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Source: Ph.D. Dissertation - post 2004
Resulting in 608 citations.
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501. Spiller, MIchael W.
The Family Demography of Higher Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Income; Family Size; Family Structure; Higher Education; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Patterns of educational attainment in the United States have changed over the 20th century, with a significant increase in the value of and demand for college education since the 1980s. Simultaneously, the size of families shrank and the proportion of youth living in two-parent "traditional" households decreased, leading to a proliferation of new family forms. Social scientists have long investigated the relationship between family structure and educational attainment. This dissertation contributes to prior research on families and education by examining the relationship between family structure and enrollment in and completion of 4-year college. The first chapter of the dissertation analyzes two panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to determine whether the relationship between family size and higher educational attainment changed between the birth cohort completing high school in the early 1980s and the one completing high school in the late 1990s. It also examines whether family income plays a role in determining whether family size impacts higher educational attainment. The second chapter analyzes the later panel of the NLSY to evaluate competing explanations for the negative relationship between family size and educational attainment. Additionally, it examines whether the relationship varies by youths' race/ethnicity. The final chapter presents a measure of family structure that combines the number of family transitions a youth has experienced and a qualitative measure of family type. It then uses propensity score models to examine whether the negative relationship between non-traditional family structures and higher educational attainment is causal in the later panel of the NLSY. The first chapter finds that there is a negative relationship between family size and higher educational attainment among both birth cohorts. However, it finds that the relationship is concentrated among higher income families in the early panel and lower income families in the later panel. This shift over time is likely due to large changes in higher education aid policies such as the introduction of unsubsidized Stafford loans in 1993. The second chapter finds little support for three explanations claiming that the relationship between family size and higher education is not causal or for the claim that the relationship operates via decreased intellectual ability. It also finds that there is variation in the relationship between family size and higher education by race/ethnicity, with no detectable relationship for Hispanic youth. The final chapter finds that there is a significant causal relationship between being raised in a non-traditional family structure and higher education. Additionally, it finds that the strength of the relationship varies by the likelihood of having a non-traditional family, with the effects concentrated among those who are least likely to have one. This may indicate that communities in which non-traditional families are common provide resources that moderate the impact of non-traditional family structures on educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Spiller, MIchael W. The Family Demography of Higher Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2014.
502. Spivey, Christy
Marriage, Career, and the City: Three Essays in Applied Microeconomics
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 2006. DAI-A 67/12, p. 4646, Jun 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Family Income; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Economics; Marriage; Unemployment Duration; Wage Gap; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation is comprised if three essays in Applied Microeconomics. The first essay examines the effect of an individual's risk aversion on time to marriage. The financial risk aversion measure is based on a series of hypothetical gambles over family income that were offered to respondents of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The estimates support a theoretic model of search, indicating that more risk averse respondents marry sooner than their more risk loving counterparts. In addition, the effect of risk aversion on time to marriage is larger in magnitude and more statistically significant for men. One possible explanation for the different results between the sexes is that women value risk aversion as a desirable trait in potential mates.

The second essay explores how nonemployment spells and career expectations affect wages. Wages are affected by total nonemployment time, by recent work interruptions, and by some past interruptions. Interruptions affect women's wages further into the future compared to men, but the wage loss associated with any given interruption is less severe for women. One potential reason for the gender differences is that men are more likely to take time off from working for reasons that are negatively related to their productivity. Future career interruptions, which workers presumably anticipate in many cases, affect current investment in human capital to some degree for both sexes. A very small fraction of the gender wage gap is attributable solely to timing of experience.

The third essay examines the current viability of the basic predictions of the Mills-Muth monocentric model of city structure. One previous study uses a cross-section of cities to test the comparative statics predictions, namely that city area is increasing in population and income but decreasing in agricultural land value and commuting costs. While it finds support for the predictions, the data used are from 1970, and there has been a growing consensus that the monocentric model is no longer useful. Despite the increasing polycentricity of cities, there is evidence that the Mills-Muth comparative statics predictions hold for modern cities. Also, densely populated cities are more likely to have subcenters.

Bibliography Citation
Spivey, Christy. Marriage, Career, and the City: Three Essays in Applied Microeconomics. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 2006. DAI-A 67/12, p. 4646, Jun 2007.
503. Srinivasan, Mithuna
Three Essays on the Role of Siblings in the Determination of Individual Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Birthweight; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Family Resources; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parental Investments; Risk-Taking; Siblings; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

My dissertation emphasizes the role played by siblings in the determination of individual outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the direct effect of siblings on adolescent outcomes, while the remainder of my dissertation considers siblings in the context of family fixed effects methods of estimation.

Longitudinal data shows that the likelihood of a child smoking more than triples if the child has an older sibling who also smoked. In my first essay, ``Endogenous Sibling Effects in Adolescent Substance Use'', I unpack this striking correlation, asking whether it is causal or a result of correlated unobservables such as parental investments that are endogenous to the child's behavior. In particular, I examine whether smoking or drinking by an older sibling influences the corresponding behavior of a younger sibling. To control for endogeneity in the older child's outcome, I use differences in smoking and drinking by gender and age among older siblings as instrumental variables. While previous studies have established gender differences in teen substance use, I find that these differences vary across age. For example, gender differences in drinking are small at younger ages, but males drink consistently more than females from mid to late adolescence. The instruments are plausibly exogenous of unobservables such as parental substance use, and will control for parental investments under the assumption that the older sibling's age and gender do not directly affect resources invested in the younger child. I empirically investigate this assumption using data on measures of parental investments, and find no evidence of a correlation between the instruments and younger sibling investments. The results point toward significant and positive sibling effects for smoking as well as drinking. These findings indicate the presence of opportunities for resource constrained parents to invest efficiently in favor of their firstborn, to reduce ``bad'' behavior. Positive sibling effects imply that curtailing the older child's behavior in this way can have spillover effects on the younger sibling, leading to greater payoffs to parents in overall child quality. Within-family social multipliers may also serve to amplify the effects of public policies aimed at curtailing smoking and drinking.

For almost two decades, a vast literature has concerned itself with the association between family structure and child outcomes. These studies have typically found that individuals who grow up in traditional families (with two biological parents) are better off across several indicators such as educational attainment, health and fertility as compared to their counterparts from other types of family structures like single mother or blended families (with a biological mother but one in which the father may be step for all, or step for some and biological for others). In my second essay, ``Family Structure, Parental Investments and Child Well-Being'', I adopt a parental investment perspective and propose that differences in parental investments across varied family structures may provide one explanation for differences in child outcomes by family structure. There are several interesting findings. First, children in single mother and blended families receive lower investments as compared to traditional families, with the gap in investments being larger between single mother and traditional families. Second, among single mothers, the group driving lower investments appears to be never married single mothers. Third, I find that joint biological children of both parents in blended families do not differ significantly in the amount of investments they receive relative to their counterparts in traditional families, but non-biological children of fathers are significantly disadvantaged in investment levels. This provides indirect evidence for a biological preference motive. Investigating this further solely within blended families, I find direct evidence in favor of a biological preference motive wherein biological children receive higher investments than their half siblings.

Parental investments in children are usually motivated by models of intra-household allocation which suggest that parents, in making investment decisions, have information about their children's endowments and respond to them. One factor is that parents motivated by efficiency concerns invest more heavily in better endowed children, presumably due to greater marginal returns from the investment for them. An alternative factor is that rather than reinforcing endowment differences, equity concerns may motivate parents to make compensatory investments in their children by investing relatively more in the less endowed children. There have been several empirical studies that have tried to test these implications, but they have almost entirely assumed that all families will reinforce (compensate) child endowments to the same extent. However, we might expect to see heterogeneity in the degree of unequal treatment. In my last essay, ``Family Structure and Intra-Household Resource Allocation'', I explore one such source of heterogeneity namely, family structure. For example, single mothers, experiencing greater resource constraints might have more incentives to make efficient investments in their children as compared to traditional families with two biological parents present. Studying how investment allocation varies across family structure can be viewed as an important link to understand why individuals from varied types of family structure have such different outcomes on a variety of indicators.

Bibliography Citation
Srinivasan, Mithuna. Three Essays on the Role of Siblings in the Determination of Individual Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2011.
504. St. Vil, Christopher
Neighborhood Perception and Risk Taking Attitudes Among Adolescent and Young Adult Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Howard University, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Attitudes; Depression (see also CESD); Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research considers how perception of neighborhood impacts adolescent and young adult risk-taking attitudes. The purpose of this dissertation is twofold. First this study sought to determine whether levels of risk-taking attitude vary by race, age, and neighborhood perception. Secondly this study sought to determine if certain variables of interest serve as predictors of risk-taking attitudes. A sample of 3,021 Black, Hispanic, and White males aged 14 to 35 years old was selected from the 2008 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Young Adult data set were. The analysis included multivariate analysis of variances (MANOVA) and multiple regression analysis. The participants in this study completed measures of depression, self-concept, family conflict, and risk-taking attitudes. The results of the MANOVA indicate that Black males report lower levels of risk-taking attitude and depression than their White and Hispanic counterparts. Neighborhood perception was not correlated with risk-taking attitude and therefore, not entered into the regression analysis. The results of the multiple regression show that the major predictor of risk-taking attitude was being White, explaining about six percent of the variance in risk-taking. These findings point to the importance of (1) racial stereotypes and their impacts, (2) the prevalence of risk-taking attitudes, and (3) future research to further explain the interaction between measures of masculinity and race.
Bibliography Citation
St. Vil, Christopher. Neighborhood Perception and Risk Taking Attitudes Among Adolescent and Young Adult Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Howard University, 2012.
505. Staub, Kalina
Marriage Formation and Dissolution in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Duke University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Marital Status; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first chapter highlights the roles that both the availability of men and competition from women within a marriage market play in the low marriage rates of uneducated black women. Black women who drop out of high school are far less likely to marry than those who do not; however, they also, counterintuitively, face much more favorable marriage markets than more educated women if we define marriage markets as independent by education level, as is standard. Using a simple model of the marriage market with men and women of different quality levels that allows for marriage market integration across education levels, I show that the marriage prospects of any woman should depend not only on the availability of men, but also the competition from more educated women. Additionally, this model predicts that any gender imbalance should disproportionately affect the marriage prospects for the least educated. Using data from the 1979-2004 waves of the NLSY79, I estimate discrete-time hazard models of first marriages for black women, capturing a woman's marriage prospects in four ways: (i) using a flexible specification that includes five ratios for the relative availability of men as well as the prevalence of competing women at each education level, (ii) using the ratios for the availability of men and women at adjacent education levels, (iii) using an education-specific simple sex ratio from the educationally segmented marriage markets that dominate the literature, and (iv) using a "cascading'' sex ratio implied by the simple model. The results emphasize the importance not only of the supply of men, but also of the competition from other women for the least educated women. Thus, marriage market measures that do not account for this cross-education competition greatly overstate the favorability of the marriage markets for uneducated black women.
Bibliography Citation
Staub, Kalina. Marriage Formation and Dissolution in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Duke University, 2013.
506. Stavrunova, Olena
Labor Market Policies in an Equilibrium Matching Model with Heterogenous (sic) Agents and On-The-Job Search
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Iowa, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Endogeneity; Heterogeneity; Job Search; Job Skills; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation quantitatively evaluates selected labor market policies in a search-matching model with skill heterogeneity where high-skilled workers can take temporary jobs with skill requirements below their skill levels. The joint posterior distribution of structural parameters of the theoretical model is obtained conditional on the data on labor markets histories of the NLSY79 respondents. The information on AFQT scores of individuals and the skill requirements of occupations is utilized to identify the skill levels of workers and complexity levels of jobs in the job-worker matches realized in the data. The model and the data are used to simulate the posterior distributions of impacts of labor market policies on the endogenous variables of interest to a policy-maker, including unemployment rates, durations and wages of low- and high-skilled workers. In particular, the effects of the following policies are analyzed: increase in proportion of high-skilled workers, subsidies for employing or hiring high- and low-skilled workers and increase in unemployment income.
Bibliography Citation
Stavrunova, Olena. Labor Market Policies in an Equilibrium Matching Model with Heterogenous (sic) Agents and On-The-Job Search. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Iowa, 2007.
507. Stebbins, Richard Adiger
An Empirical Analysis of Informal Human Capital Investments in Adolescence as a Predictor of Life Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Family Studies and Human Services, Kansas State University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Activities, After School; Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Television Viewing; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential impact of informal human capital investments made outside of the K-12 curriculum required for youth in the United States of America. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, this study examined the potential impact of three informal human capital investments made in adolescence on four life outcomes for those youths. Informal human capital investments outside of the classroom were measured by (1) the minutes youths spent reading for pleasure, (2) taking extra lessons, or (3) watching television. The four life outcomes examined were (1) educational attainment, (2) wages, (3) employment status, and (4) cognitive ability. The data were analyzed using several hierarchical regressions to assess the impact of these informal human capital investments made in adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Stebbins, Richard Adiger. An Empirical Analysis of Informal Human Capital Investments in Adolescence as a Predictor of Life Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Family Studies and Human Services, Kansas State University, 2019.
508. Stein, Jillian
Does Industry Sector Matter? An Examination of the Relationship between Industry and Rearrest
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Industrial Classification

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Gainful employment is a crucial and normative force that can help individuals desist from crime and avoid repeat justice system contact (recidivism). Despite the importance of employment, people with prior justice contact are often unemployed or marginally employed in low-wage jobs, typically clustered within one of seven industries. This study hypothesized that working in certain industries would be more conducive to desistance than working in others, holding important variables like occupation constant. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and discrete-time hazard analysis with individual-fixed effects, this study tested whether working in particular industries was associated with risk of rearrest for adults with at least one prior arrest. Using Quarterly Workforce Indicator data, this study also tested whether greater job availability in industries typically willing to hire people with prior justice contact was associated with risk of rearrest. After controlling for a number of important time-varying covariates such as educational attainment, occupation, and criminal history, being employed in the construction industry was associated with lower odds of rearrest relative to being employed in the food services industry or being unemployed. No other industries were significantly related to risk of rearrest across the full sample. Subgroup analyses revealed statistically significant differences in the correlation between industry of employment, job availability, and rearrest by gender, age, race and ethnicity, as well as by offense history. Supplemental analyses showed a nuanced interplay between industry and occupation that differed according to the industry and the subgroup examined. Potential explanations for these findings, limitations of the current study, and areas of future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Stein, Jillian. Does Industry Sector Matter? An Examination of the Relationship between Industry and Rearrest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 2018.
509. Steingrimsdottir, Herdis
Essays on Gender Differences in Educational and Labor Market Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Education; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The third chapter focuses on the role of discrimination and the possibility that education as a tool to reveal ability is more important among women than men. As social networks tend to run along gender lines and managers in the labor market are predominantly male, it may be more difficult for women to signal their ability without college credentials. Moreover, women may use education to signal their labor market attachment. A game theoretical model of racial discrimination and educational sorting, introduced by Lang and Manove (2011) is applied to examine the gender gap in schooling attainment. As the gender gap differs between demography groups, being more prominent for blacks and Hispanics, the model is estimated separately for each race or ethnicity group. Using data from the NLSY79, the results in the paper are consistent with a model where education is more valuable to women, due to signaling. As predicted by the model, education as a function of ability (measured with AFQT scores) is more concave for women than for men. For over 88 % of the whites in the sample women choose higher level of education given their ability, than do men. On the other hand, the model fits the data better for whites than for blacks and Hispanics, and therefore fails to explain the observed differences across race and ethnicity groups.
Bibliography Citation
Steingrimsdottir, Herdis. Essays on Gender Differences in Educational and Labor Market Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2012.
510. Sten, Caroline
Three Essays on Racial-Ethnic Variation in Fertility in the United States, with a Focus on Hispanics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Fertility; Hispanics; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation examines three factors that potentially contribute to racial-ethnic differences in fertility levels: the evolution of intended and achieved parity, the social value of children, and unintended pregnancy In the first essay I examine differences between Whites and Hispanics in the process of meeting intentions over the life course using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. I find that although Hispanics come closer to achieving early-life parity intentions in the aggregate, they are slightly less likely to meet their intentions at the individual level. Hispanics have higher parity than Whites because they are more likely to overshoot desired parity, less likely to undershoot desired parity, and their desired parity is slightly higher. In the second essay, I analyze how attitudes towards childbearing differ between native born Hispanics, foreign born Hispanics, and Whites. This paper contributes to the discussion of the role of familism in explaining Hispanic family patterns using data from the 2002 and 2006-08 NSFG. I find little support for the idea that familism undergirds ethnic differentials in fertility between native Hispanics and Whites. However, there are some differences in the perceived value of children between foreign born Hispanics and Whites, particularly among men, and these differences could contribute to fertility differentials between the two groups. In the third essay I find that Hispanic women--particularly immigrants--report being happier about unintended pregnancies compared with White and Black women and examine possible explanations for this difference. I find that stronger social support among Hispanics--particularly the interaction between being a Hispanic immigrant and being very religious--explains the difference in happiness between Hispanics and Whites. Greater preconception ambivalence about becoming pregnant also partially explains why Hispanic women are happier about unintended pregna ncies, while lower opportunity costs to not explain differences in happiness. In addition, I demonstrate that for Hispanic immigrant women in particular, pregnancy happiness plays an important role in mediating the relationship between unintended pregnancy and low birth weight.
Bibliography Citation
Sten, Caroline. Three Essays on Racial-Ethnic Variation in Fertility in the United States, with a Focus on Hispanics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, 2011.
511. Stevens, Tia
Effects of County and State Economic, Social, and Political Contexts on Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in Youth's Penetration into the Justice System
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Racial Differences; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study is designed to extend the empirical and theoretical research on disproportionate youth contact with the justice system. Missing from the considerable body of work examining the effects of extralegal factors on police behavior and justice system processing is an examination of the social, political, and economic contextual factors that may influence disparities in justice system contact. The current study addresses this gap by identifying contextual factors associated with severity of justice system response to youth and by identifying the macro-structural environments that disproportionately affect young women and youth of color. Specifically, it examines the direct effects of county and state characteristics on youth risk of arrest and probabilities of charge, a court appearance, conviction, and placement and how the effects of individual characteristics and county and state characteristics interact to disproportionately impact certain groups of youth in certain environments.

The main dataset for this study was constructed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Using the confidential NLSY97 Geocode File, the NLSY97 was appended with county- and state-specific data from various publically available sources indicating structural disadvantage, population composition, political conservatism, prosecutor's office characteristics, delinquency petition and crime rates, gender inequity, child health and well-being, and juvenile justice policy punitiveness. To take advantage of the longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 data, a combination of multilevel modeling techniques, event history analysis, and generalized linear modeling was employed to examine the effects of individual characteristics and contextual conditions on youths' risk of arrest and probabilities of charge, a court appearance, conviction, and placement. The findings suggest that the effects of gender and racial/ethnic group on youth penetration into the justice system are more pronounced at some decision-making levels and depend on contextual environment.

The results of the analyses by race, gender, and ethnicity suggest three major findings. First, racial disparities are present in youth risk of arrest, which are magnified in predominately non-Black communities. However, this study also found evidence of a compensatory effect whereby Black youth receive more favorable court dispositions than their non-Black counterparts. Second, the gender gap in youth justice system processing depends on state climates of women and children's health and wellbeing. Specifically, as women and children's health and wellbeing decrease, the gender gap in processing narrows and, in the case of court appearance, reverses. Third and finally, Hispanic youth are treated disproportionately more harshly in states with poor climates of children's health and wellbeing and in states with less punitive juvenile justice systems. Overall, the findings indicate that the reduction of gender and racial/ethnic disparities is unlikely without commitment to the structural reform of inequalities. Intervention efforts to reduce disparities should be multifaceted and include community-based youth-serving organizations and human services agencies, in addition to criminal and juvenile justice agencies.

Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia. Effects of County and State Economic, Social, and Political Contexts on Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in Youth's Penetration into the Justice System. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, 2013.
512. Stoecker, Charles
Long Run Outcomes and Early Life Events
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California--Davis, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Well-Being; Environment, Pollution/Urban Density; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Health; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In chapter one I find in utero exposure to extremely cold temperature shocks in the third trimester has persistent negative effects on later life test scores. I am the first to identify the precise timing of the long-run negative impacts of an in utero stressor. This paper contributes to a burgeoning literature that seeks to more fully map out the effect of environmental stressors on the early life health production function. To identify this impact, I exploit the plausibly exogenous variation in temperature shocks that remains after daily temperatures from National Climatic Data Global Summary of the Day have been detrended and demeaned. This variation is combined with data on exact date and state of birth and later life test scores from restricted use versions of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Children and Young Adults. These negative effects are concentrated among vulnerable populations and are similar across several different tests given at different ages. I estimate that one extra very cold day experienced during the third trimester leads to a later test score decrease of 0.04 standard deviations for children in low SES families. These results are consistent with previous literature that shows maternal stress during pregnancy can have long-term negative consequences for offspring.

In chapter two, we introduce gender ratios as a relatively under-exploited metric of fetal health and use it to estimate the causal impact of ambient prenatal pollution exposure on fetal deaths. Since a complete census of true fetal deaths is impossible to obtain, we exploit the differential in fetal susceptibility to environmental stressors across genders to estimate this effect. Males are more vulnerable to maternal stress in utero, and thus are more likely to suffer fetal death due to pollution exposure. We apply this metric in the context of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 (CAAA) which provide a source of exogenous variation in county-level ambient total suspended particulate matter (TSPs). We find that a one standard deviation increase in TSPs decreases the percentage of live births that are male by 1.6 percentage points. We then use the observed differences in neonatal and one-year mortality rates across genders in response to pollution exposure to estimate total fetal losses in utero. Our preferred calculations suggest the pollution reductions from the CAAA prevented approximately 59,000 fetal deaths in 1972.

