algorithm for the joint dynamic process of investment and skill development, correcting for the biases due to measurement error in skills and investment. Using data for the United States, we estimate the technology of skill formation, the process of parental investments in children, and the adult distribution of completed schooling and earnings, allowing the production technology and investment process to freely vary as the child ages. Our estimates of high TFP and increasing returns to scale at early ages indicate that investments are particularly productive at these ages. We find that the marginal productivity of early investments is substantially higher for children with lower existing skills, suggesting the optimal targeting of interventions to disadvantaged children. Our estimates of the dynamic process of investment and skill development allow us to estimate heterogeneous treatment effects of policy interventions. We show that even a modest transfer of family income to families at ages 5-6 would substantially increase children's skills, completed schooling, and adult earnings, with the effects largest for low income families.

Bibliography Citation
Agostinelli, Francesco and Matthew Wiswall. "Estimating the Technology of Children's Skill Formation." NBER Working Paper No. 22442, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2016.
61. Agre, Lynn A.
Comorbidity of Maternal Disability and Depression: Effect on Children's Behavioral and Psychosocial Development
Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Disability; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Health; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: Examine the relationship between maternal self-reported depressive symptoms, physical disability and child health and well-being. Explore the impact of self-reported depressive symptoms on the home environment and the effect on children's development (as a proxy for health status).
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Comorbidity of Maternal Disability and Depression: Effect on Children's Behavioral and Psychosocial Development." Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1998.
62. Agre, Lynn A.
Health Status and Prenatal Care Use among Women on Welfare Enrolled in Medicaid vs. Private Insurance: Impact on Infant Birth Weight
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Educational Attainment; Insurance, Health; Marital Status; Medicaid/Medicare; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Health; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As the Medicaid program has been broadened to encompass vulnerable populations, debate has surrounded whether Medicaid recipients specifically women and children are as healthy as the non-Medicaid insured population. This paper then will address the impact of Medicaid before the implementation of CHIP on maternal-child health status using micro-level national data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) Child Supplement.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Health Status and Prenatal Care Use among Women on Welfare Enrolled in Medicaid vs. Private Insurance: Impact on Infant Birth Weight." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1999.
63. Agre, Lynn A.
Home Environment and Child's Cognitive and Emotional Developmental Delay: Evidence from the 1988 NLSY
M.A. Thesis, Rutgers: The State University of New Jersey, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Child Health; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Development; Disability; Fathers, Presence; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Inner-City; Modeling; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Objectives: The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between home environment and developmental delay in school-age children between the ages of 5 and 9, controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, and presence of father-figure at home. Methods: Development delay as a measure of child health status was defined using the developmental tests administered to the children of the 1988 NLSY. Those children below the 10th percentile of the Behavior Problems Index or the Peabody Individual Achievement Test subtests were considered developmentally delayed. Results: The bivariate relationship between developmental delay and poverty status, race, mother's education, the presence of the father and the home environment were investigated with chi-square test statistic and t-test statistic. Multivariate models included logistic regression to examine the effect of the home environment on developmental delay. Conclusions: While the typical profile of the children in the lower decile manifesting delay appears to concur with previously reported research, i.e. more children are poor than not poor, are black and live in urban environments, this research suggests that the home environment is a critical determinant of developmental delay. Presence or absence of father in household, poverty and mother's educational attainment may be considered contributing factors to the physical aspects of the home environment.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. Home Environment and Child's Cognitive and Emotional Developmental Delay: Evidence from the 1988 NLSY. M.A. Thesis, Rutgers: The State University of New Jersey, 1995.
64. Agre, Lynn A.
Mediating Role of Risk Proneness on the Ecology of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers: The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Drug Use; Health, Mental; Mothers, Education; Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Risk-Taking; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The co-occurrence of sexual behavior and substance use among adolescents--both licit and illicit--is well substantiated in the socio-medical literature. However, limited studies have been published which focus on the context and psychosocial relationships which predispose youth to engage in risk behavior. The interaction between environment and health risk behavior during teen years can set the stage for later-life deleterious health outcomes. Thus, this research examines how adolescent self-rated risk proneness in conjunction with underlying psychosocial mechanisms predicts the likelihood of engaging in concurrent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

The current literature has demonstrated the strong association between the co-occurrence of illicit drug use and sexual behavior. However, tantamount to this relationship are, psychosocial factors which, when examined concomitant with health risk behaviors grouped by maternal educational attainment, will help elucidate differences between categories of youth at risk for compromised mental and physical well-being. The Bronfenbrenner ecological framework is utilized to substantiate the relevance of health risk behaviors, environment and the importance of studying psychosocial factors in multivariate models.

The data selected for analysis to both demonstrate these relationships and identify risk profiles originate from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), Young Adult 1998 cohort. Partitioning the NLSY 1998 cohort by mother's education tests how risk proneness as a mediator differs by maternal highest grade completed, as it affects adolescent deleterious behavior. These data are renowned for an oversampling of African Americans and are nationally representative of other ethnic groups such as Hispanics and Asians, requiring the application of an algebraic weight to normalize against the US population. Therefore, the key findings discovered in this study are: (1) the mediational effect in the pathway to health risk behaviors is risk proneness; (2) reported depressive illness symptoms are the underlying mechanism of risk proneness; (3) the path model is robust when tested among different groups using the Bronfenbrenner ecosystem paradigm; and (4) the weighting technique is vital to preserving the original distribution of the population, since the study sample needs to reflect the actual proportion of racial/ethnic groups in the US population.

Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. Mediating Role of Risk Proneness on the Ecology of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers: The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 2009.
65. Agre, Lynn A.
Parent-Child Interaction, Family Composition and the Quality of the Home: Effect on Adolescent Depression
Presented: Boston, MA, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Household Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parental versus child view of relations between parent and child differ widely. The levels of behavior, the dynamics of these behaviors and how these perceptions of behavior integrate the parent and child in the family unit, temper the functioning of the family as an econmic unit in society, in turn mediates the family's role in shaping child well-being. This paper will explore both the mother's and the adolescent's feelings about fluctuating social arenas, both outside and inside the parent-child sanctum, and how these dynamics affect child depression, from the maternal view as well as the child perception.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Parent-Child Interaction, Family Composition and the Quality of the Home: Effect on Adolescent Depression." Presented: Boston, MA, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 2000.
66. Agre, Lynn A.
Sambamoorthi, Usha
Effects of Social Environmental Factors on Health Risk Decision-Making Among Adolescents in the NLSY
Presented: Indianapolis, IN, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sexual Activity; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: Examine the role of parenting, family interaction, peer relationships, youth self-reported sexual and substance use behavior, other social and economic stressors like poverty and quality of home environment in influencing adolescent health risk behavior. Investigate if peer-involvement experience encourages certain adolescent health-risk decisions; if parental interaction together with the home environment act as a mediator, offsetting outside influences.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. and Usha Sambamoorthi. "Effects of Social Environmental Factors on Health Risk Decision-Making Among Adolescents in the NLSY." Presented: Indianapolis, IN, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1997.
67. Agre, Lynn A.
Sambamoorthi, Usha
Crystal, Stephen
Child's Health Status and Home Environment: Evidence from the 1988 NLSY
Presented: New York, NY, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, November 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Children, Health Care; Children, Home Environment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Overview, Child Assessment Data; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Panel presentation. This study uses cross-sectional data from the 1988 wave of mothers (n=1,280) matched with their school-age children from 5 through 9 years (n=2,414). The mothers 21-29, and their children 0-18+, who have been interview every two years since 1986 through 1992 resulting in a total of 4 waves to date.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A., Usha Sambamoorthi and Stephen Crystal. "Child's Health Status and Home Environment: Evidence from the 1988 NLSY." Presented: New York, NY, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, November 1996.
68. Ahearn, Caitlin
Brand, Jennie E.
Zhou, Xiang
How, and For Whom, Does Higher Education Increase Voting?
Research in Higher Education published online (14 September 2022): DOI: 10.1007/s11162-022-09717-4.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11162-022-09717-4
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Higher Education; Voting Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The college-educated are more likely to vote than are those with less education. Prior research suggests that the effect of college attendance on voting operates directly, by increasing an individual's interest and engagement in politics through social networks or human capital accumulation. College may also increase voting indirectly by leading to degree attainment and increasing socioeconomic status, thus facilitating political participation. However, few studies have empirically tested these direct and indirect pathways or examined how these effects vary across individuals. To bridge this gap, we employ a nonparametric causal mediation analysis to examine the total, direct, and indirect effects of college attendance on voting and how these effects differ across individuals with different propensities of attending college. Using data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, we find large direct effects of college on self-reported voting and comparably smaller indirect effects that operate through degree completion and socioeconomic attainment. We find the largest impact of college on voting for individuals unlikely to attend, a pattern due primarily to heterogeneity in the direct effect of college. Our findings suggest that civic returns to college are not contingent upon degree completion or socioeconomic returns. An exclusive focus on the economic returns to college can mask the broader societal benefits of expanding higher education to disadvantaged youth.
Bibliography Citation
Ahearn, Caitlin, Jennie E. Brand and Xiang Zhou. "How, and For Whom, Does Higher Education Increase Voting?" Research in Higher Education published online (14 September 2022): DOI: 10.1007/s11162-022-09717-4.
69. Ahituv, Avner
Hotz, V. Joseph
Philipson, Tomas
The Responsiveness of the Demand for Condoms to the Local Prevalence of AIDS
Journal of Human Resources 31,4 (Fall 1996): 869-897.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146150
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Contraception; Epidemiology; Residence; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

This paper investigates the degree to which the local prevalence of AIDS increases the demand for disease-preventing methods of contraception among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-1979), we find substantial evidence that the use of condoms was quite responsive to the prevalence of AIDS in one's state of residence and this responsiveness has been increasing over time. We present both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence estimating that a 1 percent increase in the prevalence of AIDS increases the propensity to use a condom significantly and up to 50 percent for the most prevalence-responsive groups. Our findings tend support to the existence of a self-limiting incentive effect of epidemics--an effect that tends to be ignored in epidemiological theories of the spread of infectious diseases. [Copyright Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System 1996]
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner, V. Joseph Hotz and Tomas Philipson. "The Responsiveness of the Demand for Condoms to the Local Prevalence of AIDS." Journal of Human Resources 31,4 (Fall 1996): 869-897.
70. Ahituv, Avner
Kamenecka, Paulette
Gender and Ethnic Differences in School Departure Does Youth Employment Promote or Undermine Educational Attainment?
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Labor Market Outcomes; Life Course; School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transition from school to work activities is a defining feature in the life course of adolescent men and women. To better understand this transition, we explore patterns of school departure among white, black and Hispanic male and female youth using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). In particular, we document race, ethnic and gender differences in the timing of school departure and labor market entry as well as the consequences of adolescent labor market experience force employment outcomes during early adulthood. From these patterns, we determine the conditions under which adolescent employment may precipitate early school withdrawal.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Paulette Kamenecka. "Gender and Ethnic Differences in School Departure Does Youth Employment Promote or Undermine Educational Attainment?" Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
71. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
How Do Marital Status, Work Effort, and Wage Rates Interact?
Demography 44,3 (August 2007): 623-647.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/hh5267335207k735/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Labor Market Outcomes; Marital Status; Marriage; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How marital status interacts with men's earnings is an important analytic and policy issue, especially in the context of debates in the United States over programs that encourage healthy marriage. This paper generates new findings about the earnings-marriage relationship by estimating the linkages among flows into and out of marriage, work effort, and wage rates. The estimates are based on National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel data, covering 23 years of marital and labor market outcomes, and control for unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate marriage effects on hours worked (our proxy for work effort) and on wage rates for all men and for black and low-skilled men separately. The estimates reveal that entering marriage raises hours worked quickly and substantially but that marriage's effect on wage rates takes place more slowly while men continue in marriage. Together, the stimulus to hours worked and wage rates generates an 18%-19% increase in earnings, with about one-third to one-half of the marriage earnings premium attributable to higher work effort. At the same time, higher wage rates and hours worked encourage men to marry and to stay married. Thus, being married and having high earnings reinforce each other over time. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Demography is the property of Population Association of America and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "How Do Marital Status, Work Effort, and Wage Rates Interact?" Demography 44,3 (August 2007): 623-647.
72. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
Job Stability, Earnings, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Job Turnover; Life Course; Male Sample; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the interactions between job stability, earnings, and marital instability. We analyze the sequence of jobs, marriages, divorces, and remarriages among young men and ask: 1) Do job stability, high wages, and the career advancement of young men promote marriage and marital stability? 2) What are the consequences of marriage and marital stability for achieving high levels of job stability and occupational success? We use a Dynamic Selection Control model to estimate how young men make sequential choices about work and family. The maximum likelihood (ML) approach takes account of self-selection, simultaneity and heterogeneity. The data come from the 1979-1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). The initial results show causal impacts in both directions: job stability promotes higher earnings and marital stability, while marital stability increases job stability and earnings. Simulation results showing impacts of economic shocks on pathways will appear in the revised paper.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "Job Stability, Earnings, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?" Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
73. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?
Working Paper, Urban Institute, Washington DC, November 2004.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/411148.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Patterns; Marital Instability; Marital Status; Wage Rates

This study examines the interplay between job stability, wage rates, and marital instability. We use a Dynamic Selection Control model in which young men make sequential choices about work and family. Our empirical estimates derived from the model account for self-selection, simultaneity and unobserved heterogeneity. The results capture how job stability affects earnings, how both affect marital status, and how marital status affects earnings and job stability. The study reveals robust evidence that job instability lowers wages and the likelihood of getting and remaining married. At the same time, marriage raises wages and job stability. To project the sequential effects linking job stability, marital status, and earnings, we simulate the impacts of shocks that raise preferences for marriage and that increase education. Feedback effects cause the simulated wage gains from marriage to cumulate over time, indicating that long-run marriage wage premiums exceed conventional short-run estimates.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?" Working Paper, Urban Institute, Washington DC, November 2004.
74. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?
Review of Economics of the Household 9,2 (June 2011): 221-249.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/r5x6v43k45102h8q/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Turnover; Marital Stability; Marriage; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the interplay between job stability, wage rates, and marital stability. We use a Dynamic Selection Control model in which young men make sequential choices about work and family and estimate the model using an approach that takes account of self-selection, simultaneity and unobserved heterogeneity. The results quantify how job stability affects wage rates, how both affect marital status, and how marital status affects earnings and job stability. The study reveals robust evidence that job changes lower wages and the likelihood of getting married and remaining married. At the same time, marriage raises wage rates and job stability. To project the sequential effects linking job change, marital status, and earnings, we simulate the impacts of shocks that raise preferences for marriage and that increase education. Feedback effects cause the simulated wage gains from marriage to cumulate over time, indicating that long-run marriage wage premiums exceed conventional short-run estimates.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related? ." Review of Economics of the Household 9,2 (June 2011): 221-249.
75. Ahituv, Avner
Tienda, Marta
Employment, Motherhood, and School Continuation Decisions of Young White, Black, and Hispanic Women
Journal of Labor Economics 22,1 (January 2004): 115-158.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/380405
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Education; Employment; Employment, Youth; Endogeneity; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Ethnic Studies; Hispanic Studies; Hispanics; Life Cycle Research; Minorities; Motherhood; Parenthood; Racial Differences; Schooling; Women; Women's Education; Women's Studies

We examine the empirical relationship between early employment activity and school continuation decisions for young American women using a dynamic, sequential discrete-choice framework that estimates schooling, labor supply, and birth decisions jointly, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and the endogeneity of these life cycle decisions. That the rate of school withdrawal increases as work intensity rises helps explain the higher departure rates of Hispanic girls from secondary school and the premature departure of young black women from college. The disturbing implication is that youth employment induces long-run wage stagnation for early school leavers and potentially increases race and ethnic inequities.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Marta Tienda. "Employment, Motherhood, and School Continuation Decisions of Young White, Black, and Hispanic Women." Journal of Labor Economics 22,1 (January 2004): 115-158.
76. Ahlburg, Dennis
McCall, Brian P.
A Hazard Model of College with Endogenous Waiting
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Enrollment; College Graduates; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from NLSY79 and NLSY97 we investigate college attendance, dropout, and graduation behavior of high school graduates. Bivariate duration models, which allow the unobserved determinants of spell durations to be correlated across spells, are developed and used to study the impact of waiting time until college enrollment on college dropout and graduation. In NLSY79 we find that delaying college entry by one year after high school reduces the probability of graduating by up to 32 percent in models that account for the endogeneity of delaying enrollment. We also found that those who delay entry to college have hourly wages that are 9.2 percent less than those who did not delay. There is also evidence that the largest impact of delay occurs for those with lower ability. We are currently estimating the model on NLSY97 data and will compare the results for the two cohorts.
Bibliography Citation
Ahlburg, Dennis and Brian P. McCall. "A Hazard Model of College with Endogenous Waiting." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
77. Ahn, Namkee
Teenage Childbearing and High School Completion: Accounting for Individual Heterogeneity
Family Planning Perspectives 26,1 (January 1994): 17-21.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2136091
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Educational Attainment; Family Background and Culture; Fertility; Heterogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; Household Composition; Marital Instability; Regions; School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Some of the major repercussions of early childbearing are a lower likelihood of school completion and advanced education, a lower likelihood of working in the future or of earning high wages, and a greater risk of failed marriages. Estimates from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-1987) indicate that differences in high school completion rates between women who had a teenage birth and those who did not are affected by the birth itself, family background, and individual heterogeneity. Merely having a teenage birth leads to a 50% reduction in the likelihood of completing school as compared with not having a teenage birth, but individual heterogeneity (normal differences between individuals) accounts for a 42% reduction in likelihood of completion among those giving birth before age 17, and a 30% reduction for those giving birth between ages 17-19. The study concluded that elimination of births to teenagers would reduce the gap in high school completion by about one-half between women who have births as teenagers and those who do not, and this gap can be narrowed further if family background (maternal education and parental marital stability) among the teenage mothers is improved.
Bibliography Citation
Ahn, Namkee. "Teenage Childbearing and High School Completion: Accounting for Individual Heterogeneity." Family Planning Perspectives 26,1 (January 1994): 17-21.
78. Ahn, Taehyun
Attitudes Toward Risk and Self-Employment of Young Workers
Labour Economics 17,2 (April 2010): 434-442.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927537109000712
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Income Risk; Risk-Taking; Self-Employed Workers; Variables, Independent - Covariate

A high degree of risk tolerance is often regarded as one of the fundamental characteristics of entrepreneurs. Using multiple responses on risky income gambles in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I investigate the effect of individual risk tolerance on the probability of entry into self-employment. I construct a measure of individual level of risk tolerance that is corrected for reporting error and that varies with age and other covariates that potentially affect self-employment decision. I find that risk tolerance is an important determinant of the decision to enter self-employment. However, I find that the estimated effect of risk tolerance on the probability of entering self-employment is dramatically understated if measurement error is not taken into account. In addition, I find that that accounting for the correlation between risk tolerance and other covariates is important to correctly assess the effects of the other determinants of self-employment while it has a trivial effect on the estimated marginal effect of risk tolerance. [Copyright Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Ahn, Taehyun. "Attitudes Toward Risk and Self-Employment of Young Workers." Labour Economics 17,2 (April 2010): 434-442.
79. Ahn, Taehyun
Essays on Self-Employment of Young Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Modeling, Logit; Racial Differences; Risk-Taking; Self-Employed Workers; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Academic interest in self-employment has grown rapidly in recent decades. However, relatively little is known about the longitudinal patterns of young self-employed workers. In the first essay, I examine the patterns of self-employment that appear in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). I find that most of self-employed workers hold wage jobs before entering self-employment and come back to wage sector after experiencing one or two self-employment spells. Self-employment jobs differ in terms of industry distribution, for both men and women and they are – female self-employment jobs, in particular – likely to entail changes in industry. Additionally, I find that female self-employment spells are more likely to be followed by a large percent of time nonemployed and a small percent of time in the same industry compared to the wage employment while the opposite are true for the male self-employment spells.

Risk tolerance and liquidity constraints are widely believed to be key determinants of self-employment, but their independent effects have proved difficult to identify. In the second essay, I specify a theoretical model that illustrates how individual risk tolerance and liquidity constraints affect the decision to become self-employed. I then tackle the empirical identification problem by constructing a measure of risk tolerance that is corrected for reporting error, varies with age and assets, and allows for the endogeneity of assets. In contrast to previous studies that use regional variation in housing prices as an instrument for assets, I address the fact that housing appreciation affects homeowners and nonowners differently. I find that risk tolerant workers are more likely to be self-employed than are their less risk tolerant counterparts. However, net asset levels have an insignificant effect on self-employment entry once absolute risk tolerance is properly taken into account.

The absence of successful businesses owned by minorities, and by blacks in particular, is a concern for policy makers. In the third essay, I exploit detailed work history data in the NLSY79 to provide new evidence on the reasons behind the race gap in self-employment. My analysis of an "age uniform" sample of men, all of whom are observed from age 22 to age 40, reveals that racial differences in cross-sectional self-employment rates are largely due to the fact that minority workers' self-employment spells are relatively short-lived. Moreover, I find that minority workers' relatively high exit rates from self-employment are caused primarily by transitions to nonemployment. Estimates from a multinomial logit model of self-employment exits suggest that minority workers' weak attachment to the labor market prior to entering self-employment is an important determinant of their self-employment to nonemployment transitions, while lack of prior industry and self-employment experience contributes to minorities' transitions to nonself-employment.

Bibliography Citation
Ahn, Taehyun. Essays on Self-Employment of Young Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2008.
80. Ahn, Taehyun
Locus of Control and Job Turnover
Economic Inquiry 53,2 (April 2015): 1350-1365.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecin.12173/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, I investigate how a worker's locus of control, that is, the perception of control over daily events, affects job-to-job and job-to-nonemployment turnover. I find that an increase in internality--the degree to which respondents believe that the outcomes of their life events are determined by their own actions versus external factors--increases job-to-job transitions. In addition, the annual wage growth rate and the wage gains from job-to-job transitions increase with internality. The influence of the locus of control on job-to-nonemployment turnover, however, is insignificant on controlling for the worker's level of attained education.
Bibliography Citation
Ahn, Taehyun. "Locus of Control and Job Turnover." Economic Inquiry 53,2 (April 2015): 1350-1365.
81. Ahn, Taehyun
Racial Differences in Self-employment Exits
Small Business Economics 36,2 (February 2011): 169-186.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/30367772446p5l44/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Entrepreneurship; Exits; Modeling, Logit; Racial Differences; Self-Employed Workers; Transition Rates, Activity to Work; Transitional Programs; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using detailed work history data in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I investigate the reasons behind the racial gap in self-employment. My analysis of an 'age uniform' sample of men, all of whom are observed from age 22 to 40 years, reveals that racial differences in cross-sectional self-employment rates are largely due to the fact that minority workers' self-employment spells are relatively short-lived. Moreover, I find that minority workers' relatively high exit rates are driven primarily by transitions to nonemployment. Estimates from a multinomial logit model of self-employment exits suggest that minority workers' weak attachment to the labor market prior to entering self-employment is an important determinant of their transition from self-employment to nonemployment, while lack of prior industry and self-employment experience contributes to minorities' transitions to wage employment. When I assign blacks and Hispanics the same (mean) work histories as whites, the predicted black-white gap in the first-year self-employment survival rate decreases by 31% and the Hispanic-white gap decreases by 14%. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Small Business Economics is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Ahn, Taehyun. "Racial Differences in Self-employment Exits." Small Business Economics 36,2 (February 2011): 169-186.
82. Ahn, Taehyun
The Employment Dynamics of Less-educated Men in the United States: The Role of Self-employment
Canadian Journal of Economics 48,1 (February 2015): 110-133.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/caje.12119/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Canadian Economics Association / Association canadienne d\'economiques
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Logit; Self-Employed Workers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I construct a sample of working-age males and examine the employment dynamics with a particular focus on the role of self-employment for less-educated men in the US. I find that men responding they had at some point been self-employed tend to spend less time in non-employment than other less-educated men. The results from the dynamic multinomial logit model reveal positive aspects of self-employment by indicating that less-educated men who were self-employed in the previous year were less likely to be non-employed in the future as compared to those who were paid workers in the previous year.
Bibliography Citation
Ahn, Taehyun. "The Employment Dynamics of Less-educated Men in the United States: The Role of Self-employment." Canadian Journal of Economics 48,1 (February 2015): 110-133.
83. Aisenbrey, Silke
Evertsson, Marie
Grunow, Daniela
Is There a Career Penalty for Mother's Time Out? A Comparison Between the United States, Germany and Sweden
Presented: Boston, MA, ASA Annual Meeting, August 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Event History; German Life History Study; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Swedish Level of Living Survey; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also presented: Florence, Italy, RC28 Spring Meeting on "Social Stratification and Insiders/Outsiders: Cross-national Comparisons within and between Continents", May 2008.
Also presented: New Haven, CT, CIQLE Inaugural Conference "Generating Social Inequalities", May 2007.

This paper focuses on three countries with distinct policies towards the dilemma of combining motherhood with an employment career: the United States, Germany and Sweden. We investigate how the parental leave policies in these countries work with regard to (a) fostering mother's labor market attachment; (b) securing mother's status as labor market insiders during employment interruption; and (c) buffering the negative career consequences resulting from mothers' time out. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the German Life History Study, and the Swedish Level of Living Survey, we analyze how different types of welfare states produce and institutionalize different patterns of return to the labor market after childbirth and how these structures stratify the subsequent career trajectories of women. Using event-history techniques we first explore how long women in the different institutional contexts interrupt employment after the birth of a child. Second, we examine what their career prospects upon return are: Do mothers on leave retain their status as labor market insiders and return to a job similar to the one they had before, or are they more likely to become outsiders and experience a downward occupational move? What role do individual characteristics and institutional context play in this process? Finally, we assess whether the time women spend away from work after child birth affects their subsequent careers. We find that the timing of return and the consequences for the occupational career are highly dependent on the policy structure these careers are embedded in. In the U.S. – promoting a 'primary earner strategy' – three quarters of all women are back at work only six months after the birth of the first child. In Sweden – the country with an 'earner carer strategy' – three quarters are back after five years, and in Germany – with its 'primary caregiver strategy' – not even after eight years. Parental leave policies seem to impact the timing of reentry, rather than the type of reentry: In all three countries most mothers return to a job with a prestige level comparable to their previous position. These women also tend to interrupt for shorter periods than their peer compatriots, as the majority returns to their previous job. Across countries we find a 'memory effect' of previous time out, though: In the U.S., with few women taking parental leave, we identify a career punishment in terms of a higher downward mobility risk, also for short times out. In Germany, where the legal parental leave period is long and mother's time out the norm, we find a negative linear relationship between time out and women's return to their previous occupational position; the longer the time out, the greater the risk to change to a new job, be it associated with an upward or downward move. In Sweden with a policy allowing shorter but financially compensated parental leaves, we find a negative effect of time out on upward moves. Hence, even in 'woman friendly' Sweden, mothers are better off if they return sooner rather than later to the labor market.

Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke, Marie Evertsson and Daniela Grunow. "Is There a Career Penalty for Mother's Time Out? A Comparison Between the United States, Germany and Sweden." Presented: Boston, MA, ASA Annual Meeting, August 2008.
84. Aisenbrey, Silke
Evertsson, Marie
Grunow, Daniela
Is There a Career Penalty for Mothers' Time Out - A Comparison of Germany, Sweden and the United States
Social Forces 88,2 (December 2009): 573-606.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/sof/summary/v088/88.2.aisenbrey.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Childbearing; Cross-national Analysis; Economics of Gender; German Life History Study; Germany, German; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Sweden, Swedish; Swedish Level of Living Survey; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article focuses on three countries with distinct policies toward motherhood and work: Germany, Sweden and the United States. We analyze the length of mothers’ time out of paid work after childbirth and the short-term career consequences for mothers. In the United States, we identify a career punishment even for short timeout periods; long time-out periods increase the risk of a downward move and reduce the chances of an upward move. In Germany, long time-out periods destabilize the career and, the longer the leave, the greater the risk of either an upward or downward move. In Sweden, we find a negative effect of time out on upward moves. Hence, even in “woman-friendly” Sweden, women’s career prospects are better if they return to paid work sooner rather than later.
Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke, Marie Evertsson and Daniela Grunow. "Is There a Career Penalty for Mothers' Time Out - A Comparison of Germany, Sweden and the United States." Social Forces 88,2 (December 2009): 573-606.
85. Aisenbrey, Silke
Fasang, Anette
Inequality in Work and Family Life Courses at the Intersection of Gender and Race
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Family Formation; Gender Differences; Life Course; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke and Anette Fasang. "Inequality in Work and Family Life Courses at the Intersection of Gender and Race." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
86. Aisenbrey, Silke
Fasang, Anette
The Interplay of Work and Family Trajectories over the Life Course: Germany and the United States in Comparison
American Journal of Sociology 122,5 (March 2017): 1448-1484.
Also: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/691128
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Cross-national Analysis; Family Formation; Gender Differences; Germany, German; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Occupational Prestige

This article uses sequence analysis to examine how gender inequality in work-family trajectories unfolds from early adulthood until middle age in two different welfare state contexts. Results based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the German National Education Panel Study demonstrate that in Germany, all work-family trajectories are highly gender-specific irrespective of social class. In contrast, patterns of work-family interplay across the life course in the United States are, overall, less gendered, but they differ widely by social class. In fact, work-family patterns characterized by high occupational prestige are fairly equally accessible for men and women. However, women are far more likely than men to experience the joint occurrence of single parenthood and unstable low-prestige work careers in the United States. The authors contribute to the literature by bringing in a longitudinal, process-oriented life course perspective and conceptualizing work-family trajectories as interlocked, multidimensional processes.
Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke and Anette Fasang. "The Interplay of Work and Family Trajectories over the Life Course: Germany and the United States in Comparison." American Journal of Sociology 122,5 (March 2017): 1448-1484.
87. Aisenbrey, Silke
Fasang, Anette
Work-Family Trajectories in Germany and the United States
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Studies; Gender Differences; Germany, German; Labor Force Participation; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Across advanced societies women’s labor force participation has increased while fertility has declined over the past decades, albeit to varying degrees. To scrutinize the impact of macro-structural contexts on how men and women combine work and family from career entry until midlife, this study compares Germany and the United States. Results using longitudinal data and sequence analysis show that the conservative male breadwinner welfare state in Germany reinforces gender differences in work-family trajectories, whereas the liberal market and residual welfare state in the United States exacerbates differences by social class. Further, the American context provides a more gender-equal playing field for men and women in the most prestigious professional occupations, whereas work-family trajectories are most gendered at the bottom of the social structure. In contrast, in Germany, gendering of work-family trajectories is strong across the entire range of the social structure.
Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke and Anette Fasang. "Work-Family Trajectories in Germany and the United States." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
88. Aitken, Sherrie S.
Desantis, James
Harford, Thomas C.
Caces, M. Fe
Marijuana Use among Adults: A Longitudinal Study of Current and Former Users
Journal of Substance Abuse 12,3 (Autumn 2000): 213-226.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0899328900000511
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age and Ageing; Drug Use; Self-Reporting

This study examines the pattern of marijuana use among respondents who have passed the age of risk of onset, as well as some of the correlates related to the initiation and current use of marijuana. The data for this study included 8885 respondents drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth (NLSY). Based on cross-tabulations of lifetime marijuana use in 1984 and 1994, the following outcomes were examined: incidence of lifetime marijuana use, inconsistent reports of lifetime marijuana use, and current compared with former use. Controlling for the effects of all variables studied, significant and independent effects were noted for sociodemographic factors, former patterns of use, and the use of other substances. Copyright: 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Aitken, Sherrie S., James Desantis, Thomas C. Harford and M. Fe Caces. "Marijuana Use among Adults: A Longitudinal Study of Current and Former Users." Journal of Substance Abuse 12,3 (Autumn 2000): 213-226.
89. Aizer, Anna
Home Alone: Maternal Employment, Child Care and Adolescent Behavior
Working Paper 807, University of California - Los Angeles, October 2001.
Also: http://www.econ.ucla.edu/workingpapers/wp807.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Care; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Injuries; Labor Market Outcomes; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As female participation in the labor force continues to grow in the US, so too does reliance on non-parental child care. However, the high cost of child care has impeded the ability of many working mothers to find sufficient child care for their children. As a result, as recently as 1998 over eight million children ages five to fourteen spent time without adult supervision on a regular basis in the US. I examine the effect of the lack of adult supervision after school on panel of school-age children using ordinary least squares and fixed effect estimation. I find that children with adult supervision are less likely to skip school, use alcohol or marijuana, steal something or hurt someone. These findings suggest that expanding after school or child care programs typically geared to preschool age children to accommodate more school age children may have important consequences for their human capital development and labor market outcomes later in life....The information on adolescent behavior and adult supervision is gathered as part of the child/young adult questionnaire of the NLSY administered every other year from 1986-1998. Questions in the survey with respect to supervision and adolescent behavior(skipping school, getting drunk/high, stealing something, and hurting someone badly) refer to the period one year prior to the date of interview. Data on accidents are available for children of all ages and are gathered from the child's mother.
Bibliography Citation
Aizer, Anna. "Home Alone: Maternal Employment, Child Care and Adolescent Behavior." Working Paper 807, University of California - Los Angeles, October 2001.
90. Aizer, Anna
Home Alone: Supervision After School and Child Behavior
Journal of Public Economics 88, 9-10 ( August, 2004): 1835-1848.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272703000227
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Care; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Maternal Employment

As female participation in the labor force continues to grow in the US, so too does reliance on non-parental child care. However, the high cost of child care has impeded the ability of many working mothers to find sufficient child care for their children. As a result, as recently as 1998 over eight million children ages five to fourteen spent time without adult supervision on a regular basis in the US. I examine the effect of the lack of adult supervision after school on panel of school-age children using ordinary least squares and fixed effect estimation. I find that children with adult supervision are less likely to skip school, use alcohol or marijuana, steal something or hurt someone. These findings suggest that expanding after school or child care programs typically geared to preschool age children to accommodate more school age children may have important consequences for their human capital development and labor market outcomes later in life.
Bibliography Citation
Aizer, Anna. "Home Alone: Supervision After School and Child Behavior." Journal of Public Economics 88, 9-10 ( August, 2004): 1835-1848.
91. Aizer, Anna
McLanahan, Sara S.
The Impact of Child Support Enforcement on Fertility, Parental Investments, and Child Well-being
The Journal of Human Resources 41,1 (Winter 2006): 28-45.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40057256
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Child Support; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Fatherhood; Fathers; Fertility; Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study; State-Level Data/Policy

Increasing the probability of paying child support, in addition to increasing resources available for investment in children, also may alter the incentives faced by men to have children out of wedlock. We find that strengthening child support enforcement leads men to have fewer out-of-wedlock births and among those who do become fathers, to do so with more educated women and those with a higher propensity to invest in children. Thus, policies that compel men to pay child support may affect child outcomes through two pathways: an increase in financial resources and a birth selection process.
Bibliography Citation
Aizer, Anna and Sara S. McLanahan. "The Impact of Child Support Enforcement on Fertility, Parental Investments, and Child Well-being." The Journal of Human Resources 41,1 (Winter 2006): 28-45.
92. Aizer, Anna
McLanahan, Sara S.
The Impact of Child Support on Fertility, Parental Investments and Child Well-Being
Working Paper, Department of Economics, Brown University, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, Brown University
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Support; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Fathers, Absence; Fertility

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the first part of this paper we discuss the incentives generated by stricter child support enforcement policies, how they affect the fertility of single women, and how they change the average underlying characteristics of single mothers. The discussion incorporates the interaction between state policies of stricter child support enforcement and the major public program serving single women with children: the AFDC program. We predict that under certain assumptions, increasing the probability that fathers will be required to pay child support results in 1) fewer children born to mothers who are most likely to use AFDC, and 2) more births to women with a higher underlying propensity to invest in children.

In the second part of this paper we use multiple datasets to provide empirical support for the two predictions of the model and we employ an identification strategy that enables us to isolate this particular mechanism empirically. First, we use annual data on state expenditures for child support enforcement and on natality for the period 1985-1994 to estimate the impact of increasing the probability that fathers will have to pay child support on non-marital child bearing and maternal investments in children born outside marriage. We find that more stringent child support enforcement results in fewer births, especially among less educated single women, and conditional on education, a greater use of early prenatal care (a measure of the underlying propensity to invest in children) both of which suggest positive selection on mother quality....We also estimate a duration model of time to first birth for a cohort of young women of child-bearing age from the NLSY79 and find that single mothers in states with stricter child support enforcement delay the time until first birth.

Bibliography Citation
Aizer, Anna and Sara S. McLanahan. "The Impact of Child Support on Fertility, Parental Investments and Child Well-Being." Working Paper, Department of Economics, Brown University, April 2004.
93. Akabayashi, Hideo
On The Role of Incentives in The Formation of Human Capital in The Family
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Endogeneity; Family Background and Culture; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Labor Economics; Modeling; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Parents, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

This research proposes a new view of the formation of human capital in the family. The traditional assumption has been to treat children's early characteristics as a result of "family background," in other words, an exogenous spillover from the parents. In contrast, I insist that the characteristics develop as human capital partly due to children's effort, and that parents' strategic intervention is important as incentives. My framework is used to interpret a variety of phenomena observed in child development and parent-child relationships. I first develop a game theoretic model between a myopic child and an altruistic parent with imperfect monitoring. It predicts that a particular type of parent's actions (e.g., praise and punishment) can be an endogenous input for the child's development by giving incentives for good effort. Psychologists have observed that an "authoritative" mother, who establishes firm control and admires her child's achievements, has children who are likely to be competent in their development. The implication of my model is consistent with this observation. I then test the prediction of the model using data of mother-child pairs from The Children Supplement of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1986-92. I constructed measures of the severity and variation of a mother's "incentive actions" (punishing and praising) from variables in the Home Observation of the Environment (HOME). It is found that a child's effort is a good predictor of early intellectual development and is likely to be induced by the mother's intervening actions as predicted. Finally, the model is further extended to explain why in some families unstable parent-child relationships, such as "child abuse," may occur. I additionally assume that a parent cannot observe a child's human capital accumulation and that a child's discount factor develops endogenously as the child develops. I construct a model where a parent uses the Kalman filter to form beliefs regarding a child's developing human capital. The model predicts that the parent's estimate of the child's effort may be divergent and negatively-biased due to the endogenous instability of the child's development process. This suggests the possibility of persistently punitive intervention.
Bibliography Citation
Akabayashi, Hideo. On The Role of Incentives in The Formation of Human Capital in The Family. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1996.
94. Akano, Obinna F.
Marijuana Use and Self-reported Quality of Eyesight
Optometry and Vision Science 94,5 (May 2017): 630-633.
Also: http://journals.lww.com/optvissci/Abstract/2017/05000/Marijuana_Use_and_Self_reported_Quality_of.12.aspx
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Optometry
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Methods: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight.

Bibliography Citation
Akano, Obinna F. "Marijuana Use and Self-reported Quality of Eyesight." Optometry and Vision Science 94,5 (May 2017): 630-633.
95. Akashi-Ronquest, Naoko
The Impact of Biological Preferences on Parental Investments in Children and Step-Children
Review of Economics of the Household 7,1 (March 2009): 59–81.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/n2w12174x6x24170/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Bargaining Model; Divorce; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parental Marital Status; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A remarriage typically involves significant changes in a family's financial circumstance, and these changes, combined with the relative bargaining relationship between spouses, likely affect the well-being of the children who are part of the family. In this paper, I use the separate-spheres model, a theoretical model that explains the determinants of bargaining power in marriage, to analyze how a remarried couple's bargaining relationship affects their child investment in stepfamilies. Based on this theoretical model, I build and estimate an empirical model that investigates the determinants of parental investment. As evidence of parental preference for biological children over stepchildren, I find that an increased wage rate of a biological mother significantly improves her child investment when her husband is a stepfather of the child, while there is no such effect for mothers living with the biological father of the child.
Bibliography Citation
Akashi-Ronquest, Naoko. "The Impact of Biological Preferences on Parental Investments in Children and Step-Children." Review of Economics of the Household 7,1 (March 2009): 59–81. A.
96. Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude
Kugler, Adriana D.
Inter-Generational Transmission of Health Status in the U.S Among Natives and Immigrants
Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Houston, 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Houston
Keyword(s): Asthma; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Depression (see also CESD); Height; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Siblings; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The research on education points to significant inter-generational transmission which likely contributes to the inter-generational transmission of earnings and income. This paper addresses the question of whether another form of human capital, health, also provides similar insight in understanding mobility of earnings. Using the NLSY79, we first present new evidence on intergenerational transmission of health outcomes including weight, height, the body mass index, depression and asthma for both natives and immigrants. We show that both native and immigrant children inherit a prominent fraction of their health status from their parents. Next, we also find that mother's education decreases child's weight and the body mass index for natives, while single motherhood increases weight and BMI of children for both natives and immigrants. Taken together, these findings suggest that along with inter-generational correlation in education, persistence in health also contributes to the inter-generational transmission of economics.
Bibliography Citation
Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude and Adriana D. Kugler. "Inter-Generational Transmission of Health Status in the U.S Among Natives and Immigrants." Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Houston, 2007.
97. Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude
Kugler, Adriana D.
Intergenerational Persistence of Health in the U.S.: Do Immigrants Get Healthier as they Assimilate?
NBER Working Paper No. 21987, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2016.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w21987
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Asthma; Body Mass Index (BMI); Depression (see also CESD); Height; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Weight

It is well known that a substantial part of income and education is passed on from parents to children, generating substantial persistence in socio-economic status across generations. In this paper, we examine whether another form of human capital, health, is also largely transmitted from generation to generation, contributing to limited socio-economic mobility. Using data from the NLSY, we first present new evidence on intergenerational transmission of health outcomes in the U.S., including weight, height, the body mass index (BMI), asthma and depression for both natives and immigrants. We show that both native and immigrant children inherit a prominent fraction of their health status from their parents, and that, on average, immigrants experience higher persistence than natives in weight and BMI. We also find that mothers' education decreases children's weight and BMI for natives, while single motherhood increases weight and BMI for both native and immigrant children. Finally, we find that the longer immigrants remain in the U.S., the less intergenerational persistence there is and the more immigrants look like native children. Unfortunately, the more generations immigrant families remain in the U.S., the more children of immigrants resemble natives' higher weights, higher BMI and increased propensity to suffer from asthma.
Bibliography Citation
Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude and Adriana D. Kugler. "Intergenerational Persistence of Health in the U.S.: Do Immigrants Get Healthier as they Assimilate?" NBER Working Paper No. 21987, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2016.
98. Akerlof, George A.
Rose, Andrew K.
Yellen, Janet L.
Waiting for Work
NBER Working Paper No. 3385 (June 1990). Also Working Paper, University of California - Berkeley, April 2002.
Also: http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/arose/waitwork.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Skilled Workers; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was prepared for Imperfect Economics: Essays in Honor of Joseph Stiglitz. It is adapted from our earlier unpublished paper with the same title, NBER Working Paper No. 3385, May 1990.

