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Source: American Psychological Association
Resulting in 12 citations.
1. Camara, Wayne J.
Colot, Patricia L.
The Reality of Longitudinal Data Collection: Locating Vanishing Veterans
Presented: New York, NY, Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1987.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED290775&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED290775
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Military Enlistment; Research Methodology; Veterans

This paper investigates the utility of various procedures used to locate and interview veterans as part of a longitudinal research study being conducted for the Department of Defense. The populations are comprised of below entry aptitude standards males who entered the military during the late 1960s, and potential ineligibles who entered between 1976 and 1980. The latter group entered because of the misnorming of the enlistment exam scores. Several methods were used to locate subjects of both populations and compared to existing data collected from National Longitudinal Surveys on equivalent samples of low-aptitude non-veteran males. Future researchers are encouraged to investigate multiple locating methodologies and assess the quality of existing data and known characteristics of the population prior to embarking on longitudinal data collection with special populations. [ERIC ED-290775]
Bibliography Citation
Camara, Wayne J. and Patricia L. Colot. "The Reality of Longitudinal Data Collection: Locating Vanishing Veterans." Presented: New York, NY, Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1987.
2. Collins, Linda M.
Sayer, Aline G.
New Methods for the Analysis Of Change
Decade of Behavior Series. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Data Quality/Consistency; Modeling; Modeling, Multilevel

This volume presents state-of-the-art methods explored by recognized authorities on the analysis of change. Chapters highlight methods for estimating and evaluating models of growth and change over time at the level of the individual; address issues of measurement that are important in the analysis of change; point out methods for separating intra-individual growth from some aspects of phenomena that are stable over time; identify larger frameworks to integrate knowledge; and provide methods for dealing with missing data. This volume of methodological advances will influence a variety of disciplines from psychology and sociology to education and economics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved).
Bibliography Citation
Collins, Linda M. and Aline G. Sayer. New Methods for the Analysis Of Change. Decade of Behavior Series. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001.
3. Crowley, Joan E.
Longitudinal and Cross-Cohort Employment Patterns of Women
Presented: Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Fertility; Job Aspirations; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Segregation; Sex Roles

This paper reviews the research done on labor force participation, wages, and occupational segregation which utilized the Mature Women, Young Women, and NLSY data. Each successive cohort of women shows higher levels of commitment to the labor force. Even among the mature women, a very high proportion worked either continuously or sporadically. Young women are showing stronger commitments to the labor market, higher levels of education, and lower levels of fertility (actual and expected), meaning that there should be fewer conflicts between home and work and greater expected returns to employment. Attitudes toward work are becoming more favorable, both across cohorts and across time within cohorts. Women continue to be concentrated in relatively few occupations, and the aspirations of respondents in the youth cohort indicate that a great deal of difference between men and women persists, although the gap is not as wide as it was for the youth from the 1960s cohorts. Most trends are in the direction of increased employment, wages, and decreased occupational segregation.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Longitudinal and Cross-Cohort Employment Patterns of Women." Presented: Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1982.
4. Crowley, Joan E.
Three Generations: The NLS of Labor Market Experience of Women
Presented: Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Mothers; Sex Roles

This paper reviews research on demographic and labor force related changes identified in the NLS. Women are planning on greater labor force participation, higher levels of education, and lower levels of fertility. Working produces more favorable attitudes toward work among women, which in turn is associated with greater labor force participation, both among the women themselves and among their daughters. Even among the mature women, the majority reported spending substantial proportions of their time in the labor force during the decade studied. Black women are more likely to be forced out of the labor force due to ill health, while white women appear to be able to adapt to ill health by reducing hours or weeks worked. Among the young women, those who expect to work tend to have fewer children, but having children does not appear to affect subsequent employment, indicating that expectations about fertility and labor force participation are substantially formed prior to entry into the labor market. Marital disruption has a smaller effect on employment than is commonly supposed. There are still substantial differences between men and women in their occupational aspirations, but the differences are diminishing generally. Young women appear to be aspiring to higher prestige jobs in the late 70s than they did in the late 60s. Overall, the trends uncovered in research on women done using the NLS data sets show continued economic progress for women. There is some evidence of a counter-trend, however, in the increase over time in early childbearing, especially among minority women.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Three Generations: The NLS of Labor Market Experience of Women." Presented: Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1982.
5. Crowley, Joan E.
Shapiro, David
Occupational Aspirations And Sex Segregation: Trends And Predictions
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Psychological Association, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Occupational Aspirations; Sex Roles