In chapter three, we use draft lottery number assignment during the Vietnam Era as a natural experiment to examine the effects of military service on crime. Using exact dates of birth for inmates in state and federal prisons in 1979, 1986, and 1991, we find robust evidence of effects on violent crimes among whites. In particular, we find that draft eligibility increases incarceration rates for violent crimes by 14 to 19 percent. Correspondingly, two-sample instrumental variable estimates imply that military service increases the probability of incarceration for a violent crime by 0.27 percentage points. Results for nonwhites are not robust. We conduct two falsification tests, one that applies each of the three binding lotteries to unaffected cohorts and another that considers the effects of lotteries that were not used to draft servicemen.

Bibliography Citation
Stoecker, Charles. Long Run Outcomes and Early Life Events. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California--Davis, 2011.
513. Stone, Debra M.
Predictors of Military Enlistment: Analysis of Adverse Childhood Experiences, Socio-economic Status, Educational Achievement, and Delinquency
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, The Catholic University of America, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Military Enlistment; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Department of Defense enlists approximately 180,000 new military recruits each year and is considered the largest employer of young adults in the United States. Socio-economic support and educational tuition assistance are the two primary reasons indicated to enlist in the military. In recent studies, two other variables, delinquency and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), have also been shown to be linked to military enlistment. This study investigates these four variables as predictors of military enlistment. Predictors of military enlistment represent critical human and social influences on young adults making the transition from adolescence to adulthood and this knowledge is important for effective clinical and macro social work practice. For young adults with a history of delinquency and ACEs, the military may be one of the only organizations able to facilitate this transition. To investigate these variables as predictors of military enlistment, the study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) (1997) dataset to conduct a logistic regression analysis of four independent variables (socio-economic status, educational achievement, delinquency, and ACEs) on the dependent variable, military enlistment. The sample was formed through random selection of matching military enlistees with the same age, race, and gender characteristics to those who never enlisted. The independent variables were defined using data from the NLSY97 dataset for household income, educational level, delinquency index, and an ACEs score was constructed from ten variables from the NLSY97 dataset. The results of the study found that the interaction of delinquency with ACEs produced the strongest predictive factor of military enlistment (p < .05), which was followed by the interaction of delinquency with educational achievement (p < .05).
Bibliography Citation
Stone, Debra M. Predictors of Military Enlistment: Analysis of Adverse Childhood Experiences, Socio-economic Status, Educational Achievement, and Delinquency. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, The Catholic University of America, 2017.
514. Storm, Caitlin
The Intergenerational Transfer of Criminal Justice Involvement: Risk and Protective Factors as Moderating Variables
Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Community and Global Health, The Claremont Graduate University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Fathers and Children; Incarceration/Jail; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 was used to analyze the effect of the father's criminal justice involvement on his child's. Using binary logistic regression models, predictor variables were included in a step-wise fashion to identify the role that a father's imprisonment, as well as risk and protective factors, play in the child's future likelihood of arrest and incarceration. The risk and protective factors served as proxies for trauma and resilience, respectively, and were analyzed to determine if they also served as moderators. The results showed that while the risk and protective factors were significant predictors of a child's future arrest and incarceration, they did not moderate the relationship between the father's imprisonment and the child’s criminal justice involvement.
Bibliography Citation
Storm, Caitlin. The Intergenerational Transfer of Criminal Justice Involvement: Risk and Protective Factors as Moderating Variables. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Community and Global Health, The Claremont Graduate University, 2019.
515. Su, Jessica Houston
Unexpectedly Expecting: Unintended Fertility, Nonmarital Conceptions, and Well-being among Parents and Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Children, Well-Being; Depression (see also CESD); Home Environment; Life Course; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Propensity Scores

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The second paper examines the relationship between pregnancy intentions and several metrics of child well-being over the life course (ages 0-30). This study uses longitudinal data from the NLSY79 (n = 22,247 person-year observations) and propensity score techniques to address limitations of prior research. Results indicate that children resulting from unintended pregnancies had a less emotionally supportive home environment compared to children resulting from intended pregnancies, even after accounting for the mother's marital status at birth and other characteristics associated with selection into unintended childbearing. Children resulting from unintended pregnancies also experienced more depressive symptoms as adults, which suggests that unintended birth may have long term consequences.
Bibliography Citation
Su, Jessica Houston. Unexpectedly Expecting: Unintended Fertility, Nonmarital Conceptions, and Well-being among Parents and Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2014.
516. Su, Zhi
Three Essays in Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northeastern University, 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Cognitive Development; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Work Hours

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Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), the third chapter examines impacts of maternal employment on the development of children in families led by working single mothers. A contemporaneous specification and a value-added specification are implemented for modeling the production functions for cognitive and non-cognitive development of children. In the estimation models based on the contemporaneous specification, instrumental variables and fixed-effects models are used to identify the effects of mother's recent work hours and work weeks. No significant effects of contemporaneous maternal employment are found. The value-added specification includes a lagged outcome that represents all past inputs to the production of outcomes of children. There is little evidence of significant effects of maternal employment in any of the models estimated.
Bibliography Citation
Su, Zhi. Three Essays in Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northeastern University, 2012.
517. Subair, Lateef A.
Excess Zeros, Endogenous Binary Indicators, and Self-selection Bias with Application to First Marriage, Smoking and Drinking Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Mississippi, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Marriage; Modeling, Probit; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

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This dissertation examines empirical application of the zero-inflated ordered probit (ZIOP) model to the impact of first marriages on smoking and alcoholic beverage consumption. The data for this study is drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997). In my ZIOP model analysis of the impact of first marriage on smoking and alcoholic consumption, I juxtaposed the ZIOP model with popular models in health economics literature like the ordered probit (OP) model, the ordered probit endogenous dummy (OP-ED) model, the zero-inflated ordered probit model correlated (ZIOPC) and the Heckman sample selection ordered probit (SSOP) model. The analysis highlighted four sets of result. First, all the statistical tests of the model specifications, including the Vuong test, and information criteria, show that the ZIOP model of the impact of marriage on smoking and alcoholic beverage consumption is superior to the OP, OP-ED, SSOP, and ZIOPC models. Second, first marriages increase the probability of zero consumption of tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. Third, conditional on participation, the probability of zero alcohol consumption is not significantly different from zero. The converse is true for the smoking sample. Last, the benefits of first marriage in terms of reduced smoking and drinking is diminishing in the ordinal levels of the intensities of tobacco and alcoholic beverage consumption.
Bibliography Citation
Subair, Lateef A. Excess Zeros, Endogenous Binary Indicators, and Self-selection Bias with Application to First Marriage, Smoking and Drinking Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Mississippi, 2018.
518. Sullivan, Christopher J.
Emotional Health and Delinquency: A Longitudinal Assessment of Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems as Risk Factors for Delinquent Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers: The State University of New Jersey - Newark, School of Criminal Justice, May 2005. DAI-A 66/04, p. 1508, Oct 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parental Influences; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Variables, Independent - Covariate

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In recent years, considerable attention has been devoted to the study of multi-problem youth. Studies in justice and treatment facilities show a high degree of crossover between youth with emotional health problems and delinquent behavior. Developmental studies of delinquency have emphasized the role of emotional and behavioral problems early in life as well. Despite the increase in attention to this problem, several issues have yet to be fully addressed. First, most studies are conducted with samples of youth who have already had contact with a juvenile justice or treatment agency, and, as a result, have generalizability problems. Second, most studies are cross-sectional, which prevents statements about causality. Third, researchers have not fully examined other empirically-identified risk factors for delinquency (e.g., delinquent peers, parenting deficiencies), which limits the scope of their influence in criminology. Lastly, most samples have been relatively small, which reduces statistical power and leads to unstable estimates. As a result, the use of advanced statistical modeling techniques is often precluded. This study utilizes a nationally-representative sample with a broad array of measures collected over several waves (N = 1612). The National Longitudinal Study of Youth 79 (NLSY 79) is a study of human social development sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Measures included in the study cover domains important in explaining delinquency, such as family and community risk/protection, and emotional and behavioral problems. Items pertaining to delinquent behavior in late childhood and adolescence are included as well. The NLSY data facilitated covariance structure analysis of a predictive model for delinquency that includes emotional and behavioral problems and other risk and protective factors within a developmental framework. Understanding emotional and behavioral problems and delinquency in the context of other key covariates allowed for theoretica elaboration as well as policy and treatment development. The proposed model fit these data fairly well. Although there was discontinuity across developmental stages, emotional and behavioral problems at earlier stages influenced delinquent behavior in late childhood and adolescence. Family, individual, and peer variables had effects on delinquency as well. Several policy and theoretical implications are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.
Bibliography Citation
Sullivan, Christopher J. Emotional Health and Delinquency: A Longitudinal Assessment of Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems as Risk Factors for Delinquent Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers: The State University of New Jersey - Newark, School of Criminal Justice, May 2005. DAI-A 66/04, p. 1508, Oct 2005.
519. Sullivan, Paul Joseph
A Dynamic Analysis of Educational, Occupational, and Inter-Firm Mobility Decisions
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2005. DAI-A 66/01, p. 287, Jul 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Heterogeneity; Human Capital; Labor Economics; Mobility, Occupational; Modeling; Wages

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This research examines educational attainment and mobility between firms and occupations using a dynamic structural model of career choices. The model expands on previous work by jointly modeling transitions between firms and occupations within a model of career choice. Incorporating mobility between firms and occupations within a unified model provides structural parameter estimates that indicate the relative importance of firm and occupation-specific factors in determining career choices. The estimates suggest that employment choices are driven jointly by firm-specific factors such as matching in wages and occupation-specific factors such as heterogeneity in skills and preferences for different types of work. The estimates also indicate that both firm and occupation-specific human capital play a role in determining wages. Individuals in the model choose when to attend school and when to move between firms and occupations. Transitions between firms and occupations are produced by the interaction of firm-specific match values, occupation-specific skill heterogeneity, human capital, and randomness in job offers and utility shocks. The parameters of the dynamic structural model are estimated with simulated maximum likelihood using data on individuals' educational and employment choices from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Estimation is computationally expensive because of the size of the state space and the inclusion of wage and non-pecuniary job matching in the model. These complications are addressed by using simulation and interpolation methods to solve the dynamic programming problem and by modeling human capital in a novel way that reduces the size of the state space. The structural parameter estimates confirm the significance of including firm-specific matching and human capital within a model of occupational choice. Differences in occupation-specific abilities across people are also shown to be a key determinant of occupational choices and wages. The estimates also indicate that preferences for the type of work done in each occupation play a large role in determining people's career choices. Counterfactual simulations show that the effect of preferences on occupational choices is large relative to the effect of variation in skills or schooling ability. Overall, the results suggest that educational and occupational choices are shaped by a complex pattern of comparative advantages in skills and preferences.
Bibliography Citation
Sullivan, Paul Joseph. A Dynamic Analysis of Educational, Occupational, and Inter-Firm Mobility Decisions. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2005. DAI-A 66/01, p. 287, Jul 2005.
520. Sun, Xiaodong
Can Homeschooling Be an Alternative Schooling Choice?
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; College Degree; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Modeling, OLS; Schooling

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Chapter 1: This chapter reviews the literature on homeschooling's historical and social origins, and, for the first time, uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 dataset to study the characteristics of homeschooling families and their homeschooled youth. I use probit and multinomial regression models to investigate if these characteristics have any correlations with homeschooling. I found that parents' education level, religion, child health and number of children have significant roles in the choice of homeschooling. The structure of homeschooling family is more fragile and both parents' education attainments are lower than parents of children attending regular schools. Finally, the homeschooled population is more homogeneous than previously thought.

Chapter 2: How homeschooling affects homeschooled youth is critical to the public acceptance of homeschooling as a viable education choice. I focus on homeschoolers' college admission tests, college enrollment and degree, and labor income in their early career. I found that generally homeschoolers fall behind regular school students. I also use OLS and probit models to test for a relationship between homeschooling and college degree and labor income. I found negative and statistically significant effects of homeschooling on both completion of college degree and labor income. To control for selection issue I use propensity score matching and a methodology developed by Altonji et al in 2005 to reexamine the relationship between college degree and homeschooling. The results confirm the negative effect from homeschooling.

Chapter 3: Previous empirical studies have not considered whether schooling type such as public, private or homeschooling influences age at first marriage. Homeschooling could be an important factor in this decision, as it could allow parents to mold their attitudes toward marriage more closely. I use Cox Hazard Model to explore the relationship between schooling style and the timing of marriage along with other factors widely used in other literatures. As I find comparable results for many other factors that could have impact on the age of marriage, it shows little evidence that different schooling modes affect the age at first marriage. I argue the reason behind this phenomenon might be due to homeschooling efficiency and homeschoolers' sociability.

Bibliography Citation
Sun, Xiaodong. Can Homeschooling Be an Alternative Schooling Choice? Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2015.
521. Sussman, Abigail B.
On Positive and Negative Attributes in Perceptions of Value
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychology, Princeton University, June 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Assets; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Net Worth; Wealth

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Perceptions of wealth influence a range of financial decisions. A consumer who feels wealthy may be more likely to purchase an expensive car or take an exotic vacation, and may be more likely to borrow if she needs funds to do so. Net worth (a person's assets minus her debt) is generally accepted as a concrete measure of financial wealth. However, I demonstrate that perceptions of wealth can vary when both net worth and social context are held constant. The composition of net worth--assets and debt--can affect wealth perception. Holding total wealth constant, people with positive net worth feel and are seen as wealthier when they have lower debt (despite having fewer assets). In contrast, people with equal but negative net worth feel and are considered wealthier when they have greater assets (despite having larger debt). I demonstrate that these patterns can influence important financial behaviors: those who have favored allocations of assets and debt express a higher willingness to spend on a variety of goods and a higher willingness to borrow additional money to purchase items they could not otherwise afford. This suggests the counter-intuitive outcome that borrowing and spending can appear more attractive to those who can least afford it. Next, I provide support for a shift in attention from debt for those with negative net worth to assets for those with positive net worth contributing to this pattern, and I show that parallels to these preferences can be observed in other domains where positive and negative components net against each other. I conclude by discussing policy implications of these findings.
Bibliography Citation
Sussman, Abigail B. On Positive and Negative Attributes in Perceptions of Value. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychology, Princeton University, June 2013.
522. Sweeten, Gary
Causal Inference with Group-Based Trajectories and Propensity Score Matching: Is High School Dropout a Turning Point?
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland - College Park, 2006. DAI-A 67/03, September 2006.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1126791291&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; High School Dropouts; Life Course; Modeling; Scale Construction; Self-Reporting; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

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Life course criminology focuses on trajectories of deviant or criminal behavior punctuated by turning point events that redirect trajectories onto a different path. There is no consensus in the field on how to measure turning points. In this study I ask: Is high school dropout a turning point in offending trajectories? I utilize two kinds of matching methods to answer this question: matching based on semi-parametric group-based trajectory models, and propensity score matching. These methods are ideally suited to measure turning points because they explicitly model counterfactual outcomes which can be used to estimate the effect of turning point events over time.

It has been suggested that dropout is the end result of a process of disengagement from school. In order to assess the effect of the event of dropout, it is necessary to separate dropout from the processes that lead to it. The extent to which this is accomplished by matching is assessed by comparing dropouts to matched non-dropouts on numerous background characteristics. As such, it is desirable to use a wide range of measures to compare the two groups.

I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to address this question. Delinquency is measured in two ways: a six-item variety scale and a scale based on a graded-response model. Dropout is based on self-reports of educational attainment supplemented with official transcripts provided by high schools. Because of the breadth of topics covered in this survey, it is very well-suited to matching methods. The richness of these data allows comparisons on over 300 characteristics to assess whether the assumptions of matching methods are plausible.

I find that matching based on trajectory models is unable to achieve balance in pre-dropout characteristics between dropouts and non-dropouts. Propensity score matching successfully achieves balance, but dropout effects are indistinguishable from zero. I conclude that first-time dropout betw een the ages of 16 and 18 is not a turning point in offending trajectories. Implications for life course criminology and dropout research are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary. Causal Inference with Group-Based Trajectories and Propensity Score Matching: Is High School Dropout a Turning Point? Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland - College Park, 2006. DAI-A 67/03, September 2006..
523. Swensen, Isaac D.
Essays on the Economics of Health and Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Oregon, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Achievement; Alcohol Use; College Education; Educational Attainment; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; School Performance

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I present empirical research considering the response of health and educational outcomes to alcohol consumption, drug abuse, and collegiate athletics. Chapter II [NLSY97] considers the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. The empirical approach identifies the effect through changes in students’ performance after gaining legal access to alcohol, controlling flexibly for the expected evolution of grades as students make progress towards their degrees. The estimates indicate that students’ grades fall below their expected levels upon being able to drink legally but by less than previously documented.
Bibliography Citation
Swensen, Isaac D. Essays on the Economics of Health and Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Oregon, 2013.
524. Tan, Eleonora
Understanding the Effect of Obesity on Male and Female Labor Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, George Washington University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Body weight; Earnings; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Obesity; Occupations; Weight

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When it comes to understanding the obesity effect on male and female labor outcomes existing studies largely focused on earnings. This study provides a broader analysis of the obesity impact on labor outcomes, including labor force participation, employment status, occupation type, hours worked, full-time employment, consecutive employment, and hourly earnings. This dissertation has three objectives: First, estimate the effect of being overweight, moderately obese and severely obese on male and female labor outcomes. Second, determine to what extent weight related labor inequalities are the result of individual, household, and local labor characteristics and whether discrimination plays a role. Finally, discuss a role for government interventions to reduce weight-related labor inequalities.

This study used sixteen years of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data. Both pooled OLS and pooled logit regression in combination with individual FE methods were used to measure gaps in labor outcomes. In addition, to address bias arising from endogenous relationship between obesity and labor outcomes I estimate the weight effect using instrumental variables approach with county obesity prevalence as instrument for obesity. Finally, I apply Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to examine the factors that contribute to the observed gap in hourly earnings.

Bibliography Citation
Tan, Eleonora. Understanding the Effect of Obesity on Male and Female Labor Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, George Washington University, 2014.
525. Tan, Xiaoyuan
A Study of Birth Weight as a Predictor of Cognitive Ability in Childhood: Applications of Loess Regression and Generalized Propensity Score Methods
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Cognitive Ability; Digit Span (also see Memory for Digit Span - WISC); Gender Differences; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Propensity Scores; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study applied nonparametric loess regression to describe the predictive association between birth weight and cognitive ability in childhood and generalized propensity score methods to control the confounding of multiple covariates that summarize prenatal differences.

The data from wave one of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979-Children (NLSY-C) and the data from wave one of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement (PSID-CDS) were analyzed in parallel and the results were compared.

Analysis of the two datasets proceeded in two stages. At the first stage, the association between birth weight and cognitive ability was examined first using loess regression models in which both birth weight and gestational age were the predictors, and then by simple loess regression models in which birth weight was the sole predictor while gestational age was restricted to the normal range, i.e., between 37 complete weeks (259 days) and 42 complete weeks (294 days) to help control its confounding effects. The association was examined separately for subsamples defined by race and sex. At the second stage, the distribution of birth weight was broken into low, medium, and high, and the challenge of controlling multiple covariates was addressed by stratifying the three groups on the balancing score estimated from generalized propensity score models that can accommodate more than two groups.

The shape of the association between birth weight and cognitive ability as depicted by loess regression was not consistent across the two datasets. Among the children in the NLSY-C who were born near term and with normal birth weights, the association had an upside-down U-shape. Among the children in the PSID-CDS who were born near term and with normal birth weights, the association was roughly a continuously increasing one. The shape of the association persisted, and was slightly strengthened when multiple covariates that account for prenatal di fferences were controlled by balancing score-based stratification.

Results from the two data sets demonstrated consistent racial and gender differences. The association was stronger for whites than for blacks. White males had slightly higher cognitive scores than white females, while black females had slightly higher scores than black males.

Bibliography Citation
Tan, Xiaoyuan. A Study of Birth Weight as a Predictor of Cognitive Ability in Childhood: Applications of Loess Regression and Generalized Propensity Score Methods. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 2012.
526. Tano, Gerard G.
Unemployment Insurance in Labor Search Model and Money Demand
Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Leisure; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Wage Gap

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Countries with unemployment insurance (UI) program can effectively conduct a labor market policy and observe the flow of unemployed-employed. But should we just hand UI over to anyone who has no job? Do individual response to the program in terms of their decision to work or to enjoy more leisure unanimously the same across leisure type characteristic individuals? In a heterogeneous constructed labor search market we derive that introduction of the UI program increases the wage gap between the different individuals when the program impacts the productivity of firm positively. In an empirical investigation of the impact of unemployment benefits on the duration of unemployment using a job search model, we specify a distribution of duration of unemployment that we estimate using maximum likelihood estimation and find that there is in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY 97) there are 3 types of individuals and the type of leisure individuals present an adverse response to the program: An increase in UI for the highest leisure type leads to a longer duration of unemployment. Whereas the lowest values of leisure do not tend to have an extended duration of unemployment from a positive change in UI. Finally, the response for the type 2 individuals is completely ambiguous as it could either see them having a prolonged duration of unemployment or a shortened period with no work. So a selective increase in unemployment insurance to those with a relatively low value of leisure may decrease the equilibrium rate of unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Tano, Gerard G. Unemployment Insurance in Labor Search Model and Money Demand. Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 2012.
527. Taska, Bledi
Early and Higher Education, Dynamic Interactions and Persistent Inequality
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, New York University, 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Census of Population; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Higher Education; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intergenerational earnings mobility is a key determinant of the degree of cross-sectional inequality that will be transmitted to future generations. Low intergenerational mobility implies that inequality will be persistent. With income inequality increasing rapidly over the recent years, it is important to understand the underlying sources and mechanisms of intergenerational earnings persistence. In this dissertation I examine the mechanisms through which early and higher education (individually and jointly) impact intergenerational earnings mobility. More specifically, I explore the effects that the structure of the education system and existing methods of financing education can have on earnings persistence. In order to quantify these effects, I develop a life-cycle model of incomplete markets in which agents differ in wealth, ability, and education. Intergenerational persistence of earnings is generated endogenously as richer parents invest more in the early and higher education of their children. Early-education investments affect the cognitive ability of children. Higher-ability children earn higher wages, but also have a lower cost of enrolling in college. Higher-education investments, through parental transfers, affect college enrollment, college quality and college graduation rates.