This paper explains upward job mobility and observed patterns of unemployment by skill as an economy recovers from a recession. Skilled unemployment is due to rational waiting by workers looking for long-term jobs when there is a 'lock-in' effect. Lock-in occurs if the conditions in the labor market when a worker first accepts a job have a persistent effect on wages. Using data from the NLSY, the authors provide empirical evidence of the cyclical pattern of wages predicted by the theory and also of lock-in.

Bibliography Citation
Akerlof, George A., Andrew K. Rose and Janet L. Yellen. "Waiting for Work." NBER Working Paper No. 3385 (June 1990). Also Working Paper, University of California - Berkeley, April 2002.
99. Akinsanmi, Olubukunola
Human Capital, Specificity, and Value: Making Space for New Perspectives
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Business, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2020
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Mobility; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Human capital -- the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics an individual possesses which contributes to economic productivity -- is central to the production function of most modern firms, yet the theory that seeks to explain its contribution to firm performance is rooted in outdated assumptions. Recent scholarship has articulated conditions under which its predictions hold, but these conditions rarely reflect the contemporary labor market. Two decades into the 21st century have brought significant technological advancement, increased skill portability and prevalent worker mobility -- both across firms and across regions. It is imperative, therefore, to cultivate new perspectives that revisit the assumptions, re-assess the impact, as well as re-define the nature of this critical firm resource, to account for realities that present-day firms face. In this dissertation, I revisit the core assumption that human capital specificity will deter mobility and find that it increases it. I examine its impacts on labor market decisions in the involuntary turnover context and find that it exacerbates entrepreneurial entry. Instead of a rationally chosen set of acquired skills, I re-define its nature as an unavoidable, malleable, and distinct set of capabilities that emerges as a result of combination with a firm's other idiosyncratic resources. I accomplish this by investigating the process by which human capital interacts with physical working environments – an idiosyncratic complementary firm resource that is rarely discussed in strategy literature.
Bibliography Citation
Akinsanmi, Olubukunola. Human Capital, Specificity, and Value: Making Space for New Perspectives. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Business, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2020.
100. Aksaray, Gorkem
Thompson, Peter
Density Dependence of Entrepreneurial Dynamics: Competition, Opportunity Cost, or Minimum Efficient Scale?
Management Science 64,5 (May 2018): 1975-2471.
Also: https://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/10.1287/mnsc.2016.2710
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences
Keyword(s): Entrepreneurship; Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Self-Employed Workers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper reports on a new examination of the well-established negative effect of localized density on survival in established industries. We attempt to discriminate between three competing, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, explanations: resource competition, variations in the opportunity costs of entrepreneurship, and geographic variations in minimum efficient scale (MES). We construct a model of firm growth and survival in which each of these potential causes of density dependence has a transparent parametric effect, and we derive six predictions that collectively allow for discriminating empirical tests. Empirical results using confidential geocoded data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth consistently favor the opportunity cost mechanism.
Bibliography Citation
Aksaray, Gorkem and Peter Thompson. "Density Dependence of Entrepreneurial Dynamics: Competition, Opportunity Cost, or Minimum Efficient Scale?" Management Science 64,5 (May 2018): 1975-2471.
101. Alatorre, Arnulfo C.
Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors of Poverty
M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics and Statistics, California State University, Los Angeles, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Size; Human Capital; Income Level; Marriage; Parenthood; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This thesis investigates the cognitive and noncognitive determinants of poverty and annual income in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 cohort. The empirical analysis uses a standard human capital function that accounts for noncognitive factors along with traditional measures of productivity such as education, work experience, ability, and age to determine the effect they have on yearly income and poverty status. Poverty status is defined according to the U.S. Census Bureau's definition. The study uses quantile regression at the 5th, 10th, 25th, 35th, 50th, 65th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles to analyze income and uses probit regression to determine the probability of being in poverty. The results of the quantile regressions show that education, cognitive skills, work experience, time preference, reservation wage, marriage, and parenthood have different magnitudes and directions of effect along the continuum of the quantiles. The probit regression shows that personal relationship factors such as family size, childbirth before first marriage, family poverty status in 1980, spousal income, and human capital factors of productivity affect the cohort's probability of being in poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Alatorre, Arnulfo C. Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors of Poverty. M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics and Statistics, California State University, Los Angeles, 2014.
102. Alba, Richard
Abdel-Hady, Dalia
Islam, Tariqul
Marotz, Karen
Downward Assimilation and Mexican Americans: An Examination of Intergenerational Advance and Stagnation in Educational Attainment
In: The Next Generation: Immigrant Youth in a Comparative Perspective. R. Alba and M Waters, eds., New York: New York University Press, 2011: 95-109
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York University Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; General Social Survey (GSS); Hispanic Studies; Hispanic Youth; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 5: In this chapter, we approach the same problem with national data that allow us to compare parents and children: we examine the educational attainments of Mexican Americans in several different data sets, including the General Social Survey (GSS), the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) of 1979, and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) of 1988. The GSS data enable us to gain an overview of generational differences across a broad span of historical time (i.e., birth cohorts), while the NLSY and NELS data allow us to focus on specific recent birth cohorts (1957–1964 in the case of the NLSY and 1972–1975 in that of NELS). The picture we gain is consistent across all three: “downward” assimilation, as evidenced by intergenerational stagnation in education, is uncommon in both the second and the third generations of Mexican Americans. In general, the young members of each generation make a substantial advance beyond the educational attainments of their parents; this intergenerational differential, which averages more than two years even in the third generation, is substantially greater than that found among non-Hispanic whites. Paradoxically, however, even in the recent cohorts of the third generation, the educational attainment of Mexican Americans does not show signs of catching up with that of whites.
Bibliography Citation
Alba, Richard, Dalia Abdel-Hady, Tariqul Islam and Karen Marotz. "Downward Assimilation and Mexican Americans: An Examination of Intergenerational Advance and Stagnation in Educational Attainment" In: The Next Generation: Immigrant Youth in a Comparative Perspective. R. Alba and M Waters, eds., New York: New York University Press, 2011: 95-109
103. Albers, Alison Burke
Poverty, Social Context and Children's Mental Health Across the Early Life Course
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2001.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Poverty; Life Course; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty

The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the processes that explain the relation between long-term poverty and mental health among early adolescents. Combining Elder's life-span principles, Bronfenbrenner's ecological model and Coleman's theory of social capital, an analytical model of how poverty influences children's mental health was proposed. Each chapter provided an analysis that included the same set of measures in ordinary least square (OLS) regression models predicting outcomes outlined in the heuristic model. New to work in this area is the use of a change model approach. This allowed for the examination of the influence of poverty, its temporal conditions and family structure on change in children's mental health as measured by internalizing, externalizing and depressive symptoms. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I found that economic deprivation was associated with maternal psychological distress, neighborhood disorder, residential instability, and peer pressure. For the most part, longitudinal poverty and income did not have particularly strong or consistently negative effects on parenting practices. In the full models, the income and poverty measures generally were not predictive of the mental health outcomes. However, current debt had a significant main effect on externalizing symptoms for females. In sum, the final analyses identified significant contributors to mental health for boys and girls during early adolescence. Female adolescents were particularly vulnerable to the effects of parenting practices and neighborhood disorder, whereas male adolescents were susceptible to peer pressure and family disruption. Maternal education significantly contributed to psychological functioning of both poor boys and girls. The results support the notion that income's correlates, such as maternal education, neighborhood disorder, and punitive parenting, have true effects on children's mental health . In general, the merging of developmentally sensitive concepts with the study of poverty and children's mental health offers promise for a better understanding of the features that produce poor mental health outcomes among children and adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Albers, Alison Burke. Poverty, Social Context and Children's Mental Health Across the Early Life Course. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2001..
104. Albrecht, James
van Vuuren, Aico
Vroman, Susan
The Black-White Wage Gap Among Young Women in 1990 vs. 2011: The Role of Selection and Educational Attainment
Labour Economics 33 (April 2015): 66-71.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927537115000214
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Wage Gap

In this paper, we compare the black-white median log wage gap for women aged 26-31 in 1990 and 2011. Two stylized facts emerge. First, the pattern of selection in the two years is similar--the gaps observed among women employed in 1990 and 2011 substantially understate the gaps that would have been observed had all 26-31 year-old women been working in those years. Second, both the median log wage gap observed in the data and the selection-corrected gap increased substantially between the two years, a fact that can be mostly attributed to changes in the distributions of educational attainment among young black and white women.
Bibliography Citation
Albrecht, James, Aico van Vuuren and Susan Vroman. "The Black-White Wage Gap Among Young Women in 1990 vs. 2011: The Role of Selection and Educational Attainment." Labour Economics 33 (April 2015): 66-71.
105. Allen, Douglas W.
Brinig, Margaret F.
Child Support Guidelines and Divorce Incentives
International Review of Law and Economics 32,3 (September 2012): 309-316.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0144818812000300
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Support; Divorce; Income

A child support guideline is a formula used to calculate support payments based on a few family characteristics. Guidelines began replacing court awarded support payments in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and were eventually mandated by the federal government in 1988. Two fundamentally different types of guidelines are used: percentage of obligor income, and income shares models. This paper explores the incentives to divorce under the two schemes, and uses the NLSY data set to test the key predictions. We find that percentage of obligor income models are destabilizing for some families with high incomes. This may explain why several states have converted from obligor to income share models, and it provides a subtle lesson for the no-fault divorce debate.
Bibliography Citation
Allen, Douglas W. and Margaret F. Brinig. "Child Support Guidelines and Divorce Incentives." International Review of Law and Economics 32,3 (September 2012): 309-316.
106. Allen, Leana Cristine
A Life Course Analysis of the Relationship Between Military Service and Criminal Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): p. 1218
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Crime; Life Course; Military Service; Military Training; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Veterans; Vietnam War

Throughout U.S. history, the military has served as one of the largest employers and educators of young men and women. As such, it has had a great influence in the lives of a large proportion of the U.S. population. Despite the potential impact of military service in later life, little research attention has focused on this topic, particularly in criminology. The few studies that have examined the relationship between military service and criminal behavior tend to have ignored pre-military characteristics, and results vary depending on the time period during which the sample served in the military. This study applies a life course framework to the question of how military service influences later criminal behavior. The main purpose of this research is to determine whether military service changes existing trajectories of criminal behavior and/or whether the military provides another setting for the continuation of pre-military behavior patterns. Other important considerations include selection into the military, the timing of military service in an individual's life, and the historical context of service. For example, do those who enter the military at an earlier age experience greater change in criminal behavior than those who enter later in life? Additionally, does the influence of military service on criminal behavior differ by historical context?

To address these questions, this study uses four data sets; three birth cohorts (1942, 1945, and 1949) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Men in these samples served during different historical periods from the beginning of the Vietnam War to the early period of the all-volunteer force. Statistical methods were used to account for potential differences in selection and the presence of unobserved heterogeneity. Results suggest that there is an important influence of military service on later criminal behavior, but the specific direction of the effect depends on the historical period in which service occurred. In particular, serving in the military during the Vietnam era was related to reduced offending, and service during the volunteer era was related to increased offending. These results were significant even after controlling for race, education, socioeconomic status, age, and prior criminal behavior patterns.

Bibliography Citation
Allen, Leana Cristine. A Life Course Analysis of the Relationship Between Military Service and Criminal Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): p. 1218.
107. Allen, William
Study: College Lifts IQs of Blacks; Gains Are Greater Than For Whites
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, September 30, 1997, News; Pg. 01A
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Pulitzer Inc.
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Cognitive Development; College Education; Education; Genetics; I.Q.; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Racial Differences; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article reports on a new study on the educational gains of African Americans. Using NLSY data, the study finds that African-Americans who graduate from college make much greater gains in intelligence during their college careers than white students. This cuts against the findings of "The Bell Curve," a study which utilized the same NLSY data, but contended that blacks were genetically less intelligent than whites and that this gap could not be closed by education.
Bibliography Citation
Allen, William. "Study: College Lifts IQs of Blacks; Gains Are Greater Than For Whites." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, September 30, 1997, News; Pg. 01A.
108. Allison, David B.
The Use of Discordant Sibling Pairs for Finding Genetic Loci Linked to Obesity: Practical Considerations
International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 20,6 (June 1996): 553-560.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8782732
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Genetics; Obesity; Pairs (also see Siblings); Siblings; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Currently there is substantial interest in finding genetic loci linked to human obesity. However, the complexity of the genetic architecture for human body fatness and body weight make this a very challenging task. Recently, several authors have proposed the use of discordant sibling pairs to improve the power to detect linkage for obesity and other continuously distributed complex phenotypes. The use of discordant siblings pairs can markedly increase the power of statistical analyses to detect linkage. However, the use of discordant sibling pairs also presents several practical concerns. These include both the difficulty and cost of locating markedly discordant sibling pairs and the possibility that when such pairs are located, they may in fact be only half-siblings due to non-paternity. In this paper, I consider both of these issues. Quantitative estimates of the probability of finding pairs of a given degree of discordance are presented based on both the assumption of a normal distribution as well as on actual data. Quantitative estimates of the odds of selecting pairs that are actually half siblings as opposed to full siblings are also presented for different degrees of discordance. Finally, percentile scores for BMI are tabulated as these are necessary for researchers to implement certain sibling selection strategies.
Bibliography Citation
Allison, David B. "The Use of Discordant Sibling Pairs for Finding Genetic Loci Linked to Obesity: Practical Considerations." International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 20,6 (June 1996): 553-560.
109. Allison, David B.
Faith, Myles S.
Nathan, J. S.
Risch's Lambda Values for Human Obesity
International Journal of Obesity 20,11 (November 1996): 990-999.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8923155
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Genetics; Obesity; Pairs (also see Siblings); Sample Selection

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVE: Risch's lambda statistic (lambda-R)is related to the heritability of traits and can be useful in several contexts, including the conduct of power analyses to determine sample size for gene mapping studies. However, values of lambda-R have not been presented for human obesity. DESIGN AND RESULTS: Using both analytic and empirical approaches, the present study calculates estimates of lambda-R. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of these estimates for determining sample size for genetic mapping studies.
Bibliography Citation
Allison, David B., Myles S. Faith and J. S. Nathan. "Risch's Lambda Values for Human Obesity." International Journal of Obesity 20,11 (November 1996): 990-999.
110. Allston, Adam
The Significance of Wealth in Understanding Associations between Race and the Risk of Low Birth Weight
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Mothers, Race; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: Previous studies have documented persistent disparities in the rate of low birth weight between African Americans and Whites in the U.S. across socioeconomic strata based on educationally defined and income-related measures. Although such findings do not preclude the notion that the disparity in the risk of low birth weight between African Americans and Whites in the U.S. is primarily attributable to non-socioeconomic racial characteristics, the validity of such a conclusion is in part dependent on the assumption that adequate measures of socioeconomic position have been utilized in previous research. Given the potential for residual confounding by socioeconomic position associated with the exclusion of wealth-related measures, previous estimates concerning the race-related risk of low birth weight net prevalent inequalities in economic well-being may be biased. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), the current study proposed to address this issue by examining if there is an association between wealth and the risk of low birth weight independent of other resource-based indicators of socioeconomic position, as well the extent to which adjusting for differentials in wealth produces a greater reduction in the disparity in the risk of low birth weight between African Americans and Whites in the U.S. than that observed by adjusting only for differentials in educational attainment and/or poverty level.

Methods: Multiple GEE models were generated utilizing demographic, pregnancy-related, educational, poverty, and wealth-related variables. Substantive comparisons across GEE models were done based on an estimate of the percent reduction in the baseline odds ratio for low birth weight in comparing non-Hispanic Blacks to non-Hispanic Whites associated with individual and collective socioeconomic related adjustments.

Results: Despite documenting a substantial socioeconomic disadvantage among non-Hispanic Black births relative to non-Hispanic White births, accounting for differentials in wealth-status produced only minimal reductions in the elevated odds of low birth weight observed among non-Hispanic Black births when compared to non-Hispanic White births.

Conclusion: Differentials in current wealth status appear to have little impact on observed disparities in low birth weight between non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White births independent of traditional socioeconomic indicators such as income and maternal education.

Bibliography Citation
Allston, Adam. The Significance of Wealth in Understanding Associations between Race and the Risk of Low Birth Weight. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University, 2011.
111. Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas
Essays on the Effects of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program on Adult Obesity
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Georgia State University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Data Quality/Consistency; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Geocoded Data; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Obesity; State-Level Data/Policy; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); Underreporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first essay expands on previous work examining the effects of SNAP participation on adult obesity. Previous research provides some evidence that SNAP participation may have a small positive effect on weight gain for women and no significant effect on men. However, additional research has found that misreporting of SNAP participation in surveys is prevalent and that analysis of program effects when participation is misclassified (misreported) can produce estimates that are biased and misleading. Until now, nearly all studies examining the effects of SNAP on adult obesity have ignored the issue of respondent misreporting. This chapter uses state-level policy variables regarding SNAP administration to instrument for SNAP participation for NLSY79 respondents. To address respondent misreporting I adopt an approach based on parametric methods for misclassified binary dependent variables that produces consistent estimates when using instrumental variables. This study is the first to document the considerable rates of SNAP participation under-reporting in the NLSY79 dataset. In addition, this study finds that, although SNAP participation increases adult BMI and the likelihood of being obese, without correcting for misreporting bias the estimates are overstated by nearly 100 percent.

The second essay takes a different approach to investigate the intensive margin effects of SNAP on adult obesity. To mitigate the severity of endogenous participation and misreporting biases, I employ a strategy that examines only individuals who report participating in SNAP. I utilize a quasi-experimental variation in SNAP amount per adult due to the timing of school eligibility for children. The identification examines intensive margin changes SNAP benefits due to changes in household composition. This study finds that increases in SNAP benefits available to adults actually reduce BMI and the probability of being severely obese.

Bibliography Citation
Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas. Essays on the Effects of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program on Adult Obesity. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Georgia State University, 2014.
112. Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas
McCarthy, Ian M.
Tchernis, Rusty
What Can we Learn about the Effects of Food Stamps on Obesity in the Presence of Misreporting?
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 98,4 (July 2016): 997-1017.
Also: http://ajae.oxfordjournals.org/content/98/4/997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Obesity; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); Underreporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is an increasing perception among policy makers that food stamp benefits contribute positively to adult obesity rates. We show that these results are heavily dependent on ones assumptions regarding the accuracy of reported food stamp participation. When allowing for misreporting, we find no evidence that SNAP participation significantly increases the probability of being obese or overweight among adults. Our results also highlight the inherent bias and inconsistency of common point estimates when ignoring misreporting, with treatment effects from instrumental variable methods exceeding the non-parametric upper bounds by over 200% in some cases.
Bibliography Citation
Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas, Ian M. McCarthy and Rusty Tchernis. "What Can we Learn about the Effects of Food Stamps on Obesity in the Presence of Misreporting? ." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 98,4 (July 2016): 997-1017.
113. Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas
Tchernis, Rusty
Measuring Effects of SNAP on Obesity at the Intensive Margin
NBER Working Paper No. 22681, National Bureau of Economic Research, September 2016.
Also: http://nber.org/papers/w22681
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Obesity; Program Participation/Evaluation; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps)

The effects of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on obesity have been the focus of much debate. However, causal interpretation of estimates from previous studies, comparing participants to non-participants, is complicated by endogeneity and possible misreporting of participation in SNAP. In this paper, we take a novel approach to examine quasi-experimental variation in SNAP benefit amount on adult obesity. Children of SNAP households qualify for free in-school meals, thus freeing some additional benefits for the household. A greater proportion of school-age children eligible for free in-school meals proxies for an exogenous increase in the amount of SNAP benefits available per adult. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 we show that school meals represent a non-trivial part of the food budget for SNAP households. We find that increases in SNAP benefits have no effect on obesity levels for the full sample of those who report SNAP participation. To better isolate the effects of additional benefits from other potential changes we restrict our analysis to adults living in households with at least one child under 5 years of age. In this setting, we find that additional SNAP benefits reduce BMI and the probability of being obese for SNAP adults.
Bibliography Citation
Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas and Rusty Tchernis. "Measuring Effects of SNAP on Obesity at the Intensive Margin." NBER Working Paper No. 22681, National Bureau of Economic Research, September 2016.
114. Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas
Tchernis, Rusty
Measuring Effects of SNAP on Obesity at the Intensive Margin
Economics and Human Biology 31 (September 2018): 150-163.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X17302253
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps)

The effects of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on obesity have been the focus of much debate. However, causal interpretation of estimates from previous studies, comparing participants to non-participants, is complicated by endogeneity and possible misreporting of participation in SNAP. In this paper, we take a novel approach to examine quasi-experimental variation in SNAP benefit amount on adult obesity. Children of SNAP households qualify for free in-school meals, thus freeing some additional benefits for the household. A greater proportion of school-age children eligible for free in-school meals proxies for an exogenous increase in the amount of SNAP benefits available per adult. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 we show that school meals represent a non-trivial part of the food budget for SNAP households. We find that increases in SNAP benefits have no effect on obesity levels for the full sample of those who report SNAP participation. To better isolate the effects of additional benefits from other potential changes we restrict our analysis to adults living in households with at least one child under 5 years of age. In this setting, we find that additional SNAP benefits reduce BMI and the probability of being obese for SNAP adults. Specifically, when one child in a household of four becomes school-aged, adult BMI is expected to decrease by 0.23 units and the probability of being obese decreases by 2.58 percentage points or by about 10%.
Bibliography Citation
Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas and Rusty Tchernis. "Measuring Effects of SNAP on Obesity at the Intensive Margin." Economics and Human Biology 31 (September 2018): 150-163.
115. Alon, Sigal
Consequences of Racial Disparities in Young Women's Early Labor Market Behavior
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Employment, In-School; Hispanics; Human Capital Theory; Wages; Wages, Women; Wages, Young Women; Women; Work Experience; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

By age 30 women of different racial/ethnic groups have similar rates of full-time employment, yet they exhibit considerable wage inequality. I hypothesize that young women's early work experiences produce different "human capital profiles," which affect future earnings prospects. Utilizing an inclusive definition to include transitions among employers, full and part-time employment, and labor force states (employment and non-employment), I develop a conceptual scheme that captures the dynamic aspects of women's labor market behavior from age 16 to 30. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (Work History file) I examine various job transitions of young women over this 15-year period. Results confirm that there are substantial differences among racial/ethnic groups in the acquisition of employment experience, and that these differences help explain wage dispersion by Race and Hispanic origin. The type and timing of transitions at younger ages are critical to the wage prospects of those women at mature age.
Bibliography Citation
Alon, Sigal. "Consequences of Racial Disparities in Young Women's Early Labor Market Behavior." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2000.
116. Alon, Sigal
Donahoe, Debra
Tienda, Marta
The Effects of Early Work Experience on Young Women's Labor Force Attachment
Social Forces 79,3 (March 2001): 1005-1034.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2675616
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Women; Work Attachment; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, we examine women's labor force experience during the early life course in order to assess the conditions conducive to the establishment of stable labor force careers. To represent the complexity of women's work trajectories during young adulthood, we develop a conceptual framework that depicts a broad range of work activity profiles. Empirical results obtained using the NLSY show that three aspects of early experience influence mature women's labor force attachment, namely the amount of experience accumulated; the timing of work experience; and the volatility of that experience. Above and beyond these experience measures, we also find that background factors influence adult women's attachment to the market. The conclusion discusses the policy implications of these results.
Bibliography Citation
Alon, Sigal, Debra Donahoe and Marta Tienda. "The Effects of Early Work Experience on Young Women's Labor Force Attachment." Social Forces 79,3 (March 2001): 1005-1034.
117. Alon, Sigal
Donahoe, Debra
Tienda, Marta
The Effects on Early Work Experience on Young Women's Labor Force Attachment
Working Paper No. 2000-4, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, June 2000.
Also: http://opr.princeton.edu/papers/opr0004.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Office of Population Research, Princeton University
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Employment; Gender Differences; Job Turnover; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Labor Supply; Life Course; Work Attachment; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Examines labor force instability during the early life course, to assess conditions conducive to establishment of stable labor force careers, and in turn, whether and how much early experiences influence subsequent outcomes; since 1979; US. Based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our analyses contribute to the broader debate about whether and how much early labor force experiences influence subsequent labor force outcomes. Within this debate, we make several important refinements. First, we shift the focus from young men to young women. With few exceptions, most studies that attempt to establish links between early work experiences and subsequent adult outcomes focus on men (e.g., Hotz et al., 1997; Meyer and Wise, 1982; Topel and Ward, 1992; for a recent exception, see Chaplin and Hannaway, 1996). There are compelling reasons why the influence of early work experiences on adult market outcomes would differ by sex. The most obvious of these is the timing and influence of family responsibilities on women's work and school options (Ahituv and Tienda, 1997). Second, we broaden the outcome of interest from unemployment (or, the probability of employment at a given age) to the establishment of stable work careers. Third, we consider not only the quantity of early labor force experience, but its timing and quality as well. To this end, we examine how the accumulation of work experience - that is, whether it is acquired continuously or discontinuously - influences adult labor market attachment. Results show that all three aspects of early experience influence mature women's market attachment, namely the amount of experience accumulated; the timing of work experience; and the quality of that experience. Above and beyond these experience measures, we also find that background factors also influence adult women's attachment to the market.
Bibliography Citation
Alon, Sigal, Debra Donahoe and Marta Tienda. "The Effects on Early Work Experience on Young Women's Labor Force Attachment." Working Paper No. 2000-4, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, June 2000.
118. Alon, Sigal
Haberfeld, Yitchak
Labor Force Attachment and the Evolving Wage Gap Between White, Black, and Hispanic Young Women
Work and Occupations 34,4 (November 2007): 369-398.
Also: http://wox.sagepub.com/content/34/4/369.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Transition, School to Work; Wage Gap; Wages, Women; Women's Studies; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, the authors examine the role of labor force attachment (LFA) in shaping the diverging wage trajectories of White, Black, and Hispanic women daring their first postschooling decade. The authors take advantage of the longitudinal aspects of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth work history data by constructing detailed annual and cumulative measures of LFA and use them to examine women's wage profiles. The findings show constant racial and ethnic wage gaps among women with college education and a widening race gap among women with no college degree. The latter pattern emphasizes the importance of market-related processes in generating wage inequality among unskilled women. The authors document substantial racial and ethnic gaps within this group in the accumulation of LFA, especially immediately after the transition from school to work. This deficit in labor market experience plays a critical role in creating the diverse wage trajectories of White, Black, and Hispanic women with no college education. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Work & Occupations is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Alon, Sigal and Yitchak Haberfeld. "Labor Force Attachment and the Evolving Wage Gap Between White, Black, and Hispanic Young Women." Work and Occupations 34,4 (November 2007): 369-398.
119. Alon, Sigal
Tienda, Marta
Employment and Wage Consequences of Young Women's Labor Force and Job Transitions
Working Paper No. 2000-1, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, May 2000.
Also: http://opr.princeton.edu/papers/opr0001.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Office of Population Research, Princeton University
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Employment; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Job Turnover; Life Course; Mobility, Economic; Racial Differences; Transition, Job to Job; Wage Dynamics; Wage Gap; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

By age 30 white women are more likely to be employed, either full or part-time, and to earn more compared to Hispanic and black women. We trace these employment and wage inequalities to young women's early work experiences, in particular work-related transitions. Using the NLSY79 (Work History File) we examine two facets of women's labor market dynamics between ages 16-30, namely transitions between employment and nonemployment, and transitions among employers. Neither labor force instability or job turnover influence women's employment status at age 30, but both aspects of early market dynamism influence wages. We find that a moderate amount of job turnover during young adulthood is an essential component of the career shaping process which enhances women's economic mobility. However, excessive turnover, particularly among young adult women, is economically counterproductive. Young black women experience fewer transitions over the early life course, but our results indicate that they benefit more from both types of transitions compared to white and Hispanic women.
Bibliography Citation
Alon, Sigal and Marta Tienda. "Employment and Wage Consequences of Young Women's Labor Force and Job Transitions." Working Paper No. 2000-1, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, May 2000.
120. Alon, Sigal
Tienda, Marta
Job Mobility and Early Career Wage Growth of White, African-American, and Hispanic Women
Social Science Quarterly 86, Supplement s1 (December 2005): 1196-1217.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00342.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Education; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Job Turnover; Mobility, Occupational; Racial Differences; Wage Gap; Wage Growth; Wages, Women; Work History

Objective. This article examines whether and how young women's job mobility influences racial and ethnic wage-growth differentials during the first eight years after leaving school. Methods. We use the NLSY-79 Work History File to simulate the influence of job mobility on the wages of skilled and unskilled workers. Results. African-American and Hispanic women average less job mobility than white women, especially if they did not attend college. Unskilled women who experience frequent job changes during the first four postschool years reap positive wage returns, but turnover beyond the shopping period incurs wage penalties. Job mobility does not appear to boost wage growth for college-educated women. Conclusions. Among unskilled women, race and ethnic wage disparities partly derive from group differences in the frequency of job changes, but unequal returns to job mobility drive the wage gaps for skilled women. We discuss several explanations for these disparities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Alon, Sigal and Marta Tienda. "Job Mobility and Early Career Wage Growth of White, African-American, and Hispanic Women." Social Science Quarterly 86, Supplement s1 (December 2005): 1196-1217.
121. Alon, Sigal
Tienda, Marta
Occupational Careers of Young Women
Working Paper No. 2000-5, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, August 2000.
Also: http://opr.princeton.edu/papers/opr0005.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Office of Population Research, Princeton University
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; College Education; Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Labor Force Participation; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Attainment; Transition, Job to Job; Women's Education; Work Attachment; Work Experience; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Examines differences in timing and frequency of occupational changes by education level, existence of systematic occupational trajectories, and four modal career types based on amount of schooling acquired; since 1979; US. Based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Occupational exchanges are a pervasive feature of the U.S. labor market as millions of persons change their occupation in any given year; the majority do so voluntarily, seeking better pay, job advancement, or improved working conditions. Yet It is unclear what share of these changes are chaotic and which represent leading to a systematic sequence of upward mobility. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (Work History file) we examine the occupational careers of young women and find striking differences in the timing and frequency of occupational changes according to levels of education, particularly between college graduates and those with less than high school education. "Career trees" for most frequent occupational paths reveal that systematic occupational trajectories do exist, although with varying degrees of orderliness. We discover four modal career types based on the amount of schooling acquired. We conclude that the complex nature of women's occupational careers is simplified by our focus on their educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Alon, Sigal and Marta Tienda. "Occupational Careers of Young Women." Working Paper No. 2000-5, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, August 2000.
122. Alper, Neil O.
Wassall, Gregory H.
Artists' Careers and Their Labor Markets
In: Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, Volume 1. V. Gisburgh and D. Throsby, eds., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006: 813-864.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1574067606010234
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Labor Market Segmentation; Occupational Choice; Unemployment Duration

This chapter is a continuation of ongoing work by economists and others on artists' labor markets and careers. It highlights the use of quasi-panel data obtained from census data to examine the employment and earnings of artists while comparing them to all the other professional and technical workers. It also provides a glimpse into what can be learned about artists' careers from true panel data. Quasi-panels from the seven most recent US censuses (1940-2000) provide a reasonably consistent set of findings in each census year. Artists are found to work fewer hours, suffer higher unemployment and earn less than members of the reference group. Over the sixty year period, disparities in unemployment and annual hours worked are found to shrink somewhat, but disparities in earnings do not. Artists earned less across all years even when only members working full-time year-round of each group are compared. The earnings of artists are found to display greater variability than those of other professional and technical workers. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 is used to examine almost twenty years in the artists' lives and provides some insights into their careers. It suggests that many people participate in the artistic labor market, but that few succeed to the point that enables them to develop a career in the arts. In part due to their relatively high educational levels, artists are found to be able to transition from forays into arts occupations to jobs in professional and managerial occupations, not into service occupations as artist `mythology' might suggest. We find that when the artists are young and struggling to make it they do work in various service occupations that tend to provide greater work schedule flexibility.
Bibliography Citation
Alper, Neil O. and Gregory H. Wassall. "Artists' Careers and Their Labor Markets" In: Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, Volume 1. V. Gisburgh and D. Throsby, eds., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006: 813-864.
123. Alston, David, Jr.
Sex and Race Differences in Locus of Control and Adult Criminal Involvement: Towards An Integration of Self and Social Structural Perspectives
Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 02A (2001): 782
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Crime; Educational Status; Family Background and Culture; Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Racial Differences; Religious Influences

This research explores the extent alternative theoretical perspectives explain criminal involvement and deviant behavior for young adult white and black men and women. I use a self and social structural model to examine sex-race differences in how age, social structure, and various attitudinal measures are related to locus of control and frequency of criminal involvement. A core set of concepts are examined and operationalized using data from the National Longitudinal Youth Survey. The core concepts can be divided into several areas: age, family background, educational experiences, cognitive skills, current family and work status, religious experiences, gender ideology, and workplace inequality. The relationship between these concepts, locus of control and criminal involvement are tested across subgroups: white men, black men, white women, and black women. Several interactions between educational experiences and between cognitive skills and educational experiences are also tested.

The analyses revealed a variety of differences in locus of control development and criminal involvement for men and women, whites and blacks. The findings lead to the general conclusion that the social origins of locus of control follow a different path for African Americans than for whites, and different still across categories of gender. The empirical findings suggest that African American men were particularly disheartened. The findings also suggest that it would be promising for future research to explore the "self-reliant social psychology" surrounding locus of control development of African Americans.

Bibliography Citation
Alston, David, Jr. Sex and Race Differences in Locus of Control and Adult Criminal Involvement: Towards An Integration of Self and Social Structural Perspectives. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 02A (2001): 782.
124. Altham, P. M. E.
Ferrie, Joseph P.
Comparing Contingency Tables Tools for Analyzing Data from Two Groups Cross-Classified by Two Characteristics
Historical Methods 40,1 (Winter 2007): 3-16
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Heldref Publications
Keyword(s): Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; General Social Survey (GSS); Home Ownership; Mobility, Occupational

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The authors discuss two tools to compare tables generated by the cross-classification of data by two characteristics (e.g., fathers' and sons' occupations; home ownership and ethnicity): (1) an algorithm to adjust two tables to have identical marginal frequencies, and (2) a measure of the association between rows and columns in a two-way table and a measure of how the row and column associations differ across two such tables, together with a test of the hypothesis that the associations are identical. The authors compare intergenerational occupational mobility in the United States in the period between 1850 and 1880 with that between 1880 and 1910. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

FIGURE 2, page 9, displays "Distances between the row-column associations in nineteenth- and twentieth-century U.S. mobility tables and how their row-column associations differ from independence. NLSY79 = National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979. OCG = Occupational Changes in a Generation, 1973. GSS = General Social Survey, 1977–90."

Copyright of Historical Methods is the property of Heldref Publications and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Altham, P. M. E. and Joseph P. Ferrie. "Comparing Contingency Tables Tools for Analyzing Data from Two Groups Cross-Classified by Two Characteristics." Historical Methods 40,1 (Winter 2007): 3-16.
125. Altonji, Joseph G.
Bharadwaj, Prashant
Lange, Fabian
Changes in the Characteristics of American Youth: Implications for Adult Outcomes
NBER Working Paper No. 13883, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2008.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w13883
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Education; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; I.Q.; Intelligence; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Skill Formation; Skills; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Transition, School to Work

We examine changes in the characteristics of American youth between the late 1970s and the late 1990s, with a focus on characteristics that matter for labor market success. We reweight the NLSY79 to look like the NLSY97 along a number of dimensions that are related to labor market success, including race, gender, parental background, education, test scores, and variables that capture whether individuals transition smoothly from school to work. We then use the re-weighted sample to examine how changes in the distribution of observable skills affect employment and wages. We also use more standard regression methods to assess the labor market consequences of differences between the two cohorts. Overall, we find that the current generation is more skilled than the previous one. Blacks and Hispanics have gained relative to whites and women have gained relative to men. However, skill differences within groups have increased considerably and in aggregate the skill distribution has widened. Changes in parental education seem to generate many of the observed changes
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G., Prashant Bharadwaj and Fabian Lange. "Changes in the Characteristics of American Youth: Implications for Adult Outcomes." NBER Working Paper No. 13883, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2008.
126. Altonji, Joseph G.
Bharadwaj, Prashant
Lange, Fabian
Changes in the Characteristics of American Youth: Implications for Adult Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
Also: http://harrisschool.uchicago.edu/Research/conferences/NLSYConf/pdf/altonji.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Education; Ethnic Groups; Ethnic Studies; Gender; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Studies; Skills; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Transition, School to Work

We examine changes in the characteristics of American youth between the late 1970s and the late 1990s, with a focus on characteristics that matter for labor market success. We reweight the NLSY79 to look like the NLSY97 along a number of dimensions that are related to labor market success, including race, gender, parental background, education, test scores, and variables that capture whether individuals transition smoothly from school to work. We then use the re-weighted sample to examine how changes in the distribution of observable skills affect employment and wages. We also use more standard regression methods to assess the labor market consequences of differences between the two cohorts. Overall, we find that the current generation is more skilled than the previous one. Blacks and Hispanics have gained relative to whites and women have gained relative to men. However, skill differences within groups have increased considerably and in aggregate the skill distribution has widened. Changes in parental education seem to generate many of the observed changes
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G., Prashant Bharadwaj and Fabian Lange. "Changes in the Characteristics of American Youth: Implications for Adult Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
127. Altonji, Joseph G.
Bharadwaj, Prashant
Lange, Fabian
Changes in the Characteristics of American Youth: Implications for Adult Outcomes
Journal of Labor Economics 30,4 (October 2012): 783-828.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/666536
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Education; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; I.Q.; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Skills

We examine changes in the characteristics of American youth between the late 1970s and the late 1990s, with a focus on characteristics that matter for labor market success. The current generation is more skilled than the previous one. Blacks and Hispanics have gained relative to whites, and women have gained relative to men. However, the skill distribution has widened overall. Shifts in parental education generate many of the observed changes. We also provide speculative estimates suggesting that if recent trends in technology and the supply of human capital continue, wage inequality will increase substantially by 2025.
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G., Prashant Bharadwaj and Fabian Lange. "Changes in the Characteristics of American Youth: Implications for Adult Outcomes." Journal of Labor Economics 30,4 (October 2012): 783-828.
128. Altonji, Joseph G.
Dunn, Thomas Albert
An Intergenerational Model of Wages, Hours and Earnings
NBER Working Paper No. 4950, National Bureau of Economic Research, December 1994.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W4950.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Demography; Earnings; Economics of Discrimination; Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Job Tenure; Job Training; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Labor Supply; Modeling; Parental Influences; Schooling; Training, Occupational; Wage Differentials; Wage Levels; Wages; Work Hours

In this paper we develop and estimate a factor model of the earnings, labor supply, and wages of young men and women, their parents and their siblings. We estimate the model using data on matched sibling and parent-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience. We measure the extent to which a set of unobserved parental and family factors that drive wage rates and work hours independently of wage rates lead to similarities among family members in labor market outcomes. We find strong family similarities in work hours that run along gender lines. These labor supply responses to family similarities in wages. The wage factors of the father and mother influence the wages of both sons and daughters. A "sibling" wage factor also plays an important role in wage determination. We find that intergenerational correlations in wages substantially overestimate the direct influence of fathers, and especially mothers, on wages. This is because the father's and mother's wage factors are positively correlated. The relative importance for the variance in earnings of the direct effect of wages, the labor supply response induced by wages, and effect of hours preferences varies by gender, and by age in the case of women. For all groups most of the effect of wages on earnings is direct rather than through a labor supply response. (COPYRIGHT: This record is part of the Abstracts of Working Papers in Economics (AWPE) Database, copyright (c) 1995 Cambridge University Press) Full-text available on-line: http://nberws.nber.org/papers/W4950.pdf
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G. and Thomas Albert Dunn. "An Intergenerational Model of Wages, Hours and Earnings." NBER Working Paper No. 4950, National Bureau of Economic Research, December 1994.
129. Altonji, Joseph G.
Dunn, Thomas Albert
Relationships Among the Family Incomes and Labor Market Outcomes of Relatives
NBER Working Paper No. w3724, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 1991.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w3724
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Family Income; Fathers and Sons; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Market Outcomes; Labor Productivity; Mothers and Daughters; Siblings

This paper examines the links between the labor market outcomes of individuals who are related by blood or by marriage using panel data on pairs of matched family members from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience. We examine the intergenerational and sibling correlations among a broad set of labor market variables using time average, method of moments and regression techniques designed to reduce the biases introduced by transitory and measurement errors. We also show that family data can be exploited to investigate theories of job turnover, labor supply. and the industry structure of wages. Our primary findings follow. First, there are strong correlations between the family incomes of relatives. Our method of moments estimates are .38 for brother pairs, .73 for sister pairs. and .56 for brother-sister pairs. The intergenerational family income correlations are .36 for father-son pairs, .48 for father-daughter pairs, and .56 for both mother-son and mother-daughter pairs. These estimates, except for the father-son result, are large compared to those in the literature for the U.S. Second, we find strong correlations in the wages and earnings of relatives. Wage correlations vary around .40 for all family member pairs, and earnings correlations vary around .35. Work hours of family members of the same sex are also fairly strongly related. Fourth, we find strong correlations in the earnings of "in-laws" that may support a theory of assortive mating in which parental earnings have value. We also provide evidence that job turnover rates depend on family characteristics and are negatively correlated with labor market productivity. Further, we show that young men whose fathers work in high wage industries tend themselves to work in high wage industries. Lastly, we find that a father's collective bargaining coverage has a strong positive influence on his son's collective bargaining status.
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G. and Thomas Albert Dunn. "Relationships Among the Family Incomes and Labor Market Outcomes of Relatives." NBER Working Paper No. w3724, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 1991.
130. Altonji, Joseph G.
Pierret, Charles R.
Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination
NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-36, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, November 1997.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl970020.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Discrimination, Employer; Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Fathers, Influence; Labor Market Demographics; Racial Differences; Siblings; Wage Equations; Wage Growth; Work Experience

We provide a test for statistical discrimination or "rational" stereotyping in environments in which agents learn over time. Our application is to the labor market. If profit maximizing firms have limited information about the general productivity of new workers, they may choose to use easily observable characteristics such as years of education to "statistically discriminate" among workers. As firms acquire more information about a worker, pay will become more dependent on actual productivity and less dependent on easily observable characteristics or credentials that predict productivity. Consider a wage equation that contains both the interaction between experience and a hard to observe variable that is positively related to productivity and the interaction between experience and a variable that firms can easily observe, such as years of education. We show that the wage coefficient on the unobservable productivity variable should rise with time in the labor market and the wage coefficient on education should fall. We investigate this proposition using panel data on education, the AFQT test, father's education, and wages for young men and their siblings from NLSY. We also examine the empirical implications of statistical discrimination on the basis of race. Our results support the hypothesis of statistical discrimination, although they are inconsistent with the hypothesis that firms fully utilize the information in race. Our analysis has wide implications for the analysis of the determinants of wage growth and productivity and the analysis of statistical discrimination in the labor market and elsewhere.
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G. and Charles R. Pierret. "Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination." NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-36, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, November 1997.
131. Altonji, Joseph G.
Pierret, Charles R.
Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination
Quarterly Journal of Economics 116,1 (February 2001): 313-350.
Also: http://qje.oxfordjournals.org/content/116/1/313.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Employer; Education; Racial Differences; Wages

We show that if firms statistically discriminate among young workers on the basis of easily observable characteristics such as education, then as firms learn about productivity, the coefficients on the easily observed variables should fall, and the coefficients on hard-to-observe correlates of productivity should rise. We find support for this proposition using NLSY79 data on education, the AFQT test, father's education, and wages for young men and their siblings. We find little evidence for statistical discrimination in wages on the basis of race. Our analysis has a wide range of applications in the labor market and elsewhere. See also: http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?sid=3D348EF6-21E0-4F3D-BC20-894E50FBE564&ttype=6&tid=567
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G. and Charles R. Pierret. "Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination." Quarterly Journal of Economics 116,1 (February 2001): 313-350.
132. Altonji, Joseph G.
Pierret, Charles R.
Employer Learning and the Signaling Value of Education
NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-35, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, November 1997.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl970030.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Job; Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Wage Equations

If profit maximizing firms have limited information about the general productivity of new workers, they may choose to use easily observable characteristics such as years of education to "statistically discriminate" among workers. The pure credential value of education will depend on how quickly firms learn. To obtain information on employer learning, we work with a wage equation that contains both the interaction between experience and a hard to observe variable that is positively related to productivity and the interaction between experience and a variable that firms can easily observe, such as years of education. The time path of the coefficient on the unobservable productivity variable provides information about the rate at which employers learn about worker productivity. Using data from the NLSY we obtain preliminary estimates of the rate at which employers learn about worker quality and use these, along with some strong auxiliary assumptions, to explore the empirical relevance of the educational screening hypothesis. We show that even if employers learn relatively slowly about the productivity of new workers, the portion of the return to education that could reflect signaling of ability is limited.
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G. and Charles R. Pierret. "Employer Learning and the Signaling Value of Education." NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-35, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, November 1997.
133. Altschul, Drew M.
Wraw, Christina
Der, Geoff
Gale, Catharine R.
Deary, Ian J.
Hypertension Development by Midlife and the Roles of Premorbid Cognitive Function, Sex, and Their Interaction
Hypertension 73 (2019): 812-819.
Also: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.12164
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Heart Association
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Gender; Health, Chronic Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Higher early-life cognitive function is associated with better later-life health outcomes, including hypertension. Associations between higher prior cognitive function and less hypertension persist even when accounting for socioeconomic status, but socioeconomic status-hypertension gradients are more pronounced in women. We predicted that differences in hypertension development between sexes might be associated with cognitive function and its interaction with sex, such that higher early-life cognitive function would be associated with lower hypertension risk more in women than in men. We used accelerated failure time modeling with the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979. Cognitive function was assessed in youth, when participants were aged between 14 and 21 years. Of 2572 men and 2679 women who completed all assessments, 977 men and 940 women reported hypertension diagnoses by 2015. Socioeconomic status in youth and adulthood were investigated as covariates, as were components of adult socioeconomic status: education, occupational status, and family income.
Bibliography Citation
Altschul, Drew M., Christina Wraw, Geoff Der, Catharine R. Gale and Ian J. Deary. "Hypertension Development by Midlife and the Roles of Premorbid Cognitive Function, Sex, and Their Interaction." Hypertension 73 (2019): 812-819.
134. Altschul, Drew M.
Wraw, Christina
Gale, Catharine R.
Deary, Ian J.
How Youth Cognitive and Sociodemographic Factors Relate to the Development of Overweight and Obesity in the UK and the USA: A Prospective Cross-cohort Study of the National Child Development Study and National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979
Epidemiology 9,12 (November 2019): DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033011.
Also: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/12/e033011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Body Mass Index (BMI); Cognitive Ability; Cross-national Analysis; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We investigated how youth cognitive and sociodemographic factors are associated with the aetiology of overweight and obesity. We examined both onset (who is at early risk for overweight and obesity) and development (who gains weight and when).