This paper uses two approaches to understanding occupational aspirations and their impact on sex segregation in the labor force: comparisons of occupational aspirations from two cohorts measured over a decade apart, and multivariate analysis of occupational aspirations from the younger of the two cohorts. The data rely primarily on the 1979 interview of the NLSY, with comparisons drawn from the 1967 NLS of Young Men and the 1968 NLS of Young Women. Youth in the 1979 cohort showed a strong preference for careers in professional and managerial occupations. Compared with the earlier cohorts, young women shifted out of lower-skilled to higher-skilled occupations, although still showing the traditional concentration in clerical positions. Over the decade, young men were more likely to aspire to skilled trades in 1979 than in 1967. Women in 1979 were only half as likely as women in 1968 to say that they expected to be housewives not in the paid labor force at age 35. The multivariate analysis showed that sex-role traditionality was associated with lower aspirations both for men and women, even with social background controlled. The result for men was not expected, since none of the sex-role measures directly assessed men's roles. Sex role traditionality may serve to limit the range of occupations considered appropriate, both by men and by women.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. and David Shapiro. "Occupational Aspirations And Sex Segregation: Trends And Predictions." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Psychological Association, 1981.
6. Curran, Patrick J.
Bollen, Kenneth A.
Best of Both Worlds: Combining Autoregressive and Latent Curve Models
In: New Methods of the Analysis of Change. A. G. Sayer, ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: pp. 107-135
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Depression (see also CESD); Markov chain / Markov model; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Statistical Analysis

Discusses the autoregressive model (or "fixed effects Markov simplex model") and random coefficient growth curve models as being two analytic approaches to the theoretical conceptualization and statistical analysis of panel data. An extended empirical example is presented in order to illustrate the authors' ongoing efforts to synthesize these two models. They begin with a description of a theoretical substantive question that motivates the development of the synthesized model, they then present a review of the univariate and bivariate autoregressive simplex models followed by a general description of the univariate and bivariate latent curve models. The synthesis of the simplex and latent curve models is proposed for both the univariate and bivariate cases, and these are applied to the empirical data set to evaluate a series of questions relating to the developmental relation between antisocial behavior and depressive symptomatology.
Bibliography Citation
Curran, Patrick J. and Kenneth A. Bollen. "Best of Both Worlds: Combining Autoregressive and Latent Curve Models" In: New Methods of the Analysis of Change. A. G. Sayer, ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: pp. 107-135
7. Dooley, David
Prause, JoAnn
Underemployment and Depression in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Psychological Association Meeting, August 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Employment; Self-Esteem; Underemployment

Although the economy has recovered from the recession of the early 1990s, there are signs of dissatisfaction in the present labor market. Globalization, restructuring, and outsourcing have helped lower both the sense of employment security of many workers and the real earnings of the low income sector of the work force. Recent findings have suggested that economically inadequate jobs can produce social costs such as decreased self-esteem and increased alcohol abuse similar to those of unemployment. The present study tests the hypothesis that controlling for prior depression, change to less adequate employment is associated with elevated depression. The data for these analyses come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), specifically the 1992 and 1994 surveys, which collected the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. The NLSY has followed a nationally representative sample of individuals born in the United States between 1957 and 1964 with annual reinterviews and a near 90% retention rate. Approximately 9,000 NLSY respondents were available for analysis by 1994 when they were in their late 20s and early 30s. In addition to depression, the NLSY includes standard employment status items that permit classifying respondents each year as adequately employed (above poverty wages either full time or voluntarily part time), underemployed (either involuntary part time or poverty wages), unemployed (either actively looking for work or wanting work but too discouraged to look), or out of the labor force. In addition to controlling for such variables as gender, age, ethnicity, and educational level, the analyses will include economic context as operationalized by unemployment rate in the respondent's community. The discussion of this study will be aimed at broadening our conceptualization of economic stressors from a dichotomy (working versus not working) to a continuum of varying employment statuses.
Bibliography Citation
Dooley, David and JoAnn Prause. "Underemployment and Depression in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Psychological Association Meeting, August 1998.
8. Dooley, David
Prause, JoAnn
Underemployment As Disguised Unemployment and Its Social Costs
Presented: Baltimore, MD, American Psychological Association - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, March 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Depression (see also CESD); Employment; Self-Esteem; Unemployment