I use PSID, NLSY, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS), and Census micro data to estimate the parameters of the model. I find that differences in higher education account for a higher percentage of the intergenerational correlation in earnings than do differences in early education. Liquidity constraints do not seem to be important for early or higher education. I also show that there exist complementarities between the two periods of investment in education. Finally, I find that early education is more important for the upward mobility of low-income families.

Bibliography Citation
Taska, Bledi. Early and Higher Education, Dynamic Interactions and Persistent Inequality. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, New York University, 2012.
528. Teahan, Brittany A.
Essays on Unemployment Insurance
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Purdue University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Geocoded Data; Underemployment; Unemployment Insurance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the third chapter, joint work with Robert Lantis, we investigate potential unintended consequences of unemployment insurance (UI) policy on alcohol use and abuse. Using NLSY data supplemented with Geocode data, we estimate the effect of benefit replacement rates on changes in individual alcohol consumption following job loss. Identification relies on variation in replacement rates across states and over time. Benefits provide income to the unemployed which enables individuals to smooth consumption and also may reduce the stress and anxiety of job loss. Results indicate higher levels of benefits increase the amount of alcohol unemployed individuals consume. Moreover, a higher level of benefits increases the likelihood an individual abuses alcohol following job loss. Individuals' responsiveness to changes in replacement rates varies based on drinking history with moderate drinkers the most responsive to changes.
Bibliography Citation
Teahan, Brittany A. Essays on Unemployment Insurance. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Purdue University, 2014.
529. Tello-Trillo, Daniel Sebastian
Essays on Health Economics and Health Behaviors
Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Obesity; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Racial Differences; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the third chapter, co-authored with Andrea Moro and Tommaso Tempesti, we study how a health behavior can affect economic outcomes. We estimate the effects of being obese on wages accounting for the level of personal interactions required by the job and accounting for job selection. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1982 -2006) combined with detailed information about jobs from O*Net, our results show that the obesity penalty occurs mostly on white women and that this penalty is higher in jobs that require a higher level of social interaction. In addition, we find that accounting for selection increases the estimates of the wage-penalty by 50% compared to estimates that ignore job selection.
Bibliography Citation
Tello-Trillo, Daniel Sebastian. Essays on Health Economics and Health Behaviors. Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 2016.
530. Thamma-Apiroam, Rewat
Identifying and Estimating Ability from Nonlinear Human Capital Earnings Functions
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton, 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Earnings; I.Q.; Intelligence Tests; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the framework of optimal human capital accumulation theory, the typical Mincerian earnings function cannot properly characterize the role of ability so that theoretical development for identifying such ability is necessary. Through a closed-form solution of the earnings function, a modified version of Ben-Porath and Haley human capital investment models has been proposed. Not only does this adapted earnings function provide a number of meaningful parameters such as the initial human capital endowment and the rate of return to schooling, but it also allows the ability parameter to be identified in a practical fashion. This study, therefore, takes advantage of such a framework by pinpointing and estimating the earnings functions with the nonlinear least squares technique. Various demographic groups are employed to estimate the ability parameter. Subsequently, as an application to this explicitly closed-form solution, the data on independent ability measures such as IQ and aptitude tests are utilized to compare with the ability parameter. The vital aim is to establish a relationship between the ability parameter obtained from the nonlinear earnings function in economics and the ability measures mostly developed from the psychology discipline. The empirical results reveal no racial bias for ability estimation. Furthermore, utilizing the same procedure through group and individual data gives a consistent result. There exits a relatively strong relation between ability estimates and IQ scores across a diverse range of independent general cognitive ability and aptitude tests, all from the NLSY79 data. However, at the individual level, the correlation coefficients are somewhat weaker than those from group estimation. In conclusion, an alternative ability measure through ability parameter has been originally developed which links the economics and psychology disciplines.
Bibliography Citation
Thamma-Apiroam, Rewat. Identifying and Estimating Ability from Nonlinear Human Capital Earnings Functions. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton, 2009.
531. Thomas, Adam Timothy
Forgotten Fathers: A Collection of Essays on Low-Skilled Men and Marriage
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Incarceration/Jail; Marital Status; Marriage; Modeling, Logit; Parents, Single; Racial Differences; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first essay uses 1979 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the implications of incarceration rates for men's marital prospects. I find that black men are considerably less likely to marry if they have a prison record. The magnitude of the coefficient for the variable measuring past incarceration is reduced by about a third when earnings are controlled for. I also find that the strength of the relationship between incarceration and marriage diminishes as black men become further removed from their prison spells. Among whites, the effect of past incarceration on the predicted probability of marrying is not statistically differentiable from zero.

The second essay is motivated by a puzzle in the research literature: quantitative analyses tend to show that marriage is usually a financially-beneficial institution for low-income single mothers and their children, while, in the relevant qualitative literature, such women often identify men's limited financial resources as a key reason for their remaining unmarried. I attempt to identify the functional form of the relationship between men's earnings and their marital status, and I find that it is best described by using a transformed variable that expresses earnings as a percentile ranking relative to one's peers. I conclude that many low-skilled men may, as a condition of their marriageability, be required to demonstrate that they are at least as capable as their peers of improving their partners' financial prospects.

The third essay uses couple-level panel data on unmarried parents to examine the association between marital attitudes and expectations and relationship status. I find that unmarried couples hold overwhelmingly positive views of marriage but are more likely to break up than to marry over time. Multinomial logit results show that couples who are more optimistic about marriage are more likely to marry than to cohabit and are more likely to cohabit than to break up or to be romantically involved without living together. Measures of respondents' attitudes about gender roles and the trustworthiness of members of the opposite sex are also occasionally significant in the analyses of black and Hispanic couples.

Bibliography Citation
Thomas, Adam Timothy. Forgotten Fathers: A Collection of Essays on Low-Skilled Men and Marriage. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2007.
532. Thomas, Paul W.
Essays in Labor Economics and Applied Microeconomics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Purdue University, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Children; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; Fertility; Geocoded Data; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); School Performance; State-Level Data/Policy; Taxes

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The first chapter of this dissertation is titled "Childhood Family Income and Adult Outcomes: Evidence from the EITC." Many researchers have explored the impact of family income on children by utilizing structural changes in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC). However, most of this previous research focuses on childhood outcomes, such as effects on the child's performance in school or effects on health and behavior. This paper is one of the few that estimates the effect of childhood family income on adult outcomes. In order to overcome the confounding relationship between childhood family income and future employment, this paper uses the structural changes made to the EITC, specifically the substantial changes made during the 1980's and 1990's, as an exogenous income shock. The main covariate of interest, maximum potential family EITC payments is constructed using the NBER TAXSIM calculator. This chapter provides evidence that casts doubt on the previous findings that the structural changes in the EITC, since its inception and through the early 2000's, had a positive overall impact on long run educational and labor market outcomes. Replicating the methodology used in Bastian and Michelmore (forthcoming) on the combined NLSY and PSID sample produced overall effects that were much smaller in magnitude than their analysis. In addition, these effects seem to be driven by individuals in the PSID who are most likely to have unobserved characteristics that would bias the estimates positively. However, there are similar coefficients estimated for those in the 13 to 18 age range for those in the PSID and the NLSY. Thus, while the analysis on the overall PSID sample did produce some consistency with Bastian and Michelmore (forthcoming), the findings of positive effects for different subgroups and no effects for the subgroups in which they saw the largest responses call into question the robustness of their analysis. Evidence is also presented that indicates that the lack of significant effects in the NLSY is not due to differences in the years spanned by the two data sets.

The second chapter of this dissertation is titled "Fertility Response to the Tax Treatment of Children." This chapter uses variation in the child tax subsidy implicit in US personal income taxation over time and across states to estimate the effect of a decrease in the cost of raising a child on fertility. In a sample of 18,592 women age 20 to 43 from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) surveyed between 1968 and 2013, we estimate that the tax subsidy for having a child does not seem to cause a significant fertility response, but some subgroups of the US population do have a positive and economically significant fertility response to the child tax subsidy. There are larger, statistically significant fertility effects for low-income women, single women, and women in the earlier half of our sample. The evidence suggests that not all child tax subsidy changes are equally salient for these subgroups as the fertility response is driven by increases to the Earned Income Tax Credit and not the value of the personal exemption or by increases to the Child Tax Credit.

Bibliography Citation
Thomas, Paul W. Essays in Labor Economics and Applied Microeconomics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Purdue University, 2018.
533. Thompson, Jason
Access, Outcomes, and Social Mobility in a Stratified System of Postsecondary Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, New York University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Graduates; Educational Returns; Mobility, Social; Modeling, Instrumental Variables

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The first chapter revisits the role of a college degree as "the great equalizer." In doing so, I deploy data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) to estimate the intergenerational associations in socioeconomic status (SES) among graduates from non-selective, less selective, and selective four-year colleges. Intergenerational social mobility varies by measure of SES and tier of degree selectivity. With one exception, parent-child associations in SES are not statistically significant among graduates from colleges in the middle tier of institutional selectivity. In contrast, the associations between parental income and child's hourly wages, family income, and family net worth are statistically significant among graduates of selective institutions and there is mixed evidence of these associations among graduates of the least-selective four-year schools.

In the final empirical chapter, I take an instrumental variables approach in estimating the causal returns to attending a selective institution. These estimates build upon prior findings in a few key manners. First, the breadth of data available in the NLSY79 permits the analysis of total family income and total family wealth, in addition to hourly wages or annual earnings. Also, the most recent waves of the NLSY79 report data on respondents through the age of 45, spanning an age range in which the measurement of SES is least susceptible to error. Findings from this chapter show that, in comparison to attending a less selective college, accessing a selective four-year institution leads to a greater likelihood of completing a bachelor's degree and attaining an advanced degree, higher hourly wages, and greater total family income and family net worth.

Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Jason. Access, Outcomes, and Social Mobility in a Stratified System of Postsecondary Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, New York University, 2017.
534. Thompson, Myra
Reducing Recidivism Risk for Juvenile Offenders: Contributing Risk Factors
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Incarceration/Jail; Parenting Skills/Styles

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Juvenile delinquency is a major social problem in the United States. Juvenile delinquency negatively affects families and local neighborhood morale. Further, taxpayers bear the financial burden of treating and incarcerating juveniles through adulthood when appropriate preventative and/or rehabilitative measures are not established. Many factors are thought to contribute to juvenile criminal behavior. There has been no clear consensus on which are the most influential. This study analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLYS97) in an attempt to extract pertinent factors correlated to recidivism. Data indicated that some interval-level variables of expectations. In addition, the study revealed that, except for limit breaking, parenting style was not correlated with recidivism. Factors such as family interaction and types of first offense (whether violent and non-violent) were not correlated with recidivism and non-recidivism.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Myra. Reducing Recidivism Risk for Juvenile Offenders: Contributing Risk Factors. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, 2013.
535. Thompson, Owen
Essays on Human Capital Formation
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Parenting Skills/Styles; Racial Differences

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This dissertation explores various aspects of human capital formation during childhood and their economic effects throughout the lifecourse. Chapter 1 investigates how the association between cognitive achievement and self-rated health in middle age differs by race, and attempts to explain these differences. Using data from the NLSY, I find that while whites with higher cognitive achievement scores tend to report substantially better general health, this relationship is far weaker or wholly absent among blacks. Further tests suggest that about 35% of this racial difference can be explained by behavioral decisions during adulthood, and that another portion of the disparity may trace back to prenatal and early childhood experiences. The chapter closes by noting that its results are broadly consistent with explanations of the racial health gap that emphasize entrenched forms of racial discrimination. Chapter 3 investigates the role of discrimination, broadly defined, in generating racial differences in home environments. To do so, I study the trends of a widely used index of the home environment (the HOME score) in a sample of mothers who were born between 1957 and 1964, and who therefore grew up in a period of rapidly declining racial discrimination in the US South. The chapter documents that HOME scores increased dramatically across these birth cohorts among Southern African American mothers, but did not increase at all among African Americans outside of the South or among Southern whites. I propose that convergence may have been due to shifts in parenting norms that were engendered by the fundamental social and economic changes occurring in the South over this period.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Owen. Essays on Human Capital Formation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2013.
536. Thompson, Theresa M.
A Life Course Investigation of Childhood Risk Patterns and the Development of Trajectories of Competence in Early Adolescence
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, June 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Family Income; Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC)

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Aims/Methods. Taking advantage of recent methodological advances for the analysis of longitudinal data, this study combines latent class analysis with growth curve modeling to investigate whether the patterning of risks during the first eight years of life has distinct consequences for the developmental growth trajectories of academic and behavioral competence. Also examined, is the influence of gender and race/ethnicity on the patterning of risks and on the trajectories of competence, and the influence of latent risk class membership and trajectories of competence on adolescent psychological well-being.

Results. The patterning of risk exposures from birth to age 8 was found to predict the initial level of average academic achievement and antisocial behavior at age 8, and the rate of change in average academic achievement and antisocial behavior over time between ages 8 to 14. Gender and race/ethnicity were found to influence both the patterning of childhood risks and the growth parameters of the development trajectories of academic and behavioral competence in early adolescence. Results for the influence of latent risk class membership and trajectories of competence on adolescent psychological well-being were inconclusive.

Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Theresa M. A Life Course Investigation of Childhood Risk Patterns and the Development of Trajectories of Competence in Early Adolescence. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, June 2008.
537. Timpe, Brenden
Essays on the Labor Market, Public Policy, and Economic Opportunity
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Michigan, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Income; Head Start; Labor Force Participation; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Wages

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This dissertation focuses on the interaction between public policy and the U.S. labor market, and its consequences for the economic opportunities available to American women and children. I focus on two public policies designed to enhance opportunities for less advantaged groups: The United States' first large-scale expansion of paid maternity benefits, and the launch of the Head Start preschool program in the 1960s and 1970s. The common thread in these essays is the use of large-scale data and transparent methodologies to examine the interactions between these policies and individuals' outcomes in the labor market.

The first chapter provides the first evidence of the effect of a U.S. paid maternity leave policy on the long-run outcomes of children. I exploit variation in access to paid leave that was created by long-standing state differences in short-term disability insurance coverage and the staggered enactment of laws that banned discrimination against pregnant workers in the 1960s and 1970s. While the availability of these benefits sparked a substantial expansion of leave-taking by new mothers, it also came with a cost. I find the enactment of paid leave led to shifts in labor supply and demand that decreased wages and family income among women of child-bearing age. In addition, the first generation of children born to mothers with access to maternity leave benefits were 1.9 percent less likely to attend college and 3.1 percent less likely to earn a four-year college degree.

Chapter 2 examines the labor-market consequences of a broad expansion of access to paid maternity benefits. The theoretical implications of maternity leave policies are ambiguous, with the potential for positive effects that stem from greater attachment to the labor force among mothers but also negative effects that could result from shifts in relative labor demand. I show that the enactment of maternity benefits through STDI slowed the convergence of the gender wage ratio by 31 percent between 1975 and 1985. I also provide evidence that this effect was driven in large part by apparent substitution of men for women into high-profile professional and management positions.

Bibliography Citation
Timpe, Brenden. Essays on the Labor Market, Public Policy, and Economic Opportunity. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Michigan, 2019.
538. Tippett, Rebecca M.
Household Debt Across the Life Course: An Analysis of the Late Baby Boomers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Duke University, 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Assets; Debt/Borrowing; Education Indicators; Heterogeneity; Household Models; Life Course; Modeling; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As an aggregate, American households have shown rising debt levels over the past few decades. However, we do not yet understand how debt varies within households over time and what factors influence this variation in a meaningful way. To date, household debt appears predominantly as a component of measures of net worth, obscuring heterogeneity in the meaning of debt within a household. Moreover, most studies focusing specifically on indebtedness rely on cross-sectional data. In addition, no cohesive theoretical model exists to account for changing patterns of debt. This dissertation seeks to fill these gaps. Utilizing a variety of methodological approaches and drawing on longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, it adds sociological explanation to a social process that has been previously ignored and under-theorized.

First, drawing from literature in economics and sociology, I propose a dynamic, life course model of indebtedness that proposes three mechanisms that drive differentiation in household indebtedness: institutional context (period), social heterogeneity, and patterned disadvantage, or structural risk. Second, I use multilevel logistic regressions to explore the association between the hypothesized mechanisms and the likelihood of holding non-collateralized debt. While experiencing negative life course risks increases the likelihood of holding debt, I find that occupying positions of structural disadvantage--being black, being in poverty--decreases the likelihood of holding debt, while having advantages--higher education, being married, holding assets--increases the likelihood of holding debt, pointing to distinct differences in who can access debt to buffer life course shocks and who cannot. Examining the interrelationships between debts and assets further underscores the tenuous economic well-being of the disadvantaged. I find that those most likely to experience negative life events are both less likely to have financial assets with which to buffer these events and more likely to experience constrained access to on-collateralized debt.

Third, I employ multilevel linear regressions to examine the association between the proposed mechanisms and three unique indicators of debt burden. I find that many of the standard coefficients included in models of net worth are not significant predictors of the level of non-collateralized, non-revolving debt, suggesting that we know much more about the correlates of income and wealth than we do household debt. Rather, variation in debt burden may be better understood by heterogeneity in non-economic variables. To better estimate this heterogeneity, I utilize latent class regression models to estimate the early life course trajectories of debt burden for the NLSY79 cohort. I find four distinct trajectories of indebtedness, with varying consequences for later life financial outcomes. Overall, I conclude that household debt is nuanced and contextually contingent and can add to our understanding of long-term stratification processes when studied as a unique indicator of inequality.

Bibliography Citation
Tippett, Rebecca M. Household Debt Across the Life Course: An Analysis of the Late Baby Boomers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Duke University, 2010.
539. Torelli, Paul Andrew
Three Essays on Labor Economics and Public Policy
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Child Development; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The three essays presented in this dissertation examine factors and problems that in some way relate to the acquisition of human capital or to wages, with a special focus on empirical methods.

Chapter one: Smoking, birth weight, and child development: Evidence from the NLSY79. One important justification for higher cigarette taxes is that pregnant smokers harm their children through in utero exposure. This paper investigates the impact of smoking while pregnant on subsequent child development, using the NLSY79 Mother-Child data, which allows for between-sibling comparisons. In utero exposure is related to an increase in behavioral problems among children and adolescents, but has no effect on intelligence. Targeted smoking cessation interventions may be cost-effective on the basis of nicotine's effects on child and adolescent development, though the optimal cigarette tax based on this justification is very small.

Chapter two: An empirical analysis of "acting white" (with Roland Fryer). There is a debate among social scientists regarding the prevalence of an insidious peer effect commonly referred to as "acting white". Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health which allows one to construct an objective measure of a student's popularity, we demonstrate that there are large racial differences in the relationship between popularity and academic achievement, which we label "acting white". The patterns in the data appear most consistent with a signaling model in which investments in education are thought to be indicative of an individual's opportunity costs of group loyalty.

Chapter three: The political response to recent changes in U.S. wage inequality. While there has been much work on the causes behind recent changes in the wage structure, it is unclear to what extent voters and politicians have agitated for political reforms in response to increasing inequality. This paper investigates House and Senate voting records and House Election results to examine the political response to wage inequality. The results suggest that inequality is related to turnover in the House, leading to a slightly greater number of Democrats on net. Voting records show that inequality leads to polarization by party, with Democrats voting more liberally and Republicans voting more conservatively. The results are consistent with models in which relative position in the income distribution matters, and where the "bite" of inequality hurts the bottom more than the top.

Bibliography Citation
Torelli, Paul Andrew. Three Essays on Labor Economics and Public Policy. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2005.
540. Tosini, Nicola
The Socioeconomic Determinants and Consequences of Women's Body Mass
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, August 2008.
Also: http://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI3328665/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Health Factors; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Life Cycle Research; Marriage; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The goal of this paper is to quantitatively account for the negative relationship between body mass and socioeconomic status observed among women in the U.S.

Almost 1 out of 3 white women in the U.S. are obese and data on white women born in 1960-1964 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) show that, at age 30, obese women have completed almost 1 fewer school grade, are less likely to participate in the labor market, and if they work they have wages that are lower by 17%; they are more likely never to have been married and, if they are married, their spouses have incomes that are lower by 27%.

I interpret these facts taking into account that (a) body mass may affect labor- and marriage-market opportunities; (b) behavioral factors, potentially influenced by schooling attainment and family income, play a key role in the accumulation of body weight; and (c) women may be heterogeneous in terms of their propensity to gain weight on the one hand and labor- and marriage-market endowments on the other hand.

To this end, I specify and estimate a dynamic model in which (a) wage and spousal income offers, as well as the arrival probability of marriage offers, depend on body mass; and (b) from the time they leave school, women make decisions about their labor market participation, marital status, and body mass to maximize lifetime expected utility. Their utility function represents preferences over consumption, leisure, marital status, and body mass, where preferences over body mass capture the psychic costs of keeping the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Such preferences depend on recent fertility history, consumption, and schooling attainment; reflecting the role played by family background factors in the accumulation of body weight, they also depend on unobserved permanent characteristics, as do wage and spousal income offers. The model is estimated by the method of simulated maximum likelihood using a pa nel dataset on the body mass, labor market, marriag e market, and fertility histories of white women born in 1960-1964 from the NLSY79.