Setting: We used data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY) and the UK National Child Development Study (NCDS); most of both studies completed a cognitive function test in youth.

Bibliography Citation
Altschul, Drew M., Christina Wraw, Catharine R. Gale and Ian J. Deary. "How Youth Cognitive and Sociodemographic Factors Relate to the Development of Overweight and Obesity in the UK and the USA: A Prospective Cross-cohort Study of the National Child Development Study and National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979." Epidemiology 9,12 (November 2019): DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033011.
135. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Delayed Disadvantage: Neighborhood Context and Child Development
Social Forces 94,4 (June 2016): 1847-1877.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article/94/4/1847/2461910/Delayed-Disadvantage-Neighborhood-Context-and#42282700
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Life Course; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Neighborhood effects scholarship suggests that neighborhoods may impart different effects across the early life-course because children's interactions with neighborhood actors and institutions evolve across the stages of child development. This paper expands our understanding of neighborhood effects on cognitive and non-cognitive development across childhood and early adolescence by capitalizing on thirteen waves of restricted and never-before-used longitudinal data from the NLSY Child and Young Adult (1986-2010) sample. The findings from within-child fixed-effects interaction models suggest that while younger children are immune to neighborhood effects on their cognitive development, older children consistently suffer a steep penalty for growing up in disadvantaged neighborhoods. This neighborhood disadvantage penalty persists among older children despite alternative age constructs. Further, the results are robust to various adjustments for observed and unobserved sources of bias, model specifications, and also manifest as cumulative and lagged effects.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Delayed Disadvantage: Neighborhood Context and Child Development." Social Forces 94,4 (June 2016): 1847-1877.
136. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Movers versus Stayers: Neighborhood Effects on Achievement Scores
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Stratification research has recently begun to investigate neighborhood effects on math and reading achievement. However, this paper is the first to quantitatively investigate neighborhood effects on achievement outcomes for movers and stayers separately. Those who stay experience gradual change in their neighborhoods over time while moving can involve many observed and unobserved shocks. Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth provides a fresh sample with which to compare findings from other, very often used, data such as the PSID. Person fixed effects models estimate effects that are unbiased due to time-invariant unobserved characteristics of children and parents. They also account for changes in neighborhood conditions (and effects) as children mature. The findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage and affluence both affect achievement scores. When placed in the context of realistic shifts in neighborhood conditions for youth over time, these effects are much more modest than previous findings for extreme changes in neighborhood conditions. Implications for policies that move families to new neighborhoods and those that revitalize neighborhoods around tenured families over time are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Movers versus Stayers: Neighborhood Effects on Achievement Scores." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
137. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Multiple Generations of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Obesity Among Grandchildren
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Disadvantaged, Economically; Geocoded Data; Grandchildren; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Empirical examinations of how residential inequality compounds over multiple generations to impact health outcomes are rare. This project investigates the association between the intergenerational transmission of neighborhood disadvantage and adult obesity for grandchildren. Restricted tract-level data from the NLSY allow for the first empirical investigation into how exposure to multiple generations of neighborhood disadvantage is associated adult obesity of grandchildren. On the one hand, the results suggest that there is no impact on grandchildren's adult obesity for parents' childhood exposure to neighborhood disadvantage if those parents were able to ascend to non-disadvantaged neighborhoods in adulthood. On the other hand, grandchildren's adult obesity increases if parents lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods in adulthood after not growing up in disadvantaged neighborhoods in childhood. This analysis contributes to a more robust understanding of the role that neighborhoods play in the persistence of health inequality across multiple generations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Multiple Generations of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Obesity Among Grandchildren." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
138. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Place Meets Race: Racial and Ethnic Heterogeneity in the Association Between Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Incarceration
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Discrimination; Geocoded Data; Incarceration/Jail; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores how race and neighborhoods explain incarceration in tandem. I use 26 years of panel data that span the prison boom in the U.S. from two cohorts of the NLSY (1979 and Children and Young Adults) to study whether the association between childhood neighborhood disadvantage and adult incarceration varies by race. Stratified and full factorial sibling fixed effects interaction models suggest that neighborhood disadvantage early in life increases the odds of incarceration in adulthood for whites and Latinos, but not for blacks, net of observed and unobserved adjustments. Blacks from disadvantaged socioeconomic neighborhood contexts appear equally likely to be incarcerated as blacks from more advantaged neighborhoods. Rather than neighborhood context, discrimination in policing, surveillance, and other prejudicial policies across the life-course are likely to have greater impact on incarceration for blacks in the U.S. compared to the socioeconomic conditions of where they grew up.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Place Meets Race: Racial and Ethnic Heterogeneity in the Association Between Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Incarceration." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
139. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Complexities of Race and Place: Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Incarceration for Whites, Blacks, and Latinos
Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World published online (1 June 2020): DOI: 10.1177/2378023120927154.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2378023120927154
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Geocoded Data; Incarceration/Jail; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The author uses restricted geocoded tract-level panel data (1986-2014) that span the prison boom and the acceleration of residential segregation in the United States from two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979 and Children and Young Adults) to study whether the association between childhood neighborhood disadvantage and adult incarceration varies by race and ethnicity. Sibling fixed-effects models suggest that exposure to childhood neighborhood disadvantage increases the likelihood of incarceration in adulthood, net of observed and unobserved adjustments. However, the association appears weakest for blacks, especially black boys, compared with whites and Latinos. This suggests a more consistent likelihood of incarceration for blacks across all neighborhood origins. The author discusses potential theoretical explanations, including discrimination in profiling, policing, surveillance, and other prejudicial policies in the criminal justice system that are likely to uniquely affect blacks from all neighborhoods.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Complexities of Race and Place: Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Incarceration for Whites, Blacks, and Latinos." Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World published online (1 June 2020): DOI: 10.1177/2378023120927154.
140. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Educational Achievement
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Ethnic Differences; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the effects of neighborhood context on math and reading scores for youth who experience exogenous neighborhood change around them over time. Seldom-used restricted panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1986 – 2008) is used to estimate person fixed effects models that account for unobserved time-invariant characteristics of children and families. Black and Latino youth are found to reside amidst more disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout adolescence than Whites. Further, disparities in neighborhood quality are rigid as children mature. Fixed-effects models demonstrate that neighborhood poverty is a consistent detrimental force for achievement across racial and ethnic groups. Gentrification, however, is an inconsistent predictor of increased achievement across these groups. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Educational Achievement." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
141. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Impact of Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage on Adult Joblessness and Income
Social Science Research 70 (February 2018): 1-17.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X17302855#sec3
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Family Characteristics; Geocoded Data; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Siblings; Unemployment

Research on residential inequality focuses heavily on adult economic outcomes as crucial components of the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Yet, empirical evidence on whether youth neighborhoods have a lasting impact on adult economic outcomes at the national level is scarce. Further, we know little about how youth neighborhood effects on adult economic outcomes manifest. This study uses 26 years (14 waves) of restricted panel data from the NLSY, Children and Young Adults cohort -- data that have never been used to analyze long-term neighborhood effects -- to examine whether youth neighborhood disadvantage impacts adult economic outcomes through sensitive years in childhood, teen socialization, duration effects, or cumulative effects. Sibling fixed effects models that net out unobserved effects of shared family characteristics suggest that youth neighborhood disadvantage increases joblessness and reduces income in adulthood. However, the timing of exposure across developmental stages of youth does not appear to act as a significant moderator while sustained exposure yields pernicious effects on adult economic outcomes. Moreover, these results are robust to alternative variable specifications and cousin fixed effects that net out potentially unobserved confounders, such as the inheritance of neighborhood disadvantage across three generations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Impact of Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage on Adult Joblessness and Income." Social Science Research 70 (February 2018): 1-17.
142. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Indelible Weight of Place: Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage, Timing of Exposure, and Obesity across Adulthood
Health and Place 58 (July 2019): DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102159.
Also: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102159
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Geocoded Data; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity; Siblings

I use 28 (1986–2014) years of restricted geocoded NLSY tract-level data and find positive associations between exposure to childhood neighborhood disadvantage and adult obesity and BMI among individuals growing up and entering adulthood during the rise of obesity in the United States. Sibling fixed effects and cousin fixed effects models partially address unobserved confounding nested in the nuclear as well as extended family. Furthermore, exposure to neighborhood disadvantage in adolescence is most salient, providing insight into when policy intervention may be most effective. Results are robust to alternative specifications for neighborhood disadvantage, ages of exposure, and to alternative sampling strategies.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Indelible Weight of Place: Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage, Timing of Exposure, and Obesity across Adulthood." Health and Place 58 (July 2019): DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102159.
143. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Latino Health Paradox: A Cross-Generational Comparison
Presented: New York NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Hispanics; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research into the ‘Latino epidemiological paradox’ has found that compared to similar socioeconomic native groups, first generation Latino immigrants exhibit advantages in health status measured in a variety of ways. These researchers focus on cross-sectional data to paint a picture of immigrants’ health status at one point in time – either early or very late in life. Other researchers have begun to look at the evolution of health status among the first generation and have found that the initial health advantages of this bourgeoning group erode fairly quickly upon entry to the U.S. Following such a trajectory in the literature on immigrant health, this paper measures the effect of generational status (first/second generation versus third generation) on the odds of having a child of low birth weight among the children and grandchildren of immigrants. The main hypothesis I test is that the children and grandchildren of immigrants will have increasingly higher odds of having a low birth weight child compared to their parents across racial/ethnic groups. I use 25 years worth of data from the NLSY to run logistic regression analysis and find that generational status indeed does increase the odds that later generations of Latinas living in the U.S. will have a child of low birth weight compared to earlier generations. The finding that low birth weight risk increases over generations is paradoxical in that Latinos migrate to the U.S. in order to better their lives–yet, living in the U.S. results in declines in health.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Latino Health Paradox: A Cross-Generational Comparison." Presented: New York NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2007.
144. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Cooperstock, Alexandra
Context in Continuity: The Enduring Legacy of Neighborhood Disadvantage across Generations
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 74 (August 2021): 10062.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562421000408
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Disadvantaged, Economically; Geocoded Data; Grandparents; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Kinship; Neighborhood Effects

Neighborhoods may contribute to the maintenance of inequality in well-being across generations. We use restricted geo-coded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data (NLSY 1979 and NLSY Child and Young Adult) to estimate the association between multigenerational exposure to childhood neighborhood disadvantage and subsequent adult exposure. Invoking cousin fixed effects models that adjust for unobserved legacies of disadvantage that cascade across three generations, we find that families where both parents and their children are exposed to childhood neighborhood disadvantage are likely to pass on the legacy of neighborhood disadvantage to successive generations, net of observed and unobserved confounders. Second, we find a direct intergenerational neighborhood association, net of observed and unobserved confounders. Third, we find that unobserved confounders nested in the grandparent generation explain away the intragenerational neighborhood association. These findings reorient neighborhood theory to more seriously attend to the interdependence of neighborhood-level and individual-level antecedents of inequality across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias and Alexandra Cooperstock. "Context in Continuity: The Enduring Legacy of Neighborhood Disadvantage across Generations." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 74 (August 2021): 10062.
145. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Cooperstock, Alexandra
The Echo of Neighborhood Disadvantage: Multigenerational Exposure to Community Hardship in Childhood and Economic Well-Being in Adulthood
Presented: Atlanta GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2022
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Geocoded Data; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Neighborhoods are a fundamental contributor to the maintenance of inequality across generations. Using 35 years of restricted geo-coded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, we estimate the association between multigenerational exposure to neighborhood disadvantage in childhood and logged income earnings in adulthood. Invoking cousin fixed effects models, we find that families where both mothers and their children are exposed to adverse neighborhoods in childhood are likely to pass on the legacy of disadvantage in terms of economic outcomes to successive generations. In addition, we find heterogeneity by race and ethnicity. While there is a statistically significant negative association between multigenerational neighborhood disadvantage and income for White and Latino respondents, this is not the case for their Black counterparts. This suggests that the unabating barriers to economic success salient for Black Americans in the labor market may be disrupting a main pathway to social and economic mobility through neighborhood attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias and Alexandra Cooperstock. "The Echo of Neighborhood Disadvantage: Multigenerational Exposure to Community Hardship in Childhood and Economic Well-Being in Adulthood." Presented: Atlanta GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2022.
146. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Cooperstock, Alexandra
The Multigenerational Transmission of Neighborhood Disadvantage
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood; Disadvantaged, Economically; Geocoded Data; Grandchildren; Grandparents; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Kinship; Neighborhood Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the intergenerational transmission of neighborhood disadvantage. Restricted tract-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort and from the Child and Young Adult cohort allow for an empirical investigation into how multiple generations of neighborhood disadvantage affects neighborhood diadvantage in adulthood. In addition to multivariate regression models, the kinship structure of these data allows for cousin fixed effects models that control for unobserved confounders operating at the extended family level. Preliminary findings demonstrate that exposure to neighborhood disadvantage in parent's childhood and in grandchildren's childhood increases grandchildren's chances of living in a disadvantaged neighborhood in adulthood. Moreover, the results indirectly suggest that neighborhoods may impact inequality across four generations of a family by limiting the childhood context of opportunity of great-grandchildren. This analysis contributes to a more robust understanding of the role that neighborhoods play in the persistence of inequality across multiple generations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias and Alexandra Cooperstock. "The Multigenerational Transmission of Neighborhood Disadvantage." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
147. Amaliah, Dewi
Cook, Dianne
Tanaka, Emi
Hyde, Kate
Tierney, Nicholas
A Journey from Wild to Textbook Data to Reproducibly Refresh the Wages Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Database
Journal of Statistics and Data Science Education published online (1 July 2022): DOI: 10.1080/26939169.2022.2094300.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/26939169.2022.2094300
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Data Sets Documentation; High School Dropouts; Methods/Methodology; Wages

Textbook data is essential for teaching statistics and data science methods because they are clean, allowing the instructor to focus on methodology. Ideally textbook data sets are refreshed regularly, especially when they are subsets taken from an on-going data collection. It is also important to use contemporary data for teaching, to imbue the sense that the methodology is relevant today. This paper describes the trials and tribulations of refreshing a textbook data set on wages, extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) in the early 1990s. The data is useful for teaching modeling and exploratory analysis of longitudinal data. Subsets of NLSY79, including the wages data, can be found in supplementary files from numerous textbooks and research articles. The NLSY79 database has been continually updated through to 2018, so new records are available. Here we describe our journey to refresh the wages data, and document the process so that the data can be regularly updated into the future. Our journey was difficult because the steps and decisions taken to get from the raw data to the wages textbook subset have not been clearly articulated. We have been diligent to provide a reproducible workflow for others to follow, which also hopefully inspires more attempts at refreshing data for teaching. Three new data sets and the code to produce them are provided in the open source R package called yowie.
Bibliography Citation
Amaliah, Dewi, Dianne Cook, Emi Tanaka, Kate Hyde and Nicholas Tierney. "A Journey from Wild to Textbook Data to Reproducibly Refresh the Wages Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Database." Journal of Statistics and Data Science Education published online (1 July 2022): DOI: 10.1080/26939169.2022.2094300.
148. Amano Patino, Noriko G.
Essays on Inequality
Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Motherhood; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation focuses on understanding the sources and implications of different dimensions of inequality in the US. In particular, the dissertation focuses on nutritional and gender inequalities.

The second chapter, which is work performed jointly with Tatiana Baron and Pengpeng Xiao, studies the drivers of the differential wage growth between men and women. We document the widening gender wage gap and the gender differences in the transition rates into and out of employment and human capital dynamics over the life cycle in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1979 (NLSY79). We then develop an equilibrium search model to assess the extent to which labor market frictions, human capital accumulation, and motherhood contribute to the differential wage growth between men and women. In our framework, men and women have exogenously different transition probabilities and diverging human capital processes. Furthermore, women's careers can be impacted by maternity leave coverage policies. Firms respond to these gender differences when posting wages in market equilibrium. Results are in progress.

Bibliography Citation
Amano Patino, Noriko G. Essays on Inequality. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 2018.
149. American Demographics
New Tax Rules for Day-Care Providers
Numbers News, 12,3, March 1992: 8
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: P.K. Francese 1980-1996
Keyword(s): Child Care; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One way to keep up with social trends is to follow changes in IRS regulations. As cultural and family situations change, so do the tax rules. According to a 1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 28 percent of working mothers with preschoolers used nonrelatives for child care, many in the caretaker's private home. As a latest sign of the times, the IRS has simplified things for people who provide day care in their homes. Those who use their homes for a state-licensed day-care business used to have to keep logs of what rooms were used for how many hours each day. No longer. Any room that is available or used regularly as part of a day-care business is fully counted as a business room. The day-care provider then simply calculates the percent of yearly hours the home is used as a business and the share of total square footage that is used regularly as part of the day-care service to determine the allowable home-cost deductions. This new regulation only makes sense, since kids take up a lot of space. Unlike a computer sitting on a desk in a home office, children tend to spread out and may require the use of a playroom, bedroom, bathroom, and kitchen in the course of their activities. If most or all of your home is fair game for the children you are paid to watch, it's only fair that you are able to deduct the cost of maintaining all those rooms they could potentially mess up.
Bibliography Citation
American Demographics. "New Tax Rules for Day-Care Providers." Numbers News, 12,3, March 1992: 8.
150. Amorim, Mariana
Tach, Laura
Multiple-Partner Fertility and Cohort Change in the Prevalence of Half-Siblings
Demography 56 (2019): 2033-2061.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-019-00820-3
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Formation; Family Structure; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transformation of the American family under the second demographic transition has created more opportunities for parents to have children with multiple partners, but data limitations have hampered prevalence estimates of multiple-partner fertility from the perspective of children. This study uses nationally representative data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to examine cohort change in children's exposure to multiple-partner fertility. We find that one in five children in the 1979 cohort had at least one half-sibling by their 18th birthday, and the prevalence grew to more than one in four children by the 1997 cohort. A strong educational gradient in exposure to half-siblings persists across both cohorts, but large racial/ethnic disparities have narrowed over time. Using demographic decomposition techniques, we find that change in the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition of the U.S. population cannot explain the growth in exposure to half-siblings. We conclude by discussing the shifting patterns of fertility and family formation associated with sibling complexity and considering the implications for child development and social stratification.
Bibliography Citation
Amorim, Mariana and Laura Tach. "Multiple-Partner Fertility and Cohort Change in the Prevalence of Half-Siblings." Demography 56 (2019): 2033-2061.
151. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Bansak, Cynthia
The Impact of Amnesty on Labor Market Outcomes: A Panel Study Using the Legalized Population Survey
Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London, CReAM Discussion Paper Series, number 1106. 2010 & 2011 versions: IZA Discussion Papers 5576, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM)
Keyword(s): Amnesty / Legalized Population; Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA); Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Outcomes; Legalized Population Survey (LPS)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper tests whether amnesty, a provision of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), affected the labor market outcomes of the legalized population. Using the Legalized Population Survey (LPS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1987-1992, a quasi-experimental framework is developed to assess the differential impact of amnesty on the legalized population relative to a comparison group. After the implementation of the amnesty program, employment fell and unemployment rose for newly legalized men relative to the comparison group of already legal U.S. residents. For women, employment also fell and transitions out of the workforce increased among the newly legalized population. Increasing returns to skill, as captured by English proficiency, only played an important role in explaining the employment of newly legalized women. Finally, newly legalized men and women enjoyed higher wage growth rates than their working native counterparts, perhaps owing to their comparatively growing returns to U.S. educational attainment over this period.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Cynthia Bansak. "The Impact of Amnesty on Labor Market Outcomes: A Panel Study Using the Legalized Population Survey." Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London, CReAM Discussion Paper Series, number 1106. 2010 & 2011 versions: IZA Discussion Papers 5576, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)..
152. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Bansak, Cynthia
The Role of Contingent Work in the War Against Poverty
Working Paper No. 03-01, Department of Economics, San Diego State University, January 2003.
Also: http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/dept/econ/WPSeries/WorkingPaper0301.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, San Diego State University
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Job Characteristics; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Probit; Poverty; Wages, Women; Welfare; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we examine: (1) the likelihood of taking a contingent job given one's welfare dependency and past poverty status; (2) the probability of being on welfare for different types of contingent workers relative to their non-contingent counterparts; and (3) the likelihood of living in poverty in the near future as a function of past employment in alternative types of contingent jobs. Using data for women from the NLSY79 between 1994 and 1998, we first examine the incidence of poverty and welfare dependency among different types of contingent and non-contingent workers, and describe the personal and job characteristics associated with contingent employment. Following the descriptive evidence, we examine the relationship between welfare participation and contingent work. Given the simultaneity of these outcomes, we estimate a simultaneous equation probit model with sample selection for being employed, while correcting the standard errors for clustering at the individual level. Results from these models indicate that being on welfare has a significant positive effect on the probability of taking a contingent job. However, holding a contingent work contract does not, by itself, increase the likelihood of being on welfare once we control for other characteristics of the contingent job itself -- such as the low pay, lack of fringe benefits, weekly hours of work, unionization, firm size, and industry of employment -- and some of the worker's characteristics -- including educational attainment, occupation as a proxy for skill, tenure, and intermittent work patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Cynthia Bansak. "The Role of Contingent Work in the War Against Poverty." Working Paper No. 03-01, Department of Economics, San Diego State University, January 2003.
153. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Kimmel, Jean
Do College Educated Women Reduce Their Motherhood Wage Penalty by Delaying Childbearing?
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Earnings; Fertility; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One of the stylized facts from the past thirty years has been the declining rate of first births before age 30 for all women and the increase rate of first births after age 30 among women with four-year college degrees (Martin 2000). What are some of the factors behind womens decision to postpone their childbearing? We hypothesize that the wage gap often observed between like-educated mothers and non-mothers (Waldfogel 1998) may be mitigated by postponing fertility. We use individual-level data on women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a wage equation model that is later on expanded to address fundamental econometric issues and the education/fertility issue at hand. We find that half of the motherhood wage gap of college-educated women can be eliminated by postponing fertility until their thirties, helping us understand the postponement of maternity among educated women and the overall decline in fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Jean Kimmel. "Do College Educated Women Reduce Their Motherhood Wage Penalty by Delaying Childbearing?" Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
154. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Kimmel, Jean
Moonlighting Behavior over the Business Cycle
IZA Discussion Paper No. 1671, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, Bonn, Germany, 2005.
Also: http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp%5Fid=1671
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Economics, Demographic; Gender Differences; Sample Selection

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the cyclicality by sex of moonlighting and moonlighting hours. We find that, once we account for the sample selection into employment, both men and women exhibit procyclical moonlighting probabilities. Likewise, moonlighting hours for male multiple job holders are procyclical. These findings contradict the frequent claim that moonlighting increases during economic downturns due to economic hardship. Instead, moonlighting appears responsive to growing employment opportunities during economic expansions. At any rate, the systematic variation of moonlighting over the business cycle may have implications for the procyclical nature of real wages. --Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit web site.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Jean Kimmel. "Moonlighting Behavior over the Business Cycle." IZA Discussion Paper No. 1671, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, Bonn, Germany, 2005.
155. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Kimmel, Jean
Moonlighting Over the Business Cycle.
Economic Inquiry 47,4 (October 2009): 754-765.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00140.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Economic Changes/Recession; Economics of Gender; Gender; Gender Differences; Work, Atypical

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the cyclicality of moonlighting by gender. We estimate a random-effects Tobit model of moonlighting among working men and women and find that while male moonlighting behavior does not fluctuate significantly with the business cycle, female moonlighting does. The cyclicality of female moonlighting has, nonetheless, varied over the course of the past 35 yr. Female moonlighting seemed to behave countercyclically during much of the 1980s and early 1990s, confirming the popular media belief that moonlighting is more likely to occur during periods of economic distress. Yet, this countercyclical behavior disappears during the 1993-1999 period to become procyclical by the early twentieth century. The recent procyclicality of female moonlighting supports the idea that female workers respond to a need for "just-in-time" employment following the economic upturn of the mid- to late 1990s. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Jean Kimmel. "Moonlighting Over the Business Cycle." Economic Inquiry 47,4 (October 2009): 754-765.
156. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Kimmel, Jean
The Motherhood Wage Gap for Women in the United States: The Importance of College and Fertility Delay
Review of Economics of the Household 3,1 (March 2005): 17-48.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/u371kgl72303k370/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Childbearing; College Graduates; Fertility; First Birth; Heterogeneity; Mothers, Income; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One of the stylized facts from the past 30 years has been the declining rate of first births before age 30 for all women and the increase rate of first births after age 30 among women with four-year college degrees (Steven P. Martin, Demography, 37(4), 523–533, 2000). What are some of the factors behind womens decision to postpone their childbearing? We hypothesize that the wage difference often observed between like-educated mothers and non-mothers (Jane Waldfogel, Journal of Labor Economics, 16, 505–545, 1998a; Journal of Economic Perspectives 12(1) 137–156, 1998b) may be affected by the postponement of childbearing until after careers are fully established. Hence, we focus on college-educated women because they are typically more career-oriented than their non-college educated counterparts and also the group most often observed postponing maternity. We use individual-level data on women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) in order to control for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity as well as human capital characteristics, such as actual work experience, in our empirical analysis. We estimate wage equations, first producing base-line results to compare to the existing literature. Then, we expand the basic wage equation model to address fundamental econometric issues and the education/fertility issue at hand. Our empirical findings are two-fold. First, we find that college-educated mothers do not experience a motherhood wage penalty at all. In fact, they enjoy a wage boost when compared to college-educated childless women. Second, fertility delay enhances this wage boost even further. Our results provide an explanation for the observed postponement of maternity for educated women. We argue that the wage boost experienced by college-educated mothers may be the result of their search for family–friendly work environments, which, in turn, yields job matches with more female-friendly firms offering greater opportunities for advancement.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Jean Kimmel. "The Motherhood Wage Gap for Women in the United States: The Importance of College and Fertility Delay." Review of Economics of the Household 3,1 (March 2005): 17-48.
157. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Mach, Traci Lynn
How Have Performance Based Pay Systems Fared During the Past Decade? Evidence from the NLSY79
Working Paper No. 00-05, Department of Economics, San Diego State University, May 2000.
Also: http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~econ/f_papers.htm#98
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, San Diego State University
Keyword(s): Performance pay; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Traci Lynn Mach. "How Have Performance Based Pay Systems Fared During the Past Decade? Evidence from the NLSY79." Working Paper No. 00-05, Department of Economics, San Diego State University, May 2000.
158. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Mach, Traci Lynn
Performance Pay and Fringe Benefits: Work Incentives or Compensating Wage Differentials?
International Journal of Manpower 24,6 (2003): 673-698.
Also: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0143-7720&volume=24&issue=6&articleid=848396&show=abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: MCB University Press
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Insurance, Health; Performance pay; Wages; Wages, Men; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Uses longitudinal data from the NLSY79 to examine the effect of a broad variety of performance-based pay schemes and fringe benefits on male and female wages between 1988 and 1998. Specifically, analyzes whether the offer of various performance-based pay schemes and fringe benefits functions as an alternative work incentive, eliciting greater effort and raising wages or, instead, it is accompanied by lower wages, as predicted by compensating wage theory. The results indicate that, while most performance-based pay schemes are associated with higher wages to differing extents across gender, tips are commonly accompanied by lower wages among men. Similarly, while the offer of a retirement plan appears to as a work incentive raising male and female wages, workers are willing to trade wages for jobs offering life and medical insurance.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Traci Lynn Mach. "Performance Pay and Fringe Benefits: Work Incentives or Compensating Wage Differentials?" International Journal of Manpower 24,6 (2003): 673-698.
159. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Pozo, Susan
Do Immigrants Differ from Natives in Their Wealth Accumulation Patterns? Evidence from the NLSY79
Working Paper No. 00-03, Department of Economics, San Diego State University, March 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, San Diego State University
Keyword(s): Immigrants; Savings; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study finds that both the wealth accumulation and savings of immigrants are lower than their native born counterparts. [This study does] not indicate the time at which immigrants begin saving, the conclusion that foreign born individuals save less than native born individuals may indicate that the point at which saving begins is later for those who immigrate into this country.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Susan Pozo. "Do Immigrants Differ from Natives in Their Wealth Accumulation Patterns? Evidence from the NLSY79." Working Paper No. 00-03, Department of Economics, San Diego State University, March 2000.
160. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Pozo, Susan
Precautionary Saving by Young Immigrants and Young Natives
Southern Economic Journal 69,1 (July 2002): 48-72.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1061556
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Immigrants; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Modeling; Savings; Wealth

Explores the wealth accumulation patterns of younger cohorts as well as immigrants' and natives' precautionary saving in response to income uncertainty using the 1979 Young Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys. Time-varying, conditional measure of income uncertainty; Buffer-stock model of savings.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Susan Pozo. "Precautionary Saving by Young Immigrants and Young Natives." Southern Economic Journal 69,1 (July 2002): 48-72.
161. Anderson, Andrew A.
Human Capital and Educational Institutions
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Human Capital; Life Cycle Research; Occupational Choice; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This work investigates the implications of human capital specialization as well as the challenges of teacher evaluation. The first two chapters contrast occupational college majors with more general courses of study, for example mathematics versus accounting. The first chapter introduces the Herfindahl-Hirschman index as an objective measure of the occupational concentration of a college major. Outcomes are documented using the American Community Survey 2009 and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Occupational majors are associated with higher wages and are not correlated with either the incidence or the duration of unemployment spells. These findings indicate that occupational study may confer productivity gains without augmenting unemployment risk.

The second chapter uses a life cycle model to evaluate the role of occupational study in providing information about occupational preferences. The model is estimated using a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The results suggest that the opportunity to gain preference information is an important advantage of occupational courses of study. Furthermore, consistent with Chapter 1, the productivity gain from occupational study is greater than the gain from general study.

Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Andrew A. Human Capital and Educational Institutions. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2014.
162. Anderson, Douglas K.
Adolescent Mothers Drop Out
American Sociological Review 58,5 (October 1993): 735-738.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096284
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Data Quality/Consistency; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Comment on Upchurch and McCarthy, ASR, April 1990. To address the relationships between adolescent childbearing and completion of high school, Upchurch and McCarthy (1990, henceforward UM) examined the frequency and timing of three critical events in the lives of young women: the birth of a first child, dropping out of high school, and high school graduation. Socioeconomic factors were used as controls. Unfortunately, UM misinterpret their results at several key points.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Douglas K. "Adolescent Mothers Drop Out." American Sociological Review 58,5 (October 1993): 735-738.
163. Anderson, Douglas K.
Effects of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhood on High School Dropout
Discussion Paper No. 1027-93, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, December 1993.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED384688.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childbearing; Educational Status; Family Background and Culture; Fertility; High School Dropouts; Modeling; Motherhood; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A previous version of this paper was presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, April 1, 1993, Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the effect of fertility on high school dropout, and differences in that effect by age at first birth. Fertility is conceptualized as a series of states: pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, and motherhood. Pregnant students and mothers are much more likely to drop out than students who are not pregnant or mothers. Models including a wide variety of controls for social background, ability, schooling factors, and adolescent behaviors show that the net effects of pregnancy and motherhood on dropout are substantively and statistically significant. The effects of fertility on dropout are strongest for the youngest students.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Douglas K. "Effects of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhood on High School Dropout." Discussion Paper No. 1027-93, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, December 1993.
164. Anderson, Douglas K.
Effects of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhood on High School Dropout and Graduation
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childbearing; Educational Status; Family Background and Culture; Fertility; First Birth; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Minimum Wage; Motherhood; Mothers; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The educational effects of a first birth are explored by estimating the consequences of pregnancy, giving birth, and being a mother on high school dropout and on graduation among previous dropouts. Event history analysis is based on schooling histories constructed from annual enrollment reports and fertility histories of female respondents of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 to 1986 interviews. Controlling for background, pregnancy dramatically increases the incidence of dropout, especially for very young women. Mothers, especially new mothers and very young mothers, have significantly elevated dropout rates. Dropout mothers have lower rates of graduation than other dropouts for at least the first six years after dropout.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Douglas K. "Effects of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhood on High School Dropout and Graduation." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
165. Anderson, Douglas K.
Paths Through Secondary Education: Race/Ethnic and Gender Differences
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Education, Secondary; Ethnic Differences; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Gender Differences; High School Dropouts; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Racial Differences; School Completion

Secondary education is a series of transitions: entry to high school, grade repetition, dropout, re-enrollment after dropout, and alternative diploma-earning. After documenting race/ethnic and gender differences in these transitions, this work examines the correlates and determinants of each transition. The analysis is based primarily on hazard rate models of secondary schooling histories from 1978-79 to 1985-86 of 5,755 individuals drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1960 to 1964 birth cohorts. Male students are more likely to repeat grades, a difference not explained by any characteristics included in this analysis. There was no appreciable gender difference in dropout rates. Ability is a strong predictor of grade repetition, while dropout depends on ability, background, and many intervening variables. Analyses of re-enrollment and earning alternative diplomas (GEDs) revealed few reliable race/ethnic or gender differences. All else equal, black dropouts returned to school at higher rates than white dropouts, and male dropouts returned at lower rates than female dropouts.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Douglas K. Paths Through Secondary Education: Race/Ethnic and Gender Differences. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994.
166. Anderson, K. J.
Effects of Migration and Training on Post-Service Earnings of All-Volunteer Force Veterans
M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Earnings; Human Capital Theory; Migration; Military Training; Training; Veterans

NTIS Accession Number: AD-A237 233/2/XAB. This thesis investigated the effects of migration on the post-service earnings of 21-to-27 year old veterans from the All-Volunteer Force Era. The National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Youth Cohort, years 1979 to 1984, was used as the source of data. The effects of migration by veterans and civilians between states and counties were studied using human capital theory. Additionally, this thesis investigated the effects of different branches of service and military training (both formal and on-the-job training) on post-service civilian earnings. When military experience was characterized with a single dummy variable, veterans incurred approximately a five percent earnings penalty for their military service. However, migration between states by veterans was found to increase post-service earnings by nearly ten percent. When the veterans' military experience was characterized by branch of service and the amount of formal and on-the-job training, no penalty was associated with military service. Veterans who served in the Air Force received a 1.0 to 1.2 percent earnings premium for each week of formal training they received.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, K. J. Effects of Migration and Training on Post-Service Earnings of All-Volunteer Force Veterans. M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1990.
167. Anderson, Kirsten Lee
Goodnight, Jackson A.
Maternal Use of Corporal Punishment and Behavior Problems in Early Childhood: A Sibling Comparison Analysis
Child Abuse and Neglect 129 (July 2022): 105679.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213422001995#!
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Punishment, Corporal; Siblings

Objective: This study explored the relationship between maternal use of CP at ages 3-4 years and symptoms of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems between the ages of 6 and 9 years using a sibling comparison design. In doing so, we were able to control for shared environmental factors and partially control for genetic factors that could explain the relationship between CP and behavior problems.

Methods: This study analyzed data from 11,506 children from the United States. We used generalized linear models to assess the relationship between the use of CP and behavior problems among biological siblings raised in the same home.

Results: At the population level, CP was significantly associated with the development of internalizing behavior problems (β = 0.134, SE = 0.03, p < .001). When comparing siblings, this relationship was no longer significant. In contrast, CP was significantly associated with externalizing behavior problems at both the population (β = 0.233, SE = 0.02, p < .001) and sibling comparison level (β = 0.107, SE = 0.03, p < .001).

Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Kirsten Lee and Jackson A. Goodnight. "Maternal Use of Corporal Punishment and Behavior Problems in Early Childhood: A Sibling Comparison Analysis." Child Abuse and Neglect 129 (July 2022): 105679.
168. Anderson, Patricia M.
Effect of Employer-Provided Health Insurance on Job Mobility: Job-Lock or Job-Push?
Working Paper, Department of Economics, Dartmouth College and NBER, October 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Census of Population; Health Care; Insurance, Health; Job Rewards; Job Satisfaction; Job Turnover; Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility, Job; Work Attachment

According to Census Bureau figures, 61.4 percent of all Americans were covered by employment-based health insurance coverage in 1997. This unique link between one's job and one's medical coverage has continually raised concerns over both the numbers of uninsured and the possible impact of this linkage on labor market outcomes. For example, much attention has been paid in recent years to the problem of job-lock, in which workers feel trapped in their current jobs because of fear of losing their current health insurance, given that workers who become unemployed or change jobs often spend a period without health insurance. Among those having one or more job interruption between 1993 and 1996, 44 percent went 1 month or more uncovered, compared to just 85 percent for those working full time for the entire 36 month period. At the same time, another potential impact of health insurance on mobility has received much less attention than job-lock, but is the mirror image of that problem. Rather than being locked into a job that, absent the link between employer and health insurance, a worker would leave, a worker in need of coverage may be pushed out of a job in which they would otherwise remain. I term this phenomenon "job-push" to parallel the job-lock terminology. Properly attributing the difference in job mobility induced by employer-provided health insurance to job lock or job-push has important policy implications, because policy reforms directed at job-lock may have no effect on job-push, and may possibly even worsen the problems.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Patricia M. "Effect of Employer-Provided Health Insurance on Job Mobility: Job-Lock or Job-Push?" Working Paper, Department of Economics, Dartmouth College and NBER, October 1998.
169. Anderson, Patricia M.
Butcher, Kristin F.
Levine, Phillip B.
Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity
Economic Perspectives 27,3 (Fall 2003):30-49.
Also: http://ideas.repec.org/a/fip/fedhep/y2003iqiiip30-48nv.27no.3.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Discusses the reason of the interest on obesity in an economic perspective in the U.S. Changes in rates of obesity in the U.S.; Examination in the children's lives; Relationship of maternal employment on the obesity of children. "...We use NLSY data to examine whether mothers who work more hours...are more likely to have obese children."