Research on economic stress has concentrated on the social costs of job loss or unemployment in contrast to employment. Surprisingly, the current low unemployment rates in the U.S. have been accompanied by high levels of concern by workers about their jobs. Perhaps these workers worry that their jobs are not secure or have noticed that the recent recovery has produced little or no gain in real earnings of low-income workers. These observations call our attention to underemployment, but little is known about the social consequences of underemployment. The goal of this paper is to assess the human impact of this "disguised unemployment". The analyses are based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a nationally representative panel with annual reinterviews from 1979 to 1994. Impact measures include depression, self-esteem, and alcohol abuse. Employment status measures followed the Current Population Survey permitting categorization of each respondent as out of the labor force, adequately employed, unemployed (including discouraged workers), and underemployed. The underemployed category includes involuntary part time and poverty wage workers following Sullivan (1978) and Clogg (1979). Controlling for self-esteem while still in high school in 1980 and compared to those who became stably and adequately employed, self-esteem was lower in 1987 in those who were unemployed, working involuntarily part time, working at poverty level wages, or working but with recent unemployment experiences. For workers in their mid-20s who were adequately employed in 1984 and controlling for alcohol abuse then, those who became underemployed (poverty level wages or involuntary part time) or unemployed a year later evidenced increased alcohol abuse. For workers in their late 20s and early 30s, there are adverse effects of underemployment as well as unemployment on 1994 depression controlling for 1992 depression. Similar analyses are ongoing for especially vulnerable subgroups such as AFDC recipients who, if they are able to leave welfare, are at high risk to enter underemployment. These findings emphasize the need for researchers in the occupational health and economic stress areas to include underemployment in their studies. These findings also make a case for reporting underemployment in routine labor statistics.
Bibliography Citation
Dooley, David and JoAnn Prause. "Underemployment As Disguised Unemployment and Its Social Costs." Presented: Baltimore, MD, American Psychological Association - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, March 1999.
9. Kam, Chi-Ming
Wagstaff, David A.
Longitudinal Analysis of Complex Survey Data: Math and Reading Achievement from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 1986-1994
In: New Methods for the Analysis of Change. L. Collins and A. Sayer, eds., Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: Appendix M
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Methods/Methodology; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