My results can be summarized as follows. In line with results on schooling attainment and labor market outcomes, I find that unobserved permanent characteristics play quite an important role also in the determination of body mass outcomes, explaining 16% of the cross-sectional variation in obesity at age 30. Furthermore, these characteristics are important in accounting for the observed relationship between body mass on the one hand and wages and spousal incomes on the other hand: the type of women who are most likely to become obese receive wage and spousal income offers that are lower by respectively 53% and 29%.

In itself, obesity has negative consequences in the marriage market, but not in the labor market: the odds ratio of receiving a marriage offer declines by 15% for obese women, who also receive spousal income offers that are lower by 7%. Without such marriage market incentives, the prevalence rate of obesity at age 30 would be higher by 21%.

More than 10% of women in my sample are already overweight when they leave school. In the concluding counterfactual experiment I address the following question: how effective in preventing adult obesity would be policies aimed at eliminating excess weight at the time of school leaving? I find that the prevalence rate of obesity would be persistently lower, even though initially overweight women are intrinsically much more inclined to gain weight than the average.

Bibliography Citation
Tosini, Nicola. The Socioeconomic Determinants and Consequences of Women's Body Mass. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, August 2008..
541. Trent, Colene
An Analysis of Shift Work: Compensating Differentials and Local Economic Conditions
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Mississippi, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Shift Workers; Unemployment Rate; Wage Differentials; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The theory of compensating differentials asserts that workers facing undesirable work conditions, such as night shift work, should receive compensating wage differentials. The theory assumes that workers can easily find jobs with desirable characteristics; thus, compensating wages are necessary to induce workers to take jobs with undesirable characteristics. This dissertation considers a variation of the theory of compensating differentials in which labor markets are weak. If workers are more likely to work night shifts in areas with weak economic conditions and if firms are less likely to offer compensating differentials for night shift work in areas with weak economic conditions, weak regional economies may lead to smaller compensating differentials for night shift work.

Using NLSY79 data from 1990-2000, this paper employs an endogenous switching regression model to analyze wages of day and night shift workers and shift choice. The model is estimated using both the Lee two-step method and maximum likelihood. Two measures of local economic conditions, the local unemployment rate and the state leading index, are used. The models provide evidence that shift differentials and local economic conditions significantly impact shift choice. Of the two local economic condition variables used in the analysis, the leading index is a stronger predictor of shift choice. This paper develops a new method of analyzing the impact of the interaction between the shift differential and local economic conditions on shift choice, providing limited evidence that compensating differentials for night shift work may be lower when local economies are weak. The calculated interaction effects are small. Estimated wage premiums for night shift work are negative, and are approximately half of day wages in the 1990 cross-section. Estimated wage differentials for night shift work are smaller in pooled cross-section analysis, ranging from roughly 2% to 11% below day wages. Analyzing cross-sections over time indicates that shift differentials were below day wages throughout most of the 1990's but in 2000, night wages were approximately 7-11% higher than day wages. Overall, the results provide evidence that individuals take both the size of the wage premium and local labor market conditions into account when selecting working hours.

Bibliography Citation
Trent, Colene. An Analysis of Shift Work: Compensating Differentials and Local Economic Conditions. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Mississippi, 2013.
542. Tripp, Sophie
The Role of Race and Gender in Topics Surrounding Job Promotions and High School Dropout Likelihood
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Politics and Economics, The Claremont Graduate University, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): High School Dropouts; Job Promotion; Job Tenure; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Skin Tone; Supervisor Characteristics; Wage Dynamics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation is comprised of three essays. The first essay tests the role of supervisor race and gender on employees’ promotion likelihoods using a nationally representative sample of workers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. I use a fixed effects model to account for the selection issue of employees and supervisors self-selecting into employment with each other. I find the odds of being promoted are 1.6 times larger for black employees with a white supervisor compared to the odds of being promoted with a black supervisor. The results add to the growing literature on the role of supervisors on labor market outcomes. The second essay studies race and gender differences in the wage returns to promotions and in the role of tenure on promotions using a nationally representative sample of workers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We use a fixed effects model to account for the endogeneity of promotions and find evidence to suggest the wage returns to promotions for black males are significantly smaller compared to white males. Black males earn 44 percent of the wage return that white males earn. Our results hold important implications for the racial-wage gap. Since black males earn, on average, less than white males, the gap in wage returns to promotions creates a larger impact on the absolute returns. The third essay evaluates the role skin tone plays in the likelihood of dropping out of high school for black male respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We find that blacks are 11 percent more likely to drop out of high school. This gap almost disappears after controlling for key family background variables. In addition, we find that light skinned blacks are less likely to drop out compared to whites, while dark skinned blacks are more likely to drop out compared to whites after controlling for the same family background variables. Therefore, after controlling for family background, the dropout likelihood of both light and dark skinned blacks “cancel out” and thus the bi-racial gap mistakenly seems to disappear.
Bibliography Citation
Tripp, Sophie. The Role of Race and Gender in Topics Surrounding Job Promotions and High School Dropout Likelihood. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Politics and Economics, The Claremont Graduate University, 2016.
543. Tsai, Jeffrey K.
Essays on the Timing of Human Capital Policies
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Irvine, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Census of Population; Economics of Minorities; Education; Educational Returns; Family Studies; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation consists of three related essays in labor economics and the economics of education; affirmative action in law school, the economic returns to the GED credential, and the importance of family investment on child outcomes. This dissertation applies econometric tools to empirically assess these questions.

The first chapter of my dissertation, "Does Affirmative Action Help or Hurt the Production of Black Lawyers?," considers whether affirmative action actually harms the production of black lawyers in the U.S. Affirmative action has been a controversial policy since its inception in the 1960's as it relates to both the labor market and the education system. The central question focuses on how affirmative action affects minorities, specifically in law schools and in the production of black lawyers. Using a detailed survey of law students conducted by the Law School Admissions Council (LSAC) from 1991 to 1996, I examine whether affirmative action caused black law students to be mismatched to the wrong school and whether mismatch reduced the number of black lawyers in the U.S. According to the mismatch hypothesis, students would have obtained better outcomes if they were not mismatched and had attended a lower-level school that more closely matched their ability level. Opponents of affirmative action believe that mismatch is one of the direct consequences of the policy (Wilkens, 2005). I present evidence that mismatch caused at least a 5.5 percent reduction in the number of black lawyers, but as Rothstein and Yoon (2006) conclude, this effect may be more negative.

The second chapter of my dissertation, "Decoding the GED Signal: The Role of Non-Cognitive Ability and Measurement Error," considers the role of non-cognitive ability in explaining the low and negative returns to a GED credential. Bowles, Gintis, and Osborne (2001) have shown that non-cognitive ability actually explains much more of the wage variation than cognitive ability. It is clear that abilities besides intelligence are rewarded in the labor market, but identifying clear measures of non-cognitive ability and considering its effect on education and labor market outcomes are relatively new questions in economics (Heckman and Rubinstein, 2001). I find that GED recipients do have lower non-cognitive abilities and that it explains their relatively low economic returns. However, the observable measures of non-cognitive ability are at best proxies for unobserved ability, so I utilize instrumental variables and a latent variable model to consider the effect of measurement error.

The third chapter of my dissertation, "The Effect of Unilateral Divorce Laws on Incentives to Invest in Children and the Behavioral Outcomes of Children," utilizes state-variation in unilateral divorce laws to consider the law's effect on family investment on an important type of marriage-specific capital; children. I also consider how a reduction in family investment in "marriage-specific capital" impacts children by examining their behavioral and labor market outcomes using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the NELS data sets. Unilateral divorce laws were passed in many states primarily in the 1960's and 1970's. The policy provides an exogenous shock that may affect divorce rates, household bargaining, and children's future outcomes. Previous research has primarily focused on two specific issues: the impact of these laws on divorce rates using Census data and the implications of divorce laws on bargaining power within the household. This chapter focuses on the latter question.

Bibliography Citation
Tsai, Jeffrey K. Essays on the Timing of Human Capital Policies. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Irvine, 2008.
544. Turner, Abby Clay
Three Essays on the Economics of Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Colleges; Earnings; Geocoded Data; Modeling, OLS

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing the rich data from the NLSY97 Geocode merged with institutional data from IPEDS, in Chapter 3 I empirically analyze data on individuals with two-year degrees, estimate the average marginal earnings gain from a two-year degree, and compare the effects of degrees across institutional sector and across major area of study using OLS with family background and extensive demographic controls. I find evidence of selection at three levels: selection into college, selection into type of college, and selection into major area of study. Any estimates of labor market returns to these degrees will be biased until future research unravels and models these selection mechanisms and processes. This chapter provides a first look into the differential inputs and outputs of for-profit and public two-year degree programs. I find statistical differences in the marginal earnings gains across institutional sector within major fields of study, suggesting that attending a for-profit does matter when major field of study is taken into account.
Bibliography Citation
Turner, Abby Clay. Three Essays on the Economics of Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 2013.
545. Tusinski, Karin E.
The Causes and Consequences of Bullying
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Saint Louis, 2008.
Also: http://gradworks.umi.com/33/40/3340573.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Bullying/Victimization; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current research studies in a multivariate, longitudinal context the factors that contribute to bully offending and bully victimization. This dissertation addresses four primary issues: First, it reassesses current research on the basic descriptive elements of the nature and extent of bullying behavior. Second, this dissertation aims to increase the understanding of the factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of being bullied. Researchers have been less concerned in prior work with 'why' bullying occurs than they have with detecting the 'deficits' that the individuals involved, either as bullies or victims, present. The present research advances the literature by examining the role of various factors in shaping the likelihood of being bullied, including relationships with peers, parental influence, school safety, and prior bully victimization experiences. Third, this research goes beyond prior work by developing and testing theoretically informed models of bully offending. The models draw heavily from the literature on bullying as well as the more general literature on delinquency and aggression, but an important focus is addressing the consequences of bully victimization, or in other words whether adolescents who are bullied are more likely to subsequently bully others. Fourth, this dissertation examines whether bullying and general offending are separate facets of childhood problems. Past research has linked bullying to offending, however, identifying the inter-relationship of the two phenomena has been neglected.

Previously documented correlates of general victimization and offending serve as a conceptual framework for the models presented. These elements were tested to determine if common covariates of general offending (vandalism, stealing, hurting someone) influence bullying behaviors as well.

Data for this dissertation are derived from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Ch ild Sample (NLSY-C). The analysis focuses on children in elementary and middle schools from 1994 to 1996 (N = 959). The age range in 1994 (Time 1) was from 10 to 12 years old and two years older in 1996 (Time 2). When investigating the duration of roles over time, results revealed that bullying behaviors were more persistent over time than general offending behaviors. A significant and strong predictor of bullying at Time 2 is having been a bullied victim at Time 1. Few of the criminological measures or other covariates have any significant influence on either bully victimization or bully offending.

Findings also indicated that bullying and general offending were qualitatively distinct phenomena. Neither prior general offending nor current general offending is a significant predictor of bully victimization or bully offending. Furthermore, the common correlates of general offending are not correlated with bully behaviors. The current study found that measures associated with criminological theories (school, parents, and peers) were not associated with bullying measures.

Bibliography Citation
Tusinski, Karin E. The Causes and Consequences of Bullying. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Saint Louis, 2008..
546. Ucar, Ferit
Three Essays in Health and Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Child Health; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Economics; Medicaid/Medicare; National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation consists of three self-contained empirical essays on topics in health and labor economics. The first chapter analyzes the effects of Medicaid on children's health care utilization and health outcomes by looking at the effect of the remarkable expansions of Medicaid eligibility for low-income children that took place in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These Medicaid expansions provide a natural experiment in which insurance coverage varies in a way that is plausibly considered exogenous. Using the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS), instrumental variables (2SLS) models suggest that Medicaid coverage significantly increases the utilization of medical care by low-income children. Specifically, Medicaid is found to substantially decrease the probability of going without a visit to a doctor's office and significantly increase probability of hospitalization in the previous year. Increased Medicaid coverage is also associated with a significantly higher probability of going to a doctor's office than going to ER or hospital clinics. However, the estimation results provide no support for the hypothesis that Medicaid improves the health of low-income children.

The second chapter is the first attempt to study the long-term effects of Medicaid on children's health outcomes by looking at the effects of the same Medicaid expansions that took place in the later 1980s and early 1990s. These expansions significantly increased the percentage of pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid but did so at very differential rates across the states. The substantial variation in Medicaid eligibility thresholds by state, and year, and the age of the child provide the identifying variation for the analysis. By using restricted access data, containing state of birth and state of residence of children, I match children to the Medicaid eligibility rules in their year of birth and currently. The results suggest that the expansions were effective in improving the health of children from low-income families in the long run. Increased Medicaid eligibility at birth is associated with better health outcomes in the future. But interestingly eligibility at older ages (conditional on eligibility at birth) is not.

The third chapter examines the effects of using friends, relatives and acquaintances in job search on current and future wages and job tenure of individuals using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) data. Individuals who use contacts may differ from those that don't. For example, both females and African-Americans are less likely to use contacts in job search in the US. This paper uses switching regression models to deal simultaneously with an endogenous selection issue in contact's choice and the existence of two different regimes of wage and job tenure determination. Econometric estimates provide evidence for the existence of a selection effect on the choice of informal contacts and, after correcting the selection bias, using contacts has a positive effect on both wages and job tenure. The paper also explores whether some types of contacts result in greater wages and longer tenures. Gains from using informal contacts are largest for those that use male contacts of an older generation, rather than female or younger contacts.

Bibliography Citation
Ucar, Ferit. Three Essays in Health and Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 2008.
547. Ulimwengu, John M.
Persistent and Transitory Poverty Across Locations in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University, 2006.
Also: http://www.ohiolink.edu.proxy.lib.ohio-state.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi/Ulimwengu%20John%20M.pdf?acc%5Fnum=osu1154789728
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Benefits; Geocoded Data; Human Capital; Income; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Poverty; Rural/Urban Differences; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a geocoded version of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), my findings suggest that the persistently poor receive less than 65% of their total income as wages, accumulate fewer assets, and rely heavily on government social transfers. Although their incomes fall below the poverty line occasionally, the transitorily poor stay above the poverty line most of the time. I confirm the presence of poverty clusters as well as the presence of spatial interaction across locations. This calls for cooperation among counties or states in the fight against poverty. I use a generalized mixed linear model that incorporates both fixed and random effects while controlling for individual characteristics and spatial attributes. I find that the persistently poor and the transitorily poor experience very different poverty paths. Years of education, labor market participation, and access to the benefit of economic growth are among the major factors explaining the difference in wellbeing between the two groups of poor households. Spatial attributes such as level of employment and population share of college graduates yield different returns in terms of wellbeing with respect to metro or nonmetro locations. In metro areas, the effect of job-training, economic growth and human capital on household living standards decreases with respect to the population size. In nonmetro areas, the effect of an increase in the share of college graduates increases with the rurality of the location. The more rural the location, the greater is the effect of human capital on living standards. Overall, my findings support arguments in favor of policies that differentiate persistent poverty from transitory poverty. They also highlight the importance of spatial attributes in the fight against poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Ulimwengu, John M. Persistent and Transitory Poverty Across Locations in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University, 2006..
548. VanOrman, Alicia
Three Essays on the Interrelationships between Socioeconomic Resources, Family Formation, and Child Wellbeing
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Family Formation; Marital Status; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first chapter uses data from two recent cohorts of young women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine how the relationship between women's socioeconomic status and having a child outside of marriage has changed across cohorts. Despite striking growth in the prevalence of nonmarital childbearing across cohorts, I find that nonmarital childbearing continues to be concentrated among less-advantaged women. In contrast to prior work, however, I also find that women's economic opportunities are increasingly important for nonmarital childbearing.

The second chapter draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort to investigate how men's and women's economic trajectories influence the transition to marriage among cohabitors. I find that growth in earnings and increased schooling hastens the transition to marriage, whereas a loss in earnings or employment encourages separation. The relationship between economic status and marriage varies little across gender and parental status, though the associations are more consistent among men and especially, fathers. The results of this study provide further evidence that having limited economic resources presents a significant barrier to marriage.

Bibliography Citation
VanOrman, Alicia. Three Essays on the Interrelationships between Socioeconomic Resources, Family Formation, and Child Wellbeing. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015.
549. Vaughan, Erikka B.
Parent Factors and Offspring Emotional and Behavioral Problems during Childhood and Adolescence
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Depression (see also CESD); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Siblings; Substance Use

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Internalizing and externalizing disorders often have developmental precursors during childhood and adolescence. The goal of the current dissertation, therefore, was to add to our understanding of the extent to which a range of family factors and processes are involved in the development of emotional and behavioral problems, with an emphasis on internalizing problems, across childhood and adolescence. I used two data sets: a nationally representative sample called the Children (Child and Young Adult sample) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY; N = 11,504; 49% female) and a community sample called the Child Development Project (CDP; N = 585; 48% female). In Projects 1 and 2, I found support in the CNLSY for a causal model, minimally explained by a range of putative mediators, between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and child and adolescent emotional and behavioral problems using family-based designs (e.g., sibling comparisons). In Project 3, I found in the CNLSY that parental emotional support predicted child internalizing and the reverse, but that the associations were quite small and not likely clinically meaningful. In Project 4, I found in the CDP that the extent to which adolescents' internalizing predicts their parents' psychological control and the reverse depended on parent gender and varied across age. In sum, I used longitudinal and family-based, quasi-experimental designs to better understand the interplay between family factors, child factors, and the development of emotional and behavioral problems in children. I found that the associations were nuanced and varied across a range of factors, and that we have much to do to improve on our understanding of the mechanisms by which offspring emotional and behavioral problems are associated with parent factors and behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Vaughan, Erikka B. Parent Factors and Offspring Emotional and Behavioral Problems during Childhood and Adolescence. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 2017.
550. Vespa, Jonathan Edward
Early Sexual Behavior and First Union Formation in Young Adults
M.A. Thesis, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Cohabitation; Marriage; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the first six rounds of data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this research analyzes the role of sexual behavior on union formation for 6,700 adolescents and young adults ages 18 to 22 years. I investigate the effects of age at first sex and number of sexual partners on whether individuals enter a first co-residential union in early adulthood, and among those who do, whether their first union is marriage or cohabitation. Results show that earlier sexual activity and more sexual partners prior to first union significantly increase the likelihood of experiencing cohabitation as one's first co-residential union. Sexually active adolescents are significantly less likely to enter marriages or delay union formation altogether compared to their counterparts who delayed first sex and had fewer sexual partners. These findings suggest that individuals who enter these cohabiting first unions have significantly different sexual behavior than those who enter early marriages or stay single. Cohabitation has emerged as an alternative union type to marriage in which individuals' sexual behavior prior to union formation significantly influences the kind of first union they first experience.
Bibliography Citation
Vespa, Jonathan Edward. Early Sexual Behavior and First Union Formation in Young Adults. M.A. Thesis, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 2006.
551. Vidal Fernandez, Maria Antonia
Essays on Education and Labor Supply
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Boston University, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Child Care; Cross-national Analysis; Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Grandparents; High School Completion/Graduates; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation evaluates policy-relevant issues in labor and education in developed and developing countries.

The first chapter analyzes the effects on high school graduation and other academic outcomes of academic requirements for participation in high school athletics. I use a simple conceptual framework to illustrate the possible effects of the requirement and derive testable predictions. Then, I combine data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) with data on the rules to test the model's predictions. I find that requiring athletes to pass one additional course increased the overall likelihood of graduation among boys by two percentage points but did not affect female students, who at the time had limited access to interscholastic competition.

The second chapter (with Josefina Posadas) examines the role of grandparents' child-care provision on mothers' labor market participation. Using the NLSY79 and data from eleven European countries (SHARE), we find significant differences in characteristics of families who rely on this form of child care. Both ordinary least squares and instrumental variables estimates show that the availability of grandparents' care is linked to an increase in the probability of female labor force participation.

The third chapter (with Xavier Giné and Mónica Martínez-Bravo) studies the labor supply of Indian boat-owners. It uses daily data on labor force participation and the value of catches to test whether the response of labor supply to increases in wages and income is better explained by the conventional framework of inter-temporal substitution or by reference-dependent preferences. This chapter shows that boat-owners' labor participation depends not only on their expected earnings, but also on their recent earnings, supporting income-reference-dependent preferences models. However, the response to changes in recent income is small relative to the response to changes in expected earn ings. Furthermore, the results imply that short-term labor supply models should include recent earnings conditional and recent effort as control variables. Since recent earnings are positively correlated with expected earnings and negatively related to the probability of participation, omitting this variable yields downward-biased elasticity estimates.

Bibliography Citation
Vidal Fernandez, Maria Antonia. Essays on Education and Labor Supply. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Boston University, 2011.
552. Vohra, Divya
Understanding the Gap Between Fertility Intentions and Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Childhood; Fertility; First Birth; Household Influences; Parental Influences; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The third paper examines how women's experiences in early childhood shape their risk of unintended pregnancy later in life in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Vohra, Divya. Understanding the Gap Between Fertility Intentions and Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, 2014.
553. Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Starting School on Unequal Ground: Environmental Origins of Economic Disparities in School Readiness and Early Academic Achievement
Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University, 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Achievement; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Poverty; School Entry/Readiness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

When children enter first-grade they are not equally ready to learn. Some have developed better cognitive and socioemotional skills that are important for early school success. Children from low-income families are particularly at risk, as they tend to have lower scores on measures of school readiness than their more economically advantaged counterparts. Developmental differences when children start school are concerning since these disparities often persist and are even exacerbated beyond the early years of school. The goal of this dissertation is to advance our understanding of the environmental origins of economic disparities in school readiness and early academic achievement with implications for policy and practice. It examines the influence of three key environments- home, child care, and kindergarten - on children's development during the transition to school and into the early school years in three integrated studies. By synthesizing across three studies, it provides the means to consider the relative effectiveness of different strategies for promoting academic success among at-risk children.
Bibliography Citation
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth. Starting School on Unequal Ground: Environmental Origins of Economic Disparities in School Readiness and Early Academic Achievement. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University, 2004.
554. Wada, Roy
Obesity and Physical Fitness in the Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgia State University, 2007. DAI-A 68/03, p. 1111, Sep 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Wage Equations; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Mixed results have been reported when body size is used to estimate the effect of health and nutritional status on worker productivity. This dissertation offers an alternative hypothesis that body composition rather than body size is responsible for the effects of health and nutritional status on worker productivity. Body fat is responsible for the poor health associated with obesity. Lean body mass is responsible for the superior performance associated with physical fitness. Studies using body size alone cannot distinguish the combined, but opposite effects, of body fat and lean body mass.

