Search Results

Source: American Sociological Association Annual Meetings
Resulting in 202 citations.
1. Agnone, Jon
Racial Inequality in Wealth: Do Labor Unions Matter?
Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Collective Bargaining; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Racial Equality/Inequality; Unions; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This project utilizes quantitative data from the NLSY79 to examine whether labor unions offer individual level wealth advantages to members above non-unionized workers. Labor scholars have noted several specific economic benefits of unions, such as increasing wages and access to pensions. However, scholarship has yet to address how labor unions may affect the wealth holdings of individuals working under a union contract. Separately, wealth scholars note that most Americans have little accumulated wealth, with the most common being housing equity and pension funds. Further, black households have significantly less wealth than comparable white households due to historical and contemporary factors that negatively impact life chances of black families. Uncovering a wealth premium accorded to unionism would be an important contribution to several areas of inquiry, as union membership may be an important factor in equalizing the wealth disparity between blacks and whites. As a part of my larger dissertation project, this paper will close by positing empirically informed theoretical considerations for both labor and wealth scholars, as well as delineating implications for the labor movement, public policy and poverty programs.
Bibliography Citation
Agnone, Jon. "Racial Inequality in Wealth: Do Labor Unions Matter?" Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2008.
2. Aisenbrey, Silke
Evertsson, Marie
Grunow, Daniela
Is There a Career Penalty for Mother's Time Out? A Comparison Between the United States, Germany and Sweden
Presented: Boston, MA, ASA Annual Meeting, August 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Event History; German Life History Study; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Swedish Level of Living Survey; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also presented: Florence, Italy, RC28 Spring Meeting on "Social Stratification and Insiders/Outsiders: Cross-national Comparisons within and between Continents", May 2008.
Also presented: New Haven, CT, CIQLE Inaugural Conference "Generating Social Inequalities", May 2007.

This paper focuses on three countries with distinct policies towards the dilemma of combining motherhood with an employment career: the United States, Germany and Sweden. We investigate how the parental leave policies in these countries work with regard to (a) fostering mother's labor market attachment; (b) securing mother's status as labor market insiders during employment interruption; and (c) buffering the negative career consequences resulting from mothers' time out. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the German Life History Study, and the Swedish Level of Living Survey, we analyze how different types of welfare states produce and institutionalize different patterns of return to the labor market after childbirth and how these structures stratify the subsequent career trajectories of women. Using event-history techniques we first explore how long women in the different institutional contexts interrupt employment after the birth of a child. Second, we examine what their career prospects upon return are: Do mothers on leave retain their status as labor market insiders and return to a job similar to the one they had before, or are they more likely to become outsiders and experience a downward occupational move? What role do individual characteristics and institutional context play in this process? Finally, we assess whether the time women spend away from work after child birth affects their subsequent careers. We find that the timing of return and the consequences for the occupational career are highly dependent on the policy structure these careers are embedded in. In the U.S. – promoting a 'primary earner strategy' – three quarters of all women are back at work only six months after the birth of the first child. In Sweden – the country with an 'earner carer strategy' – three quarters are back after five years, and in Germany – with its 'primary caregiver strategy' – not even after eight years. Parental leave policies seem to impact the timing of reentry, rather than the type of reentry: In all three countries most mothers return to a job with a prestige level comparable to their previous position. These women also tend to interrupt for shorter periods than their peer compatriots, as the majority returns to their previous job. Across countries we find a 'memory effect' of previous time out, though: In the U.S., with few women taking parental leave, we identify a career punishment in terms of a higher downward mobility risk, also for short times out. In Germany, where the legal parental leave period is long and mother's time out the norm, we find a negative linear relationship between time out and women's return to their previous occupational position; the longer the time out, the greater the risk to change to a new job, be it associated with an upward or downward move. In Sweden with a policy allowing shorter but financially compensated parental leaves, we find a negative effect of time out on upward moves. Hence, even in 'woman friendly' Sweden, mothers are better off if they return sooner rather than later to the labor market.

Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke, Marie Evertsson and Daniela Grunow. "Is There a Career Penalty for Mother's Time Out? A Comparison Between the United States, Germany and Sweden." Presented: Boston, MA, ASA Annual Meeting, August 2008.
3. Alegria, Sharla N.
Race, Gender, and Parenthood on Returns from Job Changes in the New and Traditional Economies
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Industrial Classification; Job Tenure; Occupations; Racial Equality/Inequality; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Scholars increasingly describe the contemporary labor market as entering an age of precarity characterized by low job security, low loyalty between workers and companies, and increasing instability. These shifts in the structure of work have different consequences for professional workers compared to those in low wage jobs, though qualitative research suggests frequent job change is increasingly the reality for all workers. The qualitative work also suggests that further bifurcation between professional workers, who change jobs to pursue better opportunities, and low wage workers, who may find that job opportunities differ little, is an important factor fueling increasing inequality. Using the job classification established by Shackelford and Jankowski (2016) and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine the effects of job changes on pay comparatively for professional workers in computing and technology related occupations, often thought of as emblematic of the "new economy", and less skilled workers in manufacturing, construction, and select service jobs that reflect the traditional economy. Past research is clear that job change typically has a positive impact on wages; however, we ask if the impact is the same across new and old industries and if durable 20th century inequalities around gender, race, and parenthood status shape the likelihood that a job change will yield increased wages. We find that gender and race inequality is more pronounced in the traditional jobs and women benefit more from changing jobs in this part of the labor force. While job changes have a positive effect on wages across job types, the effect is larger for new economy jobs and roughly the same for workers regardless of race, gender, or parenthood status. We find evidence that work in the new economy may be somewhat more equitable than work in the traditional economy.
Bibliography Citation
Alegria, Sharla N. "Race, Gender, and Parenthood on Returns from Job Changes in the New and Traditional Economies." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
4. Alexandrowicz, Carrie L.
The Effect of School-to-Work Programs on Entry into Nontraditional Employment: Do Education- and Employment-based Initiatives Influence the Transition to a Stratified Workforce?
Presented: Montreal, Canada, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Occupations, Female; Training; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Early labor force participation among youth in the United States marks the important transition from education to paid employment. However, early jobs--as well as labor force participation across the entire life course--are highly stratified by gender and greatly disparate in their social and economic returns. The School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 has granted millions of dollars in state and federal funding to provide students with the vocational resources to overcome existing structural inequalities and enable the transition into a more diverse workforce. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to determine if participation in various school-to-work programs influences women's early labor force entry into gender-segregated jobs. Results suggest that school-to-work programs have little influence on gendered early employment, suggesting a need for more effective implementation of career programs and the urgency for school-to-work transition structures which broaden occupational opportunities for all underrepresented populations.
Bibliography Citation
Alexandrowicz, Carrie L. "The Effect of School-to-Work Programs on Entry into Nontraditional Employment: Do Education- and Employment-based Initiatives Influence the Transition to a Stratified Workforce?" Presented: Montreal, Canada, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006.
5. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Movers versus Stayers: Neighborhood Effects on Achievement Scores
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Stratification research has recently begun to investigate neighborhood effects on math and reading achievement. However, this paper is the first to quantitatively investigate neighborhood effects on achievement outcomes for movers and stayers separately. Those who stay experience gradual change in their neighborhoods over time while moving can involve many observed and unobserved shocks. Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth provides a fresh sample with which to compare findings from other, very often used, data such as the PSID. Person fixed effects models estimate effects that are unbiased due to time-invariant unobserved characteristics of children and parents. They also account for changes in neighborhood conditions (and effects) as children mature. The findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage and affluence both affect achievement scores. When placed in the context of realistic shifts in neighborhood conditions for youth over time, these effects are much more modest than previous findings for extreme changes in neighborhood conditions. Implications for policies that move families to new neighborhoods and those that revitalize neighborhoods around tenured families over time are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Movers versus Stayers: Neighborhood Effects on Achievement Scores." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
6. Arbeit, Caren
Weiss, Christopher C.
Who Returns to School? Non-traditional Patterns of Mothers' School Attendance
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; Life Course; Mothers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Education in later life is increasingly common in the United States, yet remains understudied. We seek to contribute to our knowledge of this phenomenon by examining what factors predict returning to school for women who have become mothers. To do this, we build off theoretical perspectives of, and empirical research on, educational attainment, life course and educational trajectories, and family factors. Taking these perspectives together we create a new model for understanding characteristics associated with returning to school for mothers. Our sample includes a modern cohort of women (in the NLSY 79). We find that returning to school does not conform to the traditional predictors of educational attainment, but is a distinct process.
Bibliography Citation
Arbeit, Caren and Christopher C. Weiss. "Who Returns to School? Non-traditional Patterns of Mothers' School Attendance." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
7. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
Weiss, Christopher C.
Do American Mothers Treat Sons and Daughters Alike?
Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Health; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Infants; Parent-Child Interaction; Parenting Skills/Styles; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Son preference is well-documented in parts of the developing world, particularly China, Korea, India and South Asia. In societies where son preference is strong, adverse consequences for girls may be severe, including even death. Yet in the U.S. where the stated norm is one of gender equality, there has been surprising little attention to whether childrearing practices differ by gender of child. This absence seems all the more surprising given the evidence that gender differentiation is observable in a number of different domains of American children's' lives (e.g., school, play groups, etc.). Much of this literature argues that gender bias begins early in life and unfolds in subtle ways. This paper uses the NLSY to examine gender-differentiated parenting practices (infant feeding, well baby care, child care) in the U.S. Despite prevailing norms of gender equity, we hypothesize that mothers treat boys and girls differently; however, these differences cause less morbidity and have fewer lasting developmental effects, because children in the U.S. generally receive adequate nutrition and medical care, and child mortality overall is low. Therefore, gender bias in the U.S. may be invisible in infancy.

The data we use come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) linked mother-child records. The data enable us to test for the presence of gender bias by examining a number of maternal behaviors during an infant's first year of life. We consider outcomes in the realms of both health and social care. In terms of health, we look at (a) infant feeding decisions (whether the child was breastfed and duration of breastfeeding and timing of introduction of solid food); and (b) immunization records (measles, DPT, polio). In terms of social care, we consider: (c) fostering (whether child lives with other than biological mother in first year of life); and (d) how often mother reads to child; and (e) the restrictions and rules that parents place upon their chi ldren. Do women invest more heavily in terms of time, love and attention in boys than in girls?

We also control for a wide range of maternal and household outcomes that both may affect child outcomes and may affect infant-feeding and childcare decisions. Our controls include child's birth order, mother's age at birth, mother's race and ethnicity, mother's education and household poverty status. We restrict our sample to full-term infants with a normal birthweight. We use OLS and multiple logistic regression to test the effect of child's gender on maternal behavior, controlling for maternal characteristics.

Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. and Christopher C. Weiss. "Do American Mothers Treat Sons and Daughters Alike?" Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2004.
8. Augustine, Jennifer March
School Reentry and Degree Attainment after the Transition to Motherhood
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; Motherhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The traditional patterning of life course events that has defined contemporary U.S. women's lives is changing as an increasing number of women now complete their formal schooling after the transition to motherhood. Despite widespread recognition of this demographic change by scholars and policy makers, we lack population-level estimates of women's post-childbearing school reentry or degree attainment, the timing of women's post-childbearing education vis-à-vis women's transition to motherhood, and the characteristics of women who return to school to pursue a degree after giving birth. For the first time, the present study provides such information. To do so it uses cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n=4,925). Among several key findings, 17% of mothers return to school to earn more education, typically a high school degree or equivalency, Associate's degree, or two years of college. Mothers earning high school degrees/GEDs are most likely to do so within five years of giving birth whereas mothers pursuing other academic paths are more likely to do so when children are older. Consistent predictors of additional maternal education were younger age at first birth, being poor around the time the schooling was completed, greater job instability, and higher cognitive test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Augustine, Jennifer March. "School Reentry and Degree Attainment after the Transition to Motherhood." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
9. Bailey, Amy Kate
Comparing Veteran Status and Social Mobility across Four Cohorts of American Men
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97, Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Military Service; Mobility, Social; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Popular wisdom holds that the military serves as an engine of social mobility for young American men. However, the relationship between veteran status and occupational attainment appears to vary by race and cohort. This variance results from a variety of factors, particularly policy changes that alter the likelihood of serving in the armed forces, the demographic profile and social origins of those on active duty, and the benefits available to veterans. Additionally, veteran status matters differently by race, and for men with different background characteristics. This paper uses four cohorts of men from the National Longitudinal Surveys--the NLS Older Men, NLS Younger Men, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997--to trace the relationship between veteran status and intergenerational social mobility. I ask whether this relationship has changed over time, as well as how being a veteran differentially affects the life chances of blacks and whites, and men with different levels of educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Amy Kate. "Comparing Veteran Status and Social Mobility across Four Cohorts of American Men." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009.
10. Bailey, Amy Kate
Is There a Relationship between Veteran Status, Spatial Mobility, and Social Mobility in the All Volunteer Force Era?
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Income; Military Service; Mobility; Mobility, Social; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 from 1979 through 2002 to explore whether spatial mobility is a mechanism through which veteran status influences social mobility. Controlling for a variety of factors at the individual, familial, and contextual levels, I ask whether veteran status and migration have primary and/or interactive effects on the likelihood of social mobility. The preliminary results presented here, using NLSY79 years 1996 through 2002, use a number of these factors to predict income with separate regressions estimated for black and white men. Results indicate that neither black nor white veterans' incomes differ, on average, from those of non-veterans, and that non-veteran migrants along enjoy income benefits to their migration, although these effects are only marginally significant. Factors other than veteran status and migration that influence income appear to vary by race. The final paper will use a more sophisticated methodological approach (either Event History Analysis or Hierarchical Modeling techniques) as well as all available years of data to more fully explore these relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Amy Kate. "Is There a Relationship between Veteran Status, Spatial Mobility, and Social Mobility in the All Volunteer Force Era?" Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007.
11. Bailey, Amy Kate
Veteran Status, Onward and Return Migration in the All Volunteer Force Era
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Migration; Military Service; Racial Differences; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper compares migration patterns among veterans and non-veterans in the All Volunteer Force era, and identifies whether these patterns differ by race or Hispanic origin. First, I ask whether veterans have higher rates of migration than is true among non-veterans for black, white, and native-born Hispanic men at risk of military employment during the AVF era, controlling for individual and community-of-origin factors. I also examine whether there are differences among migrants, by race and/or veteran status, in return or onward migration. Consistent with prior research, veterans are more likely to migrate than similar non-veterans. It appears that veterans are moderately more likely to engage in onward migration than are nonveterans, although the significance is marginal (p ≤ 0.10), and is not found in all model specifications. Veterans appear to be significantly less likely than similar nonveterans, however, to return to their communities or origin once they have migrated (not counting migration required during active duty). This finding obtains for whites and blacks, although the level of return migration among Hispanics appears to be the same for veterans and nonveterans. Possible implications for rural communities are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Amy Kate. "Veteran Status, Onward and Return Migration in the All Volunteer Force Era." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
12. Baird, Chardie L.
Burge, Stephanie
One is One and Two is Ten: Motherhood Transitions and Mothers’ Labor Force Participation
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Motherhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous scholarship has not seriously considered the various parenthood transitions on women’s labor force participation. Most prior research assumes that each additional child has the same effect on mothers’ labor force participation and wages, not the transition from zero to one or one to two. However, the transition from zero to one child is likely to be different from the transition from one to two children and thus each requires different job and occupational arrangements to aid mothers’ successful return to the labor force. This paper uses multinomial logistic and logistic regression and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to explore the effects of the transition from zero to one versus one to two children on mother’s labor force participation. We find that mothers working in retention jobs rather than secondary jobs are more likely to be working full-time than part-time after the birth of a first child and the birth of a second child. In addition, the family situations and socio-demographic characteristics differentially affect labor force participation after the first and second birth indicating that the processes affecting the return to work after the birth of a first or second child are different.
Bibliography Citation
Baird, Chardie L. and Stephanie Burge. "One is One and Two is Ten: Motherhood Transitions and Mothers’ Labor Force Participation." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
13. Baird, Chardie L.
Hardy, Melissa A.
The Gendered Structure of Career Goals: Influences of Role Models, Gender Ideology, and Agency
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Maternal Employment; Occupational Aspirations; Racial Differences; Role Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As formal barriers to the realization of expectations are reduced, the factors that affect occupational aspirations of women and race/ethnic minorities deserve closer examination. The importance of same-sex parental role models on adolescents' career goals has been well documented in the literature. However, the mechanisms through which mothers' career orientations translate into daughters' career aspirations are not well understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women aged 14 to 22 in 1979, we assess the relationship between occupational aspirations, characteristics of family background, gender ideology, and perceptions of individual agency. Although comparable proportions of young men and young women had mothers who were employed, mother's employment status relates differently to the career expectations of young men and young women. Further analysis suggests that mothers' employment status helps shape daughters' gender ideology: daughters of employed mothers are more likely to form egalitarian attitudes regarding the range of appropriate behaviors in which young women may engage. In addition, this mechanism varies across race/ethnic groups. A stronger sense of agency positively affects occupational aspirations across gender and race/ethnicity.
Bibliography Citation
Baird, Chardie L. and Melissa A. Hardy. "The Gendered Structure of Career Goals: Influences of Role Models, Gender Ideology, and Agency." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2004.
14. Beattie, Brett
Non-marital and Marital Cohabitation Partners: Are the Effects on Marital Quality the Same?
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, propensity score matching is used to estimate the effect of cohabiting on subsequent marital quality as compared to those who marry without experiencing a cohabitation. I divide the sample into two, those who only cohabited with their eventual marriage partner and those who experienced a cohabitation with a non-marital partner. I find there is no treatment effect among those whose cohabitation experience is restricted to their future spouse, while those who had a different partner experienced a decline in marital quality as compared to those with no cohabitation experience. Various matching algorithms are used and robustness tests are performed. These results suggest that it is experience of different residential partners that decreases subsequent marital quality, rather than cohabitation itself.
Bibliography Citation
Beattie, Brett. "Non-marital and Marital Cohabitation Partners: Are the Effects on Marital Quality the Same?" Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
15. Beattie, Brett
James, Spencer
Pathways to Marriage and Union Formation among Young Adults
Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Union formation among young adults has changed drastically over the past few decades. This paper provides an overview of the changes in union formation pathways for American young adults with an emphasis upon multiple cohabitation relationships. Using data from the NLSY97, young adults are tracked from 12-16 years of age till 24-28 years, which encompasses the prime union formation years. Approximately 60% of first coresidential relationships were a cohabitation relationship, over a half of which would end in dissolution (with approximately equal numbers having married and that are still cohabiting.. It is found that of those who dissolve their first cohabitation relationship, just under two-thirds will enter a second cohabitation. This paper includes the identity of the partners and finds around a third of the second cohabitation relationships were started with the same partner from the first. This paper also examines the variations in pathways by education levels and race. By including both higher order relationships and information on partner identity, a nuanced and complex picture of union formation emerges. By emphasizing the numerous union formation pathways young adults can take, this paper urges family researchers to care when using summary measures of cohabitation, as this can omit vital nuances in the pathways taken by young adults.
Bibliography Citation
Beattie, Brett and Spencer James. "Pathways to Marriage and Union Formation among Young Adults." Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011.
16. Besen-Cassino, Yasemin
Gender Pay Differentials among the Teenage Labor Force
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Teenagers; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Gender wage gap is among the most persistent and durable characteristics of labor markets and women's lives. Despite differences in focus, almost all studies of the gender wage gap focus on the adult labor market, however almost every teenager in the United States works before adulthood. Therefore, an overwhelming majority of the population experience the labor market, and possibly the gender wage gap, well beforehand. This article focuses on the early labor market experiences of youth and analyzes the gender differentials in earning in the youth labor market.

Based on a maximum likelihood estimation with modeled heteroskedasticity using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97), the findings show there are no gender differences in wages for 12-13 year-old youth. However, we see the emergence of the gender wage gap around fourteen, which widens with age. The wage differential in the early labor market is explained mostly by occupational factors such as types of jobs boys and girls are employed in. However, the "cost of being a girl" still remains.

Bibliography Citation
Besen-Cassino, Yasemin. "Gender Pay Differentials among the Teenage Labor Force." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
17. Branigan, Amelia R.
(How) Does Obesity Harm GPA? Stratification at the Intersection of Race, Gender, and Body Size
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Gender Differences; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; High School; Obesity; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While the physical body is now broadly accepted as a sociological entity, conversation between researchers quantifying bodily characteristics and those theorizing the social construction of the body remains limited. In this study I bridge these literatures, drawing on feminist theory and education research to hypothesize a larger negative association between obesity and GPA for girls in English, where femininity is privileged, than in math, where stereotypical femininity is perceived to be a detriment. Among White girls in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, I find obesity in high school to be associated with a one-quarter standard deviation penalty on cumulative GPA in English, whereas any penalty of obesity on GPA in math is substantively small and statistically non-significant. In contrast, the negative relationship between obesity and GPA for White boys remains stable across course subjects. Net of controls, associations between obesity and GPA are not significant for Black or Hispanic students of either sex in either course subject. This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic outcomes may result in large part from how institutions interact differently with bodies of different sizes, while challenging explanations that eschew social pathways altogether. It additionally emphasizes the need to better engage sociological theories of the body in quantitative inequality research, as doing so may alter both interpretation of results, and the questions that we ask.
Bibliography Citation
Branigan, Amelia R. "(How) Does Obesity Harm GPA? Stratification at the Intersection of Race, Gender, and Body Size." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
18. Branigan, Amelia R.
Freese, Jeremy
Sidney, Steven
The Shifting Salience of Skin Color for Educational Attainment
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Skin Tone

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Whereas findings of an association between skin color and educational attainment have been fairly consistent among Americans born in the 1960s and earlier, little is known regarding the persistence of this relationship among Americans born after the Civil Rights era. Here we address that question, asking whether the association between skin color and educational attainment has changed between black American Baby Boomers (the CARDIA Study) and black American Millennials (the NLSY97). We find that this association has seen a modest and non-significant decline among black men between the two cohorts, while it has declined to near-zero among black women net of parental socioeconomic status. Results emphasize the need to conceptualize colorism as an intersectional problem, varying by both race and also gender, and highlight the importance of temporal context for understanding the social salience of the physical body.
Bibliography Citation
Branigan, Amelia R., Jeremy Freese and Steven Sidney. "The Shifting Salience of Skin Color for Educational Attainment." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
19. Branstad, Jennifer
Career Trajectories of Young Adults: Comparing Two Cohorts of the NLSY
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Family Formation; Gender Differences; Life Course; Marriage; Parenthood; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, I examine life trajectories of young adults in their twenties to test the theory that paths to adulthood have become less standardized and more individualized over the last few decades. Combining optimal-matching and cluster analysis of monthly sequences with multinomial regression analysis, I identify common pathways to adulthood for respondents of two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth and test the effects of cohort and gender on pathway. I find that while some researchers have suggested that contemporary young adults should follow less standardized paths because of changes in the labor market, chiefly increased flexibility in the employer-employee relationship, and changes in norms, especially in the extension of adolescence and young adulthood, in actuality, the trajectories of young adults in the 2000's are more standardized than the trajectories of young adults in the 1980's. However, this increase in standardization is largely driven by the decline of early family formation--especially married-parenthood--among young adults in the 2000's. I find that decreased family formation is coupled with increased standardization of life paths in the twenties. I also show that the paths of young women in the 1980's are the least standardized, due to a diverse set of employment and family formation trajectories.
Bibliography Citation
Branstad, Jennifer. "Career Trajectories of Young Adults: Comparing Two Cohorts of the NLSY." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
20. Branstad, Jennifer
The Effects of Economic Climate on Job Search
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Economics, Regional; Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Job Search; Unemployment Rate

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The reasons why people look for job is a critical, yet understudied, part of understanding job search behaviors. While most research on job search behaviors focuses on how people look for jobs and what search methods are successful, I examine the factors that contribute to the dual decisions of if and how to search. One critical determinant of job search behaviors is the unemployment rate. Changes in the unemployment rate alter the shape of labor queues and therefore should also alter job search behaviors. I examine two measures of job search behaviors, the incidence of search and the extensiveness of search, and two measures of labor market tightness, the local and national unemployment rate. Workers and hopeful workers actively looking for a job should increase the extensiveness of their job searches when the local unemployment rate is high to exploit more avenues of information and increase their likelihood of being matched with an employer. Using data from the NLSY97, I show that young adults do respond to changes in the unemployment rate, but do so in surprising ways.
Bibliography Citation
Branstad, Jennifer. "The Effects of Economic Climate on Job Search." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
21. Breinholt, Asta
Does Education Homogenize Parenting Practices?
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Parenting Skills/Styles; Sisters