See New Methods for the Analysis of Change. L. M. Collins and A. G. Aline, eds., for a resume of the monograph, "Chapters highlight methods for estimating and evaluating models of growth and change over time at the level of the individual; address issues of measurement that are important in the analysis of change; point out methods for separating intra-individual growth from some aspects of phenomena that are stable over time; identify larger frameworks to integrate knowledge; and provide methods for dealing with missing data."
Bibliography Citation
Kam, Chi-Ming and David A. Wagstaff. "Longitudinal Analysis of Complex Survey Data: Math and Reading Achievement from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 1986-1994" In: New Methods for the Analysis of Change. L. Collins and A. Sayer, eds., Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: Appendix M
10. McArdle, John J.
Hamagami, Fumiaki
Latent Difference Score Structural Models for Linear Dynamic Analyses with Incomplete Longitudinal Data
In: New Methods for the Analysis of Change. LM Collins and AG Sayer, eds. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: pp. 139-175
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Change Scores; Data Analysis; Data Quality/Consistency; LISREL; Modeling; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Chapter: States that the creation of "best methods" for the analysis of change in longitudinal and developmental research has five key goals: the direct identification of intraindividual change; direction identification of interindividual differences in intraindividual change; analysis of interrelationships in change; analysis of determinants of intraindividual change; and analysis of determinants of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. The kind of longitudinal data dealt with in this chapter are multiple measures from data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Some recent approaches to longitudinal data analysis have used structural equation modeling (SEM). The authors present a relatively new way to approach SEM-based analyses of longitudinal data, termed latent differences score (LDS) analysis (McArdle and Hamagami, 1995, 1998; McArdle and Nesselroade, 1994). This version of LDS is designed for ease of use with available SEM software (e.g., LISREL, Mx, RAMONA) and permits features of incomplete-data analyses. The chapter begins with a basic description of the available data and gives foundations of the LDS methods. A variety of LDS models using the available NLSY data are illustrated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved).
Bibliography Citation
McArdle, John J. and Fumiaki Hamagami. "Latent Difference Score Structural Models for Linear Dynamic Analyses with Incomplete Longitudinal Data" In: New Methods for the Analysis of Change. LM Collins and AG Sayer, eds. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: pp. 139-175
11. Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Cleveland, Hobart Harrington
van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.
Rowe, David C.
Resolving the Debate Over Birth Order, Family Size, and Intelligence
American Psychologist 55,6 (June 2000): 599-612
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Family Size; Family Studies; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings

Hundreds of research articles have addressed the relationship between birth order and intelligence. Virtually all have used cross-sectional data, which are fundamentally flawed in the assessment of within-family (including birth order) processes. Although within-family models have been based on patterns in cross-sectional data, a number of equally plausible between-family explanations also exist. Within-family (preferably intact-family) data are prerequisite for separating within- and between-family causal processes. This observation reframes an old issue in a way that can easily be addressed by studying graphical patterns. Sibling data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are evaluated, and the results are compared with those from other studies using within-family data. It appears that although low-IQ parents have been making large families, large families do not make low-IQ children in modern U.S. society. The apparent relation between birth order and intelligence has been a methodological illusion.
Bibliography Citation
Rodgers, Joseph Lee, Hobart Harrington Cleveland, Edwin J. C. G. van den Oord and David C. Rowe. "Resolving the Debate Over Birth Order, Family Size, and Intelligence." American Psychologist 55,6 (June 2000): 599-612.
12. Turner, Michael G.
Repeat Bully Victimizations and Legal Outcomes in a National Sample: The Impact Over the Life Course
Presented: Honolulu HI, American Psychological Association Annual Conference, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Bullying/Victimization; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course

OBJECTIVE: While it has been shown that bullying is associated with subsequent legal problems (i.e., arrest), the evidence related to the association of bully victimization and legal problems is less clear. The present study investigates the repeated bully victimization/legal consequences relationship over an extended period of the life course.

METHODS: This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 7335), a population-based longitudinal study of individuals who were age 12 to 16 at the study outset. A typological measure was created where individuals were categorized as: (1) non-victims, (2) childhood victims (victims below the age of 12), (3) adolescent victims (victims between the age of 12 and 18), and (4) chronic victims (victims before age 12 and between age 12 and 18). The repeat bully victimization variable was then associated with several offending and victimization legal outcome measures experienced in late adolescence and adulthood.

RESULTS: Experiencing repeat bully victimizations was associated with an increase in respondent’s likelihood of engaging in substance use, delinquency, arrest, conviction, and incarceration. Experiencing repeat bully victimizations was also associated with an increase in respondent’s perceptions and experiences with violent victimizations. The association between these measures was consistently stronger for females while there were few differences across categories of race.

CONCLUSIONS: Being the victim of a bully during childhood and adolescence serves as a marker for subsequent legal problems and victimization in adolescence and adulthood. Prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing involvement in delinquency, crime, and victimization would benefit by targeting bully victimizations as a risk factor.

Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G. "Repeat Bully Victimizations and Legal Outcomes in a National Sample: The Impact Over the Life Course." Presented: Honolulu HI, American Psychological Association Annual Conference, 2013.