A method is provided here that overcomes the lack of data for body composition. The clinical information available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-94 (NHANES III) is used to estimate body composition for the survey participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY 1979). The inclusion of estimated body composition in the estimated wage equation shows that the effect of lean body mass on the wage rate is positive while the effect of body fat is negative.

Estimated body composition is then used to examine the role of physical differences in the gender wage gap. The decomposition of the gender wage gap shows that most of the previously unexplained differences in wages between men and women can be attributed to the gender differences in body composition. The explanatory power of estimated body composition rises significantly with occupational physical strength requirements. This result suggests that estimated body composition is capturing occupational requirements previously omitted from the past studies.

The findings presented in this dissertation indicate that body composition plays an important, though previously unidentified, role on wage determination. It is clear that capital investments in body composition yield economic dividends by impacting hourly wages of workers. Empirical studies that do not address differences in body composition risk obtaining biased results. Future public health policies should take into consideration the combined but opposite effects of body fat and lean body mass. It is not body size alone, but the compositional makeup of the human body, that public health policies may need to address.

Bibliography Citation
Wada, Roy. Obesity and Physical Fitness in the Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgia State University, 2007. DAI-A 68/03, p. 1111, Sep 2007.
555. Walia, Bhavneet
Three Essays in Health and Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Kansas State University, 2008.
Also: http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/2097/859/1/BhavneetWalia2008.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Breastfeeding; Child Care; Fathers, Presence; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; I.Q.; Mothers, Education; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The dissertation examines empirical issues related to health and labor economics. It has long been debated whether breastfeeding leads to a higher intelligence quotient (IQ) and greater scholastic achievement. The first study empirically examines the issue. Many past studies fail to take into account the possible endogeneity of the breastfeeding decision and thus falsely identify the correlation between breastfeeding and IQ as a causal relationship. We attempt to distinguish the causation and correlation between the two variables. Our results show that, after controlling for possible endogeneity, breastfeeding has no significant impact on IQ or scholastic achievement.

The second essay examines the link between breastfeeding and childhood obesity. Heath economics researchers view breastfeeding as a determining factor as to whether a child becomes obese. There are many theories, involving both biological and psychological factors, as to why breastfeeding is negatively linked to childhood obesity. This essay argues that the breastfeeding decision is not an exogenous one, so estimation technique such as ordinary least squares is not the correct way to estimate the relationship between breastfeeding and childhood obesity. Instruments are used to generate exogenous variations in the breastfeeding variable. After correcting for any estimation bias due to the breastfeeding variable being endogenous, this study documents the benefits of breastfeeding.

The third essay analyzes 19 semesters of student evaluations at Kansas State University. Faculty fixed effects are sizable and indicate that, as assessed by students, the best principles teachers also tend to be the best non-principles teachers. OLS estimates are biased because principles teachers are drawn from the top of the distribution and because unmeasured faculty characteristics are correlated with such variables as the response rate and student effort. Student ratings are lowest for new faculty but stabilize quickly. Expected GPA of the class is not an important determinant of student ratings, but equitable grading is; and the rewards for equitable grading appear larger for principles classes. The lower ratings in principles classes are fully accounted for by greater class size.

Bibliography Citation
Walia, Bhavneet. Three Essays in Health and Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Kansas State University, 2008..
556. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Diverging Pathways: Using a Lifecourse Perspective to Assess the Cumulative Effects of Education on Physical and Mental Health
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2005. DAI-B 66/09, p. 4766, Mar 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); College Education; Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School Diploma; Hispanics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Current research documents the consistent positive relationship between educational attainment and a variety of health outcomes. For example, individuals with higher levels of educational attainment report fewer physical limitations and lower rates of depressive symptomology. Yet, most of this research measures education in terms of the quantity of schooling completed, disregarding the underlying mechanisms that place individuals on divergent academic trajectories, such as educational inequality and access to educational opportunities. However, these early experiences may ultimately shape long-term health status.

To address this gap in the literature, I develop an index of advantage that quantifies the number of advantages individuals accumulate throughout their education, including such factors as school resources, educational aspirations, and coursework taken. A total of 13 items covering three domains (individual, family, and school) are included in the index, with each item weighted by its independent effect on college attainment. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of young men and women who were 14-21 years old in 1979, restricting the sample to civilian respondents self-reporting as black, Hispanic, or white, and for whom data was collected for work limitations and/or depressive symptomology on at least one time point, to test whether or not (1) increasing number of educational advantages as well as educational attainment is related to physical and mental health over time, and (2) educational advantages and educational attainment result in diverging health trajectories between respondents with high versus low educational advantages, and between respondents with high versus low educational attainment.

The results suggests that the index is associated with a widening disparity over time in predicted probabilities of work limitations and the level of depressive symptomology between respondents in the 10 th and 90 th percentiles on the index of advantage. Similar results were found between respondents with a college education versus those with less than a high school education. Our results point to a need for more extensive examination of the educational system as a potential mechanism of existing health disparities as well as a viable area for future research and policy intervention.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle. Diverging Pathways: Using a Lifecourse Perspective to Assess the Cumulative Effects of Education on Physical and Mental Health. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2005. DAI-B 66/09, p. 4766, Mar 2006.
557. Wang, Guanghua
Frictions in the Youth Labor Market: Theory and Evidence
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Clemson University, 2020
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Economic Changes/Recession; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Occupational Choice

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation investigates how young workers' abilities shape their early careers in the presence of information frictions and labor market shocks through two studies. The research in the first chapter focuses on the strength of a worker's comparative advantage, which measures the distribution of her abilities. Workers are uncertain about what they are good at when they enter the labor market, and then they shop around to find their best-matched occupations. I use the average distance between productivities in the best-matched occupation and the other occupations to measure the strength of a worker's comparative advantage. Empirically, those productivities are estimated from a multinomial logit regression of a worker's choice of her best-matched occupations. A worker with a larger productivity distance has a stronger comparative advantage. The empirical results suggest that this worker spends fewer years shopping occupations and tries fewer occupations before finding her best-matched one. To further quantify the importance of strength in occupational shopping, I build a learning model in which a worker determines her comparative advantage by observing the output at the current occupation. The quantitative model suggests that enlarging the productivity distance by one standard deviation in the model reduces more than 80% of occupational changes in the first ten years of careers. Moreover, for an average labor market entrant, the value of learning about her comparative advantage is 28% of her expected lifetime earning.

The study in the second chapter focuses on how Conscientiousness, a personality trait, helps workers mitigate the adverse effects of graduating during a recession on early career outcomes. By analyzing college graduates who graduated in the 1980s, I find that Conscientiousness reduces the income losses of workers who graduate during a recession. More specifically, those whose Conscientiousness scores are in the upper quartile are sheltered from the losses. The mitigation effect primarily results from workers' adjustments in their labor supply. Workers high in Conscientiousness tend to work more weeks, try harder to find full-time jobs, and work more hours in these full-time jobs in response to the adverse labor market entry conditions. However, this study does not find any mitigation effects for cognitive ability.

Bibliography Citation
Wang, Guanghua. Frictions in the Youth Labor Market: Theory and Evidence. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Clemson University, 2020.
558. Wang, Hui
Three Essays on Fertility, Labor Market Performance, and Parental Mental Health
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Michigan State University, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Fertility; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using micro data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, Chapter Two studies the effect of job displacements on fertility in the U.S. After controlling individual time-invariant heterogeneity, the main regression results indicate that displacements of men will lead to reduced fertility in the following years, while the effect of displacements for women depends on the women's education levels. For women without college education, their fertility will increase four years after displacement. For women with college education, however, no significant effect on fertility is identified. The empirical findings are robust to several different specifications, including time trend model, fixed effect propensity score matching and regression with narrower definition of job displacement.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Hui. Three Essays on Fertility, Labor Market Performance, and Parental Mental Health. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Michigan State University, 2016.
559. Wang, Lijuan
Generalized Mixed Models with Mixture Links for Multivariate Zero-Inflated Count Data
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2008.
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Bayesian; Behavioral Problems; Modeling, Logit; Sample Selection; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Count data with excessive zeros are often observed in substance use or problem behavior research. When multiple items which could produce zero-inflated count data are used to measure a construct (e.g., substance use), a traditional way to estimate individuals' trait levels of the construct is to form composite scores of the items. However, the main disadvantage of this method is that the composite scores' distribution is negatively skewed and the weight of each item is usually simply set as 1. In this study, I introduce a generalized mixed model with mixture links such as a logit link and a log link to estimate individuals' trait levels and investigate the psychometrics properties of the multiple items for multivariate zero-inflated count data. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the possible influence of factors such as sample size, number of items, proportion of zeros, and estimation method on the estimation of the proposed model and to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of previously employed alternative methods. Application of the model is illustrated by analyzing the substance use data from the NLSY study.

The simulation results showed that the proposed model can recover the true trait levels more accurately than the selected alternative methods and the estimation of the person trait levels is more accurate with more items and lower proportions of zeros. Regarding the accuracy of the item parameter estimates, middle proportions of zeros, larger sample size, and more items provide more accurate estimates under the tested conditions. When sample size was larger than 2000, the item parameters were estimated accurately in most conditions. The simulation results also showed that both marginal maximum likelihood estimation method (MMLE) and Bayesian estimation (BE) methods can provide accurate item parameter estimates with large enough sample sizes. Each estimation method had its own advantages and disadvantages in computation ti me and convergence rate.

The empirical results included many outcomes that were not obtained using previous methods, especially in investigating the psychometric properties of the multiple substance use items from both propensity and level perspectives. Limitations and future directions of this study are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Wang, Lijuan. Generalized Mixed Models with Mixture Links for Multivariate Zero-Inflated Count Data. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2008..
560. Wang, Shun-Yung Kevin
Contingencies in the Long-Term Impact of Work on Crime among Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Employment, Youth; Income; Income Level; Job Characteristics; Job Promotion; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The impact of jobs on working American youth has not been examined thoroughly and the mechanism between employment and delinquency is not fully understood. Many prior studies that addressed the issue of youth employment and crime emphasized one variable, work intensity, and left plenty of unknown pieces in this puzzle. This study introduces the concept of "ladder jobs" that arguably deter job holders from committing delinquent and criminal behaviors. In this dissertation, "ladder jobs" are those with significant upward-moving occupational positions on a status ladder, and, to adolescents, these jobs encompass potential to be the start of an attractive career. Three promising mediating factors, job income, job stability, and parental control, are also examined. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 and structural equation modeling are used to test hypotheses.

Results indicate that "ladder jobs" demonstrated a significant crime-decreasing effect, while employment exhibited a crime-increasing effect. In addition, the magnitude rate of "ladder jobs" versus employment increased as youth aged; that is, the advantages of "ladder jobs" gradually outweigh the disadvantages of employment in the sense of crime prevention. Furthermore, job income partially mediates the crime-increasing effect of employment on delinquency, and job stability partially mediates the crime-decreasing effect of "ladder jobs" on delinquency. However, parental control, which is measured as direct supervision, does not play a mediating role between employment and delinquency. In sum, from a crime-prevention standpoint, a job that pays little now, but improves the chances of a long-term career appears to better than a dead-end job that pays comparatively well in the short-term. The findings also imply that the discussions of employment and of internships among youth should address the importance of future-oriented feature of occupations, and not just the immediate monetary gains from the employment.

Bibliography Citation
Wang, Shun-Yung Kevin. Contingencies in the Long-Term Impact of Work on Crime among Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 2011.
561. Wang, Si
The Role of Gender in Intergenerational Transmissions of Education and Occupational Promotion
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Carolina, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; College Education; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Job Promotion; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While several studies have suggested the importance of maternal schooling to children's outcomes during childhood, less is known about the role when the child is older. In the first chapter, I estimate the relationship between maternal education and children's college attendance. After developing a theoretical model to consider the transmission of education across generations, I use the NLSY79 Child and Young Adult Surveys for empirical analysis. College proximity is used as an instrument for mother's schooling. All else equal, results suggest that maternal schooling significantly increases a child's probability of attending college by about 2 to 3 percentage points. The impact is greater for a child whose mother has lower cognitive ability, but does not seem to differ between sons and daughters. There is little evidence of endogeneity bias for mother's education as long as family income is included in the controls. Later cognitive stimulation (between 10-14) and early emotional support (under 3) are found to have a positive and significant effect on the child's college attendance decision.

Then the relationship between maternal schooling and children's high school outcomes is investigated in the second chapter. Three outcomes are high school completion, high school diploma receipt and high school graduation grades. Using changes of compulsory attendance laws as instruments for mother's high school completion, the results suggest that mother's education is exogenous in the estimation of high school completion. Having a mother with at least a high school education will increase her child's probability of completing high school by 8 percentage points. While mother's schooling and family income have significant effects for all three outcomes, mother's cognitive ability is only meaningful to the outcome of grades. The effect of mother's high school completion is similar for sons and daughters, wealthy and poor families, and mothers with different cognitive abili ties.

Besides intergenerational transmission of education, I also work with Prof. Ozturk on occupational promotion. We found that, in models with no controls for individual unobserved factors, females are less likely to be promoted in highly female jobs. Males on the other hand are more likely to be promoted in these jobs compared to their male counterparts in jobs with lower percentage of females. However, the role of occupational feminization is no longer significant once unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for along with the skills/ task measures of an occupation. We do find overall wages to be lower for everyone in jobs with a female majority. However, there are no significant differences in the return to promotion by gender once occupational measures are controlled for, even though the occupational wage gap due to feminization persists.

Bibliography Citation
Wang, Si. The Role of Gender in Intergenerational Transmissions of Education and Occupational Promotion. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Carolina, 2013.
562. Wang, Yan
Sibling Structure and Gender Inequality: Assessing Gender Variation in the Effects of Sibling Structure on Housework Performance, Education, and Occupation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, May 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Occupational Aspirations; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the effect of sibling structure on women’s and men’s socialization and achievement outcomes in three areas: housework performance, education, and occupation. Data from China and the United States are used for analyses. The findings indicate that the effect of sibling structure largely depends on the cultural and structural contexts in each society. More specifically, although women and men on average have the same sibling structure, the meaning of sibling configuration is different for women and men because of macro-level factors, such as cultural expectations, gender stereotypes, historical legacy, and political propaganda, and microlevel factors, such as parental preferences, parent-child communication and sibling competition.To examine the effect of sibling structure on each outcome, I conduct three empirical studies.

In the second study, I focus on the effect of sibling structure on educational attainment and the role of siblings’ education in this relationship. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) are used for analyses. I find that the effects of sibship size and sibling sex composition on educational attainment are mediated through siblings’ educational achievements. These effects are divergent for men and women. For women, sibship size and sex composition do not impact their educational attainment after accounting for siblings’ educations. For men, only the number of brothers (but not sisters) has a negative effect on their educational attainment after controlling for siblings’ educational achievements.

In the third study, I investigate the influence of birth order on the prestige and sex type of adolescents’ occupational aspirations using the first wave of the NLSY79. The results indicate that for both females and males, firstborn and lastborn adolescents on average expect higher prestige occupations compared to middleborns, and lastborns are more likely to have nontraditional occupational aspirations than firstborns and middleborns. Taken together, the results suggest that the gender gap in important child and adult behavioral outcomes is smaller among individuals with fewer siblings, fewer brothers, and among lastborn young adults.

Bibliography Citation
Wang, Yan. Sibling Structure and Gender Inequality: Assessing Gender Variation in the Effects of Sibling Structure on Housework Performance, Education, and Occupation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, May 2013.
563. Watkins, Nicole K.
A Longitudinal Analysis of Depression: Associations with Parental Divorce during Emerging Adulthood
Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Education, Indiana University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Marital Conflict; Parental Influences; Parental Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation examined how change in parental marital status during emerging adulthood (EA) was associated with depressive symptom trajectories from adolescence through EA. Latent growth curve models were estimated to examine depressive symptom trajectories relative to change in parental marital status, with emerging adult sex and parental marital conflict modeled as moderators of the association between depression and parental divorce. Data were drawn from 2,600 emerging adults ages 18-25 and their mothers, who participated in the Child and Young Adult Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979.

Among findings, I observed significant associations between parental divorce when emerging adults were ages 18/19 with higher overall depressive symptom scores at ages 18/19 and 20/21. Emerging adult sex did not moderate the association between parental marital status and depressive symptoms. However, higher parental marital conflict scores during adolescence moderated the association between marital status at age 18/19 and depressive symptoms at ages 22/23 and 24/25, such that when parents divorced when the emerging adult was 18/19, higher parental conflict was associated with higher depressive symptomology at ages 22/23 and 24/25 compared to those whose parents remained married at 18/19, who did not differ on depressive symptoms regardless of marital conflict.

Bibliography Citation
Watkins, Nicole K. A Longitudinal Analysis of Depression: Associations with Parental Divorce during Emerging Adulthood. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Education, Indiana University, 2019.
564. Weden, Margaret M.
Social Stratification and Health: Resources and Exposures Related to the Racial, Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, June 2005. DAI-A 65/12 (2005): 4735
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Employment, History; Ethnic Differences; Event History; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Job Characteristics; Life Course; Occupations; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During early adulthood, differences in health behaviors emerge that are precursors to inequalities in health and mortality experienced in later life. The role of employment, as a fundamental determinant of resources, is considered for young adults aging into midlife (ages 15-40 years over 1979-1998). Discrete-time hazards models show that there are effects of joblessness on cessation among women, but not among men. The lower likelihood of cessation among African American and Hispanic women who are out of the labor force is explained by social and economic resources. European American women who are unemployed or out of the labor force remain less likely to quit even after controlling for these resources. The effects of psychosocial exposures at work are modeled using discrete-time hazards models. 'High strain' jobs with high demands and low latitude, and 'passive' jobs with low demands and low latitude, are associated with the lowest cessation. 'Active' jobs with high demands and high latitude is associated with the highest cessation. These differences in cessation by workplace conditions are instructive for understanding racial, ethnic and gender differences in smoking since men are more likely to age into 'active' than 'high strain' jobs, and African Americans are the most likely to remain in 'passive' jobs. The analyses underscore the relevance of policy that increases human capital leading to employment and occupational attainment. They also highlight the need for workplace health programs that extend beyond individual interventions to address workplace conditions.
Bibliography Citation
Weden, Margaret M. Social Stratification and Health: Resources and Exposures Related to the Racial, Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, June 2005. DAI-A 65/12 (2005): 4735.
565. Weidner, Justin
Essays in Consumer Finance
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Princeton University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Cost; College Graduates; Debt/Borrowing; Earnings; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the third chapter, I use survey data and an estimated model of occupational choice to assess the impact of rising student debt on college graduates' earnings. I document a negative relationship between graduates' debt and income that is not explained by common joint determinants. The primary mechanism is debt induces graduates to enter employment faster and to select jobs in unrelated fields, resulting in lower income compared to debt-free peers. I also find that the rise in debt has contributed to income stagnation and basing debt repayment on income would likely benefit graduates, as it would be less distortionary on occupational choices.
Bibliography Citation
Weidner, Justin. Essays in Consumer Finance. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Princeton University, 2017.
566. Weiss, Douglas Brian
Desistance from Crime and Substance Use: A Universal Process or Behavior-specific?
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Crime; Drug Use; Modeling, Trajectory analysis; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Several prominent criminologists have suggested desistance from crime is in many ways similar to desistance from substance use. While a review of this literature supports this proposition in general, most of this research has focused on desistance from either crime or substance use rather than considering change across both behaviors. Indeed, those few studies that consider both behaviors often find individuals persist in substance use despite desistance from crime. Despite this discrepancy, there has yet to be a systematic comparison between desistance from these two behaviors. This dissertation seeks to address this gap by asking (1) whether the same set of social and psychological factors that distinguish crime desisters from persisters also differentiate heavy substance use desisters from persisters and (2) to what extent individuals who are desisting from crime are also desisting from heavy substance use. In addition to addressing these two primary research questions, a set of substance specific and subgroup analyses were performed to assess whether the results differ across substance type (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) or along the demographics of race and gender. These analyses were performed using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort. Desisters were identified using group-based trajectory modeling while multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with desistance from each of these behaviors. The results of the analyses indicate that desistance from crime is associated with differences in social bonds and reduced levels of strain, while desistance from substance use is primarily associated with reduced levels of strain and individual personality differences. The substance specific analyses suggest different factors are associated with desistance from the use of different substances, while the race- and gender-specific analyses suggest differences across these demographics. The implications of these results for theories of desistance from crime and substance use are discussed as are the limitations of this dissertation and suggestions for future research.
Bibliography Citation
Weiss, Douglas Brian. Desistance from Crime and Substance Use: A Universal Process or Behavior-specific? Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park, 2014.
567. Welding, Kevin
Econometric Approaches to Public Health Policy: Behavioral Response to Substance Use Regulations
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Gender Differences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The third chapter, entitled "The Substitutability of Alcohol and Marijuana: Where there is Smoke, is there Fire?," uses data from the 2002-2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to investigate recent evidence from a regression discontinuity framework that alcohol and marijuana are substitutes for young adults. The central assumption underlying this method is that the model correctly specifies the smooth function of the forcing variable, in this case, age. I consider a wide variety of parametric and nonparametric models to test the robustness of the discontinuous effect found for marijuana use at the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). The recent finding that alcohol and marijuana are substitutes is sensitive to specification choice for the whole sample. Regardless of the specification there is no evidence of a significant change in marijuana use by men, while the substitution effect for women is robust. I corroborate and investigate the gender difference using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). I find that the reduction in marijuana use at the MLDA by women is heterogeneous by education and race. There is also evidence of a complementary relationship between alcohol and marijuana use for parts of the male sample.
Bibliography Citation
Welding, Kevin. Econometric Approaches to Public Health Policy: Behavioral Response to Substance Use Regulations. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2014.
568. Wells, Samantha L.
The Relationship Between Alcohol-Related Aggression and Drinking Patterns, Social Roles, Drinking Contexts, Predisposing and Family Background Characteristics Ii Late Adolescent and Young Adult Drinkers
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada), 2005. DAI-B 67/02, Aug 2005.
Also: http://gradworks.umi.com/NR/12/NR12063.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Family Background and Culture; Family Studies; Social Roles; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The primary purpose of this dissertation was to gain a better understanding of alcohol-related aggression experienced by late adolescent and young adult drinkers. The specific aims included determining the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression, identifying potential confounders and modifiers of this relationship, and assessing the independent effects of social roles, drinking contexts, predisposing and family background characteristics on alcohol-related aggression. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to assess gender specific effects. A secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Young Adult data was conducted. A composite cross-sectional data file was created from three years of data (i.e., 1994, 1996, and 1998) for young drinkers aged 17 to 21. Epidemiological model building was used to test for effect modification, confounding, and important covariates using multiple logistic regression analyses. While heavy episodic drinking, drinking frequency, and drinking volume were significantly associated with alcohol-related aggression in the univariate analyses, drinking frequency was found to be the most important explanatory variable in a multivariable analysis. The relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression was not confounded by social roles, drinking contexts, predisposing and family background characteristics. Significant effect modification of the alcohol and aggression relationship was found for gender, student status (males only), and usual drinking location (males only). A stronger relationship between heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related aggression was found for females than males and for male high school graduates not attending college than male college students. As well, a stronger relationship was found between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression for males who reported usually drinking in public locations away from home than for those who drank in private locations. Alcohol-related aggression was associated with family background variables (i.e., lower mother's education level, no exposure to family poverty, any change in family structure) and living arrangement (living with both parents versus living in own dwelling) for males whereas student status (high school drop-outs versus college students), drinking in public locations versus private locations, and recent aggressive behaviour were important explanatory variables for females. Longitudinal data are needed to assess change within individuals and allow for the proper assessment of temporal ordering of relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Wells, Samantha L. The Relationship Between Alcohol-Related Aggression and Drinking Patterns, Social Roles, Drinking Contexts, Predisposing and Family Background Characteristics Ii Late Adolescent and Young Adult Drinkers. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada), 2005. DAI-B 67/02, Aug 2005..
569. Wheeler, Marissa C.
Contemporary Topics in Low Fertility: Late Transitions to Parenthood and Low Fertility in East Asia
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Education; Event History; Family Planning; Fertility; Marriage; Parenthood; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Two contemporary topics in fertility are investigated: late transitions to parenthood and low fertility. In the first essay, I use longitudinal data from the NLSY79 to investigate three explanations for educational differences in transitions to parenthood after age 30 in the U.S.: intentions, resources, and opportunities for partnership. I find that, conditional on childlessness at age 30, fertility intentions are the most important factor in explaining the higher odds of transitioning to parenthood after age 30 among college-educated women. This finding is consistent with making up postponed births among college graduates. In the second essay, I examine the responsiveness of fertility to major economic shock using the case of South Korea following the 1997 Asian financial crisis. I find a significant decline in first birth odds after the 1997 financial crisis. These results are consistent with growing evidence in favor of a pro-cyclical view of fertility and suggest that we may see similar behavior in response to the recent financial crisis and slow recovery. I also find that women over age 30 experienced a decline in first birth risks after the financial crisis, which suggests that fertility at older ages can be subject to further postponement in response to period conditions and calls into question assumptions that postponed fertility will eventually be recuperated. In the final chapter, I turn to the low fertility context of Taiwan. I investigate the association between parental investment in children's education and fertility across a wide variety of investment indicators. Using evolutionary theories of modern low fertility as a framework, I expect to find that a long-term high investment strategy is associated with lower risk of having another child. However, I do not find this association in multivariate analysis. I do find a significant negative association with current financial expenditure and residential moves. Thus I do find support for the high costs of raising children as a factor in low fertility but I do not find support for the evolutionary perspective in particular. Furthermore, these results suggest that parents' high aspirations for education reflect a widely shared cultural belief rather than a quantity-quality tradeoff.
Bibliography Citation
Wheeler, Marissa C. Contemporary Topics in Low Fertility: Late Transitions to Parenthood and Low Fertility in East Asia. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2011.
570. Wiczer, David Geoffrey
Essays in Macro and Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Skills; Unemployment; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first chapter studies the rate of long-term unemployment, which spiked during the Great Recession. To help explain this, I exploit the systematic and counter-cyclical differences in unemployment duration across occupations. This heterogeneity extends the tail of the unemployment duration distribution, which is necessary to account for the observed level of long-term unemployment and its increase since 2007. This chapter introduces a model in which unemployment duration and occupation are linked; it measures the effects of occupation-specific shocks and skills on unemployment duration. Here, a worker will be paid more for human capital in his old occupation but a bad shock may make those jobs scarce. Still, their human capital partly ``attaches'' them to their prior occupation, even when searching there implies a longer expected duration. Hence, unemployment duration rises and becomes more dispersed across occupations. Redistributive shocks and business cycles, as in the Great Recession, exacerbate this effect.

For quantitative discipline, the model matches data on the wage premium to occupational experience and the co-movement of occupations' productivity. The distribution of duration is then endogenous. For comparison's sake, if a standard model with homogeneous job seekers matches the job finding rate, then it also determines expected duration and understates it. That standard model implies just over half of the long-term unemployment in 1976-2007 and almost no rise in the recent recession. But, with heterogeneity by occupation, this chapter nearly matches long-term unemployment in the period 1976-2007 and 70% of its rise during the Great Recession.

The second chapter studies the link between wage growth and the match of a worker's occupation and skills. The notion here is that if human capital accumulation depends on match quality, poor matches can have long-lasting effects on lifetime earnings. I build a model that incorporates such a mechanism, in which human capital accumulation is affected by imperfect information about one's self. This informational friction leads to matches in which a worker accumulates human capital more slowly and has weaker earnings growth.

Bibliography Citation
Wiczer, David Geoffrey. Essays in Macro and Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2013.
571. Widdowson, Alex O.
Residential Mobility and Desistance from Crime and Substance Use during the Transition to Adulthood
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Geocoded Data; Life Course; Mobility, Residential; Substance Use; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this dissertation is to advance life-course scholarship by addressing two important gaps in the existing body of research on residential mobility and desistance. First, this dissertation is the first study to examine the relationship between residential mobility (defined as a between-county move) and desistance from crime and substance use during the transition to adulthood. This gap is noteworthy given that residential mobility is an age-graded life event that is central to the transition to adulthood. In the U.S., rates of residential mobility are highest in the young adult years compared to any other developmental period, and scholars suggest that such moves constitute key role transitions and have important implications for locational attainment.

Second, this dissertation is also one of the first studies to examine whether the relationship between residential mobility and desistance from crime depends on the context of the move. Although the average effect of moving may be protective, the effect likely depends on a number of factors. Two factors may be especially salient to residential moves during the transition to adulthood: (1) whether the move occurs in the presence of other adult social roles and (2) whether the move results in improvements in community context. There are reasons to expect residential mobility to have stronger or weaker effects depending on these features.

This dissertation uses public and restricted geocode data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). These data contain a wealth of information about the transition to young adulthood, including respondents' residential mobility, crime and substance use, adult social roles, and community context. In addition, restricted geocode data allows me to construct residential mobility patterns of respondents from 1997-2013 and determine the county-level characteristics of every residential location respondents reported living at during the survey.

Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O. Residential Mobility and Desistance from Crime and Substance Use during the Transition to Adulthood. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 2018.
572. Wiebenga, Susan Renee
A Study of the Work Outcomes of Training and Self-concept: Evidences from NLSY79 Dataset
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Education, Adult; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Self-Esteem; Training, Employee; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Studies investigating the training outcomes of wage and career growth have identified multiple variables which influence wage and career aspirations achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore how the HRD variable of training hours received and personal factor of self-concept, impacted work outcomes of training (wage and career aspirations achievement) while controlling for individual (education level and gender) and workplace (occupation and tenure) characteristics.

In particular this study answered the following questions: (1) What is the relationship between the amount of training employees received from the workplace and wage? (2) What is the relationship between the amount of training employees received from the workplace and career aspirations achievement? (3) What is the relationship between employees' self-concept and wage? (4) What is the relationship between employees' self-concept and career aspirations achievement?

The results of the correlation analysis supported three of the four research hypothesis. Training was shown to have a positive relationship to the work outcomes of wage and career aspirations achievement. Self-concept was only found to have a positive relationship to career aspirations achievement. Even though training and self-concept were shown to have positive correlations with wage and career aspirations achievement, when the regression analyses were conducted they were shown to have very little direct impact on the amount of variance associated with each of these variables.

It appears that it is not the individual variables that impact the work outcomes of wage and career aspirations achievement, but that it is the way these variables interact with the individual and workplace variables that impact the work outcomes. In addition, variables outside of the scope of this study may account for a large portion of the variance in wage and career aspirations achievement. The interaction between the variables in this study, and other variables outside of the scope of this study, are worthy of further investigation. Finally, further study in regards to the interaction of the variables used in this study is required to gain a fuller understanding of how much influence they have on each other and the overall impact on wage and career aspirations achievement.

Bibliography Citation
Wiebenga, Susan Renee. A Study of the Work Outcomes of Training and Self-concept: Evidences from NLSY79 Dataset. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2007.
573. Wightman, Patrick
The Effect of Parental Job Loss on Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2009.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Job loss is a permanent and common feature of modern economies. While much is known about the impact of job loss on earnings, income, unemployment and consumption, much less attention has been given to the effects that parents' job displacement has on children. Chapter I of this dissertation presents the analytical framework for the empirical analysis that follows in Chapters II and III. Specifically, I describe the pathways potentially linking parental job loss to children's outcomes. These pathways fall into two broad categories, the investment perspective and the family process perspective. In Chapter II, using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) I find that parental job loss between the ages of 0-17 reduces the probability that offspring will graduate from high school by roughly 6 percent. The impact on college attendance, conditional on high school graduation, is more sensitive to controls for parental ability but ranges from 2 to 7 percent. Family income, wealth and government assistance fail to explain the job-loss effect on high school graduation but explain much of the effect on conditional college attendance. The severity of the impact varies by the age of the offspring at the time the displacement occurred. In Chapter III, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults Cohort (CNLSY) I find that a parental job loss leads to increases in antisocial behavior, anxiety/depression and lower reading scores among children. The age of the child at the time of the displacement has important consequences on the severity and duration of the effect. Household-level fixed effects explain much of this relationship. I conclude Chapter III with a discussion of the policy implications of these findings.
Bibliography Citation
Wightman, Patrick. The Effect of Parental Job Loss on Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2009..
574. Wilkinson, Larrell Lé Jon
A Population-based Analysis of the Association between Health Insurance Coverage and Psychological Distress and the Influence of other Mediating Factors among Young Adults in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health Factors; Health, Mental; Insurance, Health; Life Satisfaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective : This study examines the association of health insurance coverage status and self-reported mental health status within the young adult population of the United States. Additionally, the study determines the prevalence of self-reported psychological distress among the young adult population and among vulnerable sub-groups in the United States. Finally, this study addresses how contextual, individual, and health behavior factors, including health insurance coverage status and life satisfaction are associated with mental health status among young adults within the United States population.

Methods : The estimates in this report were derived from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97...Cross-sectional estimates were calculated using the SAS 9.2 statistical package to account for the complex survey design. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted on the weighted data.

Results : Within the sample, the estimated prevalence of psychological distress (PD) among young adults within the U.S. population in 2008 was an estimated 11.34%. Those who reported life satisfaction scores of 1 - 5, were more likely to self report PD (COR 14.83; 95% CI, 10.66 - 20.62). The association remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Persons reporting being uninsured (COR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.66 - 2.49) or having partial-year unknown source (COR 2.37; 95% CI, 1.80 - 3.11), or having partial-year government coverage (COR 2.93; 95% CI, 1.84 - 4.67), or classified as full-year government coverage (COR 3.51; 95% CI, 2.74 - 4.50) were more likely to experience PD than full year private coverage. However, the associations were not significant when controlling for covariates. Significant associations were observed between young adults who had military experience, incarceration experience, or were past victims of violent crimes when compared to those who were not in the crude analysis only. Health insurance coverage status generally did not significantly influence young adult's psychological well-being in the study.

Conclusions : The associations between mental health status and health insurance coverage status may have been strongly influenced by socio-demographic characteristics. Young adults, who reported poorer social health and poorer overall health when examining health insurance coverage status, were more likely to report poorer mental health status. It is important to understand ones mental, social, and physical health, in order to truly detail one's comprehensive health. Integration of mental health screening, screening for social health and the implementation of health care reform may help to improve mental health outcomes among young adults, especially the disadvantaged.

Bibliography Citation
Wilkinson, Larrell Lé Jon. A Population-based Analysis of the Association between Health Insurance Coverage and Psychological Distress and the Influence of other Mediating Factors among Young Adults in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 2011.
575. Willen, Alexander Lars Philip
Essays in Labor and Education Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Noncognitive Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Chapter 3, which is joint work with Michael Lovenheim, we analyze the effect of teacher collective bargaining laws on long-run labor market and educational attainment outcomes, exploiting the timing of passage of duty-to-bargain (DTB) laws across cohorts within states and across states over time. We find robust evidence that exposure to teacher DTB laws worsens the future labor market outcomes of men: in the first 10 years after passage of a DTB law, male earnings decline by $1,974 (or 3.64%) per year and hours worked decrease by 0.43 hours per week. The earnings estimates for men indicate that teacher collective bargaining reduces earnings by $198.1 billion in the US annually. We also find evidence of lower male employment rates. Exposure to DTB laws leads to reductions in the skill levels of the occupations into which male workers sort as well. Effects are largest among black and Hispanic men. Estimates among women are often confounded by secular trend variation, though we do find suggestive evidence of negative impacts among non-white women. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we demonstrate that DTB laws lead to reductions in measured non-cognitive skills among young men.
Bibliography Citation
Willen, Alexander Lars Philip. Essays in Labor and Education Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University, 2018.
576. Williams, Geoffrey
Differently Rational Essays on Criminal Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey-New Brunswick, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Cost-Benefit Studies; Crime; Modeling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The second chapter proposes a simple threshold model of theft, and develops a number of structural estimators based on this model. It then tests the model against data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 Cohort. The evidence suggests that the key determinant of theft behavior is the costs of theft to the thief, and in particular the thief's perception of future costs. There does not seem to be significant variation in the benefits of theft; that is, there is no sign that some individuals are more capable of theft than others. The data also shows that theft behavior is usually very short-lived, with the vast majority of thieves showing activity for less than one year in adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Geoffrey. Differently Rational Essays on Criminal Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey-New Brunswick, 2012.
577. Williams, Yaschica
The Effect of Parenting Styles in Adolescent Delinquency: Exploring the Interactions Between Race, Class, and Gender
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Western Michigan University, 2006.
Also: http://www.wmich.edu/grad/dissertation/dis-archive/Williams%20Y.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Studies; Gender; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Racial Studies; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study is to examine how parenting style interacts with other variables related to characteristics of the child (i.e., race/ethnicity, class and gender) in producing delinquency. This research integrates the traditions of criminology and psychology by incorporating the research of two researchers renowned in their respective fields of study, Travis Hirschi from criminology and Diana Baumrind from psychology.

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97) is used in this study to test hypotheses derived from Hirschi's (1969) social bond theory and Baumrind's (1966) parenting typology. These hypotheses examine the effects of family process variables and parenting styles on adolescent delinquency moderated by the effect of the child's race/ethnicity and gender, and class of the family. Based on OLS Regression results of the study revealed there was a negative relationship between most, but not all of the family process variables and delinquency. As hypothesized, as parent-youth relationship, communication, monitoring and limit setting increased, delinquency decreased. In other analyses authoritative parenting compared to authoritarian and neglectful parenting resulted in less delinquency. When separate equations were estimated this pattern of findings held for Whites and Blacks but not Latinos. White and Black adolescents with a neglectful or authoritarian mom were more likely to be delinquent than White and Black adolescents with an authoritative mom. Dad parenting was only significant for Whites indicating that adolescents with authoritarian dads were more likely to be delinquent than Whites with authoritative dads. There was no effect of parenting on Latino respondents.

Similar results were revealed when separate equations were estimated for males and females. That is, males and females with a neglectful or authoritarian mom were more likely to be delinquent than males and females with an authoritative mom. Dad parenti ng was only significant for males indicating those with authoritarian dads were more likely to be delinquent than males with authoritative dads. T-statistics indicated there were no significant differences between males and females.

Class of the family did not have an effect and there was no interaction between the parenting styles and class. However, this could be attributed to its poor measurement.

Bibliography Citation
Williams, Yaschica. The Effect of Parenting Styles in Adolescent Delinquency: Exploring the Interactions Between Race, Class, and Gender. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Western Michigan University, 2006..
578. Wilson, Beth A.
Repeat Migration in the United States: A Comparison of Black, Hispanic, and White Return and Onward Migrants
Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 2005. DAI-A 66/04, p. 1509, Oct 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Marital Status; Migration; Migration Patterns; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The primary objective of this study is to examine U.S. repeat migration for blacks, Hispanics, and whites. It investigates the relationships and patterns of these different racial/ethnic groups utilizing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). Repeat migration within and across categories of individual characteristics for blacks, Hispanics, and whites, is compared in order to determine if there are differences in the overall rates of repeat migration for these groups, once other factors are controlled.

To do this several statistical procedures are utilized, and the results of selected descriptive and logistic analyses are presented. The descriptive statistics control for race/ethnicity and examine patterns within the groups; these findings display important relationships to onward and return migration. The inferential statistical method employed is logistic regression for the sample as a whole, which examines the effects across the groups, and the direction of migration.

Where past research has not investigated the complexities of repeat migration in combination with race/ethnicity, there are several notable results from this study. Specifically, this research finds that in terms of onward migration, whites are significantly more likely to move onward than are blacks or Hispanics even after controlling for key socioeconomic factors. Changes in marital status are significantly related to migration, and to the direction of repeat migration; individuals who change from "single to married" are likely to be onward migrants, whereas those who change from "married to single" are likely to be return migrants. This study finds there are differences in rates of return migration by level of education for racial/ethnic groups. Moreover, the relationship between onward migration and employment status is different for Hispanics than blacks and whites.

Bibliography Citation
Wilson, Beth A. Repeat Migration in the United States: A Comparison of Black, Hispanic, and White Return and Onward Migrants. Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 2005. DAI-A 66/04, p. 1509, Oct 2005.
579. Wilson, Sarah L.
Essays on the Determinants of Substance Use and Mental Health Among Mothers and Adolescents
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Clemson University, 2020
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Anxiety; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Births, Repeat / Spacing; Children, Mental Health; Depression (see also CESD); Family Size; Health, Mental; Mothers, Health; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the first chapter, I explore the impact of the number of children on maternal depression and drug use. There is an extensive theoretical literature identifying the negative effects of the number of children on the outcomes for mothers. While several studies have examined the effects on labor market and physical health outcomes, little research to date has considered effects on mental health and substance use. In order to perform this analysis, I use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth and a variety of empirical strategies. To address the endogeneity of fertility decisions, I use two natural experiments that exogenously increase the number of children--parity-specific twin births and the gender composition of the first two children. My results provide suggestive evidence that an increase in family size at the third birth parity leads to an increase in a mother's probability of depression. The main findings indicate that a third birth induced by a twin birth or the same-sex composition of the first two children increases a mother's probability of alcohol consumption by about 5.0 percentage points. These estimated effects on alcohol consumption are greater for married mothers. By contrast, I do not find strong evidence of increased marijuana use after the birth of an additional child.

Chapter two shifts in focus from exploring the mother's outcomes to evaluating children's mental health outcomes. A large body of theoretical and empirical research explores the causal effect of the number of siblings on various dimensions of children's outcomes. I estimate the impact of increases in sibship size on children's mental disorders using matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. Using an instrumental variables technique, my findings provide no substantial evidence in support of the traditional quantity-quality fertility trade-off. By exploiting the panel data and using fixed effects to account for omitted factors, my findings show that an additional younger sibling is detrimental for a child's anxious/depressed index and likelihood of visiting a psychiatrist for a mental disorder. The estimated effects are greater for female and non-black children. This relationship is larger in magnitude in the long-term, as compared to a shorter time horizon.

Bibliography Citation
Wilson, Sarah L. Essays on the Determinants of Substance Use and Mental Health Among Mothers and Adolescents. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Clemson University, 2020.
580. Winder, Katie L.
Essays on Motherhood, Wages, and Labor Supply
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, 2007. DAI-A 67/11, May 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Child Care; Fertility; Head Start; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Motherhood; Mothers, Income; Propensity Scores; Wage Determination; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This thesis explores the effect of motherhood on women's wages and labor supply decisions. The first essay investigates the motherhood wage penalty, or the unexplained portion of the wage gap between mothers and non-mothers after controlling for observable characteristics. Rather than a causal effect, the observed penalty could be due to the presence of unobserved heterogeneity, endogeneity, or sample selection that bias OLS estimates. To investigate this, I apply the fixed effects estimator with instrumental variables (FE/IV) to panel data from the NLSY for the years 1988-1998. Using mainly state or local variables as instruments to predict fertility and work experience, I find that the motherhood wage penalty becomes insignificant for both white and black women. This finding is confirmed using when mothers are grouped by education or child's age. In addition, the possibility of selection bias into employment is considered using Wooldridge's (1995) technique for panel data.