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines whether education homogenizes mothers' engagement in cognitively stimulating parenting. The alternative is that highly educated mothers were already a homogeneous group before earning their degree. Using data from the NLSY-CYA, I jointly analyze differences between educational groups in the mean and variance of cognitively stimulating parenting using a variance function regression. To address selection, I exploit NLSY-CYA data on the parenting of adult sisters to apply a fixed effect design, controlling for unobserved characteristics of the mother's origin family. I contribute three main findings. First, descriptively, I find much higher variance in cognitively stimulating parenting among low educated mothers compared to higher educated mothers. Second, I find that observed characteristics of the origin family partially and unobserved characteristics of the origin family fully explain the differences in variance in cognitively stimulating parenting between low and highly educated mothers, which suggests that highly educated mothers were a more homogeneous group before earning their degree. Third, I find that mean differences in cognitively stimulating parenting between low and highly educated mothers persist after controlling for unobserved characteristics of the mother's origin family supporting the hypothesis that education increases engagement in cognitively stimulating parenting.
Bibliography Citation
Breinholt, Asta. "Does Education Homogenize Parenting Practices?" Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
22. Bryan, Brielle
Post-Conviction Housing Instability
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Incarceration/Jail

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Previous research suggests that incarceration leads to increased housing instability, generally finding that prior incarceration is associated with experiencing a higher number of residential moves (Geller and Curtis 2011; Harding, Morenoff, and Herbert 2013; Warner 2015). While previous researchers have justified this line of research by pointing out that both public housing authorities and private landlords can and do discriminate based on prior incarceration history (e.g., Geller and Curtis 2011), the same is true for individuals with criminal records who have not been incarcerated, particularly those with felony convictions. As such, there is good reason to believe that felony conviction, not just incarceration, is likely to lead to greater housing instability and diminished control over housing situations. This paper will explore this possibility by using the NLSY97 to examine how often formerly individuals with prior felony convictions report living in temporary housing (e.g., hotels, shelters) or unstable housing situations in which they are dependent upon others (i.e., neither owning nor renting the unit in which they live) and how their housing experiences compare to those of formerly incarcerated young adults. Additionally, I will examine the duration of unstable and/or limited control housing situations for formerly convicted and incarcerated individuals. Given that most of the previous research on the collateral consequences of the criminal justice system has focused on incarceration, this paper will make an important contribution to the literature by examining whether lesser criminal justice system involvement introduces similar instability into one's life, specifically with regard to housing.
Bibliography Citation
Bryan, Brielle. "Post-Conviction Housing Instability." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
23. Budig, Michelle Jean
Fugiero, Melissa
Racial Differences in the Effects of Education on Earnings: Findings from the NLSY, 1979-2000
Presented: New York City NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Degree; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Racial Differences

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Past research claims racial minorities benefit less from educational attainment in terms of earnings. However, it is unclear whether this reduced benefit is due to race differences in levels of education obtained or due differences in returns to earnings from educational attainment. Moreover, quite unexplored is whether race differences in the returns to education of vary by field of degree. Using the 1979-2000 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we test whether African-Americans and Caucasians experience different returns to earnings for educational attainment. We examine multiple specifications of education: years of education, highest degree obtained, and field of degree obtained. Control variables include human capital, occupational characteristics, economic and industrial sectors, local labor market conditions, family structure, and demographic characteristics. We find there are racial differences in returns to education measured as highest grade completed and this difference is largely unexplained by the addition of extensive control variables. In-depth examination of these differential returns by measuring education as highest degree obtained and as field of highest degree obtain reveal notable patterns. Among men, race gaps in returns to education are explained in many fields and levels by racial differences in human capital, labor supply, and job characteristics. However, white men receive a return to MBAs that is four times higher than black men's return. Among women, the racial differential in returns to education is more pronounced, dramatically so at the PhD level. In almost every field, African-American women receive a significantly lower return to educational credentials, compared to white women.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean and Melissa Fugiero. "Racial Differences in the Effects of Education on Earnings: Findings from the NLSY, 1979-2000." Presented: New York City NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007.
24. Budig, Michelle Jean
Hodges, Melissa J.
Overqualified and Underpaid: Understanding the Mechanisms Producing the Earnings Penalty for Care Workers
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Job Characteristics; Occupational Choice; Occupations; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