First, we discuss why trends in obesity, and childhood obesity in particular, are of interest from an economic perspective....Next, we document changes in obesity over time in the United States for adults and children....Third, we discuss changes in children's lives over the last three decades that may be causally related to weight gain. In particular, we examine the increase in mothers working outside the home. It may be that mothers who work outside the home may not have time to prepare nutritious low-calorie meals and supervise their children's outdoor, calorie-expending play. We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine whether mothers who work more hours per week, on average, or more weeks over their children's lives are more likely to have obese children. The data contain information on many socioeconomic characteristics of families and multiple observations over time on all of a mother's children. This allows us to control for many observable and unobservable differences between mothers who work and mothers who do not that might be correlated with children's weight. For example, we can examine whether siblings' obesity status differs depending on whether their mother worked more during one sibling's life than the other's. This holds constant all of the (fixed) family characteristics that might be correlated both with children's weight and mothers' labor supply.

Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Patricia M., Kristin F. Butcher and Phillip B. Levine. "Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity." Economic Perspectives 27,3 (Fall 2003):30-49.
170. Anderson, Patricia M.
Butcher, Kristin F.
Levine, Phillip B.
Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity
In: The Economics of Obesity, E-FAN-04-004, Economic Research Service, USDA, 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Health; Height; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Obesity; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the authors employ several econometric techniques to identify whether the relationship between maternal employment and childhood overweight reflects more than a spurious correlation. First, they estimate models relating the likelihood of a child’s being overweight on a full range of observable characteristics of the mother and child. Second, they estimate models explaining the change in overweight status over time so as to eliminate any unobserved child-specific and family-specific fixed effects. Finally, they estimate instrumental variables models, using as instruments the variation between States and over time in the unemployment rate, child care regulations, wages of child care workers, welfare benefit levels, and the status of welfare reform in the States. The models were also estimated separately by income, maternal education, and race/ethnicity subgroups.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Patricia M., Kristin F. Butcher and Phillip B. Levine. "Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity." In: The Economics of Obesity, E-FAN-04-004, Economic Research Service, USDA, 2004.
171. Anderson, Patricia M.
Butcher, Kristin F.
Levine, Phillip B.
Maternal Employment and Overweight Children
Working Paper 281, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Evanston IL, January 2002.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/anderson_butcher_levine.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Child Care; Child Health; Height; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Probit; Obesity; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates whether children are more or less likely to be overweight if their mothers work. The prevalence of both overweight children and working mothers has risen dramatically over the past few decades, although these parallel trends may be coincidental. The goal of this paper is to help determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood overweight. To accomplish this, we mainly utilize matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and employ three main econometric techniques, probit models, sibling difference models, and instrumental variables models in this analysis. Our results indicate that a child is more likely to be overweight if his/her mother worked more intensively (in the form of greater hours per week) over the child's life. This effect is particularly evident for children of white mothers, of mothers with more education, and of mothers with a high income level. Applying our estimates to the trend towards greater maternal employment indicates that the increased hours worked per week among mothers between 1975 and 1999 led to about a 0.4 to 0.7 percentage point increase in overweight children, which represents a relatively small share of the overall increase.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Patricia M., Kristin F. Butcher and Phillip B. Levine. "Maternal Employment and Overweight Children." Working Paper 281, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Evanston IL, January 2002.
172. Anderson, Patricia M.
Butcher, Kristin F.
Levine, Phillip B.
Maternal Employment and Overweight Children
NBER Working Paper No. 8770, National Bureau of Economic Research, August 2002.
Also: http://papers.nber.org/papers/W8770.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Child Care; Child Health; Height; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Probit; Obesity; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

This paper investigates whether children are more or less likely to be overweight if their mothers work. The prevalence of both overweight children and working mothers has risen dramatically over the past few decades, although these parallel trends may be coincidental. The goal of this paper is to help determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood overweight. To accomplish this, we mainly utilize matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and employ three main econometric techniques, probit models, sibling difference models, and instrumental variables models in this analysis. Our results indicate that a child is more likely to be overweight if his/her mother worked more intensively (in the form of greater hours per week) over the child's life. This effect is particularly evident for children of white mothers, of mothers with more education, and of mothers with a high income level. Applying our estimates to the trend towards greater maternal employment indicates that the increased hours worked per week among mothers between 1975 and 1999 led to about a 0.4 to 0.7 percentage point increase in overweight children, which represents a relatively small share of the overall increase.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Patricia M., Kristin F. Butcher and Phillip B. Levine. "Maternal Employment and Overweight Children." NBER Working Paper No. 8770, National Bureau of Economic Research, August 2002.
173. Anderson, Patricia M.
Butcher, Kristin F.
Levine, Phillip B.
Maternal Employment and Overweight Children
Journal of Health Economics 22,3 (May 2003): 477-505.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629603000225
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Health; Height; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

This paper seeks to determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood weight problems. We use matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and employ econometric techniques to control for observable and unobservable differences across individuals and families that may influence both children's weight and their mothers' work patterns. Our results indicate that a child is more likely to be overweight if his/her mother worked more hours per week over the child's life. Analyses by subgroups show that it is higher socioeconomic status mothers whose work intensity is particularly deleterious for their children's overweight status. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Patricia M., Kristin F. Butcher and Phillip B. Levine. "Maternal Employment and Overweight Children." Journal of Health Economics 22,3 (May 2003): 477-505.
174. Anderson, Steven G.
Eamon, Mary Keegan
Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families
Social Work 49,3 (July 2004): 395-406.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=13824343&db=aph
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Keyword(s): Education; Family Studies; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Insurance, Health; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study period, and low-income women with poor education, single marital status, low work hours, and frequent job changes were at even greater risk of coverage instability. The findings also imply that women affected by recent welfare reforms are likely to experience widespread health coverage problems. The implications for health care policy development, social work administration, and social work practice are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Steven G. and Mary Keegan Eamon. "Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families." Social Work 49,3 (July 2004): 395-406.
175. Anderson, Steven G.
Eamon, Mary Keegan
Stability of Health Care Coverage Among Low-Income Working Women
Health and Social Work 30,1 (February 2005): 7-18
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Health Care; Hispanics; Insurance, Health; Medicaid/Medicare; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines health insurance stability patterns and the factors associated with stable coverage in a sample of 453 low-income working women. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the authors found that only 51 percent of these women had stable coverage during 1995-1997. Logistic regression results indicate that, controlling for other factors, health insurance stability is significantly higher for those who have higher levels of welfare receipt, have more work hours, have fewer job changes, have higher education levels, are African American or Hispanic, and who live outside central cities. The findings suggest that point-in-time health coverage estimates substantially underestimate the health coverage problems of low-income working women. Health policies need to be more sensitive to transitional problems resulting from job changes, marital disruptions, and other changes in circumstances. Recommendations for revising health care policies and for improving existing health care programs are presented. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Steven G. and Mary Keegan Eamon. "Stability of Health Care Coverage Among Low-Income Working Women." Health and Social Work 30,1 (February 2005): 7-18.
176. Anderson, Theresa M.
What If Mom Went Back to School? A Mixed Methods Study of Effects and Experiences for Both Generations When Mothers Return to School
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Public Policy and Administration, The George Washington University, 2020
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Student-mothers are a substantial and growing share of US college students. In 2016, about 28% of undergraduate women had children, amounting to over 2.6 million student-mothers. I completed the first quantitative research on the long-term effects on parents and children when mothers reenroll in school, tracking each generation's outcomes for up to two decades with national survey data. In this mixed-methods study, contemporary insights and policy recommendations come from qualitative interviews.

My research reveals a complex picture. On average, mothers who reenroll attain more educational credentials, work more, and earn more than similar mothers who do not reenroll. However, mothers who reenroll are less likely to be married, family income declines, and they experience some negative physical and mental health effects.

Mothers' reenrollment relates to small, short-term gains in children's vocabulary and reading scores, but also more behavioral problems that persist into early adulthood. In the long term, children of mothers who go back to school have better academic outcomes, but this does not manifest in earnings gains in their early careers. There is no effect on children's probability of getting married, but children have some negative health impacts on average. Results vary somewhat by subgroup.

Policy and practice can help women and their families balance education, family, work, and personal responsibilities. This is particularly important for women of color, who are more likely to experience education disruptions and return to school later in life and who represent an ever-growing share of college students.

Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Theresa M. What If Mom Went Back to School? A Mixed Methods Study of Effects and Experiences for Both Generations When Mothers Return to School. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Public Policy and Administration, The George Washington University, 2020.
177. Anderson, Thomas
Gender Ideology and Fertility Trends in the United States: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While high levels of gender equity strongly correlate with moderately high levels of fertility among developed countries, contradictory empirical evidence has caused a debate whether the relationship between low gender equity and low fertility holds within these societies. Within the United States, few studies have systematically analyzed individuals' attitudes on gender equity and their associations with fertility outcomes. Of those that have, their evidence remains inconclusive at best. Using data from the NLSY 1979, this paper fills in the gaps in the literature on fertility and gender equity in the United States by analyzing whether gender equity attitudes are predictive of completed family size and birth progressions. I find that both men and women with progressive views on gender equity have lower fertility than their traditional counterparts, though these results were stronger, more consistent, and more significant across models for women.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Thomas. "Gender Ideology and Fertility Trends in the United States: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
178. Anderson, Thomas
Three Essays on the Social, Economic, and Demographic Causes and Consequences of Low Fertility
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Demography, University of Pennsylvania, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Fertility; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 2 takes a micro-level approach by exploring the relationship between fertility and gender norms in the United States. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY 79), I find that both men and women with progressive views on gender equity have lower fertility than their traditional counterparts, though these results were stronger, more consistent, and more significant across models for women.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Thomas. Three Essays on the Social, Economic, and Demographic Causes and Consequences of Low Fertility. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Demography, University of Pennsylvania, 2015.
179. Andini, Corrado
How Well Does a Dynamic Mincer Equation Fit NLSY Data? Evidence Based on a Simple Wage-Bargaining Model
Empirical Economics 44,3 (June 2013): 1519-1543.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00181-012-0581-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Modeling; Statistical Analysis; Unemployment Compensation; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article argues that a dynamic Mincer equation can be seen as the solution of a simple wage-bargaining model between a worker and an employer where the unemployment-benefit level, affecting the outside option of the worker, depends on past wages. Further, it shows that this model provides a good fit of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data. The evidence is robust to a number of sensitivity checks.
Bibliography Citation
Andini, Corrado. "How Well Does a Dynamic Mincer Equation Fit NLSY Data? Evidence Based on a Simple Wage-Bargaining Model." Empirical Economics 44,3 (June 2013): 1519-1543.
180. Andini, Corrado
Persistence Bias and the Wage-Schooling Model
IZA Discussion Paper No. 7186, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2013.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7186.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Modeling, OLS; Schooling; Wage Dynamics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper provides an expression for the bias of the OLS estimator of the schooling coefficient in a simple static wage-schooling model where earnings persistence is not accounted for. It is argued that the OLS estimator of the schooling coefficient is biased upward, and the bias is increasing with potential labor-market experience and the degree of earnings persistence. In addition, NLSY data are used to show that the magnitude of the persistence bias is non-negligible, and the bias cannot be cured by increasing the control set. Further, it is shown that disregarding earnings persistence is still problematic for the estimation of the schooling coefficient even if individual unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity are taken into account. Overall, the findings support the dynamic approach to the estimation of wage-schooling models recently suggested by Andini (2012; 2013).
Bibliography Citation
Andini, Corrado. "Persistence Bias and the Wage-Schooling Model." IZA Discussion Paper No. 7186, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2013.
181. Andini, Corrado
Returns to Education and Wage Equations: a Dynamic Approach
Applied Economics Letters 14,8 (June 2007): 577-579.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13504850500461555
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Routledge ==> Taylor & Francis (1998)
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Returns; Modeling; Wage Differentials; Wage Equations

We study the impact of education on within-groups wage inequality using quantile-regression techniques and U.S. data for the period of 1980-1987. Our contribution consists of comparing estimates based on a standard Mincer equation with estimates based on a modified Mincer equation in which past earnings play the role of additional explanatory variable. We find that a dynamic model does not give the same answer as a static model regarding the impact of schooling on earnings dispersion, and provide an explanation for this result. [Abstract from the Author]

Data are from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for the period of 1980-1987

Bibliography Citation
Andini, Corrado. "Returns to Education and Wage Equations: a Dynamic Approach." Applied Economics Letters 14,8 (June 2007): 577-579.
182. Andrade, Sally J.
Aspirations of Adolescent Hispanic Females for Marriage, Children, Education and Employment
Report, National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, May 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Expectations/Intentions; Hispanics; Marriage; Racial Differences; Sex Roles

This study provides descriptive profiles of the aspirations of adolescent Hispanic females and males and analyzes the relative differences and similarities among young Hispanics, whites/Anglos, and blacks. Young Hispanic females tended to be married more than other groups, but data from both the NLSY and the High School and Beyond Survey suggest that young white females value marriage somewhat more than Hispanic females. Hispanic females apparently idealize larger size families to a greater extent than white females and expect to have slightly more children, while white females give a higher rating to the importance of having children. Black females were less likely than either Hispanic or white young women to be married, expect to married, and marry early. They were more likely already to have had a child than the other two groups of young women, and while they tended to idealize large families, they had the lowest expectations of having large numbers of children and the highest percentage who did not expect to have any children. Young Hispanic males seemed somewhat more positive about marriage than black males and similar or more positive than white males. In both surveys, Hispanic males were more positive about larger families than were Hispanic females, as was true in the case of Black males and females. Implications for family formation, plans on labor force participation is also discussed. The study concludes overall that no clear- cut pattern emerges that allows one to characterize Hispanics as less motivated or more traditional in their attitudes than their white and black counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Andrade, Sally J. "Aspirations of Adolescent Hispanic Females for Marriage, Children, Education and Employment." Report, National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, May 1982.
183. Andrew, Mark
Haurin, Donald R.
Munasib, Abdul
Explaining the Route to Owner-Occupation: A Transatlantic Comparison
Journal of Housing Economics 15,3 (September 2006): 189-216.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1051137706000180#
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): British Household Panel Survey (BHPS); Cross-national Analysis; Home Ownership; Income; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Wealth

This paper compares the transition of young adults from renting to first-time homeownership in Britain and the U.S. By adopting a common theoretical and methodological framework, we identify behavioural similarities and differences in transitions in the two countries. We find that the higher ownership rates among British young adults are caused by quicker transitions and our study sheds light on which factors contribute to this difference. We use British and U.S. longitudinal data sets for the analysis and a relative risk Cox hazard model in the empirical work. Although there are behavioural similarities in attaining first-time homeownership with regard to the demographic and housing market variables, there are substantial differences in the two populations’ responses to income and wealth, where we find that young adults’ transitions to homeownership in Britain are more responsive.
Bibliography Citation
Andrew, Mark, Donald R. Haurin and Abdul Munasib. "Explaining the Route to Owner-Occupation: A Transatlantic Comparison." Journal of Housing Economics 15,3 (September 2006): 189-216.
184. Andrew, Megan
The Scarring Effects of Primary-Grade Retention? A Study of Cumulative Advantage in the Educational Career
Social Forces 93,2 (2014): 653-685.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/2/653
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Elementary School Students; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Propensity Scores; School Entry/Readiness; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Triggering events and the scarring, or status-dependence, process they induce are an important cornerstone of social stratification theory that is rarely studied in the context of the educational career. However, the decades-old high-stakes environment that ties many educational outcomes to a test score or other singular achievement underscores the potential importance of scarring in the contemporary educational career. In this paper, I study scarring in the educational career in the case of primary-grade retention. Using propensity score matching and sibling fixed-effects models, I evaluate evidence for primary-grade retention effects on high school completion and college entry and completion. I find consistent evidence of a causal effect of early primary school grade retention on high school completion. These effects operate largely through middle school academic achievements and expectations, suggesting that students who recover from the scar of grade retention on high school completion largely do so earlier rather than later in the educational career. Students can continue to recover from the effects of grade retention through early high school, not only through their academic achievements but through their expectations of high school completion as well. Models suggest that early primary grade retention scars the educational career mainly at high school completion, though there are important, unconditional effects on college entry and completion as a result. I conclude by placing these findings in the larger grade-retention literature and discussing future research on heterogeneities in and mechanisms of retention effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Andrew, Megan. "The Scarring Effects of Primary-Grade Retention? A Study of Cumulative Advantage in the Educational Career." Social Forces 93,2 (2014): 653-685.
185. Andrisani, Paul J.
Labor Market Data Needs from the Perspective of 'Dual' or 'Segmented Labor' Market Research: A Comment on Harrison and Sum
In: Counting the Labor Force. National Commission on Employment and Unemployment Statistics, ed. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1979
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Employment; Research Methodology

This paper comments on Harrison and Sum's paper, which includes a synopsis of segmented labor market theory, hypotheses, and data needs. They criticize existing public use data bases and make recommendations for changes. The author agrees with their criticism in part, and points out ways of modifying the new NLSY cohort to address most of the issues raised in the Harrison-Sum paper.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Labor Market Data Needs from the Perspective of 'Dual' or 'Segmented Labor' Market Research: A Comment on Harrison and Sum" In: Counting the Labor Force. National Commission on Employment and Unemployment Statistics, ed. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1979
186. Andrisani, Paul J.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Commitment to the Work Ethic and Success in the Labor Market: A Review of Research Findings
In: The Work Ethic-A Critical Analysis. J. Barbash, et al., eds. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Industrial Relations Research Association ==> LERA
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards; Job Satisfaction; Life Cycle Research; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes; Work Ethic; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This survey of studies focuses on the evidence from the NLSY and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) of a link between the strength of the work ethic and productivity. The literature shows that the strength of individuals' commitment to the work ethic affects various measures of their success in the labor market, even as favorable labor market experiences have feedback effects on the extent to which individuals are committed to the work ethic. The magnitude and precise character of the reciprocal relationships described are difficult to ascertain, however, since many studies have used only limited facets of what might be regarded as a complete measure of strength of the work ethic. Despite such limitations, these research findings are significant for public policy.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Herbert S. Parnes. "Commitment to the Work Ethic and Success in the Labor Market: A Review of Research Findings" In: The Work Ethic-A Critical Analysis. J. Barbash, et al., eds. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1983
187. Angerer, Xiaohong W.
Empirical Studies on Risk Management of Investers and Banks
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Human Capital; Income Risk; Labor Economics; Risk Perception; Risk-Taking

This dissertation is composed of two empirical studies on risk management. The first part focuses on investors' risk management; it is an empirical study of how investors' labor income risk affects their investment in risky assets. The second part of the study focuses on banks' interest rate risk management and also investigates how their interest rate risk management strategy affects their risk and return in the stock market.

Recent theoretical work has shown that uninsurable labor income risk likely reduces the share of risky assets in an investor's portfolio. Little empirical work has been done to examine this effect. The first study of this dissertation fills the void by investigating the relationship between portfolio shares and labor income risk in the NLSY79 data. The work has three novel features. First, the long labor income history in NLSY79 is used to estimate the labor income risk. Second, the study distinguishes between permanent labor income risk and transitory labor income risk, and estimates them for each individual rather than for groups. Third, I explicitly consider human capital as a component of an individual's portfolio. Human capital is treated as a risk-free asset and estimated by applying signal extraction techniques to individual labor income data. The study finds strong empirical support for the theory that labor income risk indeed significantly reduces the share of risky assets in an investor's portfolio. Furthermore, as economic theory suggests, permanent income risk has a significant effect on portfolio choice while transitory income risk has little effect. By implication, empirical work that does not distinguish between permanent income risk and transitory income risk will underestimate the effect of labor income risk on portfolio choice.

The second part of the dissertation is to fill the gap in the empirical literature on banks' interest rate risk management. Using a rolling sample of bank holding companies from 1986 to 2002, the study investigates how banks adjust their balance sheet maturity structure according to their perception of current and future interest rate changes. Banks tend to lengthen the maturity of net assets when the yield curve is steeply sloped and shorten it when they expect the interest rate to increase in the future. To account for the off-balance-sheet activity effect on banks' interest rate risk exposure, the sample is divided into those with high and low interest rate derivative activities. For banks with little off-balance-sheet interest rate derivative activities, the cross-sectional variation in responsiveness of maturity structure to interest rate changes explains the stock market risk and returns of banks' common equities. The interest rate risk management strategies reflect the extent of risk taking and are priced in the stock market. This finding contributes to the asset pricing literature by linking banks' stock market characteristics to their interest rate risk management strategies.

Bibliography Citation
Angerer, Xiaohong W. Empirical Studies on Risk Management of Investers and Banks. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2004.
188. Angerer, Xiaohong W.
Lam, Pok-Sang
Income Risk and Portfolio Choice: An Empirical Study
Journal of Finance 64,2 (April 2009): 1037-1055
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Earnings; Financial Investments; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Income Risk; Life Cycle Research

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the relationship between portfolio choice and labor income risk in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. Permanent income risk (variability of shocks to income that have permanent effect) significantly reduces the share of risky assets in the household's portfolio, while transitory income risk (variability of shocks with no lasting effect) does not. This result provides strong evidence that households' portfolio choices respond to labor income risks in a manner consistent with economic theory.
Bibliography Citation
Angerer, Xiaohong W. and Pok-Sang Lam. "Income Risk and Portfolio Choice: An Empirical Study." Journal of Finance 64,2 (April 2009): 1037-1055.
189. Angle, John
Dynamics of the Inequality Process
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Income; Modeling; Social Influences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The inequality process (IP) is a model of competition for wealth, derived from the surplus theory of social stratification. The IP models the stock concept of wealth to explain the flow concept of wealth, income. Here, derived are the IP dynamics of individual wealth conditioned on the IP parameter for education: (1) gains independent of the size of wealth; (2) losses proportional to the size of wealth; (3) a smaller proportion lost when a loss is incurred, the greater the IP analogue of education; & (4) mean gain equal to the size of loss only at the mean of wealth of those with the same parameter for level education. Year-to-year differences of individual wage & salary incomes in the 1990s in the 1979 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show (A) year-to-year increases independent of the size of wage & salary income; (B) mean year-to-year decreases directly proportional to the size of wage & salary income; (C) for those with year-to-year decreases, a mean proportional decrease smaller for the more educated; & (D) mean year-to-year increase approximately equals mean loss at the mean wage & salary income of those with the same education. The IP hypotheses are confirmed empirically.
Bibliography Citation
Angle, John. "Dynamics of the Inequality Process." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1999.
190. Angle, John
Statistical Signature of Pervasive Competition on Wage and Salary Incomes
The Journal of Mathematical Sociology 26,4 (December 2002): 217-270
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Income Dynamics/Shocks; Longitudinal Data Sets; Wage Dynamics

Population biologists and comparative animal behaviorists assume that competition between members of the same species allocates resource utility, but they cannot validate that assumption without a unidimensional measure of resource utility such as money, which they do not have since they leave humans to the social sciences. One of the social sciences, economics, takes the point of view that pervasive zero-sum competition between people does not determine wage and salary incomes. The present article validates the assumption of population biology and comparative animal behavior that competition within a species allocates resource utility by finding the statistical signature of pervasive zero-sum competition in longitudinal data on individual wage and salary incomes.
Bibliography Citation
Angle, John. "Statistical Signature of Pervasive Competition on Wage and Salary Incomes." The Journal of Mathematical Sociology 26,4 (December 2002): 217-270.
191. Angrist, Joshua D.
Lavy, Victor
The Effect of Teen Childbearing and Single Parenthood on Childhood Disabilities and Progress in School
NBER Working Paper No. 5807, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 1996.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/W5807
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Child Health; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Disability; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Marital Status; Parents, Single; Schooling; Teenagers

Teen and out-of-wedlock child-bearing are often thought to be responsible for poor health and low levels of schooling among the children of young mothers. This paper uses special disability and grade repetition questions from the school enrollment supplement to the 1992 Current Population Survey to estimate the effect of maternal age and single parenthood on children's disability status and school progress. Our results suggest that there is little association between maternal age at birth and children's disabilities. But the children of teen mothers are much more likely to repeat one or more grades than other children, and within-household estimates of this relationship are even larger than OLS estimates. The grade repetition findings from the CPS are replicated using a smaller sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Another finding of interest is that having a father in the household is associated with lower disability prevalence and fewer grade repetitions. But many of the effects of single parenthood on disability, as well as the effect on grade repetition, appear to be explained by higher incomes in two-parent families. Full-text available on-line: http://nberws.nber.org/papers/W5807
Bibliography Citation
Angrist, Joshua D. and Victor Lavy. "The Effect of Teen Childbearing and Single Parenthood on Childhood Disabilities and Progress in School." NBER Working Paper No. 5807, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 1996.
192. Angrist, Joshua D.
Newey, Whitney K.
Over-Identification Tests in Earnings Functions with Fixed Effects
Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 9,3 (July 1991): 317-323.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1391296
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Research Methodology; Unions; Wages

The fixed-effects model for panel data imposes restrictions on coefficients from regressions of all leads and lags of the dependent variable on all leads and lags of right-side variables. In the standard fixed-effects model, the omnibus goodness-of-fit statistic is shown to simplify to the degree of freedom times the R square from a regression analysis of covariance residuals on all leads and lags on the right-side variables. This result is applied to test models for the union-wage effect using data from the NLSY. Although schooling is often treated as time-invariant, schooling increases over a 5-year period for nearly 20 percent of continuously employed men in the NLSY. The analysis of covariance estimate of the returns to schooling is precisely estimated and roughly twice as large as the ordinary least squares estimate. In contrast to the union-wage-effects equation, the omnibus goodness-of-fit tests suggest that the fixed-effects assumption may be inappropriate for human capital earnings functions. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Angrist, Joshua D. and Whitney K. Newey. "Over-Identification Tests in Earnings Functions with Fixed Effects." Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 9,3 (July 1991): 317-323.
193. Anible, Floyd Russell
The Effects of Intervening Work Experience on Undergraduate Persistence [Electronic Resource]
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Human and Community Resource Development, Graduate Program in Comprehensive Vocational Education, The Ohio State University, 2007.
Also: http://etd.ohiolink.edu/view.cgi?acc_num=osu1173112320
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Human and Community Resource Development, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; College Dropouts; Education, Adult; Education, Secondary; Employment, In-School; Employment, Part-Time; Schooling, Post-secondary; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Title from first page of PDF file Thesis (Ph. D.)--Ohio State University, 2007.

The years following high school are often characterized by uncertainty with regard to career and education decisions. The literature reviewed during this study suggested that a period of meaningful work experience between secondary and post-secondary education might reduce this uncertainty. The literature reviewed suggested that students who choose to leave full-time, formal education temporarily often return later with a greater sense of direction and motivation. The purpose of the study was to explore the association, if any, between work experience preceding college and persistence to degree completion. Data was extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Data (NLSY79), sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor, and managed under contract by the Center for Human Resource Research (CHRR) at The Ohio State University. Predictor variables were analyzed for their effects on undergraduate persistence using binary logistic regression. The dependent variable was whether or not subjects earned a baccalaureate degree. The predictor variables included: (a) an intervening work experience between high school and college, (b) income, (c) dependents, (d) years required to attain the bachelor's degree, (e) age at the time of earning the degree, (f) gender, (g) race, (h) SAT/ACT scores, and (i) military experience. The likelihood of persistence of those who did not have the intervening work experience was about 12 times greater than that of those who had the work experience. Subjects who had no active duty military experience were nearly 10 times more likely to persist. The single predictor variable that appeared to validate the literature was the variable that referred to the number of years it took a subject, from the time of first entry into college, to earn a bachelor's degree. With the addition of each such year, it appeared that subjects were approximately 2.3 times more likely to persist to eventually earn a bachelor's degree. This suggested that many non-traditional students reach their bachelor degree goals through combinations of entry, departure, and reentry into undergraduate studies, interspersed or combined with periods of full-time and part-time work and study

Bibliography Citation
Anible, Floyd Russell. The Effects of Intervening Work Experience on Undergraduate Persistence [Electronic Resource]. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Human and Community Resource Development, Graduate Program in Comprehensive Vocational Education, The Ohio State University, 2007..
194. Anne, Zooyob
Part-Time Work and the Structure of Youth Labor Market Entry
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Employment; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Markov chain / Markov model; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Part-Time Work

Despite its negative characteristics such as low wages, limited fringe benefits, and deficient job security, part-time work has grown from fifteen percent of total employment in 1969 to eighteen percent in 1993. Two distinct hypotheses of worker demand for part-time work have emerged: the equilibrium hypothesis, which views part-time work as an alternative to nonwork or full-time work, and the stepping-stone hypothesis, which has a more dynamic flavor, that part-time work is a stepping-stone to full-time work. This study focuses on the role of part-time work in the labor market entry process as youths end their formal schooling. For youths who are new entrants in the labor market and ineligible for unemployment compensation, part-time work might be a compromise between the need to perform intensive search and the need to eat. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-1993, the youth labor market entry process is analyzed by employing two models: a competing risks model of nonemployment duration to the first post-school part-time or full-time job based on weekly data; and a Markov chain model of the evolution of annual work states early in the career. The duration model of nonemployment is the more standard of the two. Nonparametric estimation of the competing risks model with semiparametric baseline hazards, observed heterogeneity, and unobserved heterogeneity reveals that the baseline hazards are significantly distinctive; unobserved heterogeneity is positively correlated; the full-time baseline hazard shows no duration dependence for males (for females, negative duration dependence is observed until a turning point) while the part-time baseline hazard demonstrates no monotonicity; effects of observed heterogeneity differ among destinations and demographic groups; and there exist significant racial differences in the hazard functions. The two-year transition probability matrices indicate a great deal of work state stability and a considerable dissimila rity among demographic groups. The evolution of work status reveals that, for youths experiencing long-term part-time work, the sequence of work states more frequently supports the stepping-stone hypothesis. The findings suggest that, to avoid unnecessarily long nonemployment duration and to help youths move smoothly into permanent career jobs, labor market policies adversely affecting part-time work should be loosened.
Bibliography Citation
Anne, Zooyob. Part-Time Work and the Structure of Youth Labor Market Entry. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997.
195. Anonoymous, Women's Health Weekly
Gender Studies; Study Findings From T.A. Berdahl et. al. Broaden Understanding of Gender Studies
Women's Health Weekly, January 22, 2009; pg. 221.
Also: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-192245907.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: NewsRx
Keyword(s): Gender; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Job; Occupational Segregation; Racial Differences; Women's Studies; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Full Text
2009 JAN 22 - ( NewsRx.com) -- "I examined workplace injury risk over time and across racial/ethnic and gender groups to observe patterns of change and to understand how occupational characteristics and job mobility influence these changes (see also Gender Studies). I used hierarchical generalized linear models to estimate individual workplace injury and illness risk overtime (''trajectories'') for a cohort of American workers who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1988-1998)," researchers in the United States report.

"Significant temporal variation in injury risk was observed across racial/ethnic and gender groups. At baseline, White men had a high risk of injury relative to the other groups and experienced the greatest decline over time. Latino men demonstrated a pattern of lower injury risk across time compared with White men. Among both Latinos; and non-Latino Whites, women had lower odds of injury than did men. Non-Latino Black women's injury risk was similar to Black men's and greater than that for both Latino and non-Latino White women. Occupational characteristics and job mobility partly explained these differences. Disparities between racial/ethnic and gender groups were dynamic and changed over time," wrote T.A. Berdahl and colleagues.

The researchers concluded: "Workplace injury risk was associated with job dimensions such as work schedule, union representation, health insurance, job hours, occupational racial segregation, and occupational environmental hazards. (Am J Public Health. 2008;98:2258-2263. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.103135)'."

Berdahl and colleagues published their study in American Journal of Public Health (Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in Individual Workplace Injury Risk Trajectories: 1988-1998. American Journal of Public Health, 2008;98(12):2258-2263).

For additional information, contact T.A. Berdahl, Agcy Healthcare Research & Qual, Center Financing Access & Cost Trends, 540 Gaither Rd., Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

Publisher contact information for the American Journal of Public Health is: American Public Health Association Inc., 800 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3710, USA.

Bibliography Citation
Anonoymous, Women's Health Weekly. "Gender Studies; Study Findings From T.A. Berdahl et. al. Broaden Understanding of Gender Studies." Women's Health Weekly, January 22, 2009; pg. 221.
196. Antecol, Heather
Bedard, Kelly
Against All Odds: The Surprising Labor Market Success of Young Mexican Women
CLIN Working Paper wp26, Canadian International Labor Network, October 1998.
Also: http://labour.ciln.mcmaster.ca/papers/cilnwp26.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Canadian International Labor Network (CILN)
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Discrimination; Fertility; Wages; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the NLSY, we find that young Mexican women earn 11.7% less than young White women while young Black women earn 19.2% less than young White women. Although young Mexican women earn less than young White women, they do surprisingly well compared to young Black women. We show that while it is crucially important to account for actual labor market experience, it does not matter if we account for childbirth patterns, and non-linearities in the experience profile. We further show that low labor force attachment is the most important determinant of the Black-White wage differential for young women while education is the most important explanation for the Mexican-White wage gap for young women.
Bibliography Citation
Antecol, Heather and Kelly Bedard. "Against All Odds: The Surprising Labor Market Success of Young Mexican Women." CLIN Working Paper wp26, Canadian International Labor Network, October 1998.
197. Antecol, Heather
Bedard, Kelly
Does Single Parenthood Increase the Probability of Teenage Promiscuity, Substance Use, and Crime?
Journal of Population Economics 20,1 (January 2007): 55-71.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/kg37270100173166/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Drug Use; Family Structure; Fathers, Influence; Marital Dissolution; Parents, Single; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is longstanding evidence that youths raised by single parents are more likely to perform poorly in school and partake in "deviant" behaviors such as smoking, sex, substance use, and crime. However, there is not widespread agreement as to whether the timing of the marital disruption differentially impacts youth outcomes. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and its Young Adult Supplement, we find that an additional 5 years with the biological father decreases the probability of smoking, drinking, engaging in sexual activity, marijuana use, and conviction by approximately 5.3, 1.2, 3.4, 2.2 and 0.3 percentage points, respectively. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Population Economics is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Antecol, Heather and Kelly Bedard. "Does Single Parenthood Increase the Probability of Teenage Promiscuity, Substance Use, and Crime?" Journal of Population Economics 20,1 (January 2007): 55-71.
198. Antecol, Heather
Bedard, Kelly
Teenage Delinquency: The Role of Child Support Payments and Father's Visitation
Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of California-Santa Barbara, October 2002.
Also: http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~kelly/childsupport.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Child Support; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Drug Use; Family Structure; Fathers, Influence; Marital Status; Parents, Single; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is longstanding evidence that children raised by single parents are more likely to become sexually active, commit illegal acts and smoke at young ages. A number of past studies have also shown that youth outcomes are better among children whose mothers receive support payments from the non-custodial father. What has not been determined is whether the better youth outcomes are the result of higher maternal income or more visitation/involvement by the non-custodial father. If non-custodial father's who pay child support are also more likely to be involved in their children's lives, then what may look like an income effect may actually be, at least partially, a 'father effect'. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the NLSY Child Supplement, we find that youth with absent fathers are more likely to partake in deviant activities. Somewhat surprisingly, we find very little evidence that child support receipt and father visitation effects youth behavior. The one exception is that youth who receive child support but rarely see their father are more likely than youth from other family structures to have sex and commit crimes at young ages.
Bibliography Citation
Antecol, Heather and Kelly Bedard. "Teenage Delinquency: The Role of Child Support Payments and Father's Visitation." Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of California-Santa Barbara, October 2002.
199. Antecol, Heather
Bedard, Kelly
Teenage Delinquency: The Role of Child Support Payments and Father's Visitation
In: The Law And Economics of Child Support Payments. William S. Comanor, ed. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc., 2004: pp. 241-268
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; Behavior, Antisocial; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Child Support; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Drug Use; Family Structure; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Influence; Fathers, Presence; Marital Status; Parents, Single; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is longstanding evidence that children raised by single parents are more likely to become sexually active, commit illegal acts and smoke at young ages. A number of past studies have also shown that youth outcomes are better among children whose mothers receive support payments from the non-custodial father. What has not been determined is whether the better youth outcomes are the result of higher maternal income or more visitation/involvement by the non-custodial father. If non-custodial father's who pay child support are also more likely to be involved in their children's lives, then what may look like an income effect may actually be, at least partially, a 'father effect'. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the NLSY Child Supplement, we find that youth with absent fathers are more likely to partake in deviant activities. Somewhat surprisingly, we find very little evidence that child support receipt and father visitation effects youth behavior. The one exception is that youth who receive child support but rarely see their father are more likely than youth from other family structures to have sex and commit crimes at young ages.
Bibliography Citation
Antecol, Heather and Kelly Bedard. "Teenage Delinquency: The Role of Child Support Payments and Father's Visitation" In: The Law And Economics of Child Support Payments. William S. Comanor, ed. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc., 2004: pp. 241-268
200. Antecol, Heather
Bedard, Kelly
The Racial Wage Gap: The Importance of Labor Force Attachment Differences across Black, Mexican and White Men
Journal of Human Resources 39,2 (Spring 2004): 564-583.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3559027
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Ethnic Differences; Hispanic Studies; Hispanics; Labor Force Participation; Minorities; Minority Groups; Racial Differences

Labor market attachment differs significantly across young black, Mexican, and white men. Although it has long been agreed that potential experience is a poor proxy for actual experience for women, many view it as an acceptable approximation for men. Using the NLSY, this paper documents the substantial difference between potential and actual experience for both black and Mexican men. We show that the fraction of the black/white and Mexican/white wage gaps that are explained by differences in potential experience are quite different from the fraction of the racial wage gaps that are explained by actual (real) experience differences.
Bibliography Citation
Antecol, Heather and Kelly Bedard. "The Racial Wage Gap: The Importance of Labor Force Attachment Differences across Black, Mexican and White Men." Journal of Human Resources 39,2 (Spring 2004): 564-583.
201. Antecol, Heather
Bedard, Kelly
The Relative Earnings of Young Mexican, Black, and White Women
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,1 (October 2002): 122-136.
Also: www.jstor.org/stable/3270652
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Wage Gap

This analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates that young Mexican women and young black women earned, respectively, 9.5% and 13.2% less than young white women in 1994. Differences in education appear to be the most important explanation for the Mexican-white wage gap, whereas differences in labor force attachment are the most important determinant of the black-white wage gap. The authors show that accounting for actual labor market experience, rather than simply imputing experience based on years since leaving school, is crucially important in such analyses. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Antecol, Heather and Kelly Bedard. "The Relative Earnings of Young Mexican, Black, and White Women." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,1 (October 2002): 122-136.
202. Antel, John J.
Inter-Generational Transfer of Welfare Dependency
Working Paper, University of Houston, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Houston
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers and Daughters; Transfers, Public; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the questions of whether a mother's welfare receipt increases the future dependency of her children and whether the welfare system works to stimulate the dependency of future generations. Parameter estimates reported here suggest significant inter-generational effects. The sample is comprised of young women from the NLSY and their mothers. After controlling for observed and unobserved heterogeneity, a mother's welfare participation is found to stimulate her daughter's later months on welfare.
Bibliography Citation
Antel, John J. "Inter-Generational Transfer of Welfare Dependency." Working Paper, University of Houston, 1988.
203. Antel, John J.
Inter-Generational Transfer of Welfare Dependency: Program Effects on Future Welfare Recipiency
Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health and Human Services, 1986
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Parental Influences; Teenagers; Transfers, Public; Welfare

The report analyzes how parental welfare participation affects the fertility and schooling decisions of children in welfare families (fertility and low earning potential are prerequisites for welfare dependency). Data from the NLSY permitted observation of young women still living at home in the early panel years (1979-1980). Later panel years (1981-1983) permitted the researcher to follow these young women past the normal high school graduation age and determine whether or not they completed high school or had a child. Estimation of a statistical model of behavior indicated that there were no parental welfare participation effects on young girls' fertility or high school completion decisions. According to these estimates, welfare participation by the parents in a child's teenage years neither increases nor decreases the probability of high school graduation or early childbearing. Further evidence from future data collection waves may, of course, modify these findings. [NTIS PB86-161262-XAB]
Bibliography Citation
Antel, John J. "Inter-Generational Transfer of Welfare Dependency: Program Effects on Future Welfare Recipiency." Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health and Human Services, 1986.
204. Antel, John J.
Mother's Welfare Dependency Effects on Daughter's Early Fertility and Fertility Out of Wedlock
Working Paper, University of Houston, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Houston
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Fertility; Geographical Variation; Heterogeneity; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers and Daughters; Simultaneity; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parameter estimates suggest that a mother's welfare participation increases her daughter's early fertility and early fertility out of wedlock. Early fertility is defined as first birth before age twenty-one. Using data from the NLSY, mother's welfare participation and daughter's fertility are simultaneously modeled to avoid any bias derived from unobserved family-specific heterogeneity. While the welfare system affects a young girl's fertility predominately through the dependency of her mother, some small direct effect of state guarantee rates on illegitimate births is also indicated.
Bibliography Citation
Antel, John J. "Mother's Welfare Dependency Effects on Daughter's Early Fertility and Fertility Out of Wedlock." Working Paper, University of Houston, 1988.
205. Antonelli, Angela
One Percent Budget Showdown: Clinton's Veto Threats In Perspective
Backgrounder #1224 Report, The Heritage Foundation, October 7, 1998.
Also: http://www.heritage.org/Research/Budget/BG1224.cfm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: The Heritage Foundation
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Family Background and Culture; Head Start; I.Q.; Mothers, Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper argues against President Clinton's 1998 budgetary veto threat. In arguing in favor of the smaller budget bill, the author advocates using NLSY79 data to evaluate the effectiveness of the Head Start program. Specifically, she proposed that NLSY79 data should be used to study "a wide range of outcomes, including cognitive, socio-emotional, behavioral, and academic development, while controlling for such factors as family background and the mother's IQ and level of education."
Bibliography Citation
Antonelli, Angela. "One Percent Budget Showdown: Clinton's Veto Threats In Perspective." Backgrounder #1224 Report, The Heritage Foundation, October 7, 1998.
206. Antonovics, Kate
Golan, Limor
Experimentation and Job Choice
Working Paper, Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 2010.
Also: http://repository.cmu.edu/tepper/123/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Carnegie Mellon University
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Occupational Choice; Occupations; Skills; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines optimal job choices when jobs differ in the rate at which they reveal information about workers' skills. We then analyze how the optimal level of experimentation changes over a worker's career and characterize job transitions and wage growth over the life-cycle. Using the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) merged with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), we then construct an index of how much information different occupations reveal about workers' skills and document patterns of occupational choice and wage growth that are consistent with a tradeoff between information and wages.
Bibliography Citation
Antonovics, Kate and Limor Golan. "Experimentation and Job Choice." Working Paper, Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 2010.
207. Antonovics, Kate
Golan, Limor
Experimentation and Job Choice
Journal of Labor Economics 30,2 (April 2012): 333-366.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/663356
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Occupational Choice; Occupations; Skills; Wage Growth