The second essay asks whether government-provided child care increases the employment of mothers. I use NLSY Head Start enrollment data to calculate non-experimental estimators of the average treatment effect of participation on the mother's employment, including matching and weighting on the propensity score. I find no statistically significant effect of the treatment on employment using these methods, a finding confirmed by using several comparison groups. In addition, negative and significant effects are found for white mothers. However, using a regression discontinuity (RD) design resulted in small positive effects of Head Start participation for mothers' employment growth (5%) for some sample restrictions, but no effect using other samples. For those mothers participating in welfare, some sample restrictions using RD resulted in a larger positive effect of Head Start of 8%. The RD estimates differ substantially from those of the matching and weighting estimators, which could suggest that the latter do not fully remove the selection bias.

Bibliography Citation
Winder, Katie L. Essays on Motherhood, Wages, and Labor Supply. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, 2007. DAI-A 67/11, May 2007.
581. Winslow-Bowe, Sarah E.
Husbands' and Wives' Relative Income: Persistence, Variation, and Outcomes
Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 2006. DAI-A 67/03, Sep 2006.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1126791761&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Family Income; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Husbands; Income Distribution; Life Course; Marital Conflict; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although we know much about the strides women have made in closing gender gaps in the public sphere, our knowledge of economic gender gaps within families remains limited. This dissertation expands this body of literature through analyses of panel data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The first section examines variation in couples' earnings patterns at a single point in time by race/ethnicity and overall economic position. The data indicate substantial variation by race and income quartile in couples' single-year earnings patterns, with Black wives more likely than their White counterparts to be either co-providers or primary earners and wives in low-income couples more likely than women in couples in the top income quartile to significantly out earn their husbands. The second section presents analyses of fluctuation in wives' income advantage over a period of consecutive years. While prior research has documented an increase in the population in the percentage of wives earning more than their husbands, analyses of panel data in this dissertation indicate that, where a female income advantage exists in couples, it is overwhelmingly temporary rather than persistent, with less than six percent of wives out earning their husbands for five consecutive years. Moreover, contrary to popular imagery, persistent income advantages are concentrated among Black wives and those at the bottom of the income distribution. A final empirical section examines the relationship between the persistence of wives' income advantage and marital conflict, providing evidence that fluctuation in who holds the income advantage over a period of years---not a persistent advantage on the part of wives---is associated with higher levels of marital conflict in couples. This project aims to rigorously examine taken-for-granted public assumptions about women's progress in closing economic gender gaps. With its focus on dynamic, longitudinal analyses and attention to variation by key demographic, economic and, life course factors, this research fills important gaps in our knowledge of the economics of the family.
Bibliography Citation
Winslow-Bowe, Sarah E. Husbands' and Wives' Relative Income: Persistence, Variation, and Outcomes. Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 2006. DAI-A 67/03, Sep 2006..
582. Wirth, Karen Patricia
The Career Cost of Children: A Life Course Perspective of the Gender Gap in Occupational Status
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, North Carolina State University, 2020
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Life Course; Occupational Status; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research on the disadvantages that mothers experience and advantages that fathers receive in the workforce have centered on financial penalties; I add to such research by focusing on occupational status. When measured over time, occupational status offers insights into the long-term consequences of children on career trajectories. Using panel data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I analyze the effects of parenthood on occupational status. Applying a life course perspective on family processes and work patterns, I investigate such associations over the life course and look specifically at women and men across three occupational categories.
Bibliography Citation
Wirth, Karen Patricia. The Career Cost of Children: A Life Course Perspective of the Gender Gap in Occupational Status. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, North Carolina State University, 2020.
583. Witteveen, Dirk
The Trajectory from School to Work. A Study of Life Chances of School Leavers in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Sweden
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, City University of New York, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): British Household Panel Survey (BHPS); Cross-national Analysis; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Swedish Level of Living Survey; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The school-to-work transition is traditionally perceived as a one-time event; moving from education to one's first job. In response to the increased complexity within today’s relationship between education and work, the research in this dissertation takes a different approach to the study of inequality and stratification. It considers the life phase between these two institutions as a trajectory -- a pathway of several years wherein school careers and work careers overlap and interact.

Given the longitudinal approach, this study starts with a comparison of patterns of school-to-work trajectories in four distinct welfare state regimes: the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Sweden. By aligning the individual pathways of individuals between age 16 (enrolled in high school) and age 25, social sequence analysis enabled us to reveal sharp differences in school leaving pace, school enrollment, and instability of early work careers. The analyses suggest that the variation in selection and sorting within youth careers can be largely explained by indicators of the different welfare state regimes. Based on comparisons of younger and older birth cohorts there is evidence supporting convergence theory of welfare states – early careers liberal states are becoming less volatile, while those in social-democratic states are becoming more insecure.

Bibliography Citation
Witteveen, Dirk. The Trajectory from School to Work. A Study of Life Chances of School Leavers in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Sweden. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, City University of New York, 2018.
584. Wong, Cheng
Woman's Work: Essays on Female Life-Cycle Labor Choices
Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Education; Divorce; Fertility; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Choice; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 1, "The Disappearing Gender Gap: The Impact of Divorce, Wages, and Preferences on Education Choices and Women's Work", quantifies the contributions of many significant changes in the economic and family environment towards explaining the changes in labor force participation and college enrollment rates of women born in the cohorts of 1935 and 1955. It concludes that the higher probability of divorce and the changes in wage structure faced by the 1955 cohort are each able to explain, in isolation, a large proportion (about 60%) of the observed changes in female participation across the two cohorts, while a simple change in preferences can account for the residual.

Chapter 2, "Great Expectations? Women's Work and Fertility in the Face of Career Uncertainty", is motivated by the fact that women in different occupations exhibit markedly different patterns of fertility and labor supply over the life-cycle. Women in high-powered occupations tend to give birth later and exhibit a downward-sloping participation profile across the life cycle, while their low- powered counterparts not only give birth earlier but their participation profile is instead upward sloping. Using a life-cycle model in which married households make fertility and female labor supply decisions and learn about their income profile parameters, I find that uncertainty about one's wage growth is key in explaining the different fertility patterns of women, by occupation. High wage penalties due to work interruptions help explain why a significant proportion of professional women do not return to the labor market after exiting upon childbirth.

Bibliography Citation
Wong, Cheng. Woman's Work: Essays on Female Life-Cycle Labor Choices. Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, May 2012.
585. Wong, Kelvin Kai Wing
Living Together -- Essays on Cohabitation
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Minnesota
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This thesis studies cohabition behavior in the United States, and proposes two answers as to why cohabitation rate increased in the last four decades.
Bibliography Citation
Wong, Kelvin Kai Wing. Living Together -- Essays on Cohabitation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Minnesota.
586. Woo, Hyeyoung
Parental Status and Psychological Well-Being Among Midlife Adult Women Using the Life Course Perspective
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, The University of Texas at Austin, 2008. DAI-A 69/08, Feb 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Motherhood; Parental Marital Status; Well-Being; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The primary goal of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of how midlife adult women's psychological well-being is shaped by parental status. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, this research addresses three specific research aims. The first aim is to explore the relationship between motherhood and psychological well-being by family life stages and the timing of transition to motherhood. The second aim is to examine the role of marriage in the association between parental status and psychological well-being. Finally, the third aim is to account for psychological well-being by parental status, focusing on experiences in labor force participation. To address these aims, this dissertation tests several hypotheses based on the multiple role theory and its modifications and the theories and empirical research centered on the effects of marriage and employment on well-being.

The results indicate that mothers are more likely to have lower levels of psychological well-being compared to childless women at earlier family life stages. However, this disadvantage decreases as mothers and their children age. The mother's age at the birth of her first child also plays a role in the trajectories of the level of psychological well-being. Although the negative association between psychological well-being and motherhood appears to decline over time, those who became a mother at earlier ages experience much slower declines compared to those who did not have a first child until their early thirties. It also appears that marital status is an important moderator between parental status and psychological well-being. Motherhood is associated with psychological benefits for the married, but the opposite pattern is found for the never married. Moreover, entering a first marriage is associated with greater improvements in psychological well-being for women with a child compared to childless women. The association between motherhood and psychological well-being also varies depending on the types of marital disruption. Compared to those who remain married, divorce is harmful for women with a child; however, being a widow is detrimental for childless women. Additionally, for both married and never married women, employment is not associated with increases in psychological well-being when it is also combined with motherhood.

This research suggests that the association between motherhood and psychological well-being is contingent upon the family life stages, the age at transition to motherhood, and other roles that women hold while being mothers.

Bibliography Citation
Woo, Hyeyoung. Parental Status and Psychological Well-Being Among Midlife Adult Women Using the Life Course Perspective. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, The University of Texas at Austin, 2008. DAI-A 69/08, Feb 2009.
587. Woock, Christopher
Compensating Workers for On-the-Job Injury and Illness
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, July 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Disability; Disabled Workers; Family Income; Income Level; Injuries; Wage Dynamics; Wage Levels

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation examines the earnings losses and instability resulting from an on-the-job injury. A unique set of questions in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 that address "work related injury/illness," and its longitudinal structure permit a regression framework to compare the earnings and incomes of injured and uninjured workers over time. In addition to changes in levels, I also estimate the volatility of income for workplace injuries and work limiting disabilities.

Chapter 2 results indicate that injured men do not suffer significant initial earnings losses as a result of a workplace injury. A gradual decline in earnings in the years that follow the injury develops, from earnings about 8% less than the uninjured workers the year after injury to almost 16% less five years after injury, with no sign of recovery.

In Chapter 3, the annual earnings for the female injured workers in the year of injury are 9.7% less than the uninjured workers. Recovery is quick, as the earnings of the injured female workers return to levels similar to the uninjured workers in the years following injury. Restricting the sample to women who work fulltime results in substantial and persistent earnings losses following injury.

For married men in Chapter 4 there is some evidence that their annual family incomes are lower than the uninjured men in the years following injury. In contrast, there is no evidence of any significant relative losses in family income for injured married women. There is some evidence of an added worker effect for the injured men, as the wives experience increases in their annual earnings and annual hours worked. Likewise, for fulltime women there are large losses in total family income, tempered by an increase in the husbands' labor market efforts.

Finally, in Chapter 5 I find that while the volatility of total family income is relatively stable for all men, the volatility of family income without disability payments increases in the years following injury or first report of a disability. On the other hand, the volatility of total family income and income before disability payments are consistently stable for the female sample.

Bibliography Citation
Woock, Christopher. Compensating Workers for On-the-Job Injury and Illness. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, July 2006.
588. Workman Gloege, Lisa
An Analysis of Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination in Wages in Firms Unlikely to Comply with Equal Employment Opportunity Legislation
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame, 2008.
Also: http://etd.nd.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-04182008-130815/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO); Firm Size; Legislation; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation explores the possibility that statistical discrimination in wages may be more likely in firms that are not subject to antidiscrimination legislation. Federal antidiscrimination regulations differ by size and type of firm, resulting in lower costs to discrimination in firms not subject to the laws or less likely to be prosecuted under them. Less intensive screening practices in these firms may also increase the benefit to statistical discrimination in wages.

Utilizing employer-reported results of equal employment opportunity law compliance from the Multi-City Telephone Employer Survey, I predict the likelihood that an individual in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY) was employed by a firm that considers equal employment opportunity legislation in their hiring. Using observations from NLSY years 1986-2000 and an empirical test for employer learning and statistical discrimination developed by Altonji and Pierret (1997), I examine statistical discrimination in wages by education and race for male employees in firms that are not likely to actively comply with antidiscrimination legislation.

I find that statistical discrimination by education is evident for black males but not for white males, suggesting that information for black males in the labor market is inferior. Statistical discrimination by education is then shown to be more pronounced for black males employed by firms that are unlikely to actively comply with equal employment opportunity legislation. An investigation of statistical discrimination by race in these firms is inconclusive in both a public learning framework and an asymmetric learning model.

These results show that a complete analysis of statistical discrimination must consider differences in the incentive firms have to discriminate. While there is not clear evidence of statistical discrimination by race, the results do illustrate that productivity information for black males in firms that are unlikely to comply with antidiscrimination legislation is inferior to the information these firms have about white males. Equal employment opportunity laws may correct a market failure of underinvestment in information by firms, suggesting that policies to enhance the information available to firms not subject to these laws may be beneficial.

Bibliography Citation
Workman Gloege, Lisa. An Analysis of Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination in Wages in Firms Unlikely to Comply with Equal Employment Opportunity Legislation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame, 2008..
589. Wu, Xue
Student Loan Debt: Causes and Consequences
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Consumer Finance Monthly (CFM); Debt/Borrowing; Educational Costs; Family Structure; Geocoded Data; Household Composition; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; State-Level Data/Policy; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation employs data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) and data from the Consumer Finance Monthly (CFM) to empirically investigate the causes and consequences of rising student loan debt in recent years and evaluate the new initiatives in the White House's latest budget proposal which aim at easing Americans' student loan debt burden.

Chapter 3 examines the relationship between student loan debt and post-graduation living arrangements for college graduates in the United States, taking labor market factors into account. Using data from NLSY97, I explore both the parent-youth co-residence outcomes at a point in time and the dynamics of college graduates' movements back home. I estimate a random effects panel probit model and a discrete time proportional hazard model. The estimation results show that an increase in the amount of student loan debt owed at the time of graduation significantly increases the hazard of moving back home after graduation.

Chapter 4 uses NLSY97 data to investigate the factors that affect the amount of educational loans students borrow to attend college, with a particular interest in whether parental divorce would affect a college student's educational debt burden. The estimation results indicate that youths from divorced families are more likely to have a higher debt burden upon leaving school than youths from intact families. Among the youths from divorced families, those whose biological parents lived in states that permit courts to extend child support beyond the age of 18 for college expenses (post-majority states) do not seem to take fewer loans than those whose biological parents lived in non-post-majority states.

Bibliography Citation
Wu, Xue. Student Loan Debt: Causes and Consequences. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2015.
590. Xiong, Heyu
Essays in Economic History and Applied Microeconomics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Northwestern University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Drug Use; Geocoded Data; Incarceration/Jail; State-Level Data/Policy

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In the last chapter of my dissertation, I study broadly speaking how criminals cope with the loss of their criminal human capital. It is widely hypothesized that legalization disrupts illicit markets and displaces illegal suppliers, but the consequences for those who are displaced remain poorly understood. In this paper, I use comprehensive administrative data on the universe of offenders in three states that legalized marijuana to study the effect of the policy change on the subsequent criminal and labor activity of convicted dealers. I find that marijuana legalization increased the 9-month recidivism rate of marijuana offenders by 5 percentage points relative to a baseline rate of 11 percent. The results are not explained by changes in enforcement. Rather, the increased recidivism is driven by substitution to the trafficking of other drugs, which is consistent with a Becker-style model where individuals develop human capital specific to the drug industry. Using the NLSY97, I show evidence of legalization-induced displacement even amongst non-convicted dealers. In contrast, the transition to formal employment appears much more modest. To learn about potential mechanisms behind these results, I use transaction-level data to estimate the effect of legalization on average prices and price dispersion. I provide suggestive evidence that both the price level and residual variance declined following legalization, consistent with legalization eroding rents earned in the illicit marijuana market. Overall, the results in this paper suggest that an unintended consequence of selective legalization is a re-allocation of drug criminals to other illicit activity.
Bibliography Citation
Xiong, Heyu. Essays in Economic History and Applied Microeconomics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Northwestern University, 2019.
591. Yamaguchi, Shintaro
Three Essays in Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin--Madison, 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Skills; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first essay evaluates the effect of match quality and career and firm specific experience on career decisions when a worker searches for both career and employer matching. I construct a dynamic career decision model which departs from the previous work in two respects. First, it deals with heterogeneous agents who have different educational background, experience, and unobserved skills. Second, the returns to tenure and career specific experiences are taken into account. I show that match qualities have significant effect on job and career turnover decisions, for male high school graduates in NLSY. The second essay asks what the sources of rapid wage growth during a worker's early career are. To address this question, I construct and estimate a model of strategic wage bargaining with on-the-job search to explore three different components of wages: general human capital, match-specific capital, and outside option. The model is estimated by a simulated minimum distance estimator and data from the NLSY 79. The results indicate that the improved value of outside option raises wages of ten-year-experienced workers by 13%, which accounts for about a quarter of the wage growth during the first ten years of career. I also find that human capital accumulation affects wage profile not only because it directly changes labor productivity, but also because it alters job search behavior due to low future productivity. Final essay considers intertemporal decision making of collective agents. Evidence collected using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) indicates that labor supply, saving, and marital decisions are strongly linked. The essay presents and simulates an intertemporal collective model with limited commitment using the PSID. The results indicate that the proposed model can match most of the features displayed by the data. The model is relevant to pending marriage tax relief legislation, as well as other changes in tax and transfer rules that simultaneously affect incentives for marriage, labor supply and wealth accumulation.
Bibliography Citation
Yamaguchi, Shintaro. Three Essays in Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin--Madison, 2006.
592. Yang, Guanyi
Essays on Labor Market Frictions and Macroeconomic Welfare
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Human Capital; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Wealth

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Chapter 1 investigates constraints to individual's lifecycle human capital accumulation decisions and its implications from the labor market on income volatility. In particular, how much does inequality in life depend on conditions established at age 18? What role does post-18 higher education play? I use an education choice model with exogenous conditions from family wealth, established human capital at age 18 and shocks to human capital to examine these questions. Family wealth and established human capital at age 18 determine the post-18 education choices. Education builds up human capital and reduces future earnings volatility. Absent this transmission channel, previous studies dramatically underestimate the importance of initial family wealth in explaining lifetime earnings inequality. My model finds that family wealth at age 18 explains up to 15% of lifetime earnings inequalities, and human capital at age 18 explains 72%. Policy counterfactuals that encourage college education by providing financial aid reduce inequality and improve welfare.
Bibliography Citation
Yang, Guanyi. Essays on Labor Market Frictions and Macroeconomic Welfare. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2018.
593. Yaskewich, David Michael
Three Essays on the Health Insurance Coverage of Young Adults
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Employment; Insurance, Health; Legislation; Marriage; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Transition, Adulthood

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This dissertation examines the health insurance status of young adults during the transition to adulthood. In a series of three essays, I analyze what happens as young adults reach important milestones and the effects of public policies. The first essay is a descriptive study on how insurance status changes after reaching age 19 and graduating from college. The likelihood of becoming uninsured rises sharply once turning age 19 and then peaks at age 23. While the proportion uninsured also increases following college graduation, this increase disappears after one year. The second essay analyzes the effect of a dependent age law in New Jersey, which allowed dependent coverage for young adults up to age 30 and did not require full-time student status. Pennsylvania did not pass a law and was used as a control state. Among 19-to-22-year olds, there was a rise in health insurance coverage in New Jersey relative to Pennsylvania. There also was a negative effect on college enrollment in New Jersey relative to Pennsylvania. The final essay considers other unintended consequences of dependent age laws. Using a national dataset, I estimate that there were no clear effects on decisions related to living arrangements, marriage, and full-time employment.
Bibliography Citation
Yaskewich, David Michael. Three Essays on the Health Insurance Coverage of Young Adults. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 2013.
594. Yazici, Esel Y.
Consequences of Medicaid Expansions on Three Outcomes: Demand for Private Insurance, Infant and Child Health, and Labor Supply
Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Health Care; Children, Illness; Children, Poverty; Health Care; Health, Chronic Conditions; Medicaid/Medicare; National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Pre-natal Care/Exposure

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In the mid-1980s, Congress expanded Medicaid coverage to near-poor pregnant women and children. The aim was to provide health insurance coverage to the uninsured and increase their utilization of health care services. Beginning with the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, the link between Medicaid eligibility and other cash assistance programs was severed. Low-income pregnant women and children, who initially did not fit into traditional welfare categories, gained access to publicly financed health care. These expansions in eligibility produced a sharp rise in the number of children and pregnant women covered by Medicaid.

The expansions in Medicaid eligibility had intended and unintended consequences on several outcomes. First of these was on private health insurance. There was a possibility that near-poor individuals who initially had private coverage switched to Medicaid. Since this indicates only a shift in financing of care from private to public insurance, the consequence would be little or no change in health care utilization and health. In the first essay, I found that Medicaid expansions had no effect on privately covered individuals, but a large impact on those who were initially uninsured.

The second potential consequence of Medicaid expansions was on infant and child health outcomes. Even though expanded eligibility gave rise to a substantial increase in enrollment rates, the effectiveness of the public program was conditional on improving the health of infants and children. In the second essay, the effect of Medicaid on infant and child health has been extensively examined and only limited evidence has been found on Medicaid coverage improving health outcomes.

A third possible effect of the Medicaid expansions was on labor supply and welfare participation of female heads. Elimination of the link between the cash assistance program and Medicaid created new incentives in the labor markets for welfare recipients. The expected consequences were an increase in labor supply and reduction in welfare rolls. I analyzed this issue in the third essay and found very little evidence on the effect of Medicaid on labor supply and welfare participation for female heads.

Bibliography Citation
Yazici, Esel Y. Consequences of Medicaid Expansions on Three Outcomes: Demand for Private Insurance, Infant and Child Health, and Labor Supply. Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 1997.
595. Yi, Youngmin
Institutions in Childhood and the Transition to Adulthood: Consequences of Criminal Justice and Child Welfare System Contact in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Cornell University, 2020
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail; Transition, Adulthood

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This dissertation investigates the implications of foster care placement and incarceration for living arrangement transitions and health in early life. First, I use the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to propose an expanded conceptualization of home-leaving that incorporates institutional transitions typically excluded from such analyses. Using life table and regression analysis, I find that this institution-inclusive measure estimates earlier first home-leaving in the transition to adulthood than conventional methods, particularly for young adults who are Black and have lower levels of parental education. Second, I use inverse probability-weighted regression and the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing to estimate associations between foster care placement and care and living arrangement instability among children with similar risks of entry into foster care. Although foster care is associated with greater instability overall, analysis of only "excess" changes finds that foster care is linked to less instability in children's living arrangements and persistently greater instability in their primary caregiver relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Yi, Youngmin. Institutions in Childhood and the Transition to Adulthood: Consequences of Criminal Justice and Child Welfare System Contact in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Cornell University, 2020.
596. Youderian, Xiaoyan Chen
Three Essays on Human Capital
Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, OLS; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

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The third essay is on the motherhood wage penalty. There is substantial evidence that women with children bear a wage penalty of 5 to 10 percent due to their motherhood status. This wage gap is usually estimated by comparing the wages of working mothers to childless women after controlling for human capital and individual characteristics. This method runs into the problem of selection bias by excluding non-working women. This paper addresses the issue in two ways. First, I develop a simple model of fertility and labor participation decisions to examine the relationships among fertility, employment, and wages. The model implies that mothers face different reservation wages due to variance in preference over child care, while non-mothers face the same reservation wage. Thus, a mother with a relatively high wage may choose not to work because of her strong preference for time with children. In contrast, a childless woman who is not working must face a relatively low wage. For this reason, empirical analysis that focuses only on employed women may result in a biased estimate of the motherhood wage penalty. Second, to test the predictions of the model, I use 2004-2009 data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) and include non-working women in the two-stage Heckman selection model. The empirical results from OLS and the fixed effects model are consistent with the findings in previous studies. However, the child penalty becomes smaller and insignificant after non-working women are included. It implies that the observed wage gap in the labor market appears to overstate the child wage penalty due to the sample selection bias.
Bibliography Citation
Youderian, Xiaoyan Chen. Three Essays on Human Capital. Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University, 2012.
597. Youngblood, Marie
Mother Feeding Style and Health Outcomes of Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Public Health, Walden University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Child Health; Ethnic Differences; Mothers, Health; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Parental Influences

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Childhood and adolescent obesity are pervasive among single mother households. Obesity causes many health risks including psychological/emotional illnesses. The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to examine the association between the parental feeding styles of single mothers and the degree that ethnicity moderates the rates of childhood obesity. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used with a total of 1,630 children in the study for a total of 842 minorities (African American and Hispanic American); 788 participates were not minorities (European American) with an average body mass indent of 15.9. Using the cross-sectional design, the quantitative study analyzed an association of parental feeding style and overweight/obesity. According to study findings, there was no statistical significance between the parental feeding style and ethnicity status. There was no statistical significance between the child's compliance with the mother's food choice, the child's frequency of compliance nor the child's compliance even when they don’t want to eat with overweight/obesity when moderated by ethnicity. Finally, there was no statistical significance when moderated by ethnicity. Educating single mothers about habits and perceptions concerning food is critical so that they are aware they can offer wholesome nutritional food as food choices. Education is a determinate of health that would moderate the parental feeding style.
Bibliography Citation
Youngblood, Marie. Mother Feeding Style and Health Outcomes of Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Public Health, Walden University, 2019.
598. Yu, Wei-Ting
Correction of Estimation Bias in Evaluating the Labor Market Outcomes of Youth Participating in School-Based Learning Programs in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 2005. DAI-A 68/12, Jun 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; College Enrollment; College Graduates; Colleges; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Program Participation/Evaluation; Schooling; Seasonality; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evaluations of training programs, among others, have struggled with the prevention of estimation bias, especially when examining programs using non-experimental data. Alternative econometric approaches have been developed to correct for this estimation bias. This bias is mostly due to discrepancies in observed and unobserved characteristics between the participants and the counterfactual. The purpose of this study is to explore the unbiased estimates derived from alternative corrections and compare variation in predictive effectiveness among different corrections from evaluations of school-based learning (SBL) programs.

This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 (NLSY 97), a non-experimental database, to evaluate the effects of U.S. youths' school-based learning (SBL) program participation on early labor market outcomes. Estimates from ordinary least squares regression, the linear regression with probabilistic matching or instrumental proxy, are compared to those obtained from bootstrapping regression analysis. Four outcome variables, including employment in college, employment, total worked hours and hourly wage rate, are used to gauge the early labor market outcomes of youth from the NLSY97.

Findings, at an alpha level of .05 when the first type of instrumental variable (IV) correction method is adopted, reveal that SBL program participants are significantly less likely than non-participants to enroll in college, and that SBL program participants have a lower probability of enrolling in college than do non-participants.

In comparison with college enrollment, findings from the analysis of employment and total worked hours outcomes on SBL program participation are not statistically significant with selection bias corrections. Rather, only the estimates derived from the Tobit regression for the correction of the censored data show that SBL program participants have a lower number of total worked hours than do non- participants. Due to evidence which shows that youths' wage differential is small in the early labor market, the findings from Heckman's two-step correction with an alpha level of .10 show that SBL program participants are more likely to have higher hourly wages than non-participants.

In addition, in looking at the seven specific types of SBL program participation, the significant likelihood of enrolling in college or being employed, all of the estimates derived from Heckman's two-step correction show no significance.

For the total worked hours outcome, the correction of the censored data using the Tobit regression shows that internship/apprenticeship program participants have lower total worked hours than non-participants, with an alpha level of .001.

Due to the small wage rate differential for youth in the early labor market, a significance level of .10 is used for this outcome. Heckman's two-step correction reveals that SBL program participants are more likely than non-participants to have higher hourly wage rates. In view of the seven types of SBL program participation, the findings from Heckman's correction reveal that internship or apprenticeship program participants are more likely than non-participants for all SBL programs to have a higher hourly wage rate.

In summary, this study shares corrected estimates from alternative approaches. Based on criteria from the 200-time and 500-time bootstrapping, the best selection bias estimation among these four corrections uses Heckman's two-step correction.

Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-Ting. Correction of Estimation Bias in Evaluating the Labor Market Outcomes of Youth Participating in School-Based Learning Programs in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 2005. DAI-A 68/12, Jun 2008.
599. Zakir, Hussain
Three Essays on Health and Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Middle Tennessee State University, 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Assets; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Commuting/Type, Time, Method; Debt/Borrowing; Exercise; Family Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Net Worth; Obesity; Propensity Scores; Stress; Weight

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This dissertation consists of three chapters, each providing useful information of current economic issues. The first chapter, "Does Financial Stress Lead to Weight Gain? An Empirical Analysis on the Effects of Net Worth on Body Weight" examines the effects of financial stress caused due to variations in net worth on the respondents body weight. The results indicate that net worth variation is a significant contributor to increases in body weight. Further examination reveals that individuals from indebted households and households with modest net worth are most likely to be gaining body weight. In the second chapter, "Does Walking or Riding a Bike to School Reduce Obesity? Evidence from the NLSY 1979 using Propensity Score Matching." I use the appropriate methodology to select a sample comparable to a treatment consisting of individuals who choose to walk or bike to school and find that those who walk or bike to school are likely to have significantly lower body weight measures. In the third chapter, I use nationally representative longitudinal data from 1986 to 2008 to consider the financial stress caused to mothers due to the variations in their net worth and analyze the effects that it has on the behavioral aspects of their children.
Bibliography Citation
Zakir, Hussain. Three Essays on Health and Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Middle Tennessee State University, 2012.
600. Zhang, Jun
A Continuous Latent Factor Model for Non-ignorable Missing Data in Longitudinal Studies
Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Missing Data/Imputation; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

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In this thesis, two studies are presented. The first study is motivated by an open problem from pattern mixture models. Simulation studies from this part show that information in the missing data indicators can be well summarized by a simple continuous latent structure, indicating that a large number of missing data patterns may be accounted by a simple latent factor. Simulation findings that are obtained in the first study lead to a novel model, a continuous latent factor model (CLFM). The second study develops CLFM which is utilized for modeling the joint distribution of missing values and longitudinal outcomes. The proposed CLFM model is feasible even for small sample size applications. The detailed estimation theory, including estimating techniques from both frequentist and Bayesian perspectives is presented. Model performance and evaluation are studied through designed simulations and three applications. Simulation and application settings change from correctly-specified missing data mechanism to mis-specified mechanism and include different sample sizes from longitudinal studies. Among three applications, an AIDS study includes non-ignorable missing values; the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test data have no indication on missing data mechanism and it will be applied to a sensitivity analysis; the Growth of Language and Early Literacy Skills in Preschoolers with Developmental Speech and Language Impairment study, however, has full complete data and will be used to conduct a robust analysis. The CLFM model is shown to provide more precise estimators, specifically on intercept and slope related parameters, compared with Roy's latent class model and the classic linear mixed model. This advantage will be more obvious when a small sample size is the case, where Roy's model experiences challenges on estimation convergence. The proposed CLFM model is also robust when missing data are ignorable as demonstrated through a study on Growth of Language and Early Literacy Skills in Preschoolers.
Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Jun. A Continuous Latent Factor Model for Non-ignorable Missing Data in Longitudinal Studies. Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University, 2013.
601. Zhang, Ning
Determinants of Children's Health
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); Birth Outcomes; Child Health; Geocoded Data; Obesity; School Entry/Readiness; State-Level Data/Policy; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation consists of three empirical analyses of determinants of health of children and adolescents. The first essay investigates the causal relationship between education and youth overweight. The second essay examines the relationship between alcohol taxes and infant health. The last one explores whether an older minimum legal drinking age laws improves average health of infants. In the first paper, I use the first-grade entrance policies in a regression discontinuity design to compare years of education and the probability of being overweight among students who are born immediately before and after the school entrance date. Results show that girls who are born a few days after the entrance date are over ten percent more likely to be obese than those who are born just before. This finding shows that, for girls, one more year of education reduces the likelihood of being obese. A possible explanation is that education promotes healthier eating habits among girls. The second paper employs state variations in taxes in investigate the causal relationship between drinking alcohol during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Using data from NLSY79 Children and Young Adults (NLSY79-CY), Natality files and behavioral Risk Factor Surveillances System (BRFSS), this study finds that there is a negative and causal relationship between alcohol taxes and birth outcomes. The last chapter provides empirical evidence on the structural relationship between alcohol use and infant health by exploiting the exogenous variation in alcohol availability laws among youth generated by changes in state minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA). Two effects of the MLDA on infant health are tested: infants born to mothers aged younger than 21 (direct effects) and those to mothers who at early teenage years lived through the era of changes in MLDA (indirect effects). The results show that the MLDA of 18 at the conception year had small and insignificant direct impact, while it had larger and mor e significant indirect effects, on birth outcomes. Behavioral change, rather than compositional shift, contributes the change in infant health outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Ning. Determinants of Children's Health. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2009.
602. Zhang, Yichong
Three Essays on Extremal Quantiles
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Duke University, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Statistical Analysis; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[See Chapter 3 for NLSY use] Extremal quantile index is a concept that the quantile index will drift to zero (or one) as the sample size increases. The three chapters of my dissertation consists of three applications of this concept in three distinct econometric problems. In Chapter 3, I rely on the concept of extremal quantile index to achieve identification at infinity of the sample selection models and propose a new inference method.
Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Yichong. Three Essays on Extremal Quantiles. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Duke University, 2016.
603. Zhang, Yuanjie
Three Essays on Household Behavior in the Housing Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Home Ownership; Immigrants; Neighborhood Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

My research focuses on three aspects of household behavior in the housing market: second generation immigrant decisions of whether to own or rent, household choices of down payment assistance and the effect of this assistance on subsequent loan performances, and the neighborhood effect of mortgage loan applications and usage of down payment assistance.

My first essay “Homeownership Achievement of Second Generation Immigrants Accounting for Social Network Effects” is the first one to study the homeownership of second generation immigrants. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, my paper identifies a lower propensity to own a house for native born individuals with immigrant parents compared with native-born individuals with native-born parents. I find that a metric to account for ethnic social networks (using the geographic clustering of Hispanics) can help explain the homeownership rate difference between these two groups. My estimation results show that networks of Hispanic homeowners increase the likelihood of homeownership for a Hispanic household, and the network effect is even larger for second generation Hispanics. This result suggests that the effect of knowledge spillover on homeownership decision results not only from the concentration of Spanish speakers, but also through other channels such as social activities which are rarely discussed in the literature.

The interaction of a household’s level of wealth and the down payment constraint has also been found to be among the most important influences on households’ homeownership decisions. The second essay “The Choice of Mortgage Down Payment Assistance and its Effect on Mortgage Outcomes” focuses on how households select into different mortgage down payment assistance programs (DPAs), and how this selection affects future loan performances. My study uses monthly panel data of the Ohio Housing Finance Agency’s (OHFA) Mortgage Revenue Bond (MRB) first- time home buyer program. Two forms of DPAs are available in this program. I explain how borrowers select into DPAs by using a two-step algorithm for dynamic games first proposed in Bajari, Benkard and Levin (2007). I first use a polychotomous choice model of DPA, and a survival model of the probability of default to generate hypothetical borrower choices. I then use the simulated data to recover parameters of a dynamic model of loan default, so that I can model borrowers’ choice of DPAs based on their expectations about future interest rates, house prices and income, and I then predict subsequent loan performances. Households that expect future income to increase should prefer assistance in order to smooth consumption, but the resulting higher monthly payment could lead to a higher risk of future delinquency and default. I am also able to examine whether borrowers selecting into DPAs are less risk averse, which leads to a higher probability of default. The policy question is how to improve loan performance, specifically, whether a new credit score requirement imposed in the end of 2009 will reduce future delinquency and default.

The third essay “The Neighborhood Effect of Loan Applications and Down Payment Assistance Usage” focuses on how neighbors’ decisions to obtain an OHFA MRB loan affect both households’ home mortgage loan applications and the usage of down payment assistance. Existing literature finds that borrowers with limited information about the mortgage market are more likely to select a subprime mortgage loan. By combining MRB loan data with Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data on mortgage applications, I test whether neighbors usage of MRB loans increase a household’s probability of receiving a MRB loan, and whether neighbors usage of DPA increases a household’s likelihood of using a DPA. Additionally, I control for lender influences on MRB loan and DPA usage, and compare it to neighbors’ influences. This study sheds light on two information channels of governmental loan programs: neighborhood knowledge spillovers and lender provided information. It also compares the relative importance of each channel, and thus could be used to explain why the government should provide easily accessible information to target areas.

Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Yuanjie. Three Essays on Household Behavior in the Housing Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2011.
604. Zhao, Chen
Essays on Labor and Health Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Cornell University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Benefits, Insurance; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earnings; Gender Differences; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The second essay asks whether the gender gap in total compensation is smaller than the gender wage gap. One potential explanation for the observed gender wage gap is that men and women value the nonwage aspects of a job differently. I construct two individual level measures of total compensation--one using supplemental CPS data on employer contribution to health insurance premiums and one using the NLSY linked to employer cost data. I find that the observed gender gap resulting from these measures of total compensation is almost identical to the observed gender gap in wages.
Bibliography Citation
Zhao, Chen. Essays on Labor and Health Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Cornell University, 2013.
605. Zhou, Weibo
The Relationship of Family Structure and Postsecondary Schooling in the U.S.
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 2020
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; College Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Family Structure; Parents, Single; Stepfamilies; Transfers, Family

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation focuses on a growing population of college students from non-traditional families. Nontraditional families are defined as those in which respondents lived with a biological or adoptive mother with no father present, the mother and a stepfather, and cohabiting parents, as they progress from enrollment to graduation. First, it has become increasingly common for children to experience diverse family structures, including living with single-parent families, the stepparent families, and cohabiting parents for the past 30 to 40 years. However, those students who experience disruptions in family structures perform worse than their counterparts. In the 1979 cohort, the graduation rate for students from traditional families is 52 percent. By comparison, the graduation rate for students from non-traditional families is 44 percent, for a gap of 8 percentage points. In the 1997 cohort, the graduation rate for students from traditional families is 62 percent. In contrast, graduation rate for students from non-traditional families is 46 percent, for a gap of 16 percentage points. The descriptive statistics tells us not only that students from non-traditional families perform worse than their peers in college, but also that the gap between the college graduation rates of students from traditional and nontraditional families is widening over time.

So, it is natural to ask whether the relationship between family structure and students' educational outcomes has changed from Cohort 79 to Cohort 97? If yes, what role does the change in family structure play in explaining the change in college completion rates? The first chapter of my dissertation answers these two questions. Chapter one of my dissertation documents the changing family circumstances of U.S. college students, and their relationship to students’ patterns of college graduation using the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). My empirical models of graduation probability show that students who come from those non-traditional families in the 1979 cohort are just 3 percentage points less likely to graduate from college than those who lived with both of their biological parents up to age 18. However, this gap increased to 9 percentage points for the 1997 cohort. A decomposition exercise based on the estimates demonstrates the share of the change in completion rates that the model attributes to the various observed explanatory variables, particularly to the change in family structure. Results indicate that students' characteristics and family background account for 45 percent of the change in graduation rate, with family structure accounting for 12 percent of the change in graduation rate. The central contribution of this analysis shows the importance of the family structure in explaining changes in college completion over the past 30 years in the United States.

Next, using the NLSY97, I observe that while studying in 4-year college, students from traditional families receive around 12000 dollars parental transfer in total, however, students from non-traditional families only receive 6000 dollars parental transfer in total. So, the goal of the second chapter is to understand whether parental transfer can explain some of the disadvantages students from nontraditional families have in college study. The results of probit model show that one thousand dollars increase in parental transfer is associated with a 2 percentage points increase in 4-year college enrollment. Moreover, one thousand dollars increase in the parental transfer is associated with a 0.5 percentage points increase in 4-year college graduation.

Bibliography Citation
Zhou, Weibo. The Relationship of Family Structure and Postsecondary Schooling in the U.S. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 2020.
606. Zhu, Beibei
Three Essays on Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination
Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Discrimination; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Firm Size; Skills; Supervisor Characteristics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation consists of three essays studying employer learning and statistical discrimination of young workers in the U.S. labor market. The first chapter outlines the dissertation by discussing the motivations, methods, and research findings.

Chapter two develops a framework that nests both symmetric and asymmetric employer learning, and derives testable hypotheses on racial statistical discrimination under different processes of employer learning. Testing the model with data from the NLSY79, we find that employers statistically discriminate against black workers on the basis of both education and race in the high school market where learning appears to be mostly asymmetric. In the college market, employers directly observe most parts of the productivity of potential employees and learn very little over time.

In chapter three, we investigate how the process of employer learning and statistical discrimination varies over time and across employers. The comparison between the NLSY79 and the NLSY97 cohorts reveals that employer learning and statistical discrimination has became stronger over the past decades. Using the NLSY97 data, we identify three employer-specific characteristics that influencing employer learning and statistical discrimination, the supervisor-worker race match, supervisor's age, and firm size. Black high school graduates face weaker employer learning and statistical discrimination if they choose to work for a black supervisor, work for an old supervisor, or work in a firm of small size.

In the last chapter, we are interested in the associations between verbal and quantitative skills and individual earnings as well as the employer learning process of these two specific types of skills. There exist significant differences in both the labor market rewards and employer learning process of verbal and quantitative skills between high school and college graduates. Verbal skills are more important than quantitative skills for h igh school graduates, whereas college-educated workers benefit greatly from having high quantitative skills but little from having high verbal skills. In addition, employers directly learn verbal skills and continuously learn quantitative skills in the high school market, but almost perfectly observe quantitative skills in the college market.

Bibliography Citation
Zhu, Beibei. Three Essays on Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2013.
607. Zhu, Jinfei
Alcohol and Illicit Substance Use in the Food Service Industry: Assessing Self-Selection and Job-Related Risk Factors
M.S., Hospitality Management, Ohio State University, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Job Hazards; Risk-Taking; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previously, most substance use research on workplace alcohol and drug problems have focused on four aspects: social control, norm, availability and stress. Due to the prevalence of substance use problem in the food service industry, this study investigates food service employee involvement with alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 cohort. Self-selection is first examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Then availability theory, norm theory, and stress theory are extended and tested by a number of job-related risk factors to predict employee substance use, using OLS models. Results show some evidence of self-selection: previous binge alcohol users and marijuana users had a greater likelihood to work in the food service industry. After controlling for previous substance use and individual backgrounds, bartending, tip earning, and holding multiple jobs were the major risk factors for employee alcohol or illicit drug use in the food service industry. Implications for practitioners are discussed and future research opportunities are then presented.
Bibliography Citation
Zhu, Jinfei. Alcohol and Illicit Substance Use in the Food Service Industry: Assessing Self-Selection and Job-Related Risk Factors. M.S., Hospitality Management, Ohio State University, 2008.
608. Zuppann, Charles Andrew
Contraception, Dating, and Marriage
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Contraception; Dating; Marriage; Sexual Activity; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One of the biggest changes in marriage and dating over the past 100 years has been the rapid advancement in contraceptive technology. My work addresses the questions of how this drastic change in access has changed women's sexual and marital decision making. I develop a model where individuals date before marrying in order to learn about relationship quality. While dating, individuals face the risk of pregnancy or contracting a sexually-transmitted infection (STI). The model predicts that contraceptive improvements increase the number of sexual partners, increase sexual acts, increase STI rates, and, under certain conditions, delay marriages and lower single motherhood rates. I use changes in states' over-the-counter (OTC) sales policies for emergency contraception as a natural experiment in varying access to contraceptive technology. Using multiple sources of data on birth rates, STIs, marriages, and sexual activity, I confirm the predictions of the model and find that OTC policies have a significant impact on sexual behavior and relationships. Applying the lessons of that model to the introduction of the birth control pill in the 1960s and 1970s, I find that access to the pill decreased stability for preexisting marriages.
Bibliography Citation
Zuppann, Charles Andrew. Contraception, Dating, and Marriage. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, 2011.
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