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The care wage penalty is well established, but less is known about the mechanisms producing it. Commonly used arguments of these mechanisms have not been systematically adjudicated empirically. We examine the differences between care and non-care workers that may produce this penalty, including differences in selection into care work on stable individual characteristics (such as tastes, preferences, and unmeasured abilities), human capital, job amenities and disamenities, occupational and industrial segregation, and participation in the public sector and worker unions. We also consider how specific types of care workers, such as doctors, teachers, and childcare workers, experience different penalties for performing care work. Importantly, we go beyond simply considering how differences in worker and job characteristics may lead to the care penalty. The care penalty may be produced if the wage returns to human capital, or the wage protection effects of worker unions and government subsidized work, are less positive, or more negative, for care workers. We investigate this by testing whether returns (i.e., coefficients) are different between care and non-care workers in regard to human capital (education, experience, and seniority) and potentially protective job characteristics (working in the public sector and membership in a collective bargaining unit). In these analyses we again divide care workers into subgroups of workers to consider which care workers face greater wage penalties and whether human capital investments and protective job characteristics benefit some care workers more than others.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean and Melissa J. Hodges. "Overqualified and Underpaid: Understanding the Mechanisms Producing the Earnings Penalty for Care Workers." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
25. Budig, Michelle Jean
Lim, Misun
Hodges, Melissa J.
Racial and Gender Disparities in the Wage Returns for Educational Attainment
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do race and gender intersect with educational attainment to influence earnings? Do women and minority men earn less than white men because of lower educational attainment or degrees in less lucrative majors, or because they receive lower returns to the same qualifications? Using a longitudinal national probability sample, we test whether earnings returns to education differ among white men, black men, white women, and black women. To examine the role of racial and gender segregation in field of degree, we consider multiple specifications of education: years of education, highest degree obtained, and level-by-field of degree obtained. Covariates include local labor market and demographic characteristics, family structure, human capital, and job characteristics. Findings reveal a robust labor market for less educated white men, such that white men's greater returns to secondary and college educational attainment only emerges with controls for human capital, labor supply, and job characteristics. White women also receive stronger wage returns for educational credentials, but only for post-graduate degrees. Black men receive significantly lower returns for most of their educational credentials, and this can be attributed to the disadvantageous sorting of educated black men into jobs with low-paying characteristics. Finally, black women, who appear to receive stronger returns for educational attainment in baseline models, are uniformly undervalued for their educational attainment in more saturated models. This indicates that that educational attainment may propel black women's success in the labor market in terms of human capital accumulation and occupational attainment, but compared to white women and men with equivalent characteristics, black women's education is strikingly under-rewarded in terms of pay.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean, Misun Lim and Melissa J. Hodges. "Racial and Gender Disparities in the Wage Returns for Educational Attainment." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
26. Callendar, Danielle
Brand, Jennie E.
Effects of Elite College Attendance on Job Quality
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; College Characteristics; Colleges; Educational Returns; Job Characteristics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Each year, students and their families invest considerable resources in an effort to attend America's elite colleges and universities, under the assumption that they will enjoy substantial labor market returns. The literature on the economic benefits of attending an elite college has generally yielded mixed evidence, yet the most rigorous studies suggest little impact. Other properties of jobs that signal quality, such as job benefits, authority, and autonomy, however, have received less attention. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we find that attending an elite college does increase the likelihood of having job authority, flexible hours, possibility for promotion, and on the job training or education. Attending an elite college decreases the likelihood of having a job that provides medical insurance, pension or retirement plans, and not having a boss. Moreover, the effect of attending an elite college generally does not decrease over the career, indicating that college selectivity remains salient even as workers gain more experience. We also find evidence of heterogeneity in the returns to elite college attendance. Those who had a low probability of attendance received smaller returns to job quality than those who did attend.
Bibliography Citation
Callendar, Danielle and Jennie E. Brand. "Effects of Elite College Attendance on Job Quality." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
27. Campbell, Lori A.
Parental Wealth and Intergenerational Mobility
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Degree; Home Ownership; Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Parental Influences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Much sociological research on intergenerational mobility has neglected the role of parental wealth, instead focusing on parental occupational status or prestige, family income, and parents' educational attainment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979, I investigate the relationship between parental wealth and intergenerational mobility. Specifically, this research focuses on two major research questions. First, are young adults who grew up in low wealth families less likely to attend selective colleges and universities than young adults who grew up in more wealthy families? While there has been some research in sociology regarding the effect of parental wealth on college attendance and graduation (Conley 2001), we know little about whether and how parental wealth affects the college selectivity and college completion of offspring. This line of research is important because students attending more selective institutions are more likely to graduate than those attending less selective institutions, and researchers have identified a "stagnant social-class gap in college completion" (Goldrick-Rab 2006), which in turn affects economic mobility in young adulthood. The second question I examine is, controlling for college completion and selectivity, what role does parental wealth play in explaining variation in economic mobility among young adults? I focus on three outcomes: young adults' employment, income, and homeownership. I demonstrate that parental wealth affects college completion, time to degree as well as college selectivity. Parental wealth also has small but significant effects on young adults' economic mobility, such as income and employment, independent of parental income and educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Campbell, Lori A. "Parental Wealth and Intergenerational Mobility." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
28. Carlson, Daniel L.
Do Differences in Intentions Explain Racial/Ethnic Variation in Family Formation Outcomes?
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Family Formation; Marriage; Parenthood; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Racial/ethnic differences in family formation are well-documented and scholars have often pointed to both structural and cultural/ideational factors to explain them. Yet, investigations into the role that cultural/ideational differences play have been sparse and limited in numerous ways. Using NLSY79 data, this study investigates how variations in family formation intentions explain group differences in family formation outcomes for the occurrence, timing, and sequencing of marriage and parenthood. Significant differences in family formation outcomes and intentions are found across race/ethnicity. Intentions for marriage entry and timing explain approximate 33% of the Black-White difference in age at first marriage and substantially suppress Hispanic-White differences in age at marriage. For other outcomes – ever marrying, becoming a parent, age at first birth, and nonmarital childbearing – intentions account for less than 10% of group differences.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Daniel L. "Do Differences in Intentions Explain Racial/Ethnic Variation in Family Formation Outcomes?" Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
29. Chao, Shih-Yi
Working Conditions and Marital Dissolution
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Divorce; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Marital Dissolution; Work Hours; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The vast demographic changes in families and workplace in the U.S. accompany with increasing demands of work and family involvement. Understanding the relationship between work and family can reveal how the new economy competes and negotiates with family, and what people pay to sustain the system. Applying JD-R model to NLSY79 with discrete-time hazard model, this study discusses how specific dimensions of working conditions influence the risk of divorce. The results show a full time job lower men's divorce risk they encounter. In contrast, longer working hours influence women's marital stability. Women who work at rotated shift suffer from higher risk of divorce than those at fixed shift. Personal income has no significant influence on men’s divorce risk, while women's personal income is positively related to the risk of divorce. In addition, fringe benefits cannot effectively predict the risk of divorce for men, whereas paid sick days reduce women's divorce risk, and health insurance facilitates women's willing to get divorced. In summary, the influence of working conditions on divorce depends on the image of conventional gender division of labor in household. Although women's employment keep going up, and gender equality spread widely, conventional breadwinner-homemaker family seems not be challenged for couples of NLSY79 cohort, as well as women’s disadvantages in the labor market, which forces women to stay in marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Chao, Shih-Yi. "Working Conditions and Marital Dissolution." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
30. Cheng, Siwei
Risk Pooling in The Family: Within Couple Inter-Temporal Responsiveness in Labor Market Activities
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Family Income; Family Resources; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Husbands, Income; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Wives, Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Family is a social institution that serves many social functions. Recently, a growing body of research calls attention to the role of family as a form of microlevel risk pooling, in that members of a family can pool their economic resources and adjust their behaviors to alleviate the impact of economic insecurity that they face on the labor market. The current paper studies the within-couple inter-temporal responsiveness in labor market participation as an empirical case of within-family risk pooling. Applying fixed-effect models to NLSY79 data, I found that that among married couples, the wife tends to adjust her labor supply according to the labor market outcomes of her husband, such that if the husband earns less annual income, works fewer hours, or receives a lower hourly wage, the wife will increase the amount of annual work hours or stay in employment statuses with greater level of labor market participation. In addition, the wife's responsiveness in labor market activities is greater when there is a young child present in the household, when the family income level is in the middle range, and when wife is contributing close to half of total family income.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei. "Risk Pooling in The Family: Within Couple Inter-Temporal Responsiveness in Labor Market Activities." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
31. Cheng, Siwei
The Age Trajectory of Earnings Inequality: An Evaluation of Three Mechanisms
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Life Course; Wage Gap; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The age trajectory of earnings inequality within a cohort of population is an important macro-level phenomenon that stems from micro-level life course process of earnings attainment. Unfortunately, the sociological understanding of this inequality-generating process over people’s life course has been hindered by the lack of formal model and systematic empirical tests (DiPrete and Eirich 2006). To rectify this intellectual gap, this paper establishes a formal model that elucidates three important mechanisms that can produce the increase in earnings inequality over age: growth rate heterogeneity, status acceleration and cumulative disturbance. In this model, we will explicate why these three mechanisms should matter for the age trajectory of earnings inequality, and demonstrate their effects through micro-simulation. Further, the formal model enables us to identify the contribution of each of the three mechanisms using micro-level longitudinal data. Using NLSY79, a nationally-representative longitudinal data of a total of 418,638 person-year observations, we find that that all three mechanisms have contributed to the increase in earnings inequality yet to varying degrees. Moreover, their contributions differ for men and women: for men, the three mechanisms explain relatively equal proportions of the increase in earnings inequality from age 25 to 45; yet, for women, the bulk (80%) of increase in earnings inequality between age 25 and 45 is explained by the mechanism of cumulative disturbance.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei. "The Age Trajectory of Earnings Inequality: An Evaluation of Three Mechanisms." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
32. Christie-Mizell, C. André
Keil, Jacqueline M.
Stewart, Jennifer
Pryor, Erin M.
Child and Adolescent Bullying Behavior: Parents' Work Hours and Children's Perceptions of Time
Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, July 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Bullying/Victimization; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Interaction; Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother’s and father’s work hours, and early adolescents’ perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change models, our findings indicate that over time maternal work hours bear no direct relationship to bullying behavior. Moreover, in our final models, an interaction between father’s work hours and perceptions of time spent with him has one of the most robust associations with bullying for adolescents. When paternal employment is full- or overtime and youth perceive they do not spend enough with their fathers, bullying behavior increases. Other important factors that shape bullying behavior are the quality of the home environment and the adolescent’s school performance.
Bibliography Citation
Christie-Mizell, C. André, Jacqueline M. Keil, Jennifer Stewart and Erin M. Pryor. "Child and Adolescent Bullying Behavior: Parents' Work Hours and Children's Perceptions of Time." Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, July 2008.
33. Christie-Mizell, C. André
Peralta, Robert L.
Multiple Roles and Alcohol Consumption in the Transition to Adulthood
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Attitudes; Employment; Family Influences; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Marriage; Parenthood; Social Roles; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Young Adult sample (N=1,494), we investigated whether gender role orientation and the initiation of three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage and parenthood) explain the higher levels of alcohol consumed by men. Gender differences in the amount of alcohol consumption during the transition to adulthood is explained by the number of roles occupied by the individual, but not necessarily by any single role or role combination. Role accumulation protects women from drinking, but does not have an impact on male drinking behavior. Our findings also indicated that, as youth mature, traditional gender role orientation is related to lower levels of drinking for both men and women, but is mediated by marriage. Finally, parenthood was the one adulthood transition that significantly decreased drinking for both men and women.
Bibliography Citation
Christie-Mizell, C. André and Robert L. Peralta. "Multiple Roles and Alcohol Consumption in the Transition to Adulthood." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
34. Comeau, Jinette
Avison, William R.
Willson, Andrea E.
Economic Resources and Trajectories of Children's Mental Health over the Early Life Course
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Anxiety; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Mental Health; Depression (see also CESD); Family Income; Income Level; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although the timing, duration, and sequencing of economic disadvantage are relevant to the experience of poverty and children's mental health, to date, few studies consider these temporal patterns simultaneously. This study uses data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n=2,680) to assess the extent to which stability and change in family income is associated with children's trajectories of depression/anxiety and antisocial behavior from age 4 to 14. We empirically construct 6 income categories that represent children with comparable profiles of economic resources over time: increasing, decreasing, fluctuating, and stability across low-, medium-, and high-income families. Incorporating these income categories in multiple group latent growth curve models provides an important opportunity to understand how they initiate and shape children's mental health trajectories. Results reveal significant disparities in antisocial behavior and depression/anxiety at age 4 and over time across the income categories, with the most pronounced difference occurring between children in the persistently low- and high-income categories. In addition, whereas children exposed to persistently low and medium levels of income demonstrate a modest increase in antisocial behavior in early adolescence, children with persistently high levels of income exhibit a steady decline in problem behaviors across the early life course.
Bibliography Citation
Comeau, Jinette, William R. Avison and Andrea E. Willson. "Economic Resources and Trajectories of Children's Mental Health over the Early Life Course." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
35. Conwell, Jordan Andrew
Pattillo, Mary
College Mismatch and Socioeconomic Stratification and Intergenerational Mobility for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Enrollment; Ethnic Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers have recently called attention to the issue of college mismatch – students attending colleges of better quality (overmatch) or worse quality (undermatch) than their academic ability would predict. To date, the literature has reached inconsistent conclusions on whether non-white students are more or less likely than white students to mismatch. Further, studies have not investigated whether variations in college mismatch by race affect later socioeconomic stratification and intergenerational mobility by race. In this study, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to determine whether blacks and Hispanics were more or less likely than whites to attend a mismatched college and whether and how mismatch affected college-goers' socioeconomic life courses. Compared to whites, blacks and Hispanics were significantly more likely to overmatch and significantly less likely to undermatch in their college enrollments – consistent with the functioning of an affirmative action mechanism. College overmatch and undermatch had significant effects on college-goers' educational attainment, income earned after age 25, and intergenerational educational mobility from parents' years of schooling completed. Undermatching had negative effects on these outcomes, and overmatching had positive effects. Mismatch did not significantly affect college-goers' intergenerational income mobility from their parents' income rank. For many outcomes, compared to whites, non-white students received significantly higher positive returns to matching, significantly worse penalties for undermatching, and comparably high positive returns to overmatching. Our study adds college mismatch to understandings of higher education's role in processes of stratification and mobility and contributes to debates regarding affirmative action.
Bibliography Citation
Conwell, Jordan Andrew and Mary Pattillo. "College Mismatch and Socioeconomic Stratification and Intergenerational Mobility for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
36. Curdy, Brent Harrison
The Risk of Unrealistic Optimism: When Expectations and Aspirations Don’t Match
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Expectations/Intentions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research shows that discrepancy between expectations and attainment is associated with lower levels of subjective well-being (Michalos 1985) and increased depressive symptoms (Reynolds and Baird 2010). However, attainment cannot be used as a reference for expectations during transitional periods when individuals will have goals but will not have had the time or opportunity to attain them. Therefore, this study redefines "discrepancy" as having unequal expectations and aspirations and analyzes the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and unequal educational expectations and aspirations of youths between the ages of 15-26 undergoing the transition to adulthood. Data are taken from the NLSY79 Young Adults sample from 1994, 1996, and 1998. Statistical analyses use the diagonal reference model from social mobility theory to resolve the statistical "identification problem" inherent in analyses of discrepancy measures. I find that those with an educational expectation-aspiration discrepancy have nearly twice as many depressive symptoms as someone whose educational expectations and aspirations are equal. These findings qualify prior research that suggests high expectations have a positive mental effect by showing that those positive effects may only occur if expectations are seen as attainable.
Bibliography Citation
Curdy, Brent Harrison. "The Risk of Unrealistic Optimism: When Expectations and Aspirations Don’t Match." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
37. D'Souza, Stephanie
Is Household Extension Beneficial or Harmful for Immigrant-Origin Youth? Evidence from the NLSY97
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Family Structure; Household Composition; Household Structure; Immigrants; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Extended family households have been on the rise in the U.S., particularly among immigrant families. The presence of additional adults in the household alters the environment in which children grow up and, therefore, it is important to determine how child outcomes are affected. This analysis examines behavioral outcomes for immigrant-origin youth who lived in extended family households using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Preliminary findings suggest that first-generation immigrant youth are less likely to engage in deviant behaviors compared to second-generation and third-generation youth. In addition, while household extension is associated with higher probabilities of engaging in substance use behaviors, the effect of household extension does not vary by nativity status.
Bibliography Citation
D'Souza, Stephanie. "Is Household Extension Beneficial or Harmful for Immigrant-Origin Youth? Evidence from the NLSY97." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
38. DiPrete, Thomas A.
Maurin, Eric
Goux, Dominique
Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie
Work and Pay in Flexible and Regulated Labor Markets: A Generalized Perspective on Institutional Evolution and Inequality Trends in Europe and the U.S.
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; France/Formation et Qualification Professionnelle (FQP) Survey; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Layoffs; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In recent years a “unified theory” has emerged out of labor economics, which argues that a combination of “macroeconomic shocks” and flexible labor market institutions in the U.S. has produced strong upward trends in wage inequality, while these same shocks have produced high unemployment and low employment growth in Europe as a side effect of the wage stability preserved by that continent’s rigid labor market institutions. This paper argues instead that European institutions in fact have evolved their own form of flexibility, which, in combination with the macroeconomic shocks described in the unified theory, have also led to rising inequality in Europe, but of a different form. Inequality of employment security has risen faster in France than in the U.S. Furthermore, trends in the French labor market have led to increased concentration of low-skill workers in these insecure job statues. These results challenge the view that unemployment is the main mechanisms through which European labor markets absorbed asymmetric shocks to their demand for labor. They also challenge the view that Europeans have intolerance for inequality, but instead suggest that the main difference between the two sides of the Atlantic concerns the nature of the inequalities that each society is willing to tolerate.
Bibliography Citation
DiPrete, Thomas A., Eric Maurin, Dominique Goux and Amélie Quesnel-Vallée. "Work and Pay in Flexible and Regulated Labor Markets: A Generalized Perspective on Institutional Evolution and Inequality Trends in Europe and the U.S." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2004.
39. Dirlam, Jonathan
Kosla, Martin
Gender Composition and Job Satisfaction: Are People Happier in Gender Segregated Jobs?
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Satisfaction; Modeling, Random Effects; Occupational Segregation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite much attention being given to explaining the "paradox of the contented female worker," one aspect of the relationship between gender and job satisfaction has received relatively little consideration in the sociological literature: the gender composition of occupations. Gender composition is theoretically important in several ways. First, exploring the relationship between gender composition and job satisfaction may provide insights into the reference groups used by workers (sex-specific vs. coworker-specific). Second, by analyzing this relationship we can observe how token and majority statuses influence job satisfaction differently for men and women (Kanter 1977). Finally, gender composition can be used to test how social conflict (Blalock 1967) affects the job satisfaction of both men and women. Using longitudinal data from the NLSY79, we explore what the effects of occupational gender composition are for job satisfaction. We use ordered logit random effects models and find that gender composition appears to exhibit a non-linear relationship with job satisfaction. When looking at the entire sample, respondents in gender homogeneous occupations tend to be more satisfied than respondents in diverse occupations. This general pattern holds regardless of whether the respondent is a member of the gender-majority or gender-minority - though being a member of the gender-majority has a stronger positive impact on job satisfaction. This finding best supports Blalock's theory of intergroup conflict. In gender-specific models, the pattern of respondents being more satisfied in gender-homogenous occupations holds for females, but not males.
Bibliography Citation
Dirlam, Jonathan and Martin Kosla. "Gender Composition and Job Satisfaction: Are People Happier in Gender Segregated Jobs?" Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
40. Dirlam, Jonathan
Merry, Joseph
Is the Beneficial Effect of College on Self-esteem and Mastery Overstated?
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Self-Esteem