In this article, we examine optimal job choices when jobs differ in the rate at which they reveal information about workers’ skills. We then analyze how the optimal level of experimentation changes over a worker’s career and characterize job transitions and wage growth over the life cycle. Using the Dictionary of Occupational Titles merged with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we then construct an index of how much information different occupations reveal about workers’ skills and document patterns of occupational choice and wage growth that are consistent with a trade-off between information and wages.
Bibliography Citation
Antonovics, Kate and Limor Golan. "Experimentation and Job Choice." Journal of Labor Economics 30,2 (April 2012): 333-366.
208. Antwi, Yaa Akosa
Maclean, Johanna Catherine
State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Insurance, Health; Labor Market Outcomes; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study we re-visit the relationship between health insurance mandates and labor market outcomes. Our contributions are twofold. First, we focus on a sample of workers for whom employers can most easily adjust compensation (wage and non-wage) – new labor market entrants. For example, employers may find it more feasible to offer lower compensation to new hires rather than to reduce compensation for current employees. Second, we explore the dynamics of mandate effects across the lifecycle. Specifically, we model labor market outcomes (an offer of employer-sponsored health insurance, wages, and labor supply) as a function of the number of high cost mandates in place at labor market entrance. We draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and exploit variation in high cost state mandates (Gruber, 1994) between 1973 and 1989. A particular advantage of the NLSY79 is that we are able to examine health insurance offers, not health insurance source. The later outcome, although commonly studied in the mandates literature, confounds offers with endogenous take-up decision. Moreover, we are able to track workers from school-leaving through mid-career. We estimate differences-in-differences models that account for time-invariant and time-varying state-level factors that may be correlated with high cost mandates and our outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Antwi, Yaa Akosa and Johanna Catherine Maclean. "State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
209. Antwi, Yaa Akosa
Maclean, Johanna Catherine
State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes: New Evidence on Old Questions
NBER Working Paper No. 23203, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2017.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w23203
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Insurance, Health; Labor Market Outcomes; State-Level Data/Policy

In this study we re-visit the relationship between private health insurance mandates, access to employer-sponsored health insurance, and labor market outcomes. Specifically, we model employer-sponsored health insurance access and labor market outcomes across the lifecycle as a function of the number of high cost mandates in place at labor market entrance. Our analysis draws on a long panel of workers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and exploits variation in five high cost state mandates between 1972 and 1989. Four principal findings emerge from our analysis. First, we find no strong evidence that high cost state health insurance mandates discourage employers from offering insurance to employees. Second, employers adjust both wages and labor demand to offset mandate costs, suggesting that employees place some value on the mandated benefits. Third, the effects are persistent, but not permanent. Fourth, the effects are heterogeneous across worker types. These findings have implications for thinking through the full labor market effects of health insurance expansions.
Bibliography Citation
Antwi, Yaa Akosa and Johanna Catherine Maclean. "State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes: New Evidence on Old Questions." NBER Working Paper No. 23203, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2017.
210. Aratani, Yumiko
Growing Up in the Projects: Educational Aspiration and Achievements of Children in Public Housing
Presented: Neuchatel, Switzerland, Research Committee 28 on Social Stratification and Mobility, May 2004.
Also: http://www.sidos.ch/method/RC28/abstracts/Yumiko%20Aratani.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: SIDOS - Swiss Information and Data Archive Service for the Social Sciences
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Demography; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Characteristics; Family Income; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Life Course; Parents, Single; Public Housing; Racial Differences; Residence; Socioeconomic Factors; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This chapter investigates the impact of housing on educational stratification; in particular, how public housing residence influences educational aspirations and achievements of children who spend their adolescence in such housing....The current study only uses the samples, who were under age 18 and lived with parents in 1979....First, it has rich information on attitudes, intelligence tests, and the educational attainment of youth over their life course. Secondly, a separate mail survey was sent to schools where NLSY79 respondents attended for collecting information on their academic transcript during 1980-1983. Third, it has a set of supplement samples to oversample blacks, Hispanics, economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanics, which is suitable for both a cohort analysis and separate analysis by race. Finally, my NLSY79 sample contains a much larger case number of public housing residents in 1978-1979 (N=399).5 The survey also separately asks whether respondents and their family have lived in public housing or received government rent subsidy between 1979 and 1984; which allows me to focus on respondents that lived in public housing that is owned by the housing authority separating from those who lived in private housing through rent subsidy. This study only looks at the effect of public housing but not housing subsidy (section 8) because the study anchors on a research hypothesis that public housing is a measurement of residential community which share common socioeconomic conditions. Further, it intends to test the effect of geographical concentration of low-income families and the degree of concentration, and this is not very clear for those who receive housing subsidy but lived in privately owned building.
Bibliography Citation
Aratani, Yumiko. "Growing Up in the Projects: Educational Aspiration and Achievements of Children in Public Housing." Presented: Neuchatel, Switzerland, Research Committee 28 on Social Stratification and Mobility, May 2004.
211. Aratani, Yumiko
Public Housing Revisited: Racial Differences, Housing Assistance, and Socioeconomic Attainment Among Low-Income Families
Social Science Research 39,6 (November 2010): 1108-1125
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Assets; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Income; Home Ownership; Missing Data/Imputation; Poverty; Propensity Scores; Public Housing; Racial Differences; Residence; State-Level Data/Policy; Welfare

This study investigates racial differences in the short-term and long-term effect of living in public housing as a child on socioeconomic attainment among young adults from low income families. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data and state-level public housing information, propensity score matching estimations addressed the self selection problems encountered when evaluating the impact of welfare programs. The study findings indicate that Blacks with short-term public housing residence during adolescence seem to be more disadvantaged in terms of housing self-sufficiency and car ownership in an early adulthood than their low-income Black counterparts who lived in private housing. In the long run; however, public housing residence had very small effects on socioeconomic attainment of both White and Black young adults. The benefits of public housing in terms of providing a secure residence for economically vulnerable groups; therefore, outweigh any potential negative impacts.
Bibliography Citation
Aratani, Yumiko. "Public Housing Revisited: Racial Differences, Housing Assistance, and Socioeconomic Attainment Among Low-Income Families." Social Science Research 39,6 (November 2010): 1108-1125.
212. Aratani, Yumiko
Race, Space, and Life-Chances: The Role of Parental Housing in Stratification Processes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2006. DAI-A 67/04, October 2006.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1144195251&sid=1&Fmt=7&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Ethnic Studies; Family Studies; Income Level; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Propensity Scores; Public Housing; Racial Differences; Racial Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this dissertation, I examine the role of parental housing tenure on stratification processes in the contemporary United States. The study employs two national longitudinal surveys, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Using propensity score matching estimation, the study finds the following. First, public housing residence has a detrimental effect on housing self-sufficiency and on car ownership of black offspring but no effect on whites. Secondly, long-term residence in a single-family owner-occupied home has a significant positive effect on the housing tenure of offspring; however, the positive effect of single-family owner-occupied homes differs by race, income status, and the housing career of parents. In particular, families who initially lived in a multi-family renter-occupied home (a category predominantly occupied by black, low-income families) are less capable of translating the advantage of single-family owner-occupied homes to offspring. Hence, by examining two elements of the American housing policy (public housing and a single-family owner occupied home), the author demonstrates that the American housing policy has contributed to racial and class inequalities in the post-Civil Rights era.
Bibliography Citation
Aratani, Yumiko. Race, Space, and Life-Chances: The Role of Parental Housing in Stratification Processes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2006. DAI-A 67/04, October 2006..
213. Aratani, Yumiko
Jiang, Yang
Socioeconomic Outcomes of Youths Living in Poverty during the Post-1996 Welfare Reform Era
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Legislation; Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the effect of the 1996 welfare reform on low-income youth's outcomes in young adulthood. In the 1990s, there were major reforms in many of the social and health policies, which became the basis of the current U.S. safety net programs. The most significant policy changes were implemented under the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act. (PRWORA). Using two national data sets, the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997, we compared socio-economic outcomes of adolescents who grew up in poverty during the pre- and post-PRWORA era. The results showed that growing up in the post welfare reform era significantly reduced the likelihood of receiving welfare assistance but increased the likelihood of living in poverty during young adulthood. The findings indicate challenges that low-income youth are facing in their transition to the adulthood after U.S. social safety-net programs have shrunk in late 1990s.
Bibliography Citation
Aratani, Yumiko and Yang Jiang. "Socioeconomic Outcomes of Youths Living in Poverty during the Post-1996 Welfare Reform Era." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
214. Arbeit, Caren
Weiss, Christopher C.
Who Returns to School? Non-traditional Patterns of Mothers' School Attendance
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; Life Course; Mothers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Education in later life is increasingly common in the United States, yet remains understudied. We seek to contribute to our knowledge of this phenomenon by examining what factors predict returning to school for women who have become mothers. To do this, we build off theoretical perspectives of, and empirical research on, educational attainment, life course and educational trajectories, and family factors. Taking these perspectives together we create a new model for understanding characteristics associated with returning to school for mothers. Our sample includes a modern cohort of women (in the NLSY 79). We find that returning to school does not conform to the traditional predictors of educational attainment, but is a distinct process.
Bibliography Citation
Arbeit, Caren and Christopher C. Weiss. "Who Returns to School? Non-traditional Patterns of Mothers' School Attendance." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
215. Arbel, Tali
Police Record an Extra Burden in Job Hunt
St Petersburg Times, Friday, July 23, 2010.
Also: http://www.tampabay.com/news/business/workinglife/police-record-an-extra-burden-in-job-hunt/1110439
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Times Publishing Company
Keyword(s): Crime; Employment; Job Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[Based on: Englehardt, B. The Effect of Employment Frictions on Crime, Journal of Labor Economics 28,3 (July 2010): 677-718. Also: "http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/651541

Think your job hunt is long? For those who have been to prison, it is probably even longer.

In one recently published study, an economics professor said it took more than twice as long for people who had been in jail to find employment than those who had never been to jail. Criminals also earn about 20 to 30 percent less than those not convicted of a crime, and were about twice as likely to lose a job as those who had not been to jail.

"The job market for those previously incarcerated is significantly different, and tougher, than for those not incarcerated," said College of the Holy Cross professor Bryan Engelhardt in a report from the Journal of Labor Economics' July edition.

Engelhardt also found that those who found work faster were less likely to go back to jail. He said a job placement program that could place those released from jail in a job in half the time -- three months rather than six months, for example -- could reduce recidivism by more than 5 percent. Recidivism, or a relapse into crime, is common. The Department of Justice has said that about half of adult released inmates are convicted of a crime again within three years.

Engelhardt analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a government survey of 24- to 32-year-olds from 1989 to 1993. During that period, there was a recession from July 1990 to March 1991. More recently, other studies have shown that finding a job is hard for those fresh out of jail. A study by the Urban Institute think tank tracking former male prisoners from 2002 to 2005 found that only 45 percent of those who were eight months out of prison were employed. That study also found that holding a job made reincarceration less likely in the first year out of prison, said Nancy La Vigne, an expert with the institute. The higher the person's wages were, the less likely he was to commit another crime, the report said.

While data from the downturn and current period isn't yet available, it is likely that with more competition for jobs, it is even harder now for former prisoners to find employment, La Vigne said.

Bibliography Citation
Arbel, Tali. "Police Record an Extra Burden in Job Hunt." St Petersburg Times, Friday, July 23, 2010.
216. Arbel, Tali
Starting Salaries of New College Graduates Drop; Study Says Harder to Find Work After Prison
Yahoo! Finance, Tuesday July 13, 2010.
Also: http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Starting-salaries-of-new-apf-1327969167.html?x=0
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Yahoo
Keyword(s): Crime; Employment; Job Search

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[Based on: Englehardt, B. The Effect of Employment Frictions on Crime, Journal of Labor Economics 28,3 (July 2010): 677-718. Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/651541]

NEW GRADS PAID LESS: Recent college graduates lucky enough to nab jobs are earning even less than their counterparts did a year ago, according to a recent survey.

The National Association of Colleges and Employers said in its quarterly report on salaries that 2010 graduates' average starting salary was $48,661, down 1.3 percent from the initial salaries of 2009 graduates.

People majoring in general studies saw some of the biggest drops in compensation, said Mimi Collins, communications director for NACE. The average offer for them tumbled 17.7 percent to $37,356.

A few industries bucked the trend, however, raising compensation for new hires. Offers for economics majors rose 2.1 percent to $50,885, while those studying finance got a 0.8 percent bump to $50,356.

In the technology field, salaries dropped slightly for computer science majors and those studying engineering. Information sciences grads' salaries increased 5.7 percent, however, to $55,084.

The biggest increase was in hospitality services management, where the average offer rose 10.6 percent to $44,397, said Collins.

NACE received information from the career services offices of 115 colleges nationwide in the nine months through June.


A JOBLESS SENTENCE: Think your job hunt is long? For those who have been to prison, it is probably even longer.

In one recently published study, an economic professor said it took more than twice as long for people who had been in jail to find employment than those who had never been to prison.

Criminals also earn about 20 to 30 percent less than the unconvicted, and were about twice as likely to lose a job as those who had not been to jail.

"The job market for those previously incarcerated is significantly different, and to ugher, than for those not incarcerated," said College of the Holy Cross professor Bryan Engelhardt in a report from the Journal of Labor Economics' July edition.

Engelhardt also found that those who found work faster were less likely to go back to jail.

He said a job placement program that could place those released from jail in a job in half the time -- three months rather than six months, for example -- could reduce recidivism by more than 5 percent.

Recidivism, or an alleged relapse into crime, is common. The Department of Justice has said that about half of adult released inmates are convicted again within three years. Engelhardt analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a government survey of 24- to 32-year-olds from 1989 to 1993. During that period, there was a recession from July 1990 to March 1991.

More recently, other studies have shown that finding a job is hard for those fresh out of jail. A study by the Urban Institute think tank tracking former male prisoners from 2002 to 2005 found that only 45 percent of those who were eight months out of prison were employed.

That study also found that holding a job made reincarceration less likely in the first year out of prison, said Nancy La Vigne, an expert with the institute. The higher the person's wages on the job, the less likely he was to commit another crime, the report said.

While data from the downturn and current period isn't yet available, it is likely that with more competition for jobs, it is even harder now for former prisoners to find employment, La Vigne said.

Bibliography Citation
Arbel, Tali. "Starting Salaries of New College Graduates Drop; Study Says Harder to Find Work After Prison." Yahoo! Finance, Tuesday July 13, 2010.
217. Archambeau, Lindy
Structure of Opportunity: A Multilevel Analysis of Interfirm Job Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2002. DAI-A 63/09, p. 3250, Mar 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Occupational; Small Business (Owner/Employer); Socioeconomic Factors; Work History

The work presented in this dissertation focuses on interorganizational mobility in an attempt to untangle the roles social institutions play in structuring individual job mobility. This dissertation represents an empirical analysis of job mobility that takes ecological and structural factors into account in determining the effects of changes in the opportunity structure on patterns of individual mobility between firms. The main argument is that organizational dynamics drive alterations in the opportunity structures individuals face. Employees manage their careers as opportunity structures change and in doing so produce individual mobility events. Examining mobility patterns reveals how structural factors associated with labor markets either hinder or facilitate the socioeconomic achievement of individuals. My aim is to examine what the impact of industrial growth on individual mobility between firms given the individual's labor market context. My goal is to extend prior analyses of interfirm mobility by embedding the individual within the larger social context. This is accomplished by including industrial, occupational and organizational characteristics as determinants of individual mobility patterns. Two types of outcomes were investigated: the rate of interfirm mobility and socioeconomic outcome of such mobility. The impact of labor market institutions on these two outcomes was tested using individual job history data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and establishment level longitudinal data provided in the Business Information Tracking Service of the Small Business Administration in conjunction with the Census Bureau. The findings suggest that social institutions do play a role in structuring individual mobility outcomes. The two main sources of variability in mobility are industry structure and organizational size. The impact of the type of organizational growth, the birth of new establishments or the expansion of existing establishments varies by type of industry structure. In addition, organizational size interacts with the type of industry growth to create a differential impact on individual mobility given one's gender.
Bibliography Citation
Archambeau, Lindy. Structure of Opportunity: A Multilevel Analysis of Interfirm Job Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2002. DAI-A 63/09, p. 3250, Mar 2003.
218. Arcidiacono, Peter
Bayer, Patrick
Hizmo, Aurel
Beyond Signaling and Human Capital: Education and the Revelation of Ability
American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2,4 (October 2010): 76-104.
Also: http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/app.2.4.76
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Enrollment; Discrimination, Employer; High School Completion/Graduates; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In traditional signaling models, education provides a way for individuals to sort themselves by ability. Employers in turn use education to statistically discriminate, paying wages that reflect the average productivity of workers with the same given level of education. In this paper, we provide evidence that education (specifically, attending college) plays a much more direct role in revealing ability to the labor market. Using the NLSY79, our results suggest that ability is observed nearly perfectly for college graduates. In contrast, returns to AFQT for high school graduates are initially very close to zero and rise steeply with experience. As a result, from very beginning of the career, college graduates are paid in accordance with their own ability, while the wages of high school graduates are initially completely unrelated to their own ability. This view of ability revelation in the labor market has considerable power in explaining racial differences in wages, education, and the returns to ability. In particular, we find no racial differences in wages or returns to ability in the college labor market, but a 6-10 percent wage penalty for blacks (conditional on ability) in the high school market. These results are consistent with the notion that employers use race to statistically discriminate in the high school market but have no need to do so in the college market.
Bibliography Citation
Arcidiacono, Peter, Patrick Bayer and Aurel Hizmo. "Beyond Signaling and Human Capital: Education and the Revelation of Ability." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2,4 (October 2010): 76-104.
219. Arcidiacono, Peter
Bayer, Patrick
Hizmo, Aurel
Beyond Signaling and Human: Education and the Revelation of Ability
NBER Working Paper No. 13951, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2008.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w13951.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Enrollment; Discrimination, Employer; Education; High School Completion/Graduates; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Wages

In traditional signaling models, education provides a way for individuals to sort themselves by ability. Employers in turn use education to statistically discriminate, paying wages that reflect the average productivity of workers with the same given level of education. In this paper, we provide evidence that education (specifically, attending college) plays a much more direct role in revealing ability to the labor market. We use the NLSY79 to examine returns to ability early in careers; our results suggest that ability is observed nearly perfectly for college graduates but is revealed to the labor market much more gradually for high school graduates. As a result, from very beginning of the career, college graduates are paid in accordance with their own ability, while the wages of high school graduates are initially completely unrelated to their own ability. This view of ability revelation in the labor market has considerable power in explaining racial differences in wages, education, and the returns to ability. In particular, we find no racial differences in wages or returns to ability in the college labor market, but a 6-10 percent wage penalty for blacks (conditional on ability) in the high school market. These results are consistent with the notion that employers use race to statistically discriminate in the high school market but have no need to do so in the college market. That blacks face a wage penalty in the high school but not the college labor market also helps to explains why, conditional on ability, blacks are more likely to earn a college degree, a fact that has been documented in the literature but for which a full explanation has yet to emerge
Bibliography Citation
Arcidiacono, Peter, Patrick Bayer and Aurel Hizmo. "Beyond Signaling and Human: Education and the Revelation of Ability." NBER Working Paper No. 13951, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2008.
220. Argys, Laura M.
Averett, Susan L.
Rees, Daniel I.
Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies and Abortions Among Unmarried Recipients
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Abortion; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Family Studies; Fertility; Marital Status; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In an attempt to reduce births to women on welfare, many states have instituted family caps which eliminate increases in welfare payments for recipients who have additional children. Most proponents of family caps believe that any reduction in births will be accomplished through a decrease in pregnancies. However, a reduction in births to recipient mothers may instead result from an increase in abortions. By exploiting state differences in AFDC benefit levels we are able to examine the link between reduced benefits, pregnancy and pregnancy resolution. Using a sample of unmarried AFDC recipients from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimate a bivariate probit model of the determinants of pregnancy while on AFDC and, conditional on becoming pregnant, the probability of obtaining an abortion. Our results suggest that that lower welfare benefits are not strongly associated with reductions in pregnancies or increases in abortions.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., Susan L. Averett and Daniel I. Rees. "Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies and Abortions Among Unmarried Recipients." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
221. Argys, Laura M.
Averett, Susan L.
Rees, Daniel I.
Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies, and Abortions among Unmarried AFDC Recipients
Journal of Population Economics 13,4 (December 2000): 569-594.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h4rlqcavxt004b18/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Abortion; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Fertility; Modeling, Probit; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Even before the 1996 overhaul of the U.S. welfare system, a number of states had ended the practice of paying extra benefits to families who have additional children while receiving welfare. Proponents believe that this reform can reduce births to recipients, however many worry that it may encourage women to obtain abortions. Using a sample of unmarried AFDC recipients from the NLSY, we estimate a bivariate probit model of pregnancy and, conditional on becoming pregnant, the probability of abortion. Our results lend some support for the proposition that reducing incremental AFDC benefits will decrease pregnancies without increasing abortions.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., Susan L. Averett and Daniel I. Rees. "Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies, and Abortions among Unmarried AFDC Recipients." Journal of Population Economics 13,4 (December 2000): 569-594.
222. Argys, Laura M.
Beaty, Helen
Uninsured Children: Do Child Support Policies Matter?
Copenhagen, Denmark, iHEA 2007 6th World Congress: Explorations in Health Economics Paper, June 2007.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=995058
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: iHEA - International Health Economics Association
Keyword(s): Child Support; Insurance, Health; Medicaid/Medicare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The absence of universal health care in the U.S. is noteworthy among developed countries. In 2004, 11.2 percent of American children under the age of 18 had no health insurance (Census Bureau, 2005) and, as a result, faced serious health consequences. Without health insurance, children face postponed care and lack of preventative care; are less likely to be up to date on needed vaccinations; face inadequate care of chronic conditions; are three times more likely to have unmet medical needs compared to insured children; use more expensive and unnecessary services such as urgent care and emergency departments; and are more likely to fall behind in school.

Though many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of the Medicaid and SCHIPS programs at increasing health insurance for children, the link between other policies and health-care coverage has been largely unexplored. In this paper we focus on the effect that child-support policies have on health insurance for children. The adoption of policies aimed at increasing child-support awards and collection has bolstered the living standards of many children with absent fathers and reduced the welfare caseload. In addition to the direct increase in income, child-support awards and payments may alter health insurance for children either because the legal divorce agreement may include the provision of health insurance, or because the increase in income allows residential parents to afford health insurance premiums. We exploit differences in child-support policies across states and over time to determine whether improvements in child-support establishment and enforcement efforts have any impact on insurance coverage for children.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey we estimate a multinomial logit model of having no insurance, public insurance or private insurance and find that child-support policies have some potential for easing the incidence of non-insurance for children with a nonresident father. Our results suggest that more vigorous child-support efforts by the state have the potential to increase insurance probabilities among children whose parents divorced or separated. Increases in the vigor and efficiency of child-support collection efforts can move children who previously had no insurance to privately-provided insurance. Such a move can have important implications for children's health.

For children born outside of marriage child-support efforts do little to increase insurance, but may ease the public burden by moving children from public insurance to privately-provided insurance. The impact of this shift in coverage on children's health is not clear. There is some evidence that publicly-provided insurance increases the probability that children receive regular preventive care although children with private insurance were found to have more frequent visits to a doctor for the treatment of an illness. In contrast, other researchers found that patients enrolled in Medicaid were twice as likely to report lack of access to necessary care than patients covered by private health insurance. Another study found that among children with chronic conditions, Medicaid enrollment was associated with more lab tests and office visits than similar children with private coverage.

Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M. and Helen Beaty. "Uninsured Children: Do Child Support Policies Matter?" Copenhagen, Denmark, iHEA 2007 6th World Congress: Explorations in Health Economics Paper, June 2007.
223. Argys, Laura M.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Can Adequate Child Support Be Legislated? Responses to Guidelines and Enforcement
Economic Inquiry 41,3 (July 2003): 463-480.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/ei/cbg021/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Child Support; Divorce; Legislation; Modeling; Parents, Non-Custodial

This article explores the relationship between noncustodial parents' willingness to pay child support, state child support guidelines and enforcement efforts, and child support awards and subsequent compliance. Our game theoretic model, which distinguishes cases of asymmetric information from cases of symmetric information, demonstrates that guidelines and increased enforcement can increase payments when awards are court-ordered but may not increase payments and could even reduce child expenditures when some payment would otherwise have occurred voluntarily. Our analyses of awards to divorced or separated mothers from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are consistent with the model. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M. and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Can Adequate Child Support Be Legislated? Responses to Guidelines and Enforcement." Economic Inquiry 41,3 (July 2003): 463-480.
224. Argys, Laura M.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Smith, Judith R.
Contributions of Absent Fathers to Child Well-being: The Impact of Child Support Dollars and Father-Child Contact
Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Support; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Family Background and Culture; Family Income; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we address three questions. First, other than its role in increasing income, does the receipt of child support have additional beneficial effects for children with absent fathers? Second, do the effects of child support differ when child support awards and payments are made cooperatively as opposed to non-cooperatively (eg., court ordered). Third, how do family policies affect the probability of child support awards and payments, and, in particular, the probability of cooperative awards and payments? In regressions that control for family income and other socio-economic family background characteristics, we find that child support receipt has additional positive effects on some measures of children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes. The effect varies by the type of outcome, race, and reason for father's absence. Cooperative child support awards and payments appear to be more beneficial than child support that is court ordered. Turning to our policy variables, we see that child support guidelines promote awards that are cooperative, while increases in the paternity establishment rate increases court ordered (i.e. non-cooperative) awards. More generous state welfare benefits reduce court ordered awards, but do not reduce cooperative awards.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., H. Elizabeth Peters, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Judith R. Smith. "Contributions of Absent Fathers to Child Well-being: The Impact of Child Support Dollars and Father-Child Contact." Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996.
225. Argys, Laura M.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Smith, Judith R.
The Impact of Child Support on Cognitive Outcomes of Young Children
Demography 35,2 (May 1998): 159-173.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/du641383632n8048/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Support; Children, Preschool; Cognitive Development; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Absence; Intelligence; Marital Status; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Variables, Instrumental; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child data to address three questions. First, does the receipt of child support have beneficial effects for children with absent fathers apart from increasing income? Second, do the effects of child support differ when child-support awards and payments are made cooperatively as opposed to being court ordered? Third, are any positive effects of child support solely a product of unmeasured differences among fathers and families? Controlling for the socioeconomic characteristics of the child and family, we find some evidence that receipt of child support has a positive impact on children's cognitive test scores over and above its contribution to total income. However, the effects vary by test, by race, and by reason for father's absence. Our results also indicate that the distinction between cooperative and noncooperative awards is important. Finally, our instrumental variables estimates show that the effects of child support persist after we control for unobserved characteristics of fathers and families.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., H. Elizabeth Peters, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Judith R. Smith. "The Impact of Child Support on Cognitive Outcomes of Young Children." Demography 35,2 (May 1998): 159-173.
226. Argys, Laura M.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Waldman, Donald M.
Can the Family Support Act Put Some Life Back Into Deadbeat Dads?
Journal of Human Resources 36,2 (Spring 2001): 226-252.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3069658
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Child Support; Children; Divorce; Fathers, Absence; Parents, Single

Federal legislation mandates the use of child-support guidelines to improve adequacy and horizontal equity of child-support awards. Using state guideline formulas, and a sample of women drawn from the NLSY we compare the effects of guidelines on children born out of wedlock versus children whose parents divorced or separated. Our analyses indicate that guidelines increase the probability of child-support awards for children born out of wedlock. Guidelines also reduce variation in awards by eliminating outliers, not by equalizing awards across the entire distribution. Awards for high-income divorced or separated fathers fall substantially below the guideline amount.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., H. Elizabeth Peters and Donald M. Waldman. "Can the Family Support Act Put Some Life Back Into Deadbeat Dads?" Journal of Human Resources 36,2 (Spring 2001): 226-252.
227. Argys, Laura M.
Rees, Daniel I.
Impact of Welfare Generosity on the Fertility Behavior of Recipients
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Fertility; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A number of states have recently ended the practice of paying extra benefits to families who have additional children while receiving welfare. Underlying this reform is a belief that AFDC payments are traditionally structured in such a way as to provide recipients with a strong incentive to have more children. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience youth cohort and other sources, we examine the relationship between AFDC payments and fertility behavior. Our results lend some support to the proposition that welfare generosity is linked to the probability of having additional children.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M. and Daniel I. Rees. "Impact of Welfare Generosity on the Fertility Behavior of Recipients." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
228. Argys, Laura M.
Rees, Daniel I.
Averett, Susan L.
Witoonchart, Benjama
Birth Order and Risky Adolescent Behavior
Economic Inquiry 44,2 (April 2006): 215-233.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/ei/cbj011/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; Birth Order; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

It is commonly believed that birth order is an important determinant of success. However, previous studies in this area have failed to provide convincing evidence that birth order is related to test scores, education, or earnings. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–1979, we investigate the association between birth order and adolescent behaviors such as smoking, drinking, marijuana use, sexual activity, and crime. Our estimates show that middle borns and last borns are much more likely to use substances and be sexually active than their firstborn counterparts. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that birth order is related to measurable behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., Daniel I. Rees, Susan L. Averett and Benjama Witoonchart. "Birth Order and Risky Adolescent Behavior." Economic Inquiry 44,2 (April 2006): 215-233.
229. Arkes, Jeremy
Longitudinal Association Between Marital Disruption and Child BMI and Obesity
Obesity 20,8 (August 2012): 1696-1702.
Also: http://www.nature.com/oby/journal/v20/n8/abs/oby201284a.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Growth; Child Health; Divorce; Marital Disruption; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5–14, over the 1986–2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before–after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption.
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy. "Longitudinal Association Between Marital Disruption and Child BMI and Obesity." Obesity 20,8 (August 2012): 1696-1702.
230. Arkes, Jeremy
The Temporal Effects of Divorces and Separations on Children's Academic Achievement and Problem Behavior
Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 56,1 (2015): 25-42.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10502556.2014.972204
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Parental Marital Status; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article provides an examination of the effects of the divorce and separation process on children's academic achievement and problem behavior over time. By using child fixed effects and establishing a baseline period that is four or more years prior to a family disruption, I can examine how children are affected in different periods relative to the disruption and whether any negative effects subside, persist, or escalate as time passes from the disruption. With a sample of 7- to 14-year-olds, I find that children are affected at least two to four years before the disruption; reading test scores are most affected; and for reading comprehension, the negative effects persist and even escalate as time passes from the disruption.
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy. "The Temporal Effects of Divorces and Separations on Children's Academic Achievement and Problem Behavior." Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 56,1 (2015): 25-42.
231. Arkes, Jeremy
What Do Educational Credentials Signal and Why Do Employers Value Credentials?
Economics of Education Review 18,1 (February 1999): 133-141.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775798000247
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Graduates; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; High School; High School Diploma

Examines whether employers can infer information about workers' precollege abilities from acquired college credentials and value attainment of credentials because they signal these abilities. Analysis of 1993 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data reveals that employers value attainment of a bachelor's degree for these reasons. Academic degrees may mark other worthwhile attributes, such as motivation and perseverance. (12 references) (MLH)
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy. "What Do Educational Credentials Signal and Why Do Employers Value Credentials?" Economics of Education Review 18,1 (February 1999): 133-141.
232. Arkes, Jeremy
Shen, Yu-Chu
For Better or For Worse, But How About a Recession?
Working Paper No. 16525. National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2010.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w16525
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Divorce; Economic Changes/Recession; Marital Instability; Unemployment Rate

In light of the current economic crisis, we estimate hazard models of divorce to determine how state and national unemployment rates affect the likelihood of divorce. With 89,340 observations over the 1978-2006 period for 7633 couples from the 1979 NLSY, we find mixed evidence on whether increases in the unemployment rate lead to overall increases in the likelihood of divorce, which would suggest countercyclical divorce probabilities. However, further analysis reveals that the weak evidence is due to the weak economy increasing the risk of divorce only for couples in years 6 to 10 of marriage. For couples in years 1 to 5 and couples married longer than 10 years, there is no evidence of a pattern between the strength of the economy and divorce probabilities. The estimates are generally stronger in magnitude when using national instead of state unemployment rates.
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy and Yu-Chu Shen. "For Better or For Worse, But How About a Recession?" Working Paper No. 16525. National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2010.
233. Arkes, Jeremy
Shen, Yu-Chu
For Better or For Worse, But How About a Recession?
Contemporary Economic Policy 32,2 (April 2014): 275-287.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/coep.12029/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Divorce; Economics, Regional; Marital Instability; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Unemployment Rate, Regional

In light of the current economic crisis, we estimate hazard models of divorce to determine how state and national unemployment rates affect the likelihood of a divorce or separation. With data in the United States over the 1978–2008 period from the 1979 NLSY, we find some evidence indicating that a higher unemployment rate increases the risk of a marriage ending for couples in years 6–10 of marriage (suggesting counter-cyclical divorce/separation probabilities) but has no significant effect for couples in years 1–5 of marriage and those married longer than 10 years. The estimates are generally stronger in magnitude when using national instead of state unemployment rates and when considering just divorces rather than the first observed divorce or separation.
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy and Yu-Chu Shen. "For Better or For Worse, But How About a Recession?" Contemporary Economic Policy 32,2 (April 2014): 275-287.
234. Arminger, Gerhard
Clogg, Clifford C.
Analysis of Panel Data and Related Types of Data with Binary Outcomes Using Finite-Mixture a New Methods: a New Approach for Studying Unobserved Heterogeneity
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Heterogeneity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We consider a model for repeated observations of binary outcomes that includes a) covariate effects either fixed or time-varying, b) individual-level heterogeneity that can be regarded either as fixed effects or as random effects, and c) nonparametric modeling of the "unobserved" heterogeneity using mixture methods and scaled latent classes. The model as well as the likelihood theory builds on detailed analysis of a special case presented in Lindsay, Cloff, and Grego (JASA, 1991). We examine the relationship of this framework to other models, such as the Rasch model, and other estimation methods, such as conditional maximum likelihood. The likelihood equations and numerical algorithms for their solution are provided in detail. Examples drawn from a popular longitudinal data set (NLSY) are used to illustrate the flexibility of the approach. The chief benefit of the approach is that the "unobserved" heterogeneity can be "completely" characterized in terms of a set of J+l mixing weights (latent class proportions) and a set of J+1 scores for the latent classes (J is the number of waves or number of outcomes). Using this approach and this model we can estimate the underlying distribution posited for the heterogeneity terms and can compare the distribution estimated under different models (e.g., the model without covariate effects and a model with specified covariate effects).
Bibliography Citation
Arminger, Gerhard and Clifford C. Clogg. "Analysis of Panel Data and Related Types of Data with Binary Outcomes Using Finite-Mixture a New Methods: a New Approach for Studying Unobserved Heterogeneity." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
235. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
Breastfeeding Among Disadvantaged Women in the US: Evidence from the 1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: Baltimore, MD, Eastern Sociological Association Annual Meetings, March 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Eastern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Pre-natal Care/Exposure

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. "Breastfeeding Among Disadvantaged Women in the US: Evidence from the 1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: Baltimore, MD, Eastern Sociological Association Annual Meetings, March 1994.
236. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
Sense of Control in Pregnancy:Does it Promote Maternal and Fetal Health?
Working Paper, Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, April 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Control; Mothers, Health; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Substance Use; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

INTRODUCTION EXCERPT: In the first part of the paper, I explore the history of medical and public health efforts to improve birth outcomes in the 20th century and consider the current public discourse around pregnancy and prenatal risk through an analysis of several kinds of public rhetoric: federal government policy statements and goals; the policy statements and positions articulated by medical and public health groups...and finally, the pregnancy self-help lay literature, in the form of books, magazines, and websites geared toward an audience of pregnant women...taken together, these sources demonstrate the extent to which current policy efforts to improve birth outcomes rest not on social interventions, but on expectations of personal control of risk factors. In the second part of the paper, I examine the relationship between individual control, prenatal behaviors, and pregnancy outcomes using linked mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)...I construct a measure of personal control and then test whether it is related to risk-taking or risk-avoidance behaviors during pregnancy, such as compliance with medical regimen, diet, taking prenatal vitamins, and substance use, as well as ultimate pregnancy outcomes, including preterm delivery, birthweight, and maternal weight gain.
Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. "Sense of Control in Pregnancy:Does it Promote Maternal and Fetal Health?" Working Paper, Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, April 2000.
237. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
The Impact of WIC on the Infant-Feeding Decisions of Poor Women: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Disadvantaged, Economically; Infants; Morbidity; Mortality; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; State Welfare; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, November 1994

The substantial health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding may be especially important for disadvantaged women and their children, who suffer higher morbidity and mortality than non-poor populations. Yet poor women in the U.S. are less likely to breastfeed than non-poor women. This paper examines the impact of the federally-funded WIC program on the infant-feeding decisions of poor women, using logistic regression analysis and proportional hazards models on data from the 1990/91 round of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Thirty percent of the WIC recipients in the sample report breastfeeding, compared with 52 percent of women who did not receive WIC. Women who received WIC breastfed on average for 11 weeks, compared with almost 18 weeks among women who did not receive WIC. Receiving WIC decreases the odds of breastfeeding by 32 percent. These findings suggest that participation in WIC is associated with lower rates and shorter durations of breastfeeding among poor women.

Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. "The Impact of WIC on the Infant-Feeding Decisions of Poor Women: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
238. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
Weiss, Christopher C.
Do American Mothers Treat Sons and Daughters Alike?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Health; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Infants; Parent-Child Interaction; Parenting Skills/Styles; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Son preference is well documented in parts of the developing world, particularly China, Korea, India and South Asia. In societies where son preference is strong, adverse consequences for girls may be severe, including death. In the U.S. where the stated norm is gender equality, surprisingly little attention to whether childrearing practices differ by gender. This absence seems all the more surprising given the evidence of gender bias in the American primary education system. This paper uses the NLSY to examine gender-differentiated parenting practices (infant feeding, well baby care, child care) in the U.S. Despite prevailing norms of gender equity, we hypothesize that mothers treat boys and girls differently; however, these differences cause less morbidity and fewer lasting developmental effects, because children in the U.S. generally receive adequate nutrition and medical care and child mortality overall is low. Therefore, gender bias in the U.S. may be invisible in infancy.
Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. and Christopher C. Weiss. "Do American Mothers Treat Sons and Daughters Alike?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
239. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
Weiss, Christopher C.
Do American Mothers Treat Sons and Daughters Alike?
Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Health; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Infants; Parent-Child Interaction; Parenting Skills/Styles; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Son preference is well-documented in parts of the developing world, particularly China, Korea, India and South Asia. In societies where son preference is strong, adverse consequences for girls may be severe, including even death. Yet in the U.S. where the stated norm is one of gender equality, there has been surprising little attention to whether childrearing practices differ by gender of child. This absence seems all the more surprising given the evidence that gender differentiation is observable in a number of different domains of American children's' lives (e.g., school, play groups, etc.). Much of this literature argues that gender bias begins early in life and unfolds in subtle ways. This paper uses the NLSY to examine gender-differentiated parenting practices (infant feeding, well baby care, child care) in the U.S. Despite prevailing norms of gender equity, we hypothesize that mothers treat boys and girls differently; however, these differences cause less morbidity and have fewer lasting developmental effects, because children in the U.S. generally receive adequate nutrition and medical care, and child mortality overall is low. Therefore, gender bias in the U.S. may be invisible in infancy.

The data we use come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) linked mother-child records. The data enable us to test for the presence of gender bias by examining a number of maternal behaviors during an infant's first year of life. We consider outcomes in the realms of both health and social care. In terms of health, we look at (a) infant feeding decisions (whether the child was breastfed and duration of breastfeeding and timing of introduction of solid food); and (b) immunization records (measles, DPT, polio). In terms of social care, we consider: (c) fostering (whether child lives with other than biological mother in first year of life); and (d) how often mother reads to child; and (e) the restrictions and rules that parents place upon their chi ldren. Do women invest more heavily in terms of time, love and attention in boys than in girls?

We also control for a wide range of maternal and household outcomes that both may affect child outcomes and may affect infant-feeding and childcare decisions. Our controls include child's birth order, mother's age at birth, mother's race and ethnicity, mother's education and household poverty status. We restrict our sample to full-term infants with a normal birthweight. We use OLS and multiple logistic regression to test the effect of child's gender on maternal behavior, controlling for maternal characteristics.

Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. and Christopher C. Weiss. "Do American Mothers Treat Sons and Daughters Alike?" Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2004.
240. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
Weiss, Christopher C.
Self-efficacy, Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; CESD (Depression Scale); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Obesity; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Risk-Taking; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. and Christopher C. Weiss. "Self-efficacy, Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
241. Armstrong, Terry R.
Chalupsky, Albert B.
McLaughlin, Donald H.
Dalldorf, Marie R.
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery: Validation for Civilian Occupations
Final Report, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, Training Systems Division
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Data Quality/Consistency; Education, Guidance and Counseling; Occupations; Vocational Guidance

The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) has been criticized as a high school vocational counseling tool since most validity data are based on criteria specific to military occupations. In an effort to overcome this criticism and encourage wider use of the ASVAB in high schools, this project validated Form 14 of the ASVAB on civilian occupations. The study was designed to use holding a job, rather than job performance, as the criterion. The ASVAB was administered to employees who had been holding a job in one of 12 different occupations that do not require a four year college degree. Analyses of these data were supplemented by existing data from the NLSY and by examining validity data from military occupations that are highly similar to some of the 12 civilian occupations. Results indicate that the ASVAB was able to detect differences among the types of individuals who were members of different occupations. Four significant dimensions of occupational differentiation are discussed. Other analyses yielded information on the interaction of gender, skills, and occupations on the relations between age and ASVAB scores.
Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Terry R., Albert B. Chalupsky, Donald H. McLaughlin and Marie R. Dalldorf. "Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery: Validation for Civilian Occupations." Final Report, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, 1988.
242. Arnold, Ruth Margaret
Constrained Choices: Contingent Work Among Youth and Young Adults During the 1980s and Early 1990s
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Connecticut, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Income; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Industrial Relations; Labor Economics; Labor Supply; Marital Status; Part-Time Work; Racial Differences

This dissertation investigates the contingent work arrangements of youths and young adults during the 1980s and early 1990s. The research question is why young people held contingent work positions during this time period. The two competing explanations addressed in this dissertation for why people worked in contingent positions are the supply- side theory and the demand-side theory. The supply-side theory posits that workers hold contingent positions because these jobs offer preferred work conditions, while the demand- side theory contends that employers use contingent work positions for the flexibility these jobs offer in terms of reduced labor costs and obligations. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 females and males, is utilized to test these explanations. Event history procedures are used. Both the supply- and demand-side theories were useful in explaining why young people during the 1980s and early 1990s worked in co ntingent positions. Women were more likely to work in contingent employment and being married and having children increased the likelihood. Black women were surprisingly more likely than non-Hispanic women to hold contingent jobs, but this was at least partly explained by interactions of family income levels with marital status and having young children. The effect of marital status on the odds that men worked in contingent positions varied with age, and the effect of school enrollment varied by age for the full sample. These age interactions revealed that the direction of the marital status effect among men and enrollment status effect for the sample changed direction, contrary to hypotheses. There was also some support for the demand-side explanation for contingent work. Support for the dual labor market demand-side theory was that black males and females were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to make transitions from contingent jobs to unemployment, blacks and females had lower pay in contingent and non-contingent positions, and that all females, regardless of marital status, were more likely to hold contingent employment relative to men. The insignificance of the Hispanic coefficient in most of the analyses and the occasional insignificance of education level in predicting contingent work suggested that non- contingent positions were not necessarily reserved for non- Hispanic whites with higher education levels, providing possible support for the flexibility demand-side theory.
Bibliography Citation
Arnold, Ruth Margaret. Constrained Choices: Contingent Work Among Youth and Young Adults During the 1980s and Early 1990s. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Connecticut, 1997.
243. Arocho, Rachel
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
"Best-Laid Plans”: Barriers to Meeting Marital Timing Desires Over the Life Course
Marriage and Family Review 56,7 (2020): 633-656.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01494929.2020.1737620
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Family Structure; Life Course; Parental Influences; Religious Influences; Socioeconomic Background

Most youth desire to marry, and often around a certain age, but many individuals marry earlier or later than originally desired. Off-time marriage could have consequences for subsequent relationship stability and mental health. Whereas barriers to marriage goals in the short term have been studied extensively, predictors of meeting marital timing expectations over the life course are less well understood. This study examined possible barriers, including socioeconomic characteristics and family experiences, both background and formation, to meeting marital timing desires by age 40 using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79). Multinomial logistic regression revealed that greater education, religiousness, cohabitation, and premarital childbearing were associated with delayed or forgone marriage, but associations varied by gender and the age at which respondents stated their expectations.
Bibliography Citation
Arocho, Rachel and Claire M. Kamp Dush. ""Best-Laid Plans”: Barriers to Meeting Marital Timing Desires Over the Life Course." Marriage and Family Review 56,7 (2020): 633-656.
244. Arocho, Rachel
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Like Mother, Like Child: Offspring Marital Timing Desires and Maternal Marriage Timing and Stability
Journal of Family Psychology 31,3 (April 2017): 261-272.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2016-28689-001/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Expectations/Intentions; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Stability; Marriage

Understanding the determinants of marital timing is critical because it has implications for marital functioning and divorce. One salient predictor of marital timing is youth's desires for marriage timing. To shine light on predictors of both desires for marital timing and the timing of marriage itself, we examine offspring marital desires and maternal marriage characteristics in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79) cohort and 1979 Child and Young Adult cohort (NLSY79-CYA; biological offspring of the women in the 1979 cohort). Analyses showed that maternal cohabitation postdivorce predicted decreased expectations to ever marry in offspring. Maternal age at marriage was positively associated with offspring desires for age at marriage, but only for those whose mothers had not divorced. Maternal marital age was significantly associated with the offspring's transition into marriage even when controlling for the offspring's desires for marriage timing, but neither maternal marriage age nor offspring desires for marital timing were associated with the timing of entrance into cohabitation, whereas maternal divorce was associated with earlier cohabitation. Our findings suggest that maternal marriage characteristics, particularly divorce, are significant predictors of millennials' desires for and experiences with romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Arocho, Rachel and Claire M. Kamp Dush. "Like Mother, Like Child: Offspring Marital Timing Desires and Maternal Marriage Timing and Stability." Journal of Family Psychology 31,3 (April 2017): 261-272.
245. Aronowitz, Teri B.
The Impact of Time Perspective on Resilience in at-Risk African American Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rochester School of Nursing, 2002. DAI-B 63/03, p. 1263, Sep 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Inner-City; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Morbidity; Mortality; Racial Studies; Resilience/Developmental Assets; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior; Social Roles; Substance Use

American society struggles to find solutions to the multiple risk behaviors in youth including violence, substance abuse, school failure and sexual risk-taking (Hawkins, Castalano, & Hawkins, 1992a; Reiss, Richters, Radke-Yarrow, & Scharff, 1993; Sampson and Laub, 1993). Research has shown that these phenomena are highly interrelated (Jessor, 1991; Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992), are on the rise in young adolescents (Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman, 1995), and are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in youth (Irwin, 1993). Klumpfer (1996) has speculated that the increase in these risk behaviors is related to increased numbers of children being raised in poverty. Although it has been shown that youngsters in impoverished neighborhoods are more likely to participate in risk behaviors (Garbarino, 1995), some youth remain resilient in these environments (Rutter, Maugham, Mortimore, & Ouston, 1979; Werner & Smith, 1992). Researchers have shown that one important correlate of resilience among at-risk youth is a sense of connection to at least one caring, competent, reliable adult (Resnick, et al, 1998; Werner & Smith, 1992). This connectedness has been found to influence individual development, shaping attitudes and expectations within and beyond the family (Cooper, Grotevant, Condon, 1983; Grotevant & Cooper, 1985, 1986). It is hypothesized that the interactions within this connection foster a future time perspective, and that this future time perspective instills resilience in at-risk youth. Within a social-contextual framework, this study tested the relationship between future time perspective among youth living in economically disadvantaged areas and positive child outcomes. This longitudinal study applied secondary analysis employing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (Add Health) to test the study hypotheses. Latent Variable Structural Equation Modeling was used to explore the association of connectedness, feeling about self, time perspective and resilience in early adolescents. The sample consisted of 1069 African American, impoverished, inner-city adolescents 11–15 years old. A cross-validation approach was used, randomly dividing the sample into two groups, a calibration group and a validation group. A model of factors that contribute to the future time perspective of at-risk youth was proposed based on concepts from the Cultural Ecology Model and the Multiple Selves/Multiple Worlds Model. The measurement model indicated that connectedness and time perspective accounted for a significant variance in resilience. There was no direct effect of connectedness on resilience; suggesting time perspective plays a key role in mediating the relationship between connectedness and resilience. In addition, among boys the path between connectedness and time perspective was also not significant. Time perspective did play a significant role in resilience for both genders. All findings were supported in the cross validation model.
Bibliography Citation
Aronowitz, Teri B. The Impact of Time Perspective on Resilience in at-Risk African American Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rochester School of Nursing, 2002. DAI-B 63/03, p. 1263, Sep 2002.
246. Aronson, Matt
Social Determinants of College Completion and Wealth Mobility: A Life Course Approach to Educational Completion among Young Baby Boomers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Colorado State University, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Employment, Youth; Event History; High School Completion/Graduates; Life Course; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first study compares results from an event history model of high school completion and argues for treating educational completion as an event in time rather than as a binary or categorical outcome. That section offers a methodological contribution to current scholarship as sociologists of education are increasingly taking advantage of longitudinal data sets. The next essay asks how some characteristics and conditions early in individuals' lives may influence the timing of their college completions. I consider teenage childbearing, family poverty, maternal education and other factors in an attempt to provide an alternative to the conventional understanding of race-ethnicity as a predictor of individuals' conditional odds of college completion. The fourth essay departs from the emphasis on “timing of college completion” as an outcome and instead focuses on several under-examined questions about wealth mobility (movement within the wealth distribution over the life course) and whether timely college completion and adolescent employment are associated with upward wealth mobility over the adult life course. The final section also makes a basic contribution to social scientists' understanding of wealth dynamics among the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's late baby boomer cohorts.
Bibliography Citation
Aronson, Matt. Social Determinants of College Completion and Wealth Mobility: A Life Course Approach to Educational Completion among Young Baby Boomers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Colorado State University, 2015.
247. Arrow, Kenneth
Bowles, Samuel
Durlauf, Steven
Meritocracy and Economic Inequality
Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Educational Returns; Family Background and Culture; Family Studies; I.Q.; Intelligence; Occupational Choice; Racial Studies; Wage Differentials; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Merit and justice / Amartya Sen -- Equality of opportunity / John E. Roemer -- IQ trends over time: intelligence, race, and meritocracy / James R. Flynn -- Genes, culture, and inequality / Marcus W. Feldman, Sarah P. Otto, and Freddy B. Christiansen -- Schooling, intelligence, and income in America / Orley Ashenfelter and Cecilia Rouse -- Does schooling raise earnings by making people smarter? / Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis -- A reanalysis of The Bell curve: intelligence, family background, and schooling / Sanders Korenman and Christopher Winship -- Occupational status, education, and social mobility in the meritocracy / Robert M. Hauser, ... [et al.] -- Understanding the role of cognitive ability in accounting for the recent rise in the economic return to education / John Cawley, ... [et al.] -- Inequality and race: models and policy / Shelly J. Lundberg and Richrd Startz -- Conceptual problems in the enforcement of anti-discrimination laws / Glenn Loury -- Meritocracy, redistribution, and the size of the pie / Roland B
Bibliography Citation
Arrow, Kenneth, Samuel Bowles and Steven Durlauf. Meritocracy and Economic Inequality. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000..
248. Artigliere, Stephanie L.
Do Teenage Daughters Benefit From Their Professional Working Mothers?
Presented: Ithaca, NY, National Conference on Undergraduate Research, Ithaca College, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Conferences on Undergraduate Research (NCUR)
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Mothers and Daughters; Undergraduate Research

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study will examine how professional working mothers in dual-earner families influence their teenage daughters' future aspirations and educational attainment. These mothers inspire their daughters by providing positive role models through their own high educational attainment and career choices. As important mentors in teenage girls' lives these mothers expose their daughters to future opportunities such as attending college, entering a predominantly male field of work, or holding a leadership position. Economists have not looked at this important relationship to determine if such mentoring leads to better economic outcomes for adolescent girls. This mentoring is potentially meaningful if this type of role modeling leads young women to pursue more lucrative careers or more education. I hypothesize that those teenage daughters with professional working mothers in dual-earner families will achieve higher levels of educational attainment, apply to more prestigious colleges, and have a more favorable attitude toward women having professional careers. To test this hypothesis, I will build and estimate an econometric model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which has information on more than 1000 mother-daughter pairs. The sample will consist of intact families and family and individual specific controls will be used to net out the influence of the mother's employment from other factors that are likely influences on the daughter's gender role attitudes and choices with respect to schooling. Some of these controls include the mother's: age, education, occupation, marital history, and marital status. The goal of this study is to estimate the causal impact of a having a professional working mother on the educational decisions and aspirations of her teenage daughter. This knowledge is potentially important for policymakers who are interested in improving the economic independence of young women.
Bibliography Citation
Artigliere, Stephanie L. "Do Teenage Daughters Benefit From Their Professional Working Mothers?" Presented: Ithaca, NY, National Conference on Undergraduate Research, Ithaca College, March 31-April 2, 2011.
249. Artz, Benjamin
Does the Impact of Union Experience on Job Satisfaction Differ by Gender?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 65,2 (2012): 225-243.
Also: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/vol65/iss2/2/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Satisfaction; Unions

The author investigates gender differences in the impact of accumulated union experience on job satisfaction. Because there are fewer women than men in both public and private sector unions, and women are disproportionately underrepresented in union leadership, their collective bargaining power is not equivalent to that of men. As a result, women’s preferences for job characteristics and benefits may be overlooked, contributing to reduced job satisfaction as their tenure in the union increases. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) panel data from 1979–2004, the author demonstrates that the accumulation of union experience negatively affects women’s job satisfaction more severely than it does men’s. This is particularly the case in private sector unions, in which women are more likely to be under-represented in both union membership and leadership positions.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin. "Does the Impact of Union Experience on Job Satisfaction Differ by Gender?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 65,2 (2012): 225-243.
250. Artz, Benjamin
Essays in Job Satisfaction
PhD Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, 2008.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1692096421&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Endogeneity; Job Satisfaction; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation includes three essays on the economics of job satisfaction. The first, "The Role of Firm Size and Performance Pay in Determining Employee Job Satisfaction", uses the Working in Britain 2000 data to analyze the impact that performance pay has on job satisfaction. The paper argues that the potential positive influences, eliciting greater effort and pay and a tighter connection to the objectives of the firm, are more likely in larger firms. The estimates therefore confirm that even though large firms are known to have lower job satisfaction, proper use of performance pay can ameliorate this otherwise negative association.

The second essay, "Fringe Benefits and Job Satisfaction?" uses waves 1996 - 2004 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to study the impact that fringe benefits have on job satisfaction. Fringe benefits stand as an important part of compensation but confirming their role in determining job satisfaction has been mixed at best. The theory suggesting this role is ambiguous. Fringe benefits represent a desirable form of compensation but might result in decreased earnings and reduced job mobility. In this second essay fringe benefits are established as significant and positive determinants of job satisfaction, even after controlling for individual fixed effects and testing for the endogeneity of fringe benefits.

The final essay discusses union exposure and its impact on job satisfaction, specifically that of former union workers. The paper uses all waves of the NLSY to study how length of exposure to a union negatively impacts current job satisfaction for former union members. Furthermore, the length of accumulated time after a worker leaves a union job is positively related to job satisfaction. Therefore, unions have a lasting negative influence on the job satisfaction of workers, even after they leave the union workplace.

Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin. Essays in Job Satisfaction. PhD Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, 2008..
251. Artz, Benjamin
Fringe Benefits and Job Satisfaction
International Journal of Manpower 31,6 (2010): 626-644.
Also: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0143-7720&volume=31&issue=6&articleid=1881477&show=abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: MCB University Press
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Endogeneity; Job Satisfaction; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Probit

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose -- The paper seeks to empirically identify the theoretically ambiguous relationship between employer fringe benefit provision and worker job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach -- Using the five most recent waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, both pooled cross-section and fixed effects estimates explain the relationship between fringe benefits and job satisfaction. The potential endogenous relationship is also tested using a recursive bivariate probit procedure. Findings -- Fringe benefits are significant and positive determinants of job satisfaction. The potential endogeneity between fringe benefits and job satisfaction is not shown in this dataset while controlling for fixed effects does not remove the significant impact of fringe benefits. Research limitations/implications -- A limitation is the inability to control for total compensation within the estimations and control for wage changes as a result of fringe benefit provision. Practical implications -- Higher levels of worker job satisfaction, potentially resulting from fringe benefit provisions, have been linked to important productivity measures such as lower quit rates and absenteeism. Originality/value -- The paper is the first to study the relationship between fringe benefits and job satisfaction in detail while additionally testing for the endogeneity of the relationship and controlling for fixed effects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin. "Fringe Benefits and Job Satisfaction." International Journal of Manpower 31,6 (2010): 626-644.
252. Artz, Benjamin
Gender, Job Satisfaction and Quits: A Generational Comparison
Social Science Journal published online (8 November 2021): DOI: 10.1080/03623319.2021.1994275.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03623319.2021.1994275
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Satisfaction; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Quits

Job satisfaction has a negative impact on voluntary job quits. If women quit dissatisfying jobs and interrupt their careers more than men, then gender gaps in earnings, labor force participation and leadership roles may persist. In panel data reflecting two generations of similarly aged workers in the US, women's quit behavior in the past was significantly more responsive to job satisfaction. Yet, this gender difference vanished over time. Fixed effects estimations and robustness checks confirm these results and suggest that the improvement of labor market gender gaps over time may reflect a convergence between genders in how job satisfaction affects quit decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin. "Gender, Job Satisfaction and Quits: A Generational Comparison." Social Science Journal published online (8 November 2021): DOI: 10.1080/03623319.2021.1994275.
253. Artz, Benjamin
Relative Supervisor Education and Worker Well-being
International Journal of Manpower 39,5 (2018): 731-745.
Also: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abstract/10.1108/IJM-01-2017-0022
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Emerald
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Job Satisfaction; Supervisor Characteristics; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: Less educated supervisors create worker status incongruence, a violation of social norms that signals advancement uncertainty and job ambiguity for workers, and leads to negative behavioral and well-being outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to compare education levels of supervisors with their workers and measure the correlation between relative supervisor education and worker job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach: Using the only wave of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth that identifies education levels of both supervisor and worker, a series of ordered probit estimates describe the relationship between supervisor education levels and subordinate worker well-being. Extensive controls, sub-sample estimates and a control for sorting confirm the estimates.

Findings: Worker well-being is negatively correlated with having a less educated supervisor and positively correlated with having a more educated supervisor. This result is robust to a number of alternative specifications. In sub-sample estimates, workers highly placed in an organization’s hierarchy do not exhibit reduced well-being with less educated supervisors.

Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin. "Relative Supervisor Education and Worker Well-being." International Journal of Manpower 39,5 (2018): 731-745.
254. Artz, Benjamin
The Role of Firm Size and Performance Pay in Determining Employee Job Satisfaction Brief: Firm Size, Performance Pay, and Job Satisfaction
Labour: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations 22,2 (June 2008): 315–343.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9914.2007.00398.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Endogeneity; Job Satisfaction; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Performance pay; Unions; Wage Determination

Job satisfaction reflects the on-the-job utility of workers and has been found to influence both the behavior of workers and the productivity of firms. Performance pay remains popular and widely used to increase worker productivity and more generally align the objectives of workers and firms. Yet, its impact on job satisfaction is ambiguous. Whereas the increased earnings increase job satisfaction, the increased effort and risk decreases job satisfaction. This paper finds empirical evidence that on net performance pay increases job satisfaction but does so largely among union workers and males in larger firms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of LABOUR: Review of Labour Economics & Industrial Relations is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin. "The Role of Firm Size and Performance Pay in Determining Employee Job Satisfaction Brief: Firm Size, Performance Pay, and Job Satisfaction." Labour: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations 22,2 (June 2008): 315–343. A.
255. Artz, Benjamin
Blanchflower, David G.
Bryson, Alex
Unions Increase Job Satisfaction in the United States
NBER Working Paper No. 28717, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2021.
Also: https://www.nber.org/papers/w28717
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Job Satisfaction; Underemployment; Unions

We revisit the well-known negative association between union coverage and individuals' job satisfaction in the United States, first identified over forty years ago. We find the association has flipped since the Great Recession such that union workers are now more satisfied than their non-union counterparts. This is found to be the case for younger and older workers in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth of 1979 and 1997. The change is apparent when we use the panel data to account for fixed differences in those who are and are not unionized, suggesting changes in worker sorting into union status are not the reason for the change. The absence of substantial change in the union wage gap, and the stability of results when conditioning on wages, both suggest the change is not associated with changes in unions' wage bargaining. Instead, we find some diminution in unions' ability to lower quit rates – albeit confined to older workers - which is suggestive of a decline in their effectiveness in operating as a 'voice' mechanism for unionized workers. We also present evidence suggestive of unions' ability to minimize covered workers’ exposure to underemployment, a phenomenon that has negatively impacted non-union workers.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin, David G. Blanchflower and Alex Bryson. "Unions Increase Job Satisfaction in the United States." NBER Working Paper No. 28717, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2021.
256. Artz, Benjamin
Blanchflower, David G.
Bryson, Alex
Unions Increase Job Satisfaction in the United States
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 203 (November 2022): 173-188.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268122003249
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Job Satisfaction; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Underemployment; Unions

We revisit the well-known negative association between unionization and workers' job satisfaction in the United States, first identified over forty years ago. We find the association has disappeared since the Great Recession. The job satisfaction of both younger and older union workers in the National Longitudinal Surveys of 1979 and 1997 no longer differs compared to that of their non-union counterparts. When controlling for person fixed effects with panel data unionization is associated with greater job satisfaction throughout, suggesting that when one accounts for worker sorting into unionization, becoming unionized has always been associated with improvements in job satisfaction. We find a diminution in unions' ability to lower quit rates which is consistent with declining union effectiveness as a 'voice' mechanism for unionized workers. We also find unions are able to minimize covered workers' exposure to underemployment, a phenomenon that has increasingly negatively impacted non-union workers since the Great Recession.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin, David G. Blanchflower and Alex Bryson. "Unions Increase Job Satisfaction in the United States." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 203 (November 2022): 173-188.
257. Artz, Benjamin
Goodall, Amanda H.
Oswald, Andrew J.
Boss Competence and Worker Well-Being
ILR Review 70,2 (March 2017): 419-450.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0019793916650451
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Supervisor Characteristics

Nearly all workers have a supervisor or "boss." Yet little is known about how bosses influence the quality of employees' lives. This study offers new evidence. First, the authors find that a boss's technical competence is the single strongest predictor of a worker's job satisfaction. Second, they demonstrate using longitudinal data, after controlling for fixed-effects, that even if a worker stays in the same job and workplace, a rise in the competence of a supervisor is associated with an improvement in the worker's well-being. Third, the authors report a variety of robustness checks, including tentative instrumental variable results. These findings, which draw on U.S. and British data, contribute to an emerging literature on the role of "expert leaders" in organizations.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin, Amanda H. Goodall and Andrew J. Oswald. "Boss Competence and Worker Well-Being." ILR Review 70,2 (March 2017): 419-450.
258. Artz, Benjamin
Heywood, John S.
Performance Pay and Workplace Injury: Panel Evidence
Economica 82, s1 (December 2015): 1241-1260.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecca.12153/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Injuries, Workplace; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Performance pay

Using panel survey data, we show cross-sectional evidence of an elevated risk of workplace injury for those paid piece rates and bonuses. While consistent with Adam Smith's behavioural conjecture, this could simply reflect sorting across workers or firms. In response we successively control for a risk proxy, for worker fixed effects and for worker with employer match fixed effects. No previous examination has controlled for such fixed effects or examined US survey data. The estimates indicate that injury risk increases substantially when blue-collar (manual) workers become paid by piece rates and bonuses.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin and John S. Heywood. "Performance Pay and Workplace Injury: Panel Evidence." Economica 82, s1 (December 2015): 1241-1260.
259. Artz, Benjamin
Taengnoi, Sarinda
Do Women Prefer Female Bosses?
Labour Economics 42 (October 2016): 194-202.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927537116301129
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Satisfaction; Supervisor Characteristics; Well-Being

The participation of women in the labor force has grown significantly over the past 50 years, and with this, women are increasingly holding managerial and supervisory positions. Yet little is known about how female supervisors impact employee well-being. Using two distinct datasets of US workers, we provide previously undocumented evidence that women are less satisfied with their jobs when they have a female boss. Male job satisfaction, by contrast, is unaffected. Crucially our study is able to control for individual worker fixed effects and to identify the impact of a change in supervisor gender on worker well-being without other alterations in the worker's job.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin and Sarinda Taengnoi. "Do Women Prefer Female Bosses?" Labour Economics 42 (October 2016): 194-202.
260. Artz, Benjamin
Taengnoi, Sarinda
The Gender Gap in Raise Magnitudes of Hourly and Salary Workers
Journal of Labor Research 40,1 (March 2019): 84-105.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-018-9277-8
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Gender Differences; Risk-Taking; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The gender gap in promotions literature typically uses survey to survey imputed hourly wage changes to measure the earnings effects of promotions alone. By distinction, we study raises with and without promotions using data within surveys that uniquely identify both the current and most recent wages of hourly workers separate from salary workers. In cross-section estimates we identify a gender gap in raise magnitude favoring men only among hourly workers who achieve promotions, but this result vanishes in fixed effects estimates. No gender gaps emerge in any other instance, including for salary workers and raises absent of promotion. We further contribute to the literature by uniquely controlling for natural ability and risk preferences of the workers, the time passed since earning the raise, and also whether the responsibility of the worker's job changed with the raise.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin and Sarinda Taengnoi. "The Gender Gap in Raise Magnitudes of Hourly and Salary Workers." Journal of Labor Research 40,1 (March 2019): 84-105.
261. Artz, Benjamin
Welsch, David M.
Overeducation and Wages Revisited: A Two‐cohort Comparison and Random Coefficients Approach
Southern Economic Journal 87, 3 (January 2021): 909-936.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/soej.12476
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Overeducation; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the effect of overeducation on wages by comparing two cohorts from the 1979 and 1997 U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panels. Using an econometric technique uncommon to the literature, we allow for overeducation to have a disparate impact on wages across individuals by employing random slopes models. Overeducation has a positive marginal effect on wages. Yet, cohort comparisons reveal that the returns to overeducation declined dramatically over time. In the past, surplus schooling in full‐time jobs returned nearly as much as the correct level of education. Presently it returns approximately 50% less than in the past. The effect of undereducation and required education on wages changed as well, but by far less.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin and David M. Welsch. "Overeducation and Wages Revisited: A Two‐cohort Comparison and Random Coefficients Approach." Southern Economic Journal 87, 3 (January 2021): 909-936.
262. Arum, Richard
Beattie, Irenee Rose
High School Experience and the Risk of Adult Incarceration
Criminology 37,3 (August 1999): 515-539.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00495.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Education; Event History; High School; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Market Demographics; Life Course; Unemployment Rate, Regional

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study assesses the effects of high school educational experiences on the risk of incarceration for young men aged 19-36 using event history analysis and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data. High school education serves as a defining moment in an individual's life course. Young men who enroll in secondary occupational course work significantly reduce their likelihood of incarceration both overall and net of differences in the adult labor market. High school student/teacher ratios and student composition also significantly affect an individual's risk of incarceration.
Bibliography Citation
Arum, Richard and Irenee Rose Beattie. "High School Experience and the Risk of Adult Incarceration." Criminology 37,3 (August 1999): 515-539.
263. Asarkaya, Yakup
Substance Consumption among Youth: A Dynamic Analysis of Alcohol, Cigarette and Marijuana Use
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Virginia, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Drug Use; Modeling; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I analyze the demand for alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, and marijuana using a structural dynamic model. Previous studies have used cross-sectional data to analyze the demand for various substances or longitudinal data to analyze the demand for individual substances such as cigarettes. I develop a model that details inter-temporal and contemporaneous relationships in the demand for these substances, and estimate the model using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979. I contribute to the literature by explicitly modeling gateway effects and addiction in a dynamic, utility maximizing framework.

The results obtained from the duration models suggest that unobserved heterogeneity and duration dependence are important in explaining substance use. The results from the structural model reveal that the impact of past consumption on substance use is large, that alcohol and cigarettes are contemporaneous gross substitutes, that cigarettes and marijuana are contemporaneous gross substitutes, and that alcohol and marijuana are contemporaneous complements. Policy simulations suggest that individuals react rationally to price changes and that alcohol use and cigarette smoking act as gateways to marijuana use.

Bibliography Citation
Asarkaya, Yakup. Substance Consumption among Youth: A Dynamic Analysis of Alcohol, Cigarette and Marijuana Use. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Virginia, August 2010.
264. Asch, Beth J.
Buck, Christopher
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Kleykamp, Meredith
Loughran, David S.
Military Enlistment of Hispanic Youth: Obstacles and Opportunities
RAND Report MG-773-OSD, RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2009.
Also: www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG773.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Fertility; Health Factors; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Diploma; Language Problems; Military Enlistment; Military Recruitment; Military Service; Obesity; Substance Use; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Also available in HTML format: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG773.html

An implicit goal of Congress, the Department of Defense, and the armed services is that diversity in the armed services should approximate diversity in the general population. A key aspect of that diversity is the representation of Hispanics. Although polls of Hispanic youth show a strong propensity to serve in the military, Hispanics are nevertheless underrepresented among military recruits. The authors discuss the major characteristics that disproportionately disqualify Hispanic youth and explore the following questions: If recruiting standards were relaxed, what would be the effect on military performance? What actions could be taken to increase Hispanic enlistments? Finally, they examine several approaches to increasing enlistments -- increasing the number of Hispanic youth who are eligible and would meet the military's entry standards, increasing interest and recruiting more intensively among the qualified Hispanic population, and targeting recruiting toward less-qualified Hispanics.

Hispanics are a growing segment of the youth population, yet they have historically been underrepresented among military recruits. A widely cited reason is Hispanics’ below-average rate of graduation from high school, combined with the services’ preference for recruits with high school diplomas. But other, less studied, factors may also contribute. Such factors might include lack of language proficiency as reflected in aptitude test scores; fertility choices; health factors, such as obesity; and involvement in risky activities, such as the use of illegal drugs. These factors, to the extent they are present in the Hispanic population, could adversely affect the services’ ability to meet their enlistment standards.

Our project, “Hispanic Youth in the U.S. and the Factors Affecting Their Enlistment,” analyzed the factors that lead to the underrepresentation of Hispanic youth among military enlistments. To help policymakers evaluate the feasibility of improving Hispanic enlistments by recruiting more intensively from among the population that is qualified for service and the implications of recruiting Hispanics who are less qualified, we also analyzed both the nonmilitary opportunities available to qualified Hispanic youth and the consequences of recruiting less-qualified Hispanic youth.

Bibliography Citation
Asch, Beth J., Christopher Buck, Jacob Alex Klerman, Meredith Kleykamp and David S. Loughran. "Military Enlistment of Hispanic Youth: Obstacles and Opportunities." RAND Report MG-773-OSD, RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2009.
265. Aschaffenburg, Karen E.
Rethinking Images of the Mobility Regime: Making a Case for Women's Mobility
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 14 (1995): 201-235
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Inheritance; Mobility; Mobility, Social; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Stratification

Challenges the conventional approach to social stratification and proposes that female (F) mobility should be explicitly assessed in 3 ways: marital, as father-daughter, and mother-daughter. Analysis of data from 4 subsamples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1987 (total N = 14,964) reveals that regardless of which theoretical perspectives is taken, the structure of F mobility differs from male mobility. There is no simple single-parameter way to summarize how the effects differ from those in the standard father-son regime: the process is more complicated than a global muting of associations between origins and destinations or a uniform adjustment to the inheritance parameters. More significantly, an analysis of the net effects of mothers reveals that they are extremely important to both sons and daughters, but that the reasons that they matter are different. Overall, the regime for daughters is much more one of structured randomness. 6 Tables, 7 Figures, 1 Appendix, 89 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Aschaffenburg, Karen E. "Rethinking Images of the Mobility Regime: Making a Case for Women's Mobility." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 14 (1995): 201-235.
266. Ashenfelter, Orley
Rouse, Cecilia Elena
Schooling, Intelligence, and Income in America: Cracks in the Bell Curve
NBER Working Paper No. 6902, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 1999.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W6902
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Returns; Family Background and Culture; Human Capital; Income; Racial Differences; Schooling

One of the best documented relationships in economics is the link between education and income: higher educated people have higher incomes. Advocates argue that education provides skills, or human capital, that raises an individual's productivity. Critics argue that the documented relationship is not causal. Education does not generate higher incomes; instead, individuals with higher ability receive more education and more income. This essay reviews the evidence on the relationship between education and income. We focus on recent studies that have attempted to determine the causal effect of education on income by either comparing income and education differences within families or using exogenous determinants of schooling in what are sometimes called natural experiments. In addition, we assess the potential for education to reduce income disparities by presenting evidence on the return to education for people of differing family backgrounds and measured ability. The results of all these studies are surprisingly consistent: they indicate that the return to schooling is not caused by an omitted correlation between ability and schooling. Moreover, we find no evidence that the return to schooling differs significantly by family background or by the measured ability of the student.
Bibliography Citation
Ashenfelter, Orley and Cecilia Elena Rouse. "Schooling, Intelligence, and Income in America: Cracks in the Bell Curve." NBER Working Paper No. 6902, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 1999.
267. Ashworth, Jared
Dynamic Models of Human Capital Investment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Duke University, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; High School Employment; Wage Levels; Wages; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 3 investigates the evolution over the last two decades in the wage returns to schooling and early work experience. Using data from the 1979 and 1997 panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we isolate changes in skill prices from changes in composition by estimating a dynamic model of schooling and work decisions. Importantly, this allows us to account for the endogenous nature of the changes in educational and accumulated work experience over this time period. We find an increase over this period in the returns to working in high school, but a decrease in the returns to working while in college. We also find an increase in the incidence of working in college, but that any detrimental impact of in-college work experience is offset by changes in other observable characteristics. Overall, our decomposition of the evolution in skill premia suggests that both price and composition effects play an important role. The role of unobserved ability is also important.
Bibliography Citation
Ashworth, Jared. Dynamic Models of Human Capital Investment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Duke University, 2015.
268. Ashworth, Jared
Hotz, V. Joseph
Maurel, Arnaud
Ransom, Tyler
Changes across Cohorts in Wage Returns to Schooling and Early Work Experiences
NBER Working Paper No. 24160, National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2017.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w24160
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Wages; Work Experience

This paper investigates the wage returns to schooling and actual early work experiences, and how these returns have changed over the past twenty years. Using the NLSY surveys, we develop and estimate a dynamic model of the joint schooling and work decisions that young men make in early adulthood, and quantify how they affect wages using a generalized Mincerian specification. Our results highlight the need to account for dynamic selection and changes in composition when analyzing changes in wage returns. In particular, we find that ignoring the selectivity of accumulated work experiences results in overstatement of the returns to education.
Bibliography Citation
Ashworth, Jared, V. Joseph Hotz, Arnaud Maurel and Tyler Ransom. "Changes across Cohorts in Wage Returns to Schooling and Early Work Experiences." NBER Working Paper No. 24160, National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2017.
269. Ashworth, Jared
Hotz, V. Joseph
Maurel, Arnaud
Ransom, Tyler
Changes across Cohorts in Wage Returns to Schooling and Early Work Experiences
Journal of Labor Economics published online (24 September 2020): DOI: 10.1086/711851.
Also: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/711851
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Wages; Work Experience

This paper investigates the wage returns to schooling and actual early work experiences, and how these returns have changed over the past twenty years. Using the NLSY surveys, we develop and estimate a dynamic model of the joint schooling and work decisions that young men make in early adulthood, and quantify how they affect wages using a generalized Mincerian specification. Our results highlight the need to account for dynamic selection and changes in composition when analyzing changes in wage returns. In particular, we find that ignoring the selectivity of accumulated work experiences results in overstatement of the returns to education.
Bibliography Citation
Ashworth, Jared, V. Joseph Hotz, Arnaud Maurel and Tyler Ransom. "Changes across Cohorts in Wage Returns to Schooling and Early Work Experiences." Journal of Labor Economics published online (24 September 2020): DOI: 10.1086/711851.
270. Ashworth, Jared
Ransom, Tyler
Has the College Wage Premium Continued to Rise? Evidence from Multiple U.S. Surveys
Economics of Education Review 69 (April 2019): 149-154. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775718304862
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; College Education; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Returns; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Wages

This paper examines trends in the college wage premium (CWP) by birth cohort across the five major household surveys in the United States: the Census/ACS, CPS, NLSY, PSID, and SIPP. We document a general flattening in the CWP for birth cohorts 1970 and onward in each survey and even a decline for birth cohorts 1980-1984 in the NLSY. We discuss potential reasons for this finding and show that the empirical discrepancy is not a function of differences in composition across surveys. Our results provide crucial context for the vast economic literatures that use these surveys to answer important policy questions about intertemporal changes in the returns to skill.
Bibliography Citation
Ashworth, Jared and Tyler Ransom. "Has the College Wage Premium Continued to Rise? Evidence from Multiple U.S. Surveys." Economics of Education Review 69 (April 2019): 149-154. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775718304862.
271. Asian News International
Kids' School Success Depends More on Early Academic Skills than Behaviour
Yahoo! India News, November 13, 2007: World News.
Also: http://in.news.yahoo.com/071113/139/6n5yg.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Yahoo! Web Services India Pvt Ltd
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); British Cohort Study (BCS); Children, Academic Development; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Entry/Readiness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

"Kids who begin kindergarten with elementary mathematics and reading skills are most likely to experience academic success later on - whether or not they have social or emotional problems - a new study has found."
Bibliography Citation
Asian News International. "Kids' School Success Depends More on Early Academic Skills than Behaviour." Yahoo! India News, November 13, 2007: World News.
272. Asoni, Andrea
Essays in Entrepreneurship
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Education; Entrepreneurship; Intelligence; Self-Employed Workers; Self-Esteem; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This thesis has two chapters. In the first chapter, I study the effect of college education, intelligence, and self-confidence on entrepreneurship using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979. Controlling for intelligence and self-confidence I find that college education has no effect on business survival, but increases the probability of becoming an entrepreneur. Intelligence boosts business survival, even accounting for selection. Moreover smarter individuals are more likely to start incorporated firms but less likely to found unincorporated ones. Self-confidence increases the likelihood of starting a firm and has a positive effect on business survival. These results suggest that existing conflicting evidence on this topic is driven by the failure to effectively control for unobserved characteristics.

In the second chapter, which is a joint work with Tino Sanandaji, we study the effect of taxation on entrepreneurship, taking into account both the amount of entry and the quality of new ventures. We show that even with risk neutral agents and no tax evasion progressive taxes can increase entrepreneurial entry, while reducing average firm quality. So called "success taxes" increase startup of lower value business ideas by reducing the option value of pursuing better projects. This suggests that the most common measure used in the literature, the likelihood of entry into self-employment, may underestimate the adverse effect of taxation.

Bibliography Citation
Asoni, Andrea. Essays in Entrepreneurship. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, 2011.
273. Asoni, Andrea
Intelligence, Self-confidence and Entrepreneurship
Working Paper No. 887. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, October 2011. Also, http://www.ifn.se/eng/publications/wp/2011_4/887
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)
Keyword(s): College Education; Entrepreneurship; Human Capital; Intelligence

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I investigate the effect of human capital on entrepreneurship using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979. I find that individuals with higher measured intelligence and self-confidence are more likely to be entrepreneurs. Furthermore I present evidence suggesting that intelligence and self-confidence affect business ownership through two different channels: intelligence increases business survival while self-confidence increases business creation. Finally, once we control for intelligence and self-confidence the effect of formal college education almost completely vanishes. These results are robust to controlling for selection into entrepreneurship and selection into college.
Bibliography Citation
Asoni, Andrea. "Intelligence, Self-confidence and Entrepreneurship." Working Paper No. 887. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, October 2011. Also, http://www.ifn.se/eng/publications/wp/2011_4/887.
274. Asoni, Andrea
What Drives Entrepreneurship?
Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, November 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of Chicago
Keyword(s): College Education; Entrepreneurship; Intelligence

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I study the effect of college education, intelligence, and self-confidence on entrepreneurship using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth- 979. Controlling for intelligence and self- confidence I find that college education has no effect on business survival, but increases the probability of becoming an entrepreneur. Intelligence boosts business survival, even accounting for selection. Moreover smarter individuals are more likely to start incorporated firms but less likely to found unincorporated ones. Self-confidence increases the likelihood of starting a firm and has a weak positive effect on business survival. These results suggest that existing conflicting evidence on this topic is driven by the failure to effectively control for unobserved characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Asoni, Andrea. "What Drives Entrepreneurship?" Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, November 2010.
275. Asoni, Andrea
Gilli, Andrea
Gilli, Mauro
Sanandaji, Tino
A Mercenary Army of the Poor? Technological Change and the Demographic Composition of the Post-9/11 U.S. Military
Journal of Strategic Studies published online (30 January 2020): DOI: 10.1080/01402390.2019.1692660.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01402390.2019.1692660
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Family Income; Military Personnel; Military Recruitment; Socioeconomic Background

We test two sets of alternative hypotheses about the demographic composition of the U.S. armed forces. We analyse individual-level data of two national representative samples covering the period 1979-2008. We find that, in contrast to the accepted wisdom, the U.S. military no longer primarily recruits individuals from the most disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds. Technological, tactical, operational and doctrinal changes have led to a change in the demand for personnel. As a result, on different metrics such as family income and family wealth as well as cognitive abilities, military personnel are on average like the average American citizen or slightly better.
Bibliography Citation
Asoni, Andrea, Andrea Gilli, Mauro Gilli and Tino Sanandaji. "A Mercenary Army of the Poor? Technological Change and the Demographic Composition of the Post-9/11 U.S. Military." Journal of Strategic Studies published online (30 January 2020): DOI: 10.1080/01402390.2019.1692660.
276. Asoni, Andrea
Sanandaji, Tino
Identifying the Effect of College Education on Business and Employment Survival
Small Business Economics 46,2 (February 2016): 311-324.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11187-015-9686-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Degree; Educational Attainment; Employment; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Self-Employed Workers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use a multipronged identification strategy to estimate the effect of college education on business and employment survival. We account for the endogeneity of both education and business ownership with a competing risks duration model augmented with a college selection equation. We estimate the model jointly on the self-employed and salaried employees in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Unlike most previous studies, we find that college does not increase business survival. By contrast, a college degree significantly increases employment survival. Cognitive skills have a positive impact on survival for both the self-employed and employees. These findings suggest that college benefits the self-employed less than salaried, perhaps by generating skills more useful in employment than self-employment, or because of differences in the value of signaling.
Bibliography Citation
Asoni, Andrea and Tino Sanandaji. "Identifying the Effect of College Education on Business and Employment Survival." Small Business Economics 46,2 (February 2016): 311-324.
277. Astone, Nan Marie
Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Sonenstein, Freya L.
Pleck, Joseph H.
Men's Differing Work Trajectories and Fatherhood
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71111
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Fatherhood; Modeling; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we ask whether U.S. men can be usefully classified into distinct groups with respect to their trajectories of work effort from adolescence to adulthood. In addition, assuming such groups can be distinguished, we ask how their patterns of fathering differ across these groups. Our data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort, and our methods are latent class analysis.
Bibliography Citation
Astone, Nan Marie, Jacinda K. Dariotis, Freya L. Sonenstein and Joseph H. Pleck. "Men's Differing Work Trajectories and Fatherhood." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
278. Astone, Nan Marie
Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Sonenstein, Freya L.
Pleck, Joseph H.
Hynes, Kathryn
Men's Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 31,1 (March 2010): 3-13.
Also: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10834-009-9174-7
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Fatherhood; Marital Status; Marriage; Work Ethic

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we tested three hypotheses: (a) the transition to fatherhood is associated with an increase in work effort; (b) the positive association (if any) between the transition to fatherhood and work effort is greater for fathers who are married at the time of the transition; and (c) the association (if any) is greater for men who make the transition at younger ages. The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The transition to fatherhood was associated with an increase in work effort among young unmarried men, but not for married men. Among married men who were on-time fathers, work effort decreased. Among childless men, the marriage transition was associated with increased work effort.
Bibliography Citation
Astone, Nan Marie, Jacinda K. Dariotis, Freya L. Sonenstein, Joseph H. Pleck and Kathryn Hynes. "Men's Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 31,1 (March 2010): 3-13.
279. Astone, Nan Marie
Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Sonenstein, Freya L.
Pleck, Joseph H.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
How Do Men's Work Lives Change After Fatherhood?
Presented: Ithaca, NY, Cornell Evolving Family Conference on New Data On Fathers, An Examination of Recent Trends in Fatherhood and Father Involvement, September 2006.
Also: http://www.socialsciences.cornell.edu/0407/Fatherhood%20Abstracts.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Social Sciences - Cornell University
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Ethnic Differences; Fatherhood; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we examine how various aspects of men's work lives change when they become fathers and whether or not these changes vary by the marital status of the birth and by ethnicity. Our data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). We use fixed effects models to measure intra-individual change in employment status, number of hours worked and wages. Preliminary findings suggest that becoming a father within marriage is associated with an increase in the number of hours worked among both European and African American men. Becoming a father outside marriage is also associated with an increase in the number of hours worked among European American men, but not African Americans.
Bibliography Citation
Astone, Nan Marie, Jacinda K. Dariotis, Freya L. Sonenstein, Joseph H. Pleck and H. Elizabeth Peters. "How Do Men's Work Lives Change After Fatherhood?." Presented: Ithaca, NY, Cornell Evolving Family Conference on New Data On Fathers, An Examination of Recent Trends in Fatherhood and Father Involvement, September 2006.
280. Attewell, Paul
Lavin, David E.
Domina, Thurston
Levey, Tania Gabrielle
Passing the Torch: Does Higher Education for the Disadvantaged Pay Off Across the Generations?
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Children, Poverty; City University of New York (CUNY) Longitudinal Survey 1970-1972; Family Structure; Grandparents; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Social; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences; Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Propensity Scores; Racial Differences; School Progress; Schooling, Post-secondary

See in particular: Chapter 4: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage: Maternal Education and Children's Success and Chapter 5. How College Changes a Mother’s Parenting and Affects Her Children’s Educational Outcomes
Bibliography Citation
Attewell, Paul, David E. Lavin, Thurston Domina and Tania Gabrielle Levey. Passing the Torch: Does Higher Education for the Disadvantaged Pay Off Across the Generations? New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007.
281. Aubry, Jean-Pierre
Munnell, Alicia H.
Quinby, Laura D.
Springstead, Glenn
How Many Public Workers Without Social Security Could Fall Short?
State and Local Pension Plans Brief 82, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, April 2022.
Also: https://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/SLP82.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College
Keyword(s): Health and Retirement Study (HRS); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Pensions; Public Sector; Retirement/Retirement Planning; Social Security

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Social Security is designed to serve as the base of retirement support, to be supplemented by employer sponsored plans. However, some state and local government employees -- approximately one-quarter, or 5 million workers annually -- are not covered by Social Security on their current job. Federal law allows these noncovered workers to remain outside of Social Security if their state or local plan provides comparable benefits. This brief addresses the extent to which lifetime benefits received by noncovered workers are equal to what they would have received from Social Security alone, had they been covered. Hence, the brief compares the pensions of noncovered workers to a very low bar, leaving to later discussion the broader question of how their total retirement income compares to workers with a lifetime of Social Security and employer-provided benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Aubry, Jean-Pierre, Alicia H. Munnell, Laura D. Quinby and Glenn Springstead. "How Many Public Workers Without Social Security Could Fall Short?" State and Local Pension Plans Brief 82, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, April 2022.
282. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Signals of Child Achievement as Determinants of Child Support
Presented: New Orleans, LA, American Economic Association Meeting, January 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Child Support; Family Income; Mothers, Income; Parents, Non-Custodial; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For children from non-intact households, the receipt of an additional dollar of child support has been found to have benefits that are several times larger than those of mother's earnings or family income (John W. Graham et al., 1994; Virginia W. Knox, 1996; Laura M. Argys et al., 1998). The obvious explanation is that custodians who receive child support or noncustodians who pay child support differ from those who do not in unobserved ways. In this case, the child-support variable will pick up the effects of omitted variables with which it is correlated. Graham et al. (1994) and Knox (1996) attempt to correct for unobserved heterogeneity using instrumental variables. Their results show that the coefficient estimate on child-support income is much larger than that on family income. However, because of the imprecision of the estimates, one cannot conclude that child support has a benefit to children that is significantly larger than that of other income. This paper examines an alternative reason for the finding that child support has a larger impact on children than other dollars: child-support transfers and investments in children are strategically linked. A current payment of child support by a noncustodial parent (NCP) may depend on the past investments in the child by the custodial parent (CP). Because a NCP is unlikely to have complete information about investments in his child, he may use information about the child's achievement as a signal of how well the CP cares for the child. This would provide the CP with an incentive to invest more in the child than she would otherwise. This hypothesis is tested by estimating the effect of child achievement on the probability that a custodial parent receives child support and on the amount of child support received using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Mother-Child Supplement. No previous estimation of child support has included measures of child achievement.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen. "Signals of Child Achievement as Determinants of Child Support." Presented: New Orleans, LA, American Economic Association Meeting, January 2001.
283. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
The Relationship Between Female Labor Supply and Caregiving Over the Life Cycle
Innovation in Aging 4, S1 (December 2020): 585.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/innovateage/article/4/Supplement_1/585/6036257
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Caregivers, Adult Children; Child Care; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I examine the effects of caring for others on female labor supply over the life-cycle using a fixed effect model. The data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which collects information about the care of each child during his first three years and the care provided to household members during a woman’s 50s. The NLSY79 data show that women’s labor supply drops around the time a child is born and then rises, with over 50 percent working by time their children reach age 2. In addition, these data show that during their 50s, about 9 percent of women provide care to someone living in their household and that these female caregivers spend about 40 hours per week providing care. Time spent in caregiving may affect time in the labor force, and hence the ability to invest in a career and accumulate work experience and wage growth.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen. "The Relationship Between Female Labor Supply and Caregiving Over the Life Cycle." Innovation in Aging 4, S1 (December 2020): 585.
284. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Does Money Matter? A Comparison of the Effect of Income on Child Development in the United States and Great Britain
Journal of Human Resources 38,2 (Spring 2003): 416-440.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1558750
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Cross-national Analysis; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Motor and Social Development (MSD); NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

In this paper, we examine the effect of income on child development in the United States and the United Kingdom, as measured by scores on cognitive, behavior, and social assessments. In line with previous results for the US we find that for both countries income generally has an effect on child development that is positive and significant, but whose size is small relative to other family background variables
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Does Money Matter? A Comparison of the Effect of Income on Child Development in the United States and Great Britain." Journal of Human Resources 38,2 (Spring 2003): 416-440.
285. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Drug Use; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous examinations of the impact of maternal employment on children have usually focused on young children. In this study, we examine the relationship between maternal employment and risky behavior by adolescents using the NLSY79 Young Adult Supplement. We analyze the link between mothers' employment measured early in life and during adolescence and the decisions of children to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, use marijuana, and to engage in sexual activity. Characteristics of the mother that are not measured may affect both employment and her influence on the likelihood that the child engages in risky behaviors. Further, maternal employment will be tied to decisions such as those affecting marital status or spousal employment that may also influence or be influenced by child behavior. We explore three approaches to addressing these econometric issues: (1) inclusion of a wide range of controls for maternal characteristics, (2) instrumental variables, and (3) fixed effects.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
286. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior
Working Paper No. 366, Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 2003.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/ore/pdf/ec030030.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Drug Use; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

This paper examines the impact of maternal employment during a child?s first three years and during adolescence on his or her decisions to engage in a range of risky behaviors: smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, using marijuana and other drugs, engaging in sex and committing crimes. Using data from the NLSY79 and its young adult supplement, we find little evidence that mother?s employment early in the child?s life has lasting consequences on participation in risky behaviors. Similarly, with the possible exception of drinking alcohol?our results do not indicate that maternal employment during adolescence is correlated with increased involvement in risky activities. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Atlanta, GA, May 9-11, 2002 and the Annual Congress of the European Society of Population Economics, Bilbao, Spain, June 13-15, 2002.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior." Working Paper No. 366, Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 2003.
287. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior
Journal of Health Economics 23,4 (July 2004): 815-839.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629604000542
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Drug Use; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

This paper examines the impact of maternal employment during a child's first 3 years and during adolescence on his or her decisions to engage in a range of risky behaviors: smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, using marijuana and other drugs, engaging in sex and committing crimes. Using data from the NLSY79 and its young adult supplement, we do not find strong evidence that mother' s employment-whether early in the child' s life or during adolescence-affects the likelihood of participation in risky behaviors. We note as a caveat, however, that insufficient statistical precision makes it difficult, at times, to distinguish some potentially important effects from effects that are essentially equal to zero.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior." Journal of Health Economics 23,4 (July 2004): 815-839.
288. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Pierret, Charles R.
Why Is the Rate of College Dropout So High?
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During most of the twentieth century, the U.S. led the world in the percentage of its population with a college education; today, that lead has vanished. Sparked in part by the growth in the college wage premium, the proportion of high school graduates going on to post‐secondary school has been on the rise in recent decades. However, this increase in college attendance has not resulted in a proportionate rise in the number of those with four year‐degrees, because the United States has the highest dropout rate in the developed world. With a college education said to be increasingly necessary to compete in the labor market, it is important to understand why so many individuals do not achieve success in postsecondary institutions. We address this issue by examining the college attendance and completion experience of two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), that from 1979 and that from 1997. The percentage of high school completers who attend college rose by almost 30 percentage points between the NLSY79 and NLSY97 samples. The bulk of the growth is through starting college at a two‐year institution. This is the case throughout the test score and family income distributions. In contrast, the percentage of college attendees who earn a bachelor's degree six years after high school completion is unchanged between the two cohorts (at about 37 percent), with an increase for women and a decrease for men.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen, Maury Gittleman and Charles R. Pierret. "Why Is the Rate of College Dropout So High?" Presented: Atlanta GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2019.
289. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Pierret, Charles R.
Rothstein, Donna S.
The Impact of Family Structure Transitions on Youth Achievement: Evidence from the Children of the NLSY79
Demography 42,3 (August 2005): 447-468.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p827q00p7x183118/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Marital Disruption; Marital Stability; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigated the sensitivity of measures of cognitive ability and socioemotional development to changes in parents' marital status using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979. We used several scores for each assessment, taken at different times relative to parents' marital transitions, which allowed us to trace the effects starting up to five years before a parent's change in marital status and continuing for up to six years afterward. It also allowed us to correct for the unobserved heterogeneity of the transition and nontransition samples by controlling for the child's fixed effect in estimating the time path of his or her response to the transition. We found that children from families with both biological parents scored significantly better on the BPI and the PIAT-math and PIAT-reading assessments than did children from nonintact families. However, much of the difference disappeared when we controlled for background variables. Furthermore, when we controlled for child fixed effects, we did not find significant longitudinal variation in these scores over long periods that encompass the marital transition. This finding suggests that most of the variation is due to cross-sectional differences and is not a result of marital transitions per se.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen, Charles R. Pierret and Donna S. Rothstein. "The Impact of Family Structure Transitions on Youth Achievement: Evidence from the Children of the NLSY79 ." Demography 42,3 (August 2005): 447-468.
290. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Pierret, Charles R.
Rothstein, Donna S.
The National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth: Research Highlights
Monthly Labor Review (September 2015): .
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/monthlylaborrev.2015.09.006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Bureau of Labor Statistics; Data Sets Documentation; Research Methodology

To help mark the Monthly Labor Review's centennial, the editors invited several producers and users of BLS data to take a look back at the last 100 years. This article highlights research based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. The studies presented demonstrate the breadth and uniqueness of the surveys, covering topics from employment and education to health and criminal behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen, Charles R. Pierret and Donna S. Rothstein. "The National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth: Research Highlights." Monthly Labor Review (September 2015): .
291. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Robles, Omar
Sun, Hugette
Marriage and Divorce: Patterns by Gender, Race, and Educational Attainment
Monthly Labor Review (October 2013):.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2013/article/marriage-and-divorce-patterns-by-gender-race-and-educational-attainment.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Divorce; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Marriage; Racial Differences

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), this article examines marriages and divorces of young baby boomers born during the 1957–1964 period. The article presents data on marriages and divorces by age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, as well as by educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen, Omar Robles and Hugette Sun. "Marriage and Divorce: Patterns by Gender, Race, and Educational Attainment." Monthly Labor Review (October 2013):.
292. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Sun, Hugette
Fertility of Women in the NLSY79
Monthly Labor Review (April 2016): .
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/fertility-of-women-in-the-nlsy79.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): College Degree; Educational Attainment; Family Size; Fertility; First Birth

This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79)—a survey of people born between 1957 and 1964—to examine the fertility patterns of women up to age 46. Women in the NLSY79 cohort have two children, on average, and more than 80 percent of them give birth to at least one child by age 46. The bulk of first births occur before age 30. Fertility patterns differ markedly by education. Women with a college degree are more than twice as likely as those who never attended college to have no children, with this pattern being stronger among Black and Hispanic women. Fertility is delayed as education increases. Patterns of fertility related to labor market experience are evident, but they are weaker than those related to educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Hugette Sun. "Fertility of Women in the NLSY79." Monthly Labor Review (April 2016): .
293. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Woods, Rose A.
Patterns of Caregiving and Work: Evidence from Two Surveys
Monthly Labor Review (March 2021): .
Also: https://www.jstor.org/stable/27009462
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): American Time Use Survey (ATUS); Caregivers, Adult Children; Health, Chronic Conditions

Using data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), this article examines the patterns of caregiving during midlife of those born in the years 1957 to 1964. The two datasets examine different measures of caregiving: eldercare examined in the ATUS and care for a household member who is living with a chronic illness or a disability examined in the NLSY79. The ATUS shows that approximately 24 percent of men and women provide eldercare. The NLSY79 shows that about 7 percent of men and women care for a household member who is living with a chronic illness or a disability. For both types of care, women are more likely to provide care than men. In the ATUS, the provision of eldercare increases with education and employment. In the NLSY79, the provision of care to household members who are living with a chronic illness or a disability is negatively related to education and employment.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Rose A. Woods. "Patterns of Caregiving and Work: Evidence from Two Surveys." Monthly Labor Review (March 2021): .
294. Augurzky, Boris
What Are College Degrees Worth? Evidence from the NLSY79 Using Matching Methods
Discussion Paper Series No. 299, Department of Economics, University of Heidelberg, Germany, August 1999.
Also: http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/institute/fak18/publications/papers/dp299.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Faculty of Economics, University of Heidelberg
Keyword(s): College Education; Earnings; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper makes use of the method of matching to estimate the causal effect of the college education on future earnings for men and women. In contrast to regression models, the method of matching does not rely on functional form assumptions. Yet in this study a simple linear model is added to examine heterogeneity and an exogenous time trend in the return to college. The data are taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. In particular, these data comprise ability measures that can be used to assess the ability bias in the estimated returns to college. Furthermore, the development of the returns is examined for the first ten years after college. An optimal full matching procedure based on propensity score calipers is used to stratify the whole sample of college graduates and non-graduates implying only small loss of observations and minimization of the distance across treatment and control groups over the complete sample.
Bibliography Citation
Augurzky, Boris. "What Are College Degrees Worth? Evidence from the NLSY79 Using Matching Methods." Discussion Paper Series No. 299, Department of Economics, University of Heidelberg, Germany, August 1999.
295. Augustine, Jennifer March
Exploring New Life Course Patterns of Mother's Continuing Secondary and College Education
Population Research and Policy Review 35,6 (December 2016): 727-755.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-016-9401-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Degree; Continuing Education; Educational Attainment; Life Course; Motherhood; Mothers, Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A mounting body of evidence suggests that the life course sequence that once defined contemporary US women's lives is changing as an increasing number of women now complete their education after the transition to motherhood. Despite such evidence, we know little about this changing pattern of life course events for many US women. The aim of this study, therefore, is to produce population-based estimates that describe the prevalence of mothers' school reentry and secondary and college degree attainment, the timing of women's post-childbearing education vis-a-vis their transition into motherhood, and the characteristics of mothers who pursue additional schooling. To do so, the study draws on data from a nationally representative cohort of US women participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4925) and descriptive and event-history techniques. Findings suggest that a substantial proportion of mothers (17%) completed additional education after the transition to motherhood, especially mothers who had the lowest levels of education at their time of first birth (high school dropouts) (43%). These mothers, who overwhelmingly earned high school degrees/GEDs, were most likely to do so within 5 years of giving birth, while mothers pursuing higher levels were more likely to do so when children were older. Mothers who pursued schooling after the transition to motherhood were remarkably more disadvantaged than women who followed the traditional sequencing of life course events. Compared to women who had the same education upon being mothers, they were also younger, more often poor, and had greater job instability but higher cognitive test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Augustine, Jennifer March. "Exploring New Life Course Patterns of Mother's Continuing Secondary and College Education." Population Research and Policy Review 35,6 (December 2016): 727-755.
296. Augustine, Jennifer March
Increased Educational Attainment among U.S. Mothers and their Children's Academic Expectations
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 52 (December 2017): 15-25.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027656241730029X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Education, Adult; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences

Existing research provides strong evidence that children with more educated parents have higher academic expectations for themselves, but has yet to consider how an increase in the education of lower educated mothers might alter the expectations of their children. In light of the historic increase in U.S. mothers' pursuit of additional education, this study investigates this timely question using data from a nationally representative, intergenerational sample of U.S. children and mothers participating in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (n of mothers = 3,265; n of children = 8,027). Combining random and fixed effects procedures, the findings revealed that that an increase in mothers' educational attainment is linked to an increase in their children's expectations to earn a Bachelor's degree. Increased maternal education did not, however, buffer against the risk that children will downgrade these expectations upon approaching the end of high school. These results have theoretical importance to traditional models of status attainment, which typically view parental education as a stable feature of family background; extend a small but burgeoning literature that explores whether and why increased maternal education improves the mobility prospects of their children; and speak to current two-generation policy approaches that aim to leverage trends in mothers education to reduce inequality for future generations.
Bibliography Citation
Augustine, Jennifer March. "Increased Educational Attainment among U.S. Mothers and their Children's Academic Expectations." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 52 (December 2017): 15-25.
297. Augustine, Jennifer March
School Reentry and Degree Attainment after the Transition to Motherhood
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; Motherhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The traditional patterning of life course events that has defined contemporary U.S. women's lives is changing as an increasing number of women now complete their formal schooling after the transition to motherhood. Despite widespread recognition of this demographic change by scholars and policy makers, we lack population-level estimates of women's post-childbearing school reentry or degree attainment, the timing of women's post-childbearing education vis-à-vis women's transition to motherhood, and the characteristics of women who return to school to pursue a degree after giving birth. For the first time, the present study provides such information. To do so it uses cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n=4,925). Among several key findings, 17% of mothers return to school to earn more education, typically a high school degree or equivalency, Associate's degree, or two years of college. Mothers earning high school degrees/GEDs are most likely to do so within five years of giving birth whereas mothers pursuing other academic paths are more likely to do so when children are older. Consistent predictors of additional maternal education were younger age at first birth, being poor around the time the schooling was completed, greater job instability, and higher cognitive test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Augustine, Jennifer March. "School Reentry and Degree Attainment after the Transition to Motherhood." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
298. Augustine, Jennifer March
Negraia, Daniela V.
Can Increased Educational Attainment Among Lower-Educated Mothers Reduce Inequalities in Children's Skill Development?
Demography 55,1 (February 2018): 59-82.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-017-0637-4
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Development; Cognitive Ability; Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Noncognitive Skills; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A rich tradition of stratification research has established a robust link between mothers' education and the skills in children that forecast children's own mobility. Yet, this research has failed to consider that many U.S. women are now completing their education after having children. Such a trend raises questions about whether increases in mothers' educational attainment can improve their children's skill development and whether these gains are enough to reduce inequalities in skills compared with children whose mothers completed the same degree before they were born. To answer these questions, we draw on a nationally representative sample of mothers and children participating in the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLSY79 and CNLSY), random- and fixed-effects techniques, and repeated measures of children's cognitive and noncognitive skills. Contrary to existing research and theory, our results reveal that educational attainment obtained after children's births is not associated with an improvement in children's skills. Such findings offer substantial refinement to a long-standing model of intergenerational mobility by suggesting that the intergenerational returns to mother's education are weaker when education is acquired after children are born. Results also highlight the limits of two-generation policy approaches to reducing inequality in future generations.
Bibliography Citation
Augustine, Jennifer March and Daniela V. Negraia. "Can Increased Educational Attainment Among Lower-Educated Mothers Reduce Inequalities in Children's Skill Development?" Demography 55,1 (February 2018): 59-82.
299. Aukstikalnis, Amy Marie
Gender Differences in the Job Turnover Behavior of Young Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Houston, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Gender Differences; Industrial Relations; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Labor Turnover; Modeling; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Quits

This study uses data from the 1979 through 1991 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to analyze gender differences in the job-quitting behavior of young workers on their first career jobs. Using a semi-parametric duration model, significant gender differences in the job-quitting behavior of young workers are found. For both Blacks and Whites, the coefficient estimates of the model and the shape of quit hazard functions are different for men and women. For both men and women, however, the shape of the hazard function coincides with theoretical predictions. The quit hazard functions peak early in employment duration, and then tend to decline with job tenure thereafter. The quit hazard function, however, appears to decline more gradually for women than for men. By the end of the fourth year of employment, however, the quit hazard rates of men and women, within race groups, tend to equalize.
Bibliography Citation
Aukstikalnis, Amy Marie. Gender Differences in the Job Turnover Behavior of Young Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Houston, 1995.
300. Auld, M. Christopher
Powell, Lisa M.
The Economics of Obesity: Research and Policy Implications from a Canada-U.S. Comparison
Presented: Kingston, Ontario, Canada, John Deutsch Institute Conference at Queen's University, November 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Canada, Canadian; Cognitive Ability; Cross-national Analysis; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Why do obesity rates differ across the United States and Canada, for which groups do they differ, and what do these differences suggest for policy and for research? In this paper, we use cross-sectional data on middle aged adults in the two countries to answer these questions.

Note: The final version of this paper is published in a book: Health Services Restructuring: New Evidence and New Directions, edited by C.M. Beach, R.C. Chaykowski, S. Shortt, F. St-Hilaire, and A. Sweetman, 2006 (Kingston: John Deutsch Institute, Queen’s University).

Bibliography Citation
Auld, M. Christopher and Lisa M. Powell. "The Economics of Obesity: Research and Policy Implications from a Canada-U.S. Comparison." Presented: Kingston, Ontario, Canada, John Deutsch Institute Conference at Queen's University, November 2005.
301. Auld, M. Christopher
Sidhu, Nirmal S.
Schooling, Cognitive Ability and Health
Health Economics 14,10 (October 2005): 1019-1034.
Also: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112092939/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Endogeneity; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large literature documents a strong correlation between health and educational outcomes. In this paper we investigate the role of cognitive ability in the health-education nexus. Using NLSY data, we show that one standard deviation increase in cognitive ability is associated with roughly the same increase in health as two years of schooling and that cognitive ability accounts for roughly one quarter of the association between schooling and health. Both schooling and ability are strongly associated with health at low levels but less related or unrelated at high levels. Estimates treating schooling as endogenous to health suggest that much of the correlation between schooling and health is attributable to unobserved heterogeneity; the causal effect of schooling on health is large only for respondents with low levels of schooling and low cognitive ability. An implication is that policies which increase schooling will only increase health to the extent that they increase the education of poorly-educated individuals. Subsidies to college education, for example, are unlikely to increase population health. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Unpublished version, June 2004: http://129.3.20.41/eps/hew/papers/0406/0406001.pdf

Bibliography Citation
Auld, M. Christopher and Nirmal S. Sidhu. "Schooling, Cognitive Ability and Health." Health Economics 14,10 (October 2005): 1019-1034.
302. Avellar, Sarah A.
Family Wage? A Cross-Cohort Comparison of the Motherhood Wage Penalty
Presented: Anaheim, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, 2001.
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fertility; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Income; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Avellar, Sarah A. "Family Wage? A Cross-Cohort Comparison of the Motherhood Wage Penalty." Presented: Anaheim, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, 2001.
303. Avellar, Sarah A.
Smock, Pamela Jane
Has the Price of Motherhood Declined Over Time? A Cross-Cohort Comparison of the Motherhood Wage Penalty
Journal of Marriage and Family 65,3 (August 2003):597-607.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00597.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Fertility; Heterogeneity; Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Several recent studies have shown a negative association between motherhood and wages. However, an analysis of change over time in the motherhood penalty has not been conducted. Using two cohorts of young women drawn from the 1975-1985 National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women and the 1986-1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we explicitly test the relationship between motherhood and wages across two cohorts and examine whether that relationship has changed. Even after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and human capital variables, each additional child is associated with a negative effect on women-s wages. Moreover, our findings suggest that the penalty has not diminished over time.
Bibliography Citation
Avellar, Sarah A. and Pamela Jane Smock. "Has the Price of Motherhood Declined Over Time? A Cross-Cohort Comparison of the Motherhood Wage Penalty." Journal of Marriage and Family 65,3 (August 2003):597-607.
304. Avellar, Sarah A.
Smock, Pamela Jane
The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions
Journal of Marriage and Family 67,2 (May 2005): 315-328.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2005.00118.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Divorce; Economic Well-Being; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Marital Dissolution; Poverty; Racial Differences

Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, we use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N= 2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of divorced respondents. After dissolution, formerly cohabiting men's economic standing declines moderately, whereas formerly cohabiting women's declines much more precipitously, leaving a substantial proportion of women in poverty. This effect is particularly pronounced for African American and Hispanic women. Though the end of the relationship does reinforce gender stratification, it is also an "equalizer" between married and cohabiting women, leaving them in strikingly similar economic positions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Avellar, Sarah A. and Pamela Jane Smock. "The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions." Journal of Marriage and Family 67,2 (May 2005): 315-328.
305. Averett, Susan L.
Child Care Costs and Female Labor Supply: An Empirical Investigation of the Effects of the Child Care Tax Credit on Female Labor Supply & Demand for Child Care
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, 1991. DAI-A 52/06, p. 2235, December 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Labor Supply; Mothers; Taxes

While the increasing labor force participation rates of mothers with young children is a well documented phenomenon, little is known about the role child care costs play in this increase, or how these costs influence the demand for quality and quantity of child care. This dissertation is a theoretical and empirical exploration of the effects of the child care credit in the U.S. income tax system on female labor supply and the choice of formal versus informal child care arrangements. This tax credit, inherent in the U.S. federal income tax code since 1976, provides a subsidy to working families towards both the quantity and quality of formal child care purchased. This subsidy creates a nonlinear budget set similar in shape to that created by a progressive income tax. Data from the youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys are utilized to estimate the labor supply function of the mother. The labor supply response is found to be quite large with respect to changes in the wage net of care costs. A variety of specifications are estimated and the results appear to be robust. Policy simulations are performed to determine the effects of various proposals concerning the federal funding of child care. The results from simulating the model indicate that subsidization of child care costs through policies enacted by the government can influence female labor supply. Specifically, a government policy that has the effect of raising net wage rate, perhaps by increasing the percentage of child care costs that are subsidized, can have substantial impacts on female labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. Child Care Costs and Female Labor Supply: An Empirical Investigation of the Effects of the Child Care Tax Credit on Female Labor Supply & Demand for Child Care. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, 1991. DAI-A 52/06, p. 2235, December 1991.
306. Averett, Susan L.
Burton, Mark L.
College Attendance and the College Wage Premium: Differences by Gender
Economics of Education Review 15,1 (February 1996): 37-49.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775795000275
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Gender Differences; Wages

This paper examines gender differences in the decision of whether or not to attend college. We use a human capital model of the decision to attend college, positing that this decision is a function of family background characteristics and the expected future earnings differential between college and high school graduates (the college wage premium). Using data from the NLSY, we demonstrate that for men, the higher the college wage premium, the more likely they are to attend college. However, for women, higher college wage premia have an insignificant effect on the decision to attend college and this effect is robust to a variety of specifications. In addition, we find some support for the comparative advantage hypothesis suggesting that individuals self-select themselves into that level of education which best utilizes their talents.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Mark L. Burton. "College Attendance and the College Wage Premium: Differences by Gender." Economics of Education Review 15,1 (February 1996): 37-49.
307. Averett, Susan L.
Dalessandro, Sharon
Racial and Gender Differences in the Returns to 2-Year and 4-Year Degrees
Education Economics 9,3 (December 2001): 281-292.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09645290110086144
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Carfax Publishing Company ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Gender; Human Capital; Occupational Choice; Racial Studies; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1993 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper documents differences in the rate of return to 2-year and 4-year degrees across race and gender. We find for each race and gender group that a baccalaureate degree is more valuable than an associate's degree, and the return to an associate's degree is greater than attending some college, which is in turn more valuable than simply finishing high school. Our results indicate that these effects are statistically different for black and white men. Finally, according to our research, one avenue of low-cost education for women and black men is to attend a 2-year school and then finish the degree at a 4-year institution.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Sharon Dalessandro. "Racial and Gender Differences in the Returns to 2-Year and 4-Year Degrees." Education Economics 9,3 (December 2001): 281-292.
308. Averett, Susan L.
Fletcher, Erin K.
Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9052, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. A total of 7,496 births to 3,990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of income outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Erin K. Fletcher. "Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9052, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015.
309. Averett, Susan L.
Fletcher, Erin K.
Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes
Maternal and Child Health Journal 20,3 (March 2016): 655-664.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-015-1865-0
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Mothers; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother.

Methods: A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families.

Results: In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA.

Conclusions: Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant.

Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Erin K. Fletcher. "Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes." Maternal and Child Health Journal 20,3 (March 2016): 655-664.
310. Averett, Susan L.
Fletcher, Erin K.
The Relationship Between Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Preschool Obesity
In: Applied Demography and Public Health in the 21st Century: Volume 8 of Applied Demography Series. M.N. Hoque, B. Pecotte and M.A. McGehee, eds., Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2017: 201-219.
Also: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-43688-3_12
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, OLS; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Preschool Children; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The increasing prevalence of obesity during pregnancy raises concerns over the intergenerational transmission of obesity and its potential to exacerbate the current obesity epidemic. The fetal origins hypothesis posits that the intrauterine environment might have lasting effects on children's outcomes. A large literature establishes that mother's pre-pregnancy obesity is correlated with obesity in her children. However, previous research is largely based on comparing individuals across families and hence cannot control for unobservable factors associated with both maternal and child obesity. We use both within-family comparisons and an instrumental variable approach on a sample of 4435 children to identify the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on obesity in preschool-aged children. Consistent with extant research, OLS models that rely on across-family comparisons indicate a significant correlation between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and preschool obesity . However, maternal fixed effects render those associations insignificant. Instrumenting for mother's BMI with her sisters' BMI values confirms the null result indicating that the in utero transmission of obesity is likely not driving the increase in childhood obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Erin K. Fletcher. "The Relationship Between Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Preschool Obesity" In: Applied Demography and Public Health in the 21st Century: Volume 8 of Applied Demography Series. M.N. Hoque, B. Pecotte and M.A. McGehee, eds., Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2017: 201-219.
311. Averett, Susan L.
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Fathers as Providers of Child Care
Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Child Development; Cognitive Development; Family Studies; Fathers, Involvement; Maternal Employment; Part-Time Work; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sex Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fathers are an important, but understudied, source of child care. In this paper we address two questions. First, what are the patterns of father care, and second, what are the cognitive and socio-emotional developmental consequences for children with working mothers whose fathers provide care? We find that father care is often used in conjunction with other forms of child care. Fathers are most likely to provide care when the mothers are working a non-day shift or are working part-time. The consequences of father care for a child's cognitive development differ by the age of the child. Father care during the first year of a child's life has a positive impact on developmental outcomes relative to other types of child care. In contrast, children in nonparental modes of child care have better cognitive outcomes in the second and third years. Nonparental care during the second or third year provides opportunities for cognitive stimulation and social interaction with peers and no nparental adults that may be less available to children who are cared for by their fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Lisa Anoush Gennetian and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Fathers as Providers of Child Care." Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996.
312. Averett, Susan L.
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Paternal Child Care and Children's Development
Journal of Population Economics 18,3 (September 2005): 391-414.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p63563120r7688h5/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Family Income; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Presence; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses the NLSY-Child data to assess the effects on cognitive and social-emotional development of father care as a child care arrangement among children in two-parent families with working mothers. Our results show that father care for infants is no better or worse than other types of arrangements. However, toddlers in non-paternal modes of child care (e.g., relatives, family day care or center care) have slightly better cognitive outcomes than those whose fathers provided care. Although our analyses do not provide a definitive explanation for this finding, there is a substantial influx of fathers in our data who provide child care in years 2 and 3 and these fathers appear compositionally different from fathers who provided care during a child's infancy. In particular, there is some indication that these fathers who are newly providing care during a child's toddler years may be temporary care providers due to changing economic circumstances.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Lisa Anoush Gennetian and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Paternal Child Care and Children's Development." Journal of Population Economics 18,3 (September 2005): 391-414.
313. Averett, Susan L.
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life
Marriage and Family Review 29,2-3 (2000): 115-136.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J002v29n02_08
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Care; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Foster Care; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Work Hours

This study examined patterns and determinants of father care of young children while mothers are working. The authors use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of individuals born from 1957 through 1964 who were interviewed as teenagers and reinterviewed every subsequent year. The final sample for this study included 1188 children and their 863 mothers. The results showed that full-time working mothers are less likely to use father care. Fathers in occupations that require non-day shifts are more likely to provide child care. While some studies have shown that fathers are more likely to provide care if they are unemployed, the data here show that fathers who provide care are no more likely to be unemployed than fathers who do not provide care. Of all the children in the sample whose mothers worked during their first year of life, 4.2% were cared for exclusively by their fathers and 4.4% were cared for by their fathers and some other care provider. Children who lived in states where the costs of child care are higher were more likely to be cared for exclusively by fathers. Hispanics were less likely to use only father care, and families in which the mother identified with traditional gender roles were less likely to use father only care. Families living in the South were less likely to use some father care. The determinants of father care varied with the extent of the care provides as well as with the age of the child. Working mothers who identified with traditional gender role patterns were less likely to use father care exclusively during the child's first year, but the effect becomes insignificant if the child had both father care and other types of care. Work schedules were generally important in predicting the use of father care with other care. While Hispanics were less likely to provide father care, those living in areas with high unemployment were more likely to provide care. Whites and African Americans living in areas of high unemployment were less likely to provide father care. These findings suggest that one way to increase father involvement is to support flexible work schedules for fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Lisa Anoush Gennetian and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life." Marriage and Family Review 29,2-3 (2000): 115-136.
314. Averett, Susan L.
Hotchkiss, Julie L.
The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work
Working Paper, Easton PA: Department of Economics, Lafayette College, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, Lafayette College
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Benefits, Insurance; Insurance, Health; Retirement/Retirement Planning; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Workers' probability of being offered medical, retirement, and life insurance benefits is estimating using a sample from the 1991 NLSY. Exogeneity of workers' wages and hours of work is rejected and thus instrumented out of the benefits equations. We find that the predicted probability of being offered each of these benefits is less than 50 percent for those traditionally defined as full-time employed (working 35 hours per week). This finding has important implications for the success of welfare reform and the impact of health care reform. We also find that for our sample of young workers, women are more likely to be offered each benefit at any given hours.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Julie L. Hotchkiss. "The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work." Working Paper, Easton PA: Department of Economics, Lafayette College, 1995.
315. Averett, Susan L.
Hotchkiss, Julie L.
The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Benefits, Insurance; Gender Differences; Health Care; Health Reform; Vocational Guidance; Wages; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Workers' probability of being offered medical, retirement, and life insurance benefits is estimating using a sample from the 1991 NLSY. Exogeneity of workers' wages and hours of work is rejected and thus instrumented out of the benefits equations. We find that the predicted probability of being offered each of these benefits is less than 50 percent for those traditionally defined as full-time employed (working 35 hours per week). This finding has important implications for the success of welfare reform and the impact of health care reform. We also find that for our sample of young workers, women are more likely to be offered each benefit at any given hours.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Julie L. Hotchkiss. "The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
316. Averett, Susan L.
Korenman, Sanders D.
Black-White Differences in Social and Economic Consequences of Obesity
International Journal of Obesity 23,2 (February 1999): 166-173.
Also: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v23/n2/pdf/0800805a.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Stockton Press
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Marriage; Obesity; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate social and economic effects of obesity for black and white females, and to explore possible explanations for race differences in obesity effects. SUBJECTS: 1354 non-Hispanic black and 3097 non-Hispanic, non-black, women aged 25-33yr. in 1990 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-1990. MEASUREMENTS: Body mass index (BMI) evaluated at age 17-24 yr. (1982) and 25-33 yr. (1990). METHODS: Logistic and linear regression of six labour market and marriage outcomes on early or attained BMI. Detailed controls for family socioeconomic background. RESULTS: Socioeconomic effects of obesity appear larger for whites than blacks. Obesity is associated with low self-esteem among whites, but not blacks. Differences in self-esteem do not account for race differences in the effects of obesity on socioeconomic status. Lower probability of marriage and lower earnings of husbands among those who marry account for the majority of the income differences between obese white women and those of recommended weight. Occupational differences account for more than one fifth of the effect of obesity on the hourly wages of both white and black women. CONCLUSION: Cultural differences may protect black women from the self-esteem loss associated with obesity for whites. However, differences in self-esteem do not account for the effects of obesity on socioeconomic status. Because the effect of obesity on the economic status of white women works primarily through marriage, it may therefore be less amenable to policy intervention to improve the labor market prospects of obese women.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Sanders D. Korenman. "Black-White Differences in Social and Economic Consequences of Obesity." International Journal of Obesity 23,2 (February 1999): 166-173.
317. Averett, Susan L.
Korenman, Sanders D.
The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth
NBER Working Paper No. 4521, National Bureau of Economic Research, November, 1993.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W4521
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Family Background and Culture; Family Income; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Income; Marital Status; Obesity; Racial Equality/Inequality; Wage Differentials

We investigate income, marital status, and hourly pay differentials by body mass (kg/m2) in a sample of 23 to 31 year olds drawn from the 1988 NLSY. Obese women have lower family incomes than women whose weight-for-height is in the "recommended" range. Results for men are weaker and mixed. We find similar results when we compare same-sex siblings in order to control for family background (e.g., social class) differences. Differences in economic status by body mass for women increase markedly when we use an earlier weight measure or restrict the sample to persons who were single and childless when the early weight was reported. There is some evidence of labor market discrimination against obese women. However, differences in marriage probabilities and in spouse's earnings account for 50 to 95 percent of their lower economic status. There is no evidence that obese African American women suffer an economic penalty relative to other African American women.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Sanders D. Korenman. "The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth." NBER Working Paper No. 4521, National Bureau of Economic Research, November, 1993.
318. Averett, Susan L.
Korenman, Sanders D.
The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth
Journal of Human Resources 31,2 (Spring 1996): 304-330.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146065
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Discrimination; Earnings; Family Background and Culture; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Income; Labor Market Outcomes; Marital Status; Obesity; Siblings

A study investigates income, marital status, and hourly pay differentials by body mass in a sample of 23- and 31-year-olds drawn from the 1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth. Obese women have lower family incomes than women whose weight-for-height is in the "recommended" range. The results for men are weaker and mixed. The study finds similar results when it compares same-sex siblings in order to control for family background differences. Differences in economic status by body mass for women increase markedly when an earlier weight measure is used or the sample is restricted to persons who were single and childless when the early weight was reported. There is some evidence of labor market discrimination against obese women. Differences in marriage probabilities and spouse's earnings, however, account for 50% to 95% of their lower economic status. There is little evidence that obese African American women suffer an economic penalty to other African American women. [Copyright Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System 1996]
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Sanders D. Korenman. "The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth." Journal of Human Resources 31,2 (Spring 1996): 304-330.
319. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life
In: Fatherhood: Research, Interventions, and Policies, Volume 1. H. E. Peters and R. D. Day, eds. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, Inc., 2000.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Care; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Presence; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Also co-published simultaneously in Marriage and Family Review 29, 2/3 and 4, 2000

Conference: Conference on Father Involvement (Oct 1996 : Bethesda, MD, US). This paper uses retrospective child care data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the patterns and determinants of paternal child care during a child's 1st 3 yrs of life. Data were from 2-parent families and focused on 1,188 children of 863 mothers who worked sometime between the child's birth date and the child's 3rd birthday. It was found that father care is a fairly stable form of care; the average number of months that father care is used during a year is similar to the duration of other forms of child care. Paternal care is often used in conjunction with other types of child care including relative, nonrelative, and center care. Findings also show that different characteristics predict paternal child care according to the timing and extent of care. For those fathers who are the exclusive providers of child care during the 1st yr of life, the incidence of paternal child care is associated with race or ethnicity and a mother's identification with nontraditional gender roles. For those fathers who provide some of the total care during the 1st 3 yrs of a child's life, the incidence of paternal child care is more highly associated with the flexibility of a mother's and father's work schedule. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). Note(s): An earlier version was presented at the Conference on Father Involvement and at the annual meetings of the Population Association of America, Mar, 1997.; Special Issue: Fatherhood: Research, interventions and policies. Part I.

Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Lisa Anoush Gennetian. "Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life" In: Fatherhood: Research, Interventions, and Policies, Volume 1. H. E. Peters and R. D. Day, eds. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, Inc., 2000.
320. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Waldman, Donald M.
Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care
Report No 92-9. Chicago IL: Population Research Center, NORC-University of Chicago, November 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Taxes; Women

This paper is a theoretical and empirical exploration of the effects of the child care tax credit in the U.S. income tax system on female labor supply and choice of child care arrangements. The tax credit provides a subsidy to working families towards the purchase of child care. This subsidy creates a nonlinear budget set similar to that created by a progressive income tax. Data from the 1986 interview of the youth cohort of the NLS are utilized to estimate the labor supply function of women with young children. Our estimates control for the type of child care arrangements made, explicitly allowing women to use market care or informal care. Our empirical work demonstrates that married women's labor supply is elastic with respect to the wage net of child care costs and the child care tax credit. Furthermore, we find that increasing the value (percent of expenditures subsidized) of the child care tax credit will increase hours supplied to the labor market by married women with children under age six.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Donald M. Waldman. Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care. Report No 92-9. Chicago IL: Population Research Center, NORC-University of Chicago, November 1992.
321. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Waldman, Donald M.
Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care: Theory and Measurement
Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior; Child Care; Children; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Taxes; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While the increase in labor supply of mothers with young children since World War II is a well known phenomena, little is understood about the role child care costs play in this increase. This paper is a theoretical and empirical exploration of the effects of the child care tax credit inherent in the U.S. income tax system on female labor supply and choice of child care arrangements. This tax credit provides a subsidy to working families towards both the quantity and quality of child care purchased. This subsidy creates a nonlinear budget set similar to that of a progressive income tax. Data from the NLSY are utilized to estimate the labor supply function of women with young children. The estimates control for the type of child care arrangements made, explicitly allowing women to use market care and informal care. These results give an estimate of the behavioral impacts of subsidizing child care and should be of interest to policy makers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Donald M. Waldman. "Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care: Theory and Measurement." Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992.
322. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Waldman, Donald M.
Tax Credits, Labor Supply, and Child Care
The Review of Economics and Statistics 79,1 (February 1997): 125-135.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2951439
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Keyword(s): Child Care; Labor Supply; Marital Status; Modeling; Taxes; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We explore the impact of the child care tax credit in the U.S. income tax system on the labor supply decisions of married women with young children by incorporating the cost of child care into a structural labor supply model. Using data from the 1986 NLSY, we find that government subsidies to child care increase labor supply substantially. Our policy simulations show that an increase in the value of the child care tax credit (i.e., percent of expenditures subsidized) would have a much larger effect on labor supply than an increase in the annual expenditure limits of the subsidy or making the subsidy refundable. (Copyright 1997 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.)
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Donald M. Waldman. "Tax Credits, Labor Supply, and Child Care." The Review of Economics and Statistics 79,1 (February 1997): 125-135.
323. Averett, Susan L.
Sikora, Asia
Argys, Laura M.
For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index
Economics and Human Biology 6,3 (December 2008): 330-349.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X08000543
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Racial Differences

Recent increases in the incidence of obesity and declines in marriage have prompted policymakers to implement policies to mitigate these trends. This paper examines the link between these two outcomes. There are four hypotheses (selection, protection, social obligation and marriage market) that might explain the relationship between marital status transitions and changes in Body Mass Index (BMI). The selection hypothesis suggests that those with a lower BMI are more likely to be selected into marriage. The protection hypothesis states that married adults will have better physical health as a result of the increased social support and reduced incidence of risky behavior among married individuals. The social obligation hypothesis states that those in relationships may eat more regular meals and/or richer and denser foods due to social obligations which may arise because of marriage. Finally, the marriage market hypothesis indicates that when adults are no longer in the marriage market they may not maintain a healthy BMI because doing so is costly and they are in a stable union-or on the other hand, adults may enhance their prospects in the marriage market by losing weight. Taking advantage of longitudinal data and complete marriage histories in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we estimate individual fixed effects models to examine associations between the change in log BMI and the incidence of overweight and obesity, and changes in relationship status controlling for the effects of aging and other respondent characteristics. We find no support for the marriage protection hypothesis. Rather we find evidence supporting the social obligation and marriage market hypotheses-BMI increases for both men and women during marriage and in the course of a cohabiting relationship. Separate analyses by race and ethnicity reveal substantial differences in the response of BMI to relationship status across these groups.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Asia Sikora and Laura M. Argys. "For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index." Economics and Human Biology 6,3 (December 2008): 330-349.
324. Averett, Susan L.
Sikora, Asia
Argys, Laura M.
For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index
Working Paper, Research Department Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, September 2007.
Also: http://www.atl-res.com/macro/papers/Averett%20paper.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent increases in the incidence of obesity and declines in marriage have prompted policymakers to implement policies to mitigate these trends. There are four hypotheses (selection, protection, social obligation and marriage market) that might explain the relationship between marital status transitions and changes in BMI. The selection hypothesis indicates that those with a lower BMI are more likely to be selected into marriage. The protection hypothesis states that married adults will have better physical health due to the increased social support and marriage and reduced incidence of risky behavior among married individuals. The social obligation hypothesis states that those in relationships may eat more regular meals and/or richer and denser foods due to social obligations one of which may be marriage. Finally, the marriage market hypothesis, as we term it, indicates that when adults are no longer in the marriage market they may not maintain a healthy BMI because doing so is costly and they are in a stable union—or on the other hand, adults may prepare for the marriage market by losing weight. Taking advantage of the longitudinal aspect and complete marriage histories provided in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we estimate individual fixed effects model to examine the change in log body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of overweight and obesity, as a function of changes in relationship status controlling for the effects of aging and other respondent characteristics. We find no support for the marriage protection hypothesis. Rather we find evidence supporting the social obligation and marriage market hypotheses--BMI increases for both men and women during marriage and the course of a cohabiting relationship. Separate analyses by race and ethnicity reveal substantial differences in the response of BMI to relationship status.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Asia Sikora and Laura M. Argys. "For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index." Working Paper, Research Department Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, September 2007.
325. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
Effects of Higher EITC Payments on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Noncognitive Skills
Public Finance Review 46,4 (July 2018): 519-557.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1091142116654965
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Noncognitive Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 1993, the benefit levels of the earned income tax credit (EITC) were changed significantly based on the number of children in the household. Exploiting this policy change and employing a difference-in-differences plus mother fixed effects framework, we find significantly improved home environment quality for children of unmarried mothers, regardless of their race/ethnicity, and lowered probabilities of having accidents and improved mother-rated health for children of married white mothers. Children of unmarried black and Hispanic mothers also had better mother-rated health. Our results provide new evidence of positive spillover effects of the 1993 EITC expansion and therefore have important policy implications.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "Effects of Higher EITC Payments on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Noncognitive Skills." Public Finance Review 46,4 (July 2018): 519-557.
326. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
The Effects of Earned Income Tax Credit Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking
Health Economics 22,11 (November 2013): 1344-1359.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.2886/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Children; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Educational Attainment; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Earned Income Tax Credit is the largest antipoverty program in the USA. In 1993, the Earned Income Tax Credit benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we use a triple-difference plus fixed effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-educated mothers. We find that the probability of smoking for White low-educated mothers of two or more children significantly decreased relative to those with only one child, and this result is robust to various specification tests. This result provides new evidence on the protective effect of income on health through changes in a health-related behavior and therefore has important policy implications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "The Effects of Earned Income Tax Credit Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking." Health Economics 22,11 (November 2013): 1344-1359.
327. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
The Effects of EITC Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking
Presented: Paris, France, 2nd Irdes Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation, June 2011.
Also: http://www.irdes.fr/EspaceRecherche/Colloques/Ahepe/Ahepe2011PresentationAverett.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Irdes Institute for Research and Information in Health Economics
Keyword(s): Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Mothers, Health; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLSY79, they demonstrate that the EITC expansion in 1993 which significantly increased EITC benefits for families with two children relative to families with one child decreased the probability of smoking for white mothers but not for black mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "The Effects of EITC Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking." Presented: Paris, France, 2nd Irdes Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation, June 2011.
328. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
The Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Non-Cognitive Skills
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9173, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2015.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp9173.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Accidents; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Educational Attainment; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Illnesses; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Obesity; Program Participation/Evaluation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 1993, the benefit levels of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) were changed significantly based on the number of children in the household. Employing a difference-indifferences plus mother fixed-effects framework, we find better mother-rated health for children of unmarried black mothers and married white and Hispanic mothers, lower accident rates for children of married white and Hispanic mothers, and improved home environment quality for children of unmarried white and Hispanic mothers. Our results provide new evidence of the effects of the 1993 EITC expansion and therefore have important policy implications.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "The Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Non-Cognitive Skills." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9173, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2015.
329. Averett, Susan L.
Whittington, Leslie A.
Does Maternity Leave Induce Births?
Southern Economic Journal 68,2 (October 2001): 403-417.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1061601
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Family Studies; Fertility; Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity

Alleviating the tension between the conflicting responsibilities women may face as mothers and as workers is a topic of current policy interest. Expansion of guaranteed maternity leave to all employed women in the United States is suggested as one possible 'family-friendly' solution. Controversy surrounding the issue of increased maternity leave centers around the potential cost to firms of widespread access to leave. One specific concern is that the availability of maternity leave will actually increase births among eligible working women. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the impact of maternity leave on fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Leslie A. Whittington. "Does Maternity Leave Induce Births?" Southern Economic Journal 68,2 (October 2001): 403-417.
330. Ay, Unal
Labor Force Attachment of American Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Work Attitudes

The purpose of this study was to develop a model measuring the labor force attachment of American youth. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Surveys, Labor Market Experience of Youth (NLS) in which youth 14 to 21 years old were first interviewed in 1979. Two questions included in this study were: (1) Can acceptable models of labor force attachment of American youth be created from observed measures of youth commitment to work, willingness to engage in paid employment, and work experience? (2) Are models of labor force attachment of American youth equally appropriate for sex, race, and age groups? Two and three latent variable models of youth labor force attachment were developed through confirmatory factor analysis of observed measures. Results of the analysis showed that both models fit the data fairly well, but measures of fit were higher in the three latent variable model, indicating that it was a slightly better model than the two latent variable model. Measures of fit of the model to the data across the sex-race-age groups were about the same; that is, while some observed variables highly correlated with the same latent variable in all groups, there we some that were weakly correlated in all groups. The model with three latent variables did not fit the category by race, because the T matrix was not positive definite for Whites.
Bibliography Citation
Ay, Unal. Labor Force Attachment of American Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1985.
331. Ayala, Mary Ann
Household Productivity and its Effects on Labor Force Participation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Miami, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Dual Economic Theory; Household Models; Labor Force Participation; Wages, Reservation

A structural model of the head of the household's time and dollar-expenditures shares on child-care services is derived and estimated in order to determine whether the technology of household-production exhibits economies of scale and scope. The components of this structural model are used to assess the effects of household-productivity and child-care subsidization on labor force participation.

The components of the structural model include the reservation costs and the costs of market-produced child-care services. The reservation costs, derived in the study by relying on the duality theorems, are used to estimate the effects of household-productivity on labor force participation. These price factors that are related to market-produced child-care are used to estimate the effects of subsidization on labor force participation, independent of other factors. The study group, consisting of 1906 young heads of households, between fourteen and twenty-two years of ages, was selected from the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS-Y).

The findings reveal the presence of scale economies in the head of the household's production of child-care services. Higher reservation costs, reflecting higher estimates of household-productivity, lower the household's dollar-expenditures on market-produced child-care services. Among females, but not male youths, higher reservation costs also lower the labor force participation rate.

For illustration, the minimum subsidy requirement associated with a ten percentage point increase in the female youths' labor force participation rate is calculated. Higher reservation costs increase the minimum subsidy requirement.

Bibliography Citation
Ayala, Mary Ann. Household Productivity and its Effects on Labor Force Participation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Miami, 1992.
332. Ayres, Ian
Nalebuff, Barry
For the Love of the Game
Forbes Magazine, OutFront, March 12, 2007: .
Also: http://www.econ.upf.edu/~segal/Forbes.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Forbes.com
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We'd like you to take a short aptitude test. From among the possible answers listed for each question in the table (below), circle the one that is the correct code number for that word. Taken at face value this has to be one of the dumbest tests ever devised. If you can read, then you can find the answers. It turns out that you've just taken part of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. These questions were originally designed to find people who would be well suited to clerical positions.

Now for the surprise. Harvard postdoc Carmit Segal has just completed a study that shows that a person's coding-test results predict how much money the person will earn 20 years later in life. A one-standard-deviation increase in coding speed translates into a 7% increase in future income.

So clerical skills predispose you for a chief executive slot? Not quite. As it turns out, the performance on this coding test was measuring something other than clerical skills, and it was that something that is an ingredient for success. That something is conscientiousness.

Bibliography Citation
Ayres, Ian and Barry Nalebuff. "For the Love of the Game." Forbes Magazine, OutFront, March 12, 2007: .
333. Azadikhah Jahromi, Afrouz
Essays on Heterogeneous Treatment Effects in The Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Temple University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Income; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Income; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 3, titled THE HETEROGENEOUS EFFECTS OF HAVING CHILDREN ON WOMEN'S INCOME, estimates the distributional effects of having children on women's annual income in the United States using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1979 to 2016. Existing work on motherhood penalty shows that while the wage gap among men and women becomes smaller in the United States, the gap between mothers and childless women is increasing (Waldfogel 1998). After childbirth, women usually experience an immediate decrease in their earnings relative to what they would have earned if they had not become a mother. The gap closes somewhat over time though mothers never fully catch up to their counterfactuals. Previous work tried to explain the motherhood wage penalty by estimating the average treatment effect of children on women's earnings, but these effects can be quite heterogeneous across mothers with different observable characteristics. By utilizing the Changes-in-Changes model and distribution regression, I find that around 90% of mothers have lower income after having children. White, married, older, and highly educated mothers with two or more children experience a substantial drop in their income.
Bibliography Citation
Azadikhah Jahromi, Afrouz. Essays on Heterogeneous Treatment Effects in The Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Temple University, 2019.
334. Babcock, Philip
Marks, Mindy S.
Leisure College, USA: The Decline in Student Study Time
American Enterprise Institute Education Outlook 7 (August 2010).
Also: http://www.aei.org/files/2010/08/05/07-EduO-Aug-2010-g-new.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
Keyword(s): College Education; Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Human Capital; National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE); Project Talent; Time Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 1961, the average full-time student at a four-year college in the United States studied about twenty-four hours per week, while his modern counterpart puts in only fourteen hours per week. Students now study less than half as much as universities claim to require. This dramatic decline in study time occurred for students from all demographic subgroups, for students who worked and those who did not, within every major, and at four-year colleges of every type, degree structure, and level of selectivity. Most of the decline predates the innovations in technology that are most relevant to education and thus was not driven by such changes. The most plausible explanation for these findings, we conclude, is that standards have fallen at postsecondary institutions in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Babcock, Philip and Mindy S. Marks. "Leisure College, USA: The Decline in Student Study Time." American Enterprise Institute Education Outlook 7 (August 2010).
335. Babcock, Philip
Marks, Mindy S.
The Falling Time Cost of College: Evidence from Half a Century of Time Use Data
Review of Economics and Statistics 93,2 (May 2011): 468-478.
Also: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/REST_a_00093
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): College Cost; College Education; Human Capital; Time Use

Using multiple data sets from different time periods, we document declines in academic time investment by full-time college students in the United States between 1961 and 2003. Full-time students allocated 40 hours per week toward class and studying in 1961, whereas by 2003, they were investing about 27 hours per week. Declines were extremely broad based and are not easily accounted for by framing effects, work or major choices, or compositional changes in students or schools. We conclude that there have been substantial changes over time in the quantity or manner of human capital production on college campuses.
Bibliography Citation
Babcock, Philip and Mindy S. Marks. "The Falling Time Cost of College: Evidence from Half a Century of Time Use Data." Review of Economics and Statistics 93,2 (May 2011): 468-478.
336. Bachman, Jerald G.
Omalley, Patrick M.
Yea-saying, Nay-saying, and Going to Extremes: Black-White Differences in Response Style
Public Opinion Quarterly 48,2 (Summer 1984): 491-509.
Also: http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/48/2/491.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Geographical Variation; Racial Differences

This study used data from 3 nationwide surveys of youth ranging from 15 to 23 years of age: Monitoring the Future Project: Design and Procedures by J.G. Bachman and L.D. Johnston (1978), High School and Beyond: A National Longitudinal Study for the 1980s by the National Opinion Research Center (1980), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) by the Center for Human Resource Research (1981). In all three studies, respondents completed Likert-type questionnaire items, and their responses revealed important racial differences: blacks were more likely than whites to use the extreme response categories, particularly the positive end of agree-disagree scales. Response style indices (agreement, disagreement, acquiescence, and extreme responding) displayed ranges of individual differences and cross-time stabilities comparable to commonly used personality measures. For both races, agreement tendencies were stronger among those in the south, especially in nonmetropolitan areas; however, controlling for geography did little to reduce overall black-white differences. Findings reveal potential pitfalls in dealing with racial differences in survey and personality measures and illustrate the need for caution in reporting and interpreting such differences. [(c)APA]
Bibliography Citation
Bachman, Jerald G. and Patrick M. Omalley. "Yea-saying, Nay-saying, and Going to Extremes: Black-White Differences in Response Style." Public Opinion Quarterly 48,2 (Summer 1984): 491-509.
337. Bachrach, Christine A.
Carver, Karen P.
Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence
Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Conference, May 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Child Health; Childbearing; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Overview, Child Assessment Data; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings

This monograph summarizes the conference papers presented at Bethesda MD, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Conference.
Bibliography Citation
Bachrach, Christine A. and Karen P. Carver. Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Conference, May 1992.
338. Backes, Ben
Antonovics, Kate
Affirmative Action Bans and High School Student Effort: Evidence From California
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Human Capital; National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); State-Level Data/Policy; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper builds on previous studies by pulling together evidence from the College Board (CB), National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). We examine the effects of California's ban of affirmative action – known as Prop 209, which went into effect in 1998 – by focusing on human capital investment prior to college entry, and we highlight the weaknesses of previous research that has attempted to do this. Our main innovations relative to previous literature are the inclusion of additional data, a focus on the performance of all Californians relative to the rest of the country, and adjusting standard errors to be appropriate for our data sources and study design.

Using more comprehensive data and methodological improvements, we find that, in contrast to previous studies, there is little evidence that under-represented minorities in California performed worse on any of our standardized test measures or self-reported high school grade point average after Prop 209 relative to the rest of the country. In addition, the performance of all Californians relative to the rest of the country appears to have remained stable after its affirmative action ban. Finally, we note that our post-policy change period only goes until three years after the implementation of the ban, and the cumulative long-run effects on human capital investment could be larger.

Bibliography Citation
Backes, Ben and Kate Antonovics. "Affirmative Action Bans and High School Student Effort: Evidence From California." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
339. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Alternative Opportunities in the Female Labor Market and Teacher Supply and Quality: 1940-1990
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Teachers/Faculty; Tests and Testing; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, I estimate the effect of changes in teacher earnings relative to professional earnings opportunities on teacher supply and teacher quality. I analyze data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series of 1940-1990, the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Men, Young Women, and Youth-79, and the CIRP Freshman Surveys from 1971-1995 of college freshmen from more than 1,700 institutions.

I find that teacher performance on standardized exams declines between 1970 and 1990. Prospective education majors are increasingly being drawn from less selective institutions. Ceteris paribus, a 10 percent increase in entry teacher earnings relative to professionals raises the probability that skilled women choose teaching by 32 to 47 percent for blacks and 18 to 40 percent for whites. Raising relative teacher wages also significantly attracts teachers who perform better on standardized tests and prospective education majors from highly selective institutions. Specification checks imply that the results are robust to various identifying assumptions.

Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla. "Alternative Opportunities in the Female Labor Market and Teacher Supply and Quality: 1940-1990." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002.
340. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Do Alternative Opportunities Matter? The Role of Female Labor Markets in the Decline of Teacher Quality
Review of Economics and Statistics 89,4 (November 2007): 737-751.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40043097
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Teachers/Faculty; Tests and Testing; Wage Rates; Wages, Young Women; Women's Education; Women's Roles

This paper documents the widely perceived but little investigated notion that teachers today are less qualified than they once were. Evidence of a marked decline in the quality of young women going into teaching between 1960 and 1990 is presented, using standardized test scores, undergraduate institution selectivity, and positive assortative mating characteristics as indicators of quality. In contrast, the quality of young women becoming professionals increased. The Roy model of self-selection highlights how occupational differences in the returns to skill determine teacher quality. Estimates suggest the significance of increasing professional opportunities for women in affecting the decline in teacher quality.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla. "Do Alternative Opportunities Matter? The Role of Female Labor Markets in the Decline of Teacher Quality." Review of Economics and Statistics 89,4 (November 2007): 737-751.
341. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Blum, Bernardo S.
Two Sides of the Same Coin: U.S. "Residual" Inequality and the Gender Gap
Journal of Human Resources 45,1 (Winter 2010): 97-242.
Also: http://jhr.uwpress.org/content/45/1/197.short
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender Differences; Noncognitive Skills; Skills; Wage Gap

We show that the narrowing gender gap and the growth in earnings inequality are consistent with a simple model in which skills are heterogeneous, and the growth in skill prices has been particularly strong for skills with which women are well endowed. Empirical analysis of DOT, CPS, and NLSY79 data finds evidence to support this model. A large increase in the prices of cognitive and people skills--skills with which women are well endowed--and a decline in the price of motor skills account for up to 40 percent of the rising inequality and 20 percent of the narrowing gender gap.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla and Bernardo S. Blum. "Two Sides of the Same Coin: U.S. "Residual" Inequality and the Gender Gap." Journal of Human Resources 45,1 (Winter 2010): 97-242.
342. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Blum, Bernardo S.
Strange, William C.
Elements of Skill: Traits, Intelligences, and Agglomeration
Working Paper, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, April 2009.
Also: http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/conference/2009/jrs/Strange.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem; Skilled Workers; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There are many fundamental issues in regional and urban economics that hinge on worker skills. This paper builds on psychological approaches to learning to characterize the role of education and agglomeration in the skill development process. While the standard approach of equating skill to worker education can be useful, there are important aspects of skill that are missed. Using a measure of skill derived from hedonic attribution, the paper explores the geographic distribution of worker traits, intelligences, and skills and considers the role of urbanization and education in the skill development process.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla, Bernardo S. Blum and William C. Strange. "Elements of Skill: Traits, Intelligences, and Agglomeration." Working Paper, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, April 2009.
343. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Blum, Bernardo S.
Strange, William C.
Skills in the City
Journal of Urban Economics 65,2 (March 2009):136-153.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119008001083
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Geocoded Data; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Occupational Choice; Rural/Urban Differences; Rural/Urban Migration; Skilled Workers; Urban and Regional Planning; Urbanization/Urban Living

This paper documents the allocation of skills across cities and estimates the impact of agglomeration on the hedonic prices of worker skills. We find that large cities are more skilled than are small cities, but only to a modest degree. We also show that the increase in productivity associated with agglomeration, as measured by the urban wage premium, is larger for workers with stronger cognitive and people skills. In contrast, motor skills and physical strength are not rewarded to a greater degree in large cities. Urbanization thus enhances thinking and social interaction, rather than physical abilities. These results are robust to a variety of estimation strategies, including using NLSY variables that control for worker quality and a worker-MSA fixed effect specification.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla, Bernardo S. Blum and William C. Strange. "Skills in the City." Journal of Urban Economics 65,2 (March 2009):136-153.
344. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Hotz, V. Joseph
Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: Evidence from Three NLS Surveys
Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 351-373.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775706000240
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Family Background and Culture; Hispanics; Skills; Transition, School to Work; Wage Growth; Wages

This study examines the changes in the school-to-work transition of young adults in the United States over the latter part of the twentieth century. Their transition is portrayed using data from National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women, Young Men, and Youth 1979. In general, we find that indicators of educational attainment, working while in school and non-school related work increased across cohorts for almost all racial/ethnic and gender groups. This was especially true for young women. Furthermore, various indicators of personal and family backgrounds changed in ways consistent with an improvement across cohorts in the preparation of young men and women for their attainment of schooling and work experience and their success in the labor market. The one exception to this general picture of improvement across cohorts was Hispanic men, who experienced a notable decline in educational attainment and in a variety of personal and family background characteristics. With respect to hourly wage rates, we find that wages over the ages 16 through 27 declined across cohorts. However, the rate of growth of wages with age, particularly over adult ages, increased across cohorts, except Hispanic men. Our findings highlight the need for accounting for the endogeneity and selectivity of early skill acquisition. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR; Copyright 2006 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla and V. Joseph Hotz. "Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: Evidence from Three NLS Surveys." Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 351-373.
345. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Hotz, V. Joseph
Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: What Changed and What Consequences Did It Have for Wages?
Presented: New York, NY, Russell Sage Foundation Conference on "School-to-Work Transitions and School-to-Work Programs", May 2004.
Also: http://www.econ.ucla.edu/hotz/working_papers/cohort.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Schooling; Transition, School to Work; Wages

This study examines the changes in the school-to-work transition in the United States over the latter part of the twentieth century and their consequences for the wages of young adults. In particular, we document the various types of work and schooling experiences acquired by youth who came to adulthood in the U.S. during the late 1960s, 1970s, and through the 1980s. We pay particular attention to how the differences across cohorts in these transitions vary by gender and race/ethnicity and how these differences affected their subsequent wage attainment. Evidence is evaluated using data from National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women, Young Men, and Youth 1979.

In general, we find that indicators of educational attainment, working while in school and non-school related work increased across cohorts for almost all racial/ethnic and gender groups. This was especially true for young women. Furthermore, various indicators of personal and family backgrounds changed in ways consistent with an improvement across cohorts in the preparation of young men and women for their attainment of schooling and work experience and their success in the labor market. The one exception to this general picture of improvement across cohorts was Hispanic men, who experienced a notable decline in educational attainment, the acquisition of full time work early in their adult lives and in a variety of personal and family background characteristics.

Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla and V. Joseph Hotz. "Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: What Changed and What Consequences Did It Have for Wages?" Presented: New York, NY, Russell Sage Foundation Conference on "School-to-Work Transitions and School-to-Work Programs", May 2004.
346. Bacon, Timothy Jay
Young Adults and the Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Clemson University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; College Characteristics; Earnings; Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility, Job; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Skills; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation is comprised of two essays examining labor market outcomes of young adults within the last two decades. The first is motivated by critics of the U.S. education system's current emphasis on 4-year college education who suggest the returns to a 2-year college degree, especially within a career and technology education (CTE) field, could exceed those to a 4-year degree. Evidence on this question has been lacking, in no small part due to the problem of accounting for selection of youth into different schooling choices, which depends on their verbal, math, and mechanical abilities (among other factors). I help fill this void by estimating a generalized Roy model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, in which youth choose among 5 college alternatives: no college, 2-year CTE, 2-year non-CTE, 4-year STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics), and 4-year non-STEM programs. The results permit me to construct consistent estimates of the expected cumulative earnings between the ages of 25 and 29 after each college choice for every individual in my sample. These counterfactual estimates reveal that 14% of current 4-year non-STEM students would expect higher early career earnings had they chosen the 2-year CTE path, yet the majority of these students would benefit even more from 4-year STEM pursuits. On average the 9% of high school graduates that maximize expected earnings from a 2-year CTE path, relative to all other college options, do not currently attend a four-year college. This paper finds these students do not simply possess low verbal and math abilities, but that a high mechanical ability is crucial in conferring a comparative advantage in earnings from 2-year CTE programs.

This second essay within this dissertation estimates how narrowly-defined mismatches between employees and occupations affect young adult job mobility. I construct new measures of academic skill mismatch, technical skill mismatch, and edu cational mismatch using employee level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) and occupation-level data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). Skill mismatch measures capture the distance between an individual's tested abilities (in percentile terms) and the reported skill requirements of an occupation (in similar percentile terms). Estimation of a Cox proportional hazards model of job tenure reveals that a ten point increase in academic skill mismatch increases a worker's monthly hazard of leaving a job by 2.3%, yet technical skill mismatches have no effect. An employee is also 1.7% more likely to leave a job in any given month if ten percent fewer employees within their occupation possess the same level of education. The main benefit of my mismatch measures is their derivation from underlying individual and occupational characteristics. I demonstrate that these characteristics not only influence employee-occupation mismatch, but independently affect job turnover. Thus, their inclusion significantly alters estimates of how employee-occupation mismatches impact young adult job mobility.

Bibliography Citation
Bacon, Timothy Jay. Young Adults and the Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Clemson University, 2017.
347. Bae, Seong-O
Women's Human Capital Investment and Its Returns in the United States: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2002. DAI-A 63/11, p. 3814, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; Job Satisfaction; Job Tenure; Job Training; Training; Training, Employee; Women's Studies

During the last few decades, there have been numerous changes in women's human capital investment and labor force participation in the United States. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79, this study addressed how demographic variables affect women's human capital investment, and in turn how women's human capital investment affects their economic and non-monetary returns. This study also examined the patterns of women's human capital investment and its effects on economic and non-monetary returns. Results of the analyses showed that female students had higher grade point averages (GPA), but lower Armed Forces Qualification Tests (AFQT) scores than male students. The results indicated that women invested in post-secondary education as much as men. Marriage and children had negative effects on women's post-secondary education investment. With respect to training, the results demonstrated that women are less likely to be trained than men. Both marriage and children had significant negative effects on women's training investment early in a career. However, these effects attenuated with progression toward the later career. This study found a significant positive relationship between education and training investment and earnings. This positive effect of human capital investment on earnings was found to be stronger later in a career. The results of this study provided evidence that a gender gap in earnings persisted. Higher education provided higher employability. Also found in this study is the fact that women, regardless of education investment, are less likely to be employed than men. Training was found to be positively associated with employability later in a career. Education investment was found to be positively associated with job satisfaction. Training investment was positively related to job satisfaction early in a career. There was no evidence found concerning gender difference in effects of education investment on job satisfaction. Education investment had a negative effect on tenure early in a career, but education investment showed a positive effect on tenure later in a career. Women had less tenure than men. Married people were found to have longer tenure, while the children factor was associated with less tenure. Training was positively related with tenure. Higher education and training investment were found to provide employees with a higher chance to promote. The results of this study also suggested that despite education investment, women are less likely to be promoted than men.
Bibliography Citation
Bae, Seong-O. Women's Human Capital Investment and Its Returns in the United States: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2002. DAI-A 63/11, p. 3814, May 2003.
348. Baharudin, Rozumah
Predictors of Maternal Behavior and Their Effects on the Achievement of Children: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1992. DAI-A 53/09, p. 3377, March 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Disruption; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem

The purposes of this study were to identify factors that predict the parenting behavior of mothers, and factors that predict the achievement of children. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the study focused on 898 mothers (African-American, n = 347; Caucasians, n = 551), and their 6 to 8 year-old children. Consistent with Belsky's model of the determinants of parenting, the quality of the home environment was influenced by maternal characteristics, contextual factors and child characteristics. Mothers who provided better quality home environments were older in age at the time of their first birth, and had higher levels of intelligence and self-esteem. Mothers who had higher levels of family income, fewer children, and had a spouse or partner in the home also provided more supportive home environments. Female children tended to receive more supportive care than male children. Additional analyses showed that the quality of the home environment was related to the achievement of children. Children who did well had mothers who provided more cognitively stimulating home environment.
Bibliography Citation
Baharudin, Rozumah. Predictors of Maternal Behavior and Their Effects on the Achievement of Children: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1992. DAI-A 53/09, p. 3377, March 1993.
349. Baharudin, Rozumah
Luster, Thomas
Factors Related to the Quality of the Home Environment and Children's Achievement
Journal of Family Issues 19,4 (July 1998): 375-403.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/19/4/375.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Education; Ethnic Differences; Family Income; Family Structure; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intelligence; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study tested Belsky's model of the determinants of parenting. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the study focused on 898 mothers (African Americans, n = 347; Caucasians, n = 551) and their 6- to 8-year-old children. Consistent with Belsky's model, mothers who provided better quality home environments had higher levels of education, intelligence, and self-esteem. Mothers with higher family incomes, fewer children. and higher marital quality provided more supportive home environments. In addition, age and gender of the children were significantly related to the quality of the children's home environments. Additional analyses indicated that the quality of the home environment that mothers of both ethnic groups provided was related to their children's achievement.
Bibliography Citation
Baharudin, Rozumah and Thomas Luster. "Factors Related to the Quality of the Home Environment and Children's Achievement." Journal of Family Issues 19,4 (July 1998): 375-403.
350. Bailey, Adrian John
A Longitudinal Analysis of the Migration of Young Adults in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Life Cycle Research; Migration; Mobility; Mobility, Job

This research is an investigation of the migration of young adults in an explicitly longitudinal context. Research on migration has traditionally centered on identifying the reasons why people move. That approach is enlarged in this research by shifting the emphasis to investigations of why individuals remain at particular locations for greater or lesser intervals of residence. The emphasis on duration of residence allows for the investigation of a wider range of hypotheses about migration but makes it necessary to use longitudinal information to test these hypotheses. The primary objective of the research was to develop a longitudinal model of migration. This was achieved by using an extension of random utility theory to the longitudinal context. An attempt was made to specify the complete set of factors which had been suggested by largely cross-sectional job search and human capital studies as important controls on the length of the residential sojourn. The conceptual model incorporates four such sources of population heterogeneity: employment factors, mobility constraints, life-cycle factors, and the acquisition of human capital. The model is constructed to emphasize the role of migration history for influencing the duration of the sojourn through these sources of population heterogeneity. A survival analysis suggested that the systematic variation that was present in the distribution of sojourn lengths was linked to migration history. A further set of research hypotheses confirmed the relevance of employment and human capital controls on the length of the sojourn. Parameter estimates obtained from a proportional hazards model suggested that unemployment and previous migration history were most strongly associated with shorter sojourns, and experience in the current labor market with longer sojourns and reduced mobility. The research concludes with a summary of the findings and a discussion of the usefulness of longitudinal methods and models for the analysis of time-space problems.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Adrian John. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Migration of Young Adults in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1989.
351. Bailey, Adrian John
Getting on Your Bike: What Difference Does a Migration History Make?
Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 80,5 (1989): 312-317.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9663.1989.tb01910.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Royal Dutch Geographical Society (KNAG)
Keyword(s): Migration; Mobility, Labor Market

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the NLSY to examine the role of migration history in influencing labor migration events. It was found that young adults with some migration history were consistently more likely to migrate than young adults without such a history. One-third of the sample experienced a migration event over the period studied. Of those, 60% had moved once previously, 25% had moved twice, 9% had moved three times, and 6% had moved four or more times. Lengths of residential sojourns for the various groups of migrators and chronic migrants in particular are examined and future research topics discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Adrian John. "Getting on Your Bike: What Difference Does a Migration History Make?" Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 80,5 (1989): 312-317.
352. Bailey, Adrian John
Migration History, Migration Behavior and Selectivity
Annals of Regional Science 27,4 (December 1993): 315-326.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/pg5g07633243k263/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Immigrants; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Migration; Mobility, Labor Market; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A series of proportional hazards models are used to study the relationship between migration history and migration behavior for a sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results support the argument that migration is a selective process. College educated young adults have a greater hazard rate of making an initial migration but a lower hazard rate of re-migration, suggesting they have less need of corrective geographic behavior. Individuals who have moved two or more times are less responsive to national unemployment conditions than first time migrants. Migration is related to the timing of unemployment within a sojourn. The findings suggest that migrant stock is an important determinant of how labor markets function.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Adrian John. "Migration History, Migration Behavior and Selectivity." Annals of Regional Science 27,4 (December 1993): 315-326.
353. Bailey, Adrian John
Opportunities for Geographic Research with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Journal of Economic and Social Measurement 20,1 (1994): 67-77
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Economics, Demographic; Economics, Regional; Geographical Variation; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Migration Patterns; Rural/Urban Differences; Rural/Urban Migration

Although the 1980s were to be the era of longitudinal analysis little geographic research has taken advantage of longitudinal data. One reason is because geographers require data-sets which contain both information on residential histories and information which is geographically representative. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) meets both requirements and can support important geographic research.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Adrian John. "Opportunities for Geographic Research with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Journal of Economic and Social Measurement 20,1 (1994): 67-77.
354. Bailey, Amy Kate
Comparing Veteran Status and Social Mobility across Four Cohorts of American Men
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97, Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Military Service; Mobility, Social; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Popular wisdom holds that the military serves as an engine of social mobility for young American men. However, the relationship between veteran status and occupational attainment appears to vary by race and cohort. This variance results from a variety of factors, particularly policy changes that alter the likelihood of serving in the armed forces, the demographic profile and social origins of those on active duty, and the benefits available to veterans. Additionally, veteran status matters differently by race, and for men with different background characteristics. This paper uses four cohorts of men from the National Longitudinal Surveys--the NLS Older Men, NLS Younger Men, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997--to trace the relationship between veteran status and intergenerational social mobility. I ask whether this relationship has changed over time, as well as how being a veteran differentially affects the life chances of blacks and whites, and men with different levels of educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Amy Kate. "Comparing Veteran Status and Social Mobility across Four Cohorts of American Men." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009.
355. Bailey, Amy Kate
Effect of Veteran Status on Spatial and Socioeconomic Mobility: Outcomes for Black and White Men in the Late 20th Century
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2008. DAI-A 69/09, Mar 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Course; Military Draft; Mobility, Occupational; Mobility, Social; Racial Differences; Veterans; Vietnam War

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Today's military and a growing segment of the veteran population are drawn from groups likely to be disadvantaged in the civilian labor market--blacks and working class whites. While the relationship between veteran status and occupational outcomes have been intensively explored for the World War II, Korean and Vietnam-era cohorts, relatively little scholarly attention has focused the military as an institutional engine of social mobility since the 1973 transition from the Selective Service draft to the All Volunteer Force (AVF). In light of the demographic composition of those who join the military today, the impact of veteran status on life course outcomes may have broad impacts on inequality. The possibility that veteran status may be linked to spatial mobility is also under-explored.

This project uses seven decades of census data and 21 years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--1979 to identify the relationship between veteran status, spatial mobility, and social mobility in the late 20 th century. I focus on three questions: (1) do veterans and nonveterans vary in their migration behavior?; (2) do AVF veterans enjoy greater intergenerational occupational mobility or earn higher incomes than similar men who did not join the military?: and (3) do AVF veterans and nonveterans differ in their ability to use spatial mobility to access communities with greater economic opportunity or specific social characteristics?

I find that veterans exhibit higher rates of migration across the life course, and that this effect persists regardless of changes in military staffing policy and human capital differences between veterans and nonveterans. AVF veterans do not generally earn more money than do similar men without military experience, and rates of intergenerational occupational mobility for veterans and nonveterans are quite similar. Finally, black and white male veterans appear to be unable to leverage their elevated rates of spatial mobility to facilitate enhanced levels of locational attainment. While veterans are not disadvantaged in their ability to migrate into communities with more positive economic and social attributes, any returns to increased migration for veterans likely result from greater mobility and not from a disproportionate benefit from that movement.

Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Amy Kate. Effect of Veteran Status on Spatial and Socioeconomic Mobility: Outcomes for Black and White Men in the Late 20th Century. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2008. DAI-A 69/09, Mar 2009.
356. Bailey, Amy Kate
Is There a Relationship between Veteran Status, Spatial Mobility, and Social Mobility in the All Volunteer Force Era?
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Income; Military Service; Mobility; Mobility, Social; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 from 1979 through 2002 to explore whether spatial mobility is a mechanism through which veteran status influences social mobility. Controlling for a variety of factors at the individual, familial, and contextual levels, I ask whether veteran status and migration have primary and/or interactive effects on the likelihood of social mobility. The preliminary results presented here, using NLSY79 years 1996 through 2002, use a number of these factors to predict income with separate regressions estimated for black and white men. Results indicate that neither black nor white veterans' incomes differ, on average, from those of non-veterans, and that non-veteran migrants along enjoy income benefits to their migration, although these effects are only marginally significant. Factors other than veteran status and migration that influence income appear to vary by race. The final paper will use a more sophisticated methodological approach (either Event History Analysis or Hierarchical Modeling techniques) as well as all available years of data to more fully explore these relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Amy Kate. "Is There a Relationship between Veteran Status, Spatial Mobility, and Social Mobility in the All Volunteer Force Era?" Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007.
357. Bailey, Amy Kate
Veteran Status, Onward and Return Migration in the All Volunteer Force Era
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Migration; Military Service; Racial Differences; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper compares migration patterns among veterans and non-veterans in the All Volunteer Force era, and identifies whether these patterns differ by race or Hispanic origin. First, I ask whether veterans have higher rates of migration than is true among non-veterans for black, white, and native-born Hispanic men at risk of military employment during the AVF era, controlling for individual and community-of-origin factors. I also examine whether there are differences among migrants, by race and/or veteran status, in return or onward migration. Consistent with prior research, veterans are more likely to migrate than similar non-veterans. It appears that veterans are moderately more likely to engage in onward migration than are nonveterans, although the significance is marginal (p ≤ 0.10), and is not found in all model specifications. Veterans appear to be significantly less likely than similar nonveterans, however, to return to their communities or origin once they have migrated (not counting migration required during active duty). This finding obtains for whites and blacks, although the level of return migration among Hispanics appears to be the same for veterans and nonveterans. Possible implications for rural communities are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Amy Kate. "Veteran Status, Onward and Return Migration in the All Volunteer Force Era." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
358. Bailey, Amy Kate
Sykes, Bryan L.
Veteran Status, Income, and Intergenerational Mobility Across Three Cohorts of American Men
Population Research and Policy Review 37,4 (August 2018): 539-568.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-018-9477-1
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Military Enlistment; Mobility, Social; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Existing research linking prior military employment with labor market outcomes has focused on comparing the relative income of veterans and nonveterans. However, people who join the armed forces are uniquely selected from the broader population, and the form and direction of selectivity has shifted over time, with differential enlistment rates by race, region, and socioeconomic status. Understanding changes in the demographic composition of enlistees and veterans has significant import for the study of social mobility, particularly given changes in the occupational structure since the mid-twentieth century and wage stagnation well into the new millennium. Furthermore, labor market polarization and increases in educational attainment since WWII raise additional concerns about the social origins of military personnel and their occupational trajectories after discharge. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, we investigate how social background is linked to both income and occupational mobility among veterans from three cohorts of American men: World War II, Vietnam, and the All-Volunteer Force. We find few benefits for veterans, for either income or intergenerational occupational mobility, once social background is controlled, suggesting that selection into the armed forces largely governs outcomes in the civilian labor market. Our findings have significant importance for understanding civilian labor market outcomes and trajectories of social mobility during distinct phases of military staffing.