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Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Deardorff, Julianna
Smith, Louisa H.
Petito, Lucia C.
Kim, Hyunju
Abrams, Barbara
Maternal Prepregnancy Weight and Children’s Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 53,4 (October 2017): 432-440.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379717302702
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood; Mothers, Health; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior

Methods: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Children and Young Adults surveys are U.S.-based, ongoing longitudinal studies, initiated in 1979 and 1986, respectively. Mothers (n=2,952) reported pregnancy and child (n=5,660) developmental information at multiple time points. Child total, internalizing, and externalizing problems at ages 9–11 years were assessed using the Behavior Problems Index (BPI), collected biennially until 2012. Associations between prepregnancy BMI and child BPI outcomes were examined, as well as two- and three-way interactions by race and gender. Analyses were conducted in 2017.

Results: Boys whose mothers had higher prepregnancy weights exhibited higher total BPI and externalizing scores at ages 9–11 years versus those with normal-weight mothers. Boys with severely obese mothers had higher total BPI (mean difference=7.99, 95% CI=3.53, 12.46) and externalizing (mean difference=5.77, 95% CI=1.50, 10.04) scores. Prepregnancy underweight was associated with boys’ higher total BPI (mean difference=2.34, 95% CI=0.02, 4.66) and externalizing (mean difference=3.30, 95% CI=0.69, 5.91); these associations were not significant in sensitivity analyses. No associations emerged for girls or internalizing problems. Two-way interactions by race and three-way interactions by race and gender were not significant.

Bibliography Citation
Deardorff, Julianna, Louisa H. Smith, Lucia C. Petito, Hyunju Kim and Barbara Abrams. "Maternal Prepregnancy Weight and Children’s Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 53,4 (October 2017): 432-440.
2. Ewing, Reid
Brownson, Ross C.
Berrigan, David
Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Weight of United States Youth
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 31,6 (December 2006): 464-474.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17169708
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Environment, Pollution/Urban Density; Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Modeling; Obesity; Urbanization/Urban Living; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Weight

Background: Among United States youth there is an obesity epidemic with potential life-long health implications. To date, relationships between the built environment and body mass index (BMI) have not been evaluated for youth, and have not been evaluated longitudinally. Objectives: To determine if urban sprawl is associated with BMI for U.S. youth. Methods: Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Hierarchical modeling was used to relate characteristics of individuals, households, and places to BMI. Individual and household data were extracted from the NLSY97. The independent variable of interest was the county sprawl index, which was derived with principal components analyses from census and other data. Results: In a cross-sectional analysis, the likelihood of U.S. adolescents (aged 12–17 years) being overweight or at risk of overweight (≥85th percentile relative to the Centers for Disease Control growth charts) was associated with county sprawl (p=0.022). In another cross-sectional analysis, after controlling for sociodemographic and behavioral covariates, the likelihood of young adults (aged 18–23 years) being obese was also associated with county sprawl (p=0.048). By contrast, in longitudinal analyses, BMI growth curves for individual youth over the 7 years of NLSY97, and BMI changes for individual youth who moved between counties, were not related to county sprawl (although coefficient signs were as expected). Conclusions: Cross-sectional analyses suggest that urban form is associated with being overweight among U.S. youth. The strength of these relationships proved comparable to those previously reported for adults. Longitudinal analyses show no such relationship. It is unclear why these approaches give different results, but sample sizes, latent effects, and confounders may contribute.
Bibliography Citation
Ewing, Reid, Ross C. Brownson and David Berrigan. "Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Weight of United States Youth." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 31,6 (December 2006): 464-474.
3. Lin, Tin-Chi
Courtney, T.K.
Lombardi, David A.
Verma, S.K.
Association Between Sedentary Work and BMI in a U.S. National Longitudinal Survey
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 49,6 (December 2015): e117-e123.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379715004146
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Physical Activity (see also Exercise); Weight

This study examined the relationship between sitting time at work and BMI using data from a large prospective cohort of U.S. men and women from 2002 to 2010. Initial analyses were performed in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014 and 2015.
Bibliography Citation
Lin, Tin-Chi, T.K. Courtney, David A. Lombardi and S.K. Verma. "Association Between Sedentary Work and BMI in a U.S. National Longitudinal Survey." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 49,6 (December 2015): e117-e123.
4. Miech, Richard A.
Chilcoat, Howard
The Formation of a Socioeconomic Disparity: A Case Study of Cocaine and Marijuana Use in the 1990s
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32,6,Supplement (June 2007): S171-S176.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379707001092
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Drug Use; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Health Factors; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; Substance Use

Background: Around the year 1990, the reputation of cocaine use changed from glamorous to undesirable, and at the same time, a socioeconomic disparity in cocaine use emerged. This study examined (1) whether the socioeconomic disparity was created by differential incidence, differential cessation, or both, (2) whether a socioeconomic disparity also developed in marijuana use, and (3) whether disparities formed across race, Hispanic ethnicity, and/or gender.

Methods: The analyses center on 6544 respondents aged 14–21 in 1979 in the National Longitudinal Survey of 1979 that provided information on past-year use of powder cocaine and marijuana use before and after 1990—specifically, in 1984, 1988, 1992, 1994, and 1998.

Results: Both differential incidence and differential cessation across education contributed to the formation of the socioeconomic disparity in cocaine use, although differential cessation played a more influential role in this cohort. A socioeconomic disparity in marijuana use also came about around the same time. No emerging disparities by race, Hispanic ethnicity, or gender were observed.

Conclusions: This case study suggests that the redefinition of a health behavior as unhealthy will result in a socioeconomic disparity in the behavior across socioeconomic strata as a result of both differential incidence and cessation, but disparities will not necessarily form by race, ethnicity, or gender. [Copyright 2007 Elsevier]

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Bibliography Citation
Miech, Richard A. and Howard Chilcoat. "The Formation of a Socioeconomic Disparity: A Case Study of Cocaine and Marijuana Use in the 1990s." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32,6,Supplement (June 2007): S171-S176.
5. Ranchod, Yamini K.
Headen, Irene
Petito, Lucia C.
Deardorff, Julianna
Rehkopf, David
Abrams, Barbara
Maternal Childhood Adversity, Prepregnancy Obesity, and Gestational Weight Gain
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 50, 4 (April 2016): 463-469.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379715005231
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Health, Mental; Household Influences; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Socioeconomic Factors

Introduction: Growing evidence suggests that exposure to childhood adversity may influence obesity across the life course. High maternal weight complicates pregnancy and increases the risk of child obesity. This study examined the association between maternal childhood adversity and pregnancy-related weight in a large U.S. sample.

Methods: Data on 6,199 pregnancies from 2,873 women followed from 1979 to 2012 by the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 were analyzed in 2014. Associations between three adversity exposures before age 18 years (history of physical abuse, alcohol problems, or mental illness in the household) and two maternal weight outcomes (prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain) were modeled separately using survey-adjusted log-binomial models.

Results: After adjusting for race/ethnicity and early-life socioeconomic factors, childhood physical abuse was associated with a 60% increase in the risk of prepregnancy obesity (adjusted risk ratio=1.6, 95% CI=1.1, 2.2). Household alcohol abuse was associated with a 30% increase in prepregnancy obesity (adjusted risk ratio=1.3, 95% CI=1.0, 1.7), as was household mental illness (adjusted risk ratio=1.3, 95% CI=0.8, 1.9), but the mental illness exposure was not significant. Physical abuse and household alcohol abuse were associated with a significant 20% increase in the risk of excessive gestational weight gain; mental illness was not.

Conclusions: Adversity in early life may affect maternal weight before and during pregnancy. Screening and treating women of reproductive age for childhood adversity and its negative effects could significantly reduce obesity-related health outcomes for women and their children.

Bibliography Citation
Ranchod, Yamini K., Irene Headen, Lucia C. Petito, Julianna Deardorff, David Rehkopf and Barbara Abrams. "Maternal Childhood Adversity, Prepregnancy Obesity, and Gestational Weight Gain." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 50, 4 (April 2016): 463-469.
6. Sokol, Natasha A.
Okechukwu, Cassandra A.
Chen, Jarvis T.
Subramanian, S.V.
Rees, Vaughan W.
Maternal Cannabis Use During a Child's Lifetime Associated With Earlier Initiation
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 55,5 (November 2018): 592-602.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379718320920
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mothers, Behavior; Parental Influences

Introduction: Earlier cannabis initiation is associated with more severe neuropsychiatric and social consequences. The authors investigated whether mothers' cannabis use is associated with earlier cannabis initiation by their children.

Methods: Mother and child data were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1980–1998 waves) and Child and Young Adults (1988–2014 waves) cohorts, respectively. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the effect of maternal cannabis use prior to a child's adolescence on the child's risk of subsequent cannabis initiation. Models were stratified by race and child's age category (6–16, 17–24, ≥25 years). Adjusted analyses controlled for sociodemographic variables. Analyses were conducted in 2017.

Results: Median age of cannabis initiation for children of maternal ever users was age 16 years compared with age 18 years among children of maternal never users. Children of 1-year and multiple-year users were at increased risk of cannabis initiation between ages 6 and 16 years (hazard ratio=1.38, p<0.001, and hazard ratio = 1.45, p<0.001, respectively). Effects were slightly stronger among non-Hispanic non-black children.

Bibliography Citation
Sokol, Natasha A., Cassandra A. Okechukwu, Jarvis T. Chen, S.V. Subramanian and Vaughan W. Rees. "Maternal Cannabis Use During a Child's Lifetime Associated With Earlier Initiation." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 55,5 (November 2018): 592-602.