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Prior studies have found college attendance and degree attainment to increase self-esteem and mastery in young adults. Yet college attendance itself is likely influenced by self-esteem and mastery levels experienced in adolescence. This implies that college education may act as a mediator for adolescent personality characteristics. Using data from the NLSY79-YA, we investigate the potential mediating effect of college education by estimating group based self-esteem and mastery trajectories for respondents between the ages of 14 and 18. We then test the mediating hypothesis for college education by first analyzing whether these adolescent trajectories are influential for college attendance and graduation. Second, we analyze whether the inclusion of these adolescent trajectories significantly reduces the effects of college attendance and degree attainment on self-esteem and mastery levels experienced between the ages of 24 and 32. We also investigate potential mediating relationships of adolescent personality characteristics for education and credit card debt. Our findings suggest that both college education and debt accumulation act as mediators for adolescent self-esteem and mastery trajectories. These findings imply that the benefit of going to college or acquiring debt may be overstated when adolescent personality characteristics are not taken into consideration.
Bibliography Citation
Dirlam, Jonathan and Joseph Merry. "Is the Beneficial Effect of College on Self-esteem and Mastery Overstated?" Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
41. Dirlam, Jonathan
Zheng, Hui
Job Satisfaction Developmental Trajectories and Health: A Life Course Perspective
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79) to examine how heterogeneity in job satisfaction developmental trajectories of individuals starting at age 25 and ending at age 39 influence health outcomes after the age of 40. The application of job satisfaction developmental trajectories affords us several advantages over past research. First, the incorporation of life course models allows us to observe if prolonged job satisfaction has a greater beneficial effect on health outcomes compared to intermittingly experienced levels of job satisfaction. If the effect of prolonged job satisfaction is greater, we can analyze whether this effect is strong enough to influence physical health more than the non-existent to modest relationship found in past studies (Faragher, Cass, and Cooper, 2005; Heslop, et al, 2002). The effects of job satisfaction developmental trajectories are assessed on several mental and physical health outcomes. Second, the estimation of the job satisfaction trajectories themselves affords us the ability to see what factors can influence membership and which groups are more likely to belong to a particular trajectory. Finally, trajectory analysis also allows us to include both the working and non-working population in our health models in contrast to prior studies that mainly include only the working population (Nakata, Irie, and Takahashi, 2013; Amati et al, 2010; Fischer and Sousa-Poza, 2009; Heslop, et al, 2002).
Bibliography Citation
Dirlam, Jonathan and Hui Zheng. "Job Satisfaction Developmental Trajectories and Health: A Life Course Perspective." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
42. Doren, Catherine
Is Two Too Many? Parity and Mothers Labor Force Exit
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Exits; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment

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Many mothers leave the labor force during their childbearing years. Conventional wisdom and qualitative research suggest there may be a tipping point at the second child when women are particularly likely to leave. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I find no evidence for a tipping point around the birth of second children. Women are instead most likely to leave the labor force when they are pregnant with their first child. Each subsequent child is associated with a smaller increase in the probability of exit. In addition, women who only ever have one child are less likely to leave the labor force than those who have more children. College-educated women who only have one child are especially unlikely to exit. I conclude with a discussion of why the tipping point hypothesis is so prevalent despite strong evidence against it.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Is Two Too Many? Parity and Mothers Labor Force Exit." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
43. Dorius, Cassandra J.
Measuring Maternal Multi-partnered Fertility with the NLSY79
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fertility; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Kinship; Motherhood; Record Linkage (also see Data Linkage)

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Much of the research regarding multipartnered fertility has been produced using a small number of publically available national surveys such as the Add Health, and Fragile Families and Child Well Being Surveys. Unexpectedly, the NLSY 1979 has not been used to assess MPF among adults from the 1957-1964 birth cohort, although distinctive survey characteristics make this an ideal candidate for future work. This paper provides a step-by-step explanation of how one can produce reliable and valid measures of women’s multiple partner fertility by utilizing the NSLY79 data. This approach provides the potential to advance our understanding of contemporary American family life by (1) developing a more effective way to assess the complexity of relationship histories, (2) measuring multiple partner fertility in a broader and more dimensional way, (3) playing to the strengths of family scholars by utilizing a survey that many researchers are familiar with and have the ability to use given that it is publically available and free of charge, and (4) avoiding many of the weakness of past research by conceptualizing change as a single event rather than a process.
Bibliography Citation
Dorius, Cassandra J. "Measuring Maternal Multi-partnered Fertility with the NLSY79." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
44. Dorius, Cassandra J.
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
Maternal Multipartnered Fertility and Adolescent Well-being
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Modeling, Logit; Modeling, OLS; Sexual Activity; Sexual Experiences/Virginity; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past decade, there has been an emerging body of research focusing on multipartnered fertility, where a parent has children by more than one partner. The growth in union dissolution and nonmarital childbearing has increased the prevalence of multipartnered fertility, altered the circumstances in which it occurred, and fostered concern over the implications for families, particularly children .However, it is not clear if concern over multipartnered fertility, in and of itself, is warranted. We draw on 24 waves (1979-2010) of nationally representative data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth main youth interviews to create detailed relationship histories of mothers and then link these data to self-reported assessments of adolescent well-being found in 9 waves (1994-2010) of the young adult (NLSY79-YA) supplement. Preliminary OLS and Logit regression models suggest that maternal multipartnered fertility has a significant direct and moderating effect on adolescent drug use and sexual debut net of cumulative family instability and exposure to particular family forms like marriage, cohabitation, and divorce. Moreover, maternal multipartnered fertility remained a significant predictor of both drug use and the timing of first sex even after accounting for selection into this family form and controlling for the adolescent’s experience of poverty, unemployment, and educational disadvantage at the time of birth and throughout childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Dorius, Cassandra J. and Karen Benjamin Guzzo. "Maternal Multipartnered Fertility and Adolescent Well-being." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
45. Dorius, Cassandra J.
Hernandez, Daphne C.
Mitchell, Katherine Stamps
The Long Term Impact of Multi-partnered Fertility on Adolescent Well-being
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Cohabitation; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Drug Use; Family Size; Family Structure; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Household Composition; Marital History/Transitions; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Given the dramatic changes in family life over the past half century, there are many questions among scholars, policy makers, and intervention specialists about the long term influence of family instability on the lives of mothers and children. The aim of this research is to be the first empirical study of the long-term consequences of maternal multipartnered fertility on the lives of adolescent children. This will be accomplished by using a multigenerational, longitudinal, and nationally representative sample of a birth cohort of women who were followed from adolescence to the end of their childbearing years and linking their MPF histories to self-reported measures of child wellbeing across a variety of domains. This project will evaluate the influence of maternal MPF on adolescent wellbeing in terms of childhood depression, graduating from high school, reporting internalizing or externalizing problems, and the likelihood of a teen birth.
Bibliography Citation
Dorius, Cassandra J., Daphne C. Hernandez and Katherine Stamps Mitchell. "The Long Term Impact of Multi-partnered Fertility on Adolescent Well-being." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
46. Dwyer, Rachel E.
McCloud, Laura
Hodson, Randy
Gender, Debt, and Dropping Out of College
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Dropouts; Gender Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Access to credit has become critical for many young Americans to complete a college education and embark on a successful career path. Young people thus increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or forgoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are significantly gendered by gender differences in college preparation and support, and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying significant college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of dropping out of college in the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We find that women and men are both more likely to drop out of college when carrying high debt, but men drop out at lower levels of debt than women. We conclude by considering whether high levels of debt have become one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the structure of social stratification.
Bibliography Citation
Dwyer, Rachel E., Laura McCloud and Randy Hodson. "Gender, Debt, and Dropping Out of College." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
47. Eirich, Gregory M.
Li, Tianshu
Will Promoting Education Really Increase People's Trust Levels? A Test Utilizing a Sample of American Siblings
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Characteristics; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Siblings; Trust

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is well established that individuals who have higher levels of educational attainment also have higher levels of generalized trust, which means they express a stronger belief that people "in general" -- strangers, co-workers, neighbors, and so on -- will not take advantage of them. Likewise, it is well established that countries with higher-educated citizenries also have higher levels of aggregate trust; and researchers have linked these higher trust levels to many positive outcomes, including increased GDP, improved health and decreased corruption. Scholars have reasoned that increased schooling can increase an individual's generalized trust by promoting universal values, ingraining ethical habits and carving out social circles where people feel "safe" to let their guard down. Yet few researchers have thought to actually test if an increase in educational attainment produces an increase in generalized trust in some stronger causal sense. By comparing siblings to each other, we can get some leverage on this issue because siblings can essentially serve as "controls" for each other. Running fixed effects regressions on the NLSY79, we find that among siblings, the positive relationship between education and trust largely evaporates. Educational attainment per se, therefore, does not appear to be responsible for increases in generalized trust, but rather unmeasured family characteristics (whether tied to genetics or family-specific socialization practices and values) that siblings share. These results are so surprising because they suggest higher education has a negligible role in promoting generalized trust among Americans, contrary to what many scholars previously hypothesized.
Bibliography Citation
Eirich, Gregory M. and Tianshu Li. "Will Promoting Education Really Increase People's Trust Levels? A Test Utilizing a Sample of American Siblings." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
48. Fasang, Anette
Aisenbrey, Silke
Grunow, Daniela
The Interplay of Family Formation and Early Work Careers in Germany and the United States
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Family Formation; German Life History Study; Maternal Employment; Occupational Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do men and women combine work and family in different welfare state contexts? In comparison to Germany, the US labor market has low employment security and low occupational boundaries. At the same time, Germany classifies as a single breadwinner welfare state, whereas the US is a dual-earner / dual-career welfare state that generally provides better options for women combine work and family. We use longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) and the German Life History Study (GLHS) to study work-family trajectories of men and women in these two institutional contexts. Results from multichannel sequence analysis show distinct work-family patterns for men and women that can be related to occupational status.
Bibliography Citation
Fasang, Anette, Silke Aisenbrey and Daniela Grunow. "The Interplay of Family Formation and Early Work Careers in Germany and the United States." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
49. Fink, Joshua
Drugs, Dorms, and Disparities: How College Contributes to Punishment Inequality
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Arrests; College Enrollment; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Drug Use; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Life Course; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent trends in United States' drug laws and law enforcement practices have inspired much research on punishment inequality and the mass incarceration of illicit drugs users. Existing studies have identified important contributing factors, such as racial discrimination and unequal access to sufficient legal counsel, but many mechanisms that could potentially contribute to punishment inequality have not been examined. Using the life-course perspective and ideas present in differential institutional engagement theory, this study examines how college enrollment and residency impact who is arrested and punished for drug charges. With data from the NLSY97, I analyze between- and within-individual variation in drug arrests and charges using random, fixed, and hybrid effects regression. I also examine latent trajectories of drug arrests for respondents enrolled and not-enrolled in college using group-based finite mixture modeling. I find college enrollment and living in a college dormitory decrease an individual's risk of being arrested and charged with a drug offense. Further, I find the effects of college enrollment on the probability of a drug arrest hold net of the level of illegal substance use. I conclude that campuses and dormitories protect drug using college students from punishment, and college enrollment may be an important, unexamined mechanism driving inequalities in drug arrests and incarceration.
Bibliography Citation
Fink, Joshua. "Drugs, Dorms, and Disparities: How College Contributes to Punishment Inequality." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
50. Finnigan, Ryan
Childhood Family Structure, Education, and Intergenerational Mobility in the United States
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Structure; General Social Survey (GSS); Mobility, Occupational

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite voluminous research on the long-term effects of childhood family structure in the United States, empirical assessments of its salience for intergenerational income mobility have been sparse. Bloome’s (2017) recent study found intergenerational income persistence was stronger for children of two-parent families than for children from outside them. However, this ostensibly greater mobility was driven by downward mobility among children of high-income non-two-parent families. This builds on past research in four ways: examining education as a mechanism for income mobility differences by family structure; comparing patterns of income mobility with occupational status mobility; predicting children’s educational attainment with an interaction between childhood family structure and parental income/occupational status; and testing for cohort differences in the family-structure occupational mobility difference. I find education explains only a minority of the family-structure difference in income mobility in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Educational explains almost the entire difference in occupational status mobility in the General Social Survey. Family-structure differences in educational attainment primarily reflect a lower probability of attaining a college degree for children from high-income non-two-parent families compared to high-income two-parent families in both surveys. Finally, I find some evidence family-structure differences in occupational status mobility have increased across birth cohorts.
Bibliography Citation
Finnigan, Ryan. "Childhood Family Structure, Education, and Intergenerational Mobility in the United States." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
51. Florian, Sandra M.
Intersectionality at Work: Racial Variation in Women's Employment after First Birth
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A vast literature has shown that having children reduces women's employment. Yet, less attention has been paid to the racial disparities in employment transitions following the entrance into motherhood. Moreover, although it has been well-documented that disadvantaged minority groups begin childbearing at earlier stages of the life course than Whites, little research has investigated how the disparities in the onset of childbearing shape the racial differences in female employment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-2012, this study draws from the life course and intersectionality perspectives to assess the racial variation in women's employment status following the first birth among Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks, and investigate the factors associated with probability of transitioning from non-employment to full-time and part-time employment. Preliminary findings indicate that Hispanic and, particularly, African American women are less likely than Whites to be employed following their first birth mostly because they become mothers at younger ages and are less likely to be employed before the onset of childbearing. Surprisingly, the results reveal that Black women who were full-time employed before having children are less likely to exit full-time employment after their first birth than Latinas and Whites. This study provides evidence of the multiple dimensions of intersectionality shaping racial differences in female employment across stages of the life course.
Bibliography Citation
Florian, Sandra M. "Intersectionality at Work: Racial Variation in Women's Employment after First Birth." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
52. Florian, Sandra M.
Casper, Lynne M.
The Impact of Fertility on Women's Work Experience: Evaluating the Motherhood Penalty among Mature Women
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Since the 1970s women's labor force participation significantly increased driven by the rise in the number of mothers who remained employed. The entrance of mothers to the labor market helped reduced the gender gap in labor force participation and occupational outcomes. However, since the 1990s this progress has stalled. Women still experience a series of obstacles to combine work and family life once they become mothers. In this paper, I evaluate the extent to which fertility reduces women's work experience using fixed effects models and recent data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, NLSY 1979-2012. The results indicate that, on average, having children decreases women's work experience by nearly one year per child. However, this effect varies by parity and over the life course, increasing through ages 45-49, then it slightly decreasing but only for parities 2 and lower. The effect of parity continues increasing for higher parity orders. The results suggest that women who have 2 or fewer children are able to make up some of their lost work experience when children grow up. By ages 50-55, having 1 child is associated with 8 fewer months of work experience, and having two children with 1.1 fewer years of work experience. By contrast having 3 or more children is associated with 3.4 fewer years of work experience. Contrary to the specialization theory, being married is instead associated with increased women's work experience.
Bibliography Citation
Florian, Sandra M. and Lynne M. Casper. "The Impact of Fertility on Women's Work Experience: Evaluating the Motherhood Penalty among Mature Women." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
53. Frech, Adrianne
Damaske, Sarah
Men's Work Pathways and Physical and Mental Health at Midlife
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Part-Time Work; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, this paper makes two significant contributions to the study of the relationship between men's work and their health at middle age. First, this paper provides the first, to our knowledge, examination of men's longitudinal work pathways using national data and prospective work histories and demonstrates substantial variation in men's work patterns across the life course. We find that the majority of men (just under 80%) work at least 40 hours a week steadily over their twenties, thirties, and early forties. Notably, 20% of men do not follow this standard pattern, suggesting that men's longitudinal workforce participation is much more diverse than is often acknowledged. Second, we find that men's longitudinal work pathways are related to their health at middle age with men who following declining part-time and declining full-time positions experiencing poorer physical and mental health at middle age, although selection into work pathways and characteristics at age 40 account for some of these differences. Our findings suggests that the achievement of steady full-time work may provide long-term health benefits and that access to such stable employment is heavily stratified.
Bibliography Citation
Frech, Adrianne and Sarah Damaske. "Men's Work Pathways and Physical and Mental Health at Midlife." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
54. Frech, Adrianne
Damaske, Sarah
The Relationships between Mothers’ Work Pathways and Physical and Mental Health
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): First Birth; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use the NLSY79 to investigate the relationships between mothers’ longitudinal work pathways and health during middle age and find that full-time, continuous employment following a first birth is associated with significantly better health at age forty than part-time work, paid work interrupted by at least three bouts of unemployment, and unpaid work in the home. Part-time workers with little unemployment report significantly better mental and physical health at age forty than mothers experiencing persistent unemployment. These relationships remain after accounting for the unequal selection of more advantaged mothers into fulltime, continuous employment, and are in part attributable to pre-work pathway characteristics such as cognitive ability, single parenthood, and age at first birth. Findings support our hypotheses that full-time, continuous work is associated with better physical and mental health net of the characteristics that select mothers into work, and for some, net of the socioeconomic resources that continuous work provides.
Bibliography Citation
Frech, Adrianne and Sarah Damaske. "The Relationships between Mothers’ Work Pathways and Physical and Mental Health." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
55. Freeman, Laura
Cumulative Inequality and Race/Ethnic Disparities in Low Birthweight: Differences by Childhood SES
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Disadvantaged, Economically; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study applies Cumulative Inequality theory to investigate whether differences in mothers' childhood socioeconomic status (SES), in terms of economic hardship and social position, account for race/ethnic disparities in infant low birthweight (LBW) risk. This study uses three-generation linked data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1979-1995) and NLSY Young Adult (1994-2010) samples, which detail the life histories of the mothers and grandmothers of 2,332 singleton infants, to assess the unique association between mothers' childhood SES and infant LBW in ways not previously possible. Results indicate that childhood SES differences do not account for race/ethnic disparities in LBW, as low childhood SES increases the probability of LBW only for whites. Further pairwise comparisons of infant LBW probability between black, white, and Hispanic mothers from similar childhood socioeconomic backgrounds indicate the greatest LBW disparities exist between black and white women who experienced the least SES disadvantage during childhood. Note: A similar paper was presented by Laura Freeman Cenegy at Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
Bibliography Citation
Freeman, Laura. "Cumulative Inequality and Race/Ethnic Disparities in Low Birthweight: Differences by Childhood SES." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
56. Gangl, Markus
Ziefle, Andrea
Women's Cost of Child Care Breaks in Britain, Germany and the United States
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): British Household Panel Survey (BHPS); Career Patterns; Child Care; Cross-national Analysis; Discrimination, Sex; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Motherhood; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The paper uses harmonized panel data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to address cross-national variation in the wage penalty associated with mothers' work interruptions due to child care. We establish significant and permanent wage losses due to child care breaks in all three countries under study, yet wage losses for mothers in Germany are less than half the U.S. figures. The key factor behind this result is the fact that women's post-birth mobility into more mother-friendly jobs generates significant wage cost to Ameri-can mothers, whereas, particularly among German mothers, job shifts are far less frequent and when occurring, typically associated with smaller wage losses. Nevertheless, child care breaks carry a significant wage penalty due to stigma effects in all three countries under study. Also, the total wage cost women are prepared to accept for childrearing is remarkably similar in the three countries.
Bibliography Citation
Gangl, Markus and Andrea Ziefle. "Women's Cost of Child Care Breaks in Britain, Germany and the United States." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 2006.
57. Gebhardt-Kram, Lauren Elizabeth
Risky Eating in Romantic Relationships: Exploring the Role of Relationship Status and Quality
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Marital Conflict; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Status; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A long-standing body of research shows that the married enjoy better health and health behavior outcomes than the unmarried across many health dimensions, except for BMI. Despite this perplexing aberration, research has yet to establish how eating behavior, a major contributor to BMI, is associated with relationship status. Furthermore, recent research contesting the notion of relationship status as the most salient predictor of health suggests that relationship quality is an additionally formidable health predictor; yet how relationship quality matters for eating behavior has yet to be examined. Data from the NLSY79 reveals that compared to the single, the married engage in significantly less risky eating behavior and there is no significant difference between the cohabiting and single on eating behavior, but only when SES is not accounted for. Additionally, among the married and cohabiting, relationship happiness is a more salient predictor of risky eating behavior than relationship strain, and these effects are similar for the married and cohabiting. Furthermore, SES confounds relationship status findings, but not quality findings. Findings bolster evidence on the declining premium of relationship status and suggest that relationship quality is a formidable predictor of health.
Bibliography Citation
Gebhardt-Kram, Lauren Elizabeth. "Risky Eating in Romantic Relationships: Exploring the Role of Relationship Status and Quality." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
58. Gillespie, Brian Joseph
Community and Locational Factors Affecting Child Well-Being after a Residential Move
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Achievement; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Mobility, Residential; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the relationship between residential mobility and adolescent academic achievement and behavior problems. Specifically, it addresses how community and family protective factors (social capital) as well as geographic location buffer the negative effects of moving on children. This paper also explores the extent to which different dimensions of residential mobility affect specific adolescent outcome domains differently. Children’s behavior problems and academic achievement test scores were compared across four survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006) and matched to data from their mothers' reports from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. This allows testing for the effects of residential mobility while controlling for other theoretically important factors, including child’s age. The results suggest that locational characteristics are significant predictors for academic achievement after residential relocation while community and family protective factors affect behavior problems. The results also suggest that the negative effects of moving on behavior problems decrease as children get older. The findings indicate a more complex relationship among moving, social capital, and child outcomes than expected.
Bibliography Citation
Gillespie, Brian Joseph. "Community and Locational Factors Affecting Child Well-Being after a Residential Move." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
59. Gillespie, Brian Joseph
Treas, Judith A.
Adolescent Intergenerational Cohesiveness and Young Adult Proximity to Parents
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Residence; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers how parent-child cohesion in adolescence relates to young adults’ geographic proximity to parents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 2,736), ordered probit models the association between adolescents’ emotional closeness to parents and subsequent residential distance, controlling for key factors. Young people “at risk” of living at a distance (i.e., who have moved out of the parental home) may be characterized by poorer relationships with parents. To take account of potential selection bias, two-stage Heckit models address spatial proximity as it relates to the choice to live with parents. At least for mothers, emotional closeness is robustly associated with later spatial proximity. The finding holds controlling for family structure, which is often taken as proxy for relationship quality. Although emotional closeness figures in the decision to leave home, we do not find that selection out of coresidence biases the results for geographic proximity.
Bibliography Citation
Gillespie, Brian Joseph and Judith A. Treas. "Adolescent Intergenerational Cohesiveness and Young Adult Proximity to Parents." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
60. Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Spearin, Carrie E.
From Sons to Fathers in the NLSY79
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Child Support; Family Formation; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Presence; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Abstract: With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the 20th century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed not only to life with a single mother but to a variety of new family forms. In this paper we examine the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus childless, being a coresident vs. a noncoresident father, as well as those predicting being a stepfather. The data come from the Child-Mother and Young Adult Samples of the NLSY79, which provide information on the children of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. The results support previous research showing the economic and educational disadvantage of men not living with their biological children and, to a lesser degree, men who become stepfathers.
Bibliography Citation
Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin, Sandra L. Hofferth and Carrie E. Spearin. "From Sons to Fathers in the NLSY79." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 2006.
61. Gottlieb, Aaron
Beyond Parental Incarceration: The Effects of Household Incarceration on the Risk of Premarital First Birth
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Structure; Heterogeneity; Household Influences; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Two of the most pronounced social trends in the United States over the last 40 years are the increase in childbearing outside of marriage and the increase in incarceration. Yet, no research has explored whether having a household member incarcerated during childhood influences a child's risk of having a premarital birth. Using data on the children of mothers interviewed in the NLSY79, I find that having a household member incarcerated between ages 10 to 14 increases a child's risk of growing up to have a premarital first birth by approximately 40% in both covariate adjustment and propensity score matching approaches. The findings also show that both the incarceration of immediate and extended family household members are important risk factors for having a premarital first birth. Taken together, these findings suggest that research exclusively emphasizing the consequences of parental incarceration has likely underestimated the consequences of the prison boom. One important way that household incarceration transmits disadvantage is by impacting family structure across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Gottlieb, Aaron. "Beyond Parental Incarceration: The Effects of Household Incarceration on the Risk of Premarital First Birth." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
62. Haas, Steven A.
Fosse, Nathan Edward
Health and the Educational Attainment of Adolescents: Evidence from the NLSY97
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006.
Also: http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/0/3/0/1/pages103013/p103013-2.php
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; College Enrollment; Education, Secondary; Educational Attainment; Family Characteristics; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School Completion/Graduates; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Siblings; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A small but growing body of research suggests a potentially important role of early life health in shaping educational and socioeconomic attainments in adulthood. In most respects these findings are consistent with a large and long standing literature documenting the deleterious long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight and poor infant/child health. However, very little is known about the factors linking poor childhood health and educational outcomes. This study addresses this gap by investigating the cognitive and social mechanisms by which poor health may influence the educational outcomes of adolescents. Preliminary results confirm the previously found association between childhood health and educational attainment. Healthy adolescents spend more time studying, and have higher grade point averages. Healthy adolescents also obtain higher scores on the Math PIAT test. Adolescents who report poorer health are significantly more likely to be the victims of bullying and are more likely to be involved in physical altercations. The results provide some of the first longitudinal analyses confirming what previous researchers have largely speculated: health influences academic attainment in adolescence, and it does so by influencing students' performance and their social connections in school. In addition, we will expand this research by more explicitly focusing on the latter mechanism, that is, how health in adolescent influences their social participation in school.
Bibliography Citation
Haas, Steven A. and Nathan Edward Fosse. "Health and the Educational Attainment of Adolescents: Evidence from the NLSY97." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006.
63. Han, JooHee
Who Goes to College, Army, Jail, or Nowhere? Selection to Racialized Competing Labor Market Institutions
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Incarceration/Jail; Military Service; Racial Differences; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I analyze racial differences in the risk of the four major competing life events after high school: college enrollment, military service, long-term unemployment, and incarceration compared to employment in the labor market. They are racialized competing labor market institutions in that sizable populations experience them, which also yield different subsequent labor market conditions, and the selection processes into each institution are racialized, and they compete to absorb the labor forces in the labor market, but previous research focuses on only one or two of those events at a time rather than analyzing them altogether as competing events. I analyze individual level panel data (NSLY97) and examine the detail processes which lead to all four major events.

In terms of selection processes, the results show that the main reason why blacks are selected into undesirable institutions is due to their relative low school achievement. When controlling for school achievement, blacks are selected into the desirable institutions, college and the military, and the remaining blacks are selected into undesirable institutions, long-term unemployment and incarceration relative to employment. The selection processes are different across races as well. The positive selection to the military associated with school achievement is stronger for blacks than whites. In addition, better family resources help whites avoid the risk of undesirable events but they do not help for blacks. The results also show that the undesirable events experienced during high school continue to influence subsequent life events but the effects are different for blacks and whites.

Bibliography Citation
Han, JooHee. "Who Goes to College, Army, Jail, or Nowhere? Selection to Racialized Competing Labor Market Institutions." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
64. Hao, Lingxin
Early Parental Investment and Child Development Trajectories
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Child Development; Home Environment; Parental Investments; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parental investment has been narrowly conceptualized as investment in formal education. Despite the recent attention to the productivity of early education, most research fails to consider early biological and social interactions. This paper seeks to fill in these conceptual and empirical gaps. Drawing advances from biological and social sciences we formulate an augmented child development framework that takes into account early biological and social environments from pre- and postnatal care, breastfeeding, infant care, to home environment of cognitive stimulation and emotional support. The empirical data are drawn from Children of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Growth mixture modeling is used to test the derived hypotheses. To enable causal inferences our models control for unobserved mother heterogeneity and child heterogeneity. Findings of this study advance our understanding of the enduring effect of early parental investment on children's developmental outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Early Parental Investment and Child Development Trajectories." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
65. Harvey, Hope
Cumulative Effects of Doubling up in Childhood on Young Adult Outcomes
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childhood Residence; Educational Attainment; Grandparents; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Composition; Household Structure; Modeling, Marginal Structural; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Living in a doubled up household is a common childhood experience, yet we know little about the cumulative effects of these households on children. In this paper, I present estimates of the impacts of three types of doubled up households: 1) those formed with the child's grandparent(s), 2) those formed with the child's adult sibling(s), and 3) those formed with another adult(s). I first explore what family characteristics predict residence in each type of doubled up households. I then employ marginal structural models and inverse probability of treatment weighting, methods that allow me to account for the fact that household composition is both a cause and consequence of other family characteristics, to estimate the relationship between childhood years spent in each double up type and young adult educational attainment and health. This analysis provides evidence that this increasingly common household form may play a role in shaping children's life chances.
Bibliography Citation
Harvey, Hope. "Cumulative Effects of Doubling up in Childhood on Young Adult Outcomes." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
66. Hayford, Sarah R.
Second Births and Employment Around the First Birth: A Focused Test of Preference Theory
Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, July 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Fertility; First Birth; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Extensive research has established a negative relationship between women’s employment and their fertility, but has not come to a conclusion about the causal nature of this relationship. In particular, it is not clear how economic and practical constraints interact with women’s own desires for employment and for children. Preference theory (Hakim 2000, 2003) proposes that women’s preferences for work or for family orientation determine both employment and fertility behavior largely independently of economic and social factors. In this analysis, I use longitudinal data on work and fertility intentions, fertility behavior, and labor force participation from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort to test predictions generated by preference theory. I focus on the employment-fertility relationship at a particular moment in women’s family formation trajectory, the time after the first birth. I find only weak support for preference theory.
Bibliography Citation
Hayford, Sarah R. "Second Births and Employment Around the First Birth: A Focused Test of Preference Theory." Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, July 2008.
67. He, Qian
Heterogeneous Effects of Employment Instability on Transitions to First-time Homeownership: Evidence from NLSY79 Cohort
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Employment, History; Employment, Intermittent; Employment, Part-Time; Gender Differences; Home Ownership; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As one of the key financial decisions for young adult households, buying the first home marks establishing a stable household and achieving socioeconomic maturity, with or without parental sponsorship. Do people generally hold this decision until they settle down on a stable career? If so, how? This article examines the relationships between various sources of employment uncertainties and patterns of transitioning to first-time homeownership, as well as how the relationships vary by gender and educational attainment. Results from discrete event history analysis on the NLSY79 cohort suggest that career instability does deter young adults' transitions to first-time homeownership. This relationship, first of all, varies by employment sector. The self-employed are at salient advantages in gaining home ownership, compared to private-sector employees. Second, this relationship also varies by standard versus nonstandard employment categories. Those who work part-time or part-year (i.e. nonstandard employment) are substantially less likely to buy their own home than those who are employed full-time, full-year. Third, employer tenure positively predicts first-time home purchases. Fourth, however, career impacts on individuals' chances of becoming homeowners are gendered: nonstandard employment hurts men's homeownership transitions, and by contrast, precipitates women's. Fifth, educational attainment does not apparently moderate the relationship between employment precariousness and first-home acquisition. Lastly, although no interactions between parental background and adult children's employment situations are found in predicting young adults' home ownership outcomes, children from more privileged families tend to become homeowners later than counterparts from less privileged families, probably due to the former's lengthened educational career.
Bibliography Citation
He, Qian. "Heterogeneous Effects of Employment Instability on Transitions to First-time Homeownership: Evidence from NLSY79 Cohort." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
68. Hearne, Brittany Nicole
The Effect of Parenting Styles and Depressive Symptoms on Youths' Educational Attainment
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Parenting Skills/Styles; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study examined the relationships among parenting styles experienced in adolescence, depressive symptoms, and educational outcomes for young adults. Utilizing four parental typologies based on parent-adolescent decision making processes, I investigated the relationship between parenting styles and depressive symptoms and the long-term impact on educational attainment for young adults.

Data for this investigation were drawn from a sample of youth from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). The data spanned nine years and consisted of 4,078 young adults. With a representative sample and longitudinal data I was able to trace the direct and indirect impact of parenting styles experienced during adolescence on educational attainment. The data allowed for a careful evaluation of not only of how parenting styles operate over time, but also whether and how depressive symptoms experienced in late adolescence reach into young adulthood to shape educational attainment. Furthermore, differences by race-ethnicity were included.

The results of this study were consistent with the existing literature. Non-authoritative parenting styles result in less than optimal outcomes for adolescents and young adults. However, the negative effects are more pronounced for white youth than for black and Hispanic youth.

Bibliography Citation
Hearne, Brittany Nicole. "The Effect of Parenting Styles and Depressive Symptoms on Youths' Educational Attainment." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
69. Hendrix, Joshua A.
Nonstandard Work among Young Adults: Pathways into Poor Psychological Functioning
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Life Satisfaction; Psychological Effects; Relationship Conflict; Shift Workers; Sleep; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Individuals who work during nonstandard hours are at risk for psychological problems, yet little is known about the mechanisms that explain these links, and whether pathways are contingent on gender and family roles. I address these issues with a nationally representative sample of employed men and woman in their mid-to-late twenties (n=4,300). I investigate whether life dissatisfaction, job dissatisfaction, and sleep hours are mechanisms for explaining associations between nonstandard work hours and poor psychological functioning for single respondents, and whether these processes in addition to intimate-relationship conflict can explain associations for partnered respondents. Results indicate a number of adverse consequences of working nonstandard schedules. Most notably, evening work hours are associated with psychological functioning, although pathways are gender-specific. The link between evening work hours and poor psychological functioning operates through job dissatisfaction for partnered men and through life dissatisfaction for partnered women. Work schedules are not directly associated with psychological functioning for single respondents, although a number of indirect pathways are detected. Implications of findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hendrix, Joshua A. "Nonstandard Work among Young Adults: Pathways into Poor Psychological Functioning." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
70. Hodges, Melissa J.
All in the Family: A Couples' Approach to Understanding Parental Wage Gaps Within and Across Households
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children; Fatherhood; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Motherhood; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the 1980- 2008 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this paper examines how parenthood exacerbates gender wage inequality within married, heterosexual households and across families by spousal work time arrangements. The majority of research on motherhood penalties and fatherhood premiums investigates how individual men and women's earnings change after the arrival of children, but it remains unclear how parental bonuses and penalties align within couples and vary across households. Although studies investigating child effects on individuals' wages draw on theoretical explanations that rely on the joint decision-making of couples, little work to date directly situates the effects of children on earnings within couples and within the larger context of US earnings inequality. This paper finds that wage inequality associated with family composition not only amplifies the gender wage gap within households, but also contributes to wage inequality among couples based on differences among couples' in terms of work effort. Findings suggest that to address the growth in US wage inequality, it is necessary to consider how within-couple wage gaps associated with children vary across households.
Bibliography Citation
Hodges, Melissa J. "All in the Family: A Couples' Approach to Understanding Parental Wage Gaps Within and Across Households." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
71. Hodges, Melissa J.
Care and Disadvantage: Investigating the Likelihood of Care Work for Men and Women
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Event History; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Supply; Occupational Choice; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using discrete-time event history models on pooled 1979-2008 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper investigates the “risk” of individuals entering and continuing in care work. I consider differences among male and female care and non-care workers, including selection into care work on stable individual characteristics, human capital, and labor supply. The results suggest that likelihood of entering and continuing in care work is a gendered and racialized process. Women and women of color in particular, are more likely to enter and continue in care work over time. Possible explanations include labor market segmentation and perceptions of care work as being more amenable to family responsibilities.
Bibliography Citation
Hodges, Melissa J. "Care and Disadvantage: Investigating the Likelihood of Care Work for Men and Women." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
72. Hope, Ashleigh Rene
Perceived Purchases: The Effects of Financial Strain on Depressive Symptoms in Early Adulthood
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Depression (see also CESD); Economic Well-Being; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Stress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between economic inequalities and mental health disparities is well established among scholars. Occupying lower economic strata consistently produces higher levels of distress and ultimately greater instances in depressive symptoms than those who are economically advantaged. When accounting for economic position, on average depressive symptoms are highest among those transitioning into adulthood which decrease until middle age and then increase through later adulthood. Primarily scholars have explored this relationship using objective measures of socioeconomic status such as education, income, and occupational prestige. These measures have real social consequences, yet they do not account for perceptions of one's economic position or the life course dependent factors that may shape such evaluations. The purpose of this paper aims to examine the variation in depressive symptoms by subjective financial strain in a framework of stress-process and life-course theories. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth Child and Young Adult Survey years 2000-2008. I investigate how levels of depressive symptoms fluctuate by financial strain in adults ages 18-34 using 2-level multilevel models with age interactions. My analyses indicate that financial strain does positively and significantly predict levels of depressive symptoms but depressive symptoms do not decrease with age when accounting for perceptions of financial strain. This provides new insight in the discussion of depressive symptoms and mental health disparities when adjusting for perceptions of financial strain across adulthood transitions.
Bibliography Citation
Hope, Ashleigh Rene. "Perceived Purchases: The Effects of Financial Strain on Depressive Symptoms in Early Adulthood." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
73. Hope, Ashleigh Rene
The Pains of Parenting: The Importance of Perceived Financial Strain and Parental Mental Health
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Depression (see also CESD); Economic Well-Being; Health, Mental; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parenthood is one of the few adult roles that is not associated with a mental health advantage. Previous research has established that parents report higher distress than non-parents and that parents in certain conditions, such as single parents, report very high levels of distress. Less research has focused on economic conditions as critical determinants of parents' mental health and whether economic strain is a primary mechanism in the distress parents report. In this paper, I seek to clarify the relationship between parenthood and depressive symptoms by investigating how this relationship is moderated by perceptions of financial strain using a nationally representative sample of adults ages 18-35 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 - Young Adult Sample. Drawing on role theory, I argue that parents experiencing financial burdens will report greater depressive symptoms because of their inability to successfully meet role demands. The analyses demonstrate that parent generally report greater depressive symptoms compared to non-parents. However, I find that the relationship between parent status and depressive symptoms is qualified by perceptions of financial strain. Parents who report greater levels of perceived financial strain have worse mental health than parents reporting little to no perceptions of financial strain and the negative mental health effects of experiencing financial strain is substantially worse for parents than non-parents. These findings suggest that parents may be especially vulnerable to the detrimental effects of perceiving financial strain because the likely impact this has on their ability to perform role functions.
Bibliography Citation
Hope, Ashleigh Rene. "The Pains of Parenting: The Importance of Perceived Financial Strain and Parental Mental Health." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
74. Houle, Jason N.
Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Income Level; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In an era of rising college costs and declining grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents’ resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. This study asks how parents’ socioeconomic status (parents’ income and parents’ education) is linked to student loan debt. This study develops and tests three hypotheses about the link between two key elements of parents’ socioeconomic status—income and education—and young adults’ student loan debt. Study findings reveal that young adults from well-educated or high-income families are relatively protected from debt, in support of the reproduction of advantage hypothesis. Moreover, the relationship between parents’ income and student loan debt is nonlinear, such that young adults from middle-income families have a higher risk of debt than those from lower and higher income families, supporting the middle income squeeze hypothesis. The study findings suggest that student loan debt plays an important role in the early process of status attainment. In an era where debt has become ubiquitous, student loan debt may help reproduce inequalities across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. "Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
75. Houle, Jason N.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Is Student Loan Debt Discouraging Home Buying Among Young Adults?
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Cost; Debt/Borrowing; Home Ownership; Racial Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Scholars, policy makers, and journalists have long speculated that the rise of student loan debt may lead to a range of negative outcomes among the recent generations of young adults. Most recently, many have suggested that student loan debt is holding back the housing market recovery, and that high debt burdens are leading young adults to leave the housing market, en masse. But despite these strong claims, there is very little empirical evidence on this topic. In this study, we use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 cohort and ask how student loan debt accumulation is associated with home ownership outcomes (1) owning a home; 2) having a mortgage; 3) amount of mortgage debt among homeowners) in the current generation of young adults. In addition, given large racial and socioeconomic disparities in home ownership and student loan debt, we also examine whether the association between student loan debt and homeownership outcomes differs across racial and socioeconomic groups. We use a variety of methodological techniques; including OLS and 2-stage least squares instrumental variables, and find limited evidence that student loan debt is reducing home ownership among young adults. Although we find a significant association between debt and home-ownership, the association is substantively modest in size, suggesting that student loan debt is not a drag on the housing market. However, we find important race differences in the association between debt and homeownership, such that the effect of student loan debt on ownership outcomes is stronger for blacks than whites.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Is Student Loan Debt Discouraging Home Buying Among Young Adults?" Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
76. Houle, Jason N.
Warner, Cody
Into the Red and Back to the Nest? Debt and Returning to the Parental Home
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we make two primary contributions to the literature on “boomeranging”, or returning to the parental home. First, we provide one of the first examinations of the prevalence and correlates of boomeranging among a recent cohort of young adults. Second, we test the hypothesis that student loan and credit card debt increase the risk of boomeranging. To do this, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY-97) and discrete time event history models to examine the link between debt and risk of returning to the parental home. We find that approximately 40% of young adults who become independent in our sample return home between 1997-2011 (7.6% annually). We also find key sociodemographic correlates of returning home. However, we find no support for the popular hypothesis that debt in young adulthood is associated with the risk of returning home, or boomeranging.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Cody Warner. "Into the Red and Back to the Nest? Debt and Returning to the Parental Home." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
77. Houston, Stacey
99 Problems, Is Depression One? Examining the Effect of Incarceration History on Depressive Symptoms
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Incarceration/Jail; Racial Differences; Stress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

U.S. prisons are one of the fastest growing social institutions in the world. The funneling of persons into the prison system, however, has been overwhelmingly lopsided, as African Americans are incarcerated at six times the rate of white Americans. Explorations into the consequences of mass incarceration are pertinent. Extant literature has observed that incarceration has implications for physical health, social well-being, and, recently, mental health. However, racial differences in the consequences of incarceration are underexplored. In this study, I rely on longitudinal data from a sample of young adults in the NLSY97 (N=3,783) to explore how incarceration history impacts depressive symptoms and whether this relationship differs by race. Relying on stress process theory, I find that incarceration serves as a primary stressor, directly and detrimentally influencing depressive symptoms while simultaneously indirectly influencing depressive symptoms through secondary stressors. Additionally, I find preliminary evidence that suggests that stress process theory should be expanded to better account for differential health outcomes based on differential exposure to stressors. [Also presented at Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018]
Bibliography Citation
Houston, Stacey. "99 Problems, Is Depression One? Examining the Effect of Incarceration History on Depressive Symptoms." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
78. Houston, Stacey
Drinking and Learning While Black: The Effect of Family Alcoholism on Educational Attainment
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Educational Attainment; Family History; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N=1,512) to investigate the relationship between having a family history of alcoholism and educational attainment and whether that relationship varies by race. The results indicate that though there is no main effect between having a family history of alcoholism and educational attainment, further analysis demonstrates that African Americans experience positive effects on educational attainment. Under the family stress and resiliency frameworks, these results call into question the generalizability of stressors and the labeling of groups of children who experience these stressors as "at risk." Furthermore, this study indicates that there may be characteristics of students upon which parents and schools can capitalize to foster resiliency in children who are truly "at risk."
Bibliography Citation
Houston, Stacey. "Drinking and Learning While Black: The Effect of Family Alcoholism on Educational Attainment." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
79. Houston, Stacey
Drinking Mothers, Schooling Kids: The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption on Later Educational Attainment
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Educational Attainment; Household Structure; Mothers, Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past literature finds that maternal drinking leads to less than optimal outcomes for youth. However, past literature also finds that the presence of a non-problem drinking parent can buffer or shield children from the impaired parenting practices of a problem-drinking parent. While some scholars have noted that the presence of a non-problem drinking parent can serve as a buffer, the effects of alcohol consumption can be far-reaching, impacting both parents and, potentially, the household composition. I utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N=781) to investigate whether the alcohol consumption of young adults' mothers contributes to the young adults' later educational attainment, an underexplored child outcome in parental alcohol consumption literature. The results indicate that higher levels of drinking by respondents' mothers over a ten-year period are related to fewer years of schooling attained by the respondents. However, I do not find that the presence of another parent buffers the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. Instead, the results of this project suggest that higher levels of maternal drinking decreases the likelihood of living in a two-parent household, which, in turn, results in fewer years of education obtained by respondents.
Bibliography Citation
Houston, Stacey. "Drinking Mothers, Schooling Kids: The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption on Later Educational Attainment." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
80. Hsu, Ting-Wen
Motherhood Wage Penalty in the External and Internal Labor Market
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Maternal Employment; Mobility, Job; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses data of NLSY79 1979 - 2010 (women = 5698; year-women = 53787) to investigate how motherhood wage penalty changes by different job mobility pathway. Research result shows that comparing with transferring position in firm (staying in the internal labor market), changing employer (leaving firm and entering the external labor market) brings greater wage penalty for mothers. Furthermore, the motherhood wage penalty gap between stayer and leaver differs across women's earning level. Low-wage mothers benefited by staying in firms in the first few employment years but suffer from larger wage penalty than the leaving mothers in their middle and late employment. On the contrary, staying in firm penalizes high-wage mothers in the first few years but benefits them in the middle and late employment stage. I argue that the different work requests, employment environments and employment dynamics shape the various associations between motherhood wage penalty and job mobility pathway across earning level.
Bibliography Citation
Hsu, Ting-Wen. "Motherhood Wage Penalty in the External and Internal Labor Market." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
81. Humphries, Melissa
Exploring the Connection between College Credits and Young Adult Health
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Education; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The positive correlation between education and health is well documented across time, place and population. Although the actual shape of the association and the degree to which more years of schooling are associated with health do vary, the underlying pattern that these two personal characteristics (education level and personal health) are positively related is solid. What remains to be fully understood are the exact educational mechanisms that link education to health outcomes. The most cited ways to measure individual education is to use highest educational degree or total years of education (Mirowsky and Ross 2003; Ross and Mirowsky 1997), however more detailed information regarding post-secondary experiences may help expand our understanding of the connection between schooling and health. The present and proposed analyses will focus on specific parts of individuals’ educational trajectories, such as college credits and enrollment patterns, and how they are related to young adult health.
Bibliography Citation
Humphries, Melissa. "Exploring the Connection between College Credits and Young Adult Health." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
82. Hurst, Dawn S.
Mott, Frank L.
Potential Cultural Bias in a Standardized Reading Test: Implications for Predicting Subsequent Academic Achievement
Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association, annual meetings, Aug 14, 2004.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; High School; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this presentation we briefly summarize controversies surrounding the issue of potential racial and ethnic biases embedded within the Peabody Individual Achievement Test in Reading Recognition (PIAT) and their relevance for predicting subsequent achievement. The PIAT is a standardized assessment utilized in a myriad of settings to test for scholastic achievement relative to age and grade. According to the test manual, users of the reading recognition module should be cautious in their interpretation of low scores for older children because with increasing age this particular subtest becomes a quasi-measure of “cultural sophistication”(Dunn & Markwardt, 1970, p.20). More specifically, users are advised to use caution when interpreting low scores for individuals in the fourth grade or higher. However, in our brief review of the papers and publications that employ the PIAT in analyses using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we found that researchers frequently drew conclusions about reading recognition scores for children at these older ages without mention of the aforementioned potential for cultural bias. Subsequent to our discussion of these issues, we examine this reading assessment as an input variable with predictive abilities. The objective is to explore the extent to which cultural biases in the individual test items, and the overall test score, can lead to inappropriate interpretations of connections between PIAT scores at one point in time and quantifiable school and standardized test outcomes several years later. In turn, we offer recommendations for future researchers interested in negotiating an accurate understanding of racial and ethnic differences in outcomes as they relate to PIAT reading recognition scores as a predictor.
Bibliography Citation
Hurst, Dawn S. and Frank L. Mott. "Potential Cultural Bias in a Standardized Reading Test: Implications for Predicting Subsequent Academic Achievement." Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association, annual meetings, Aug 14, 2004.
83. Jakubowski, Jessica
Incarceration and Childbearing in a Cohort of Young Adults in the United States
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Childbearing; Incarceration/Jail; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort, I examine the relationship between incarceration and the timing of childbearing for both men and women. I find that men with a history of incarceration start childbearing earlier than men who have never been incarcerated; however, men who have been incarcerated delay or space-out higher-order births. The amount of time spent incarcerated was not associated with childbearing for men. I found little evidence of an association between childbearing and women’s incarceration. Early childbearing in the incarcerated population could lead to the expansion and persistence of child poverty, as well as exacerbate the disadvantages faced by children born to young parents relative to children born to other young parents.
Bibliography Citation
Jakubowski, Jessica. "Incarceration and Childbearing in a Cohort of Young Adults in the United States." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
84. Jakubowski, Jessica
Incarceration History and Relationship Transitions in Young Adulthood
Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Divorce; Incarceration/Jail; Marital Instability; Marriage; Relationship Conflict

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a sample of married and cohabiting unions from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort, I estimate the relationship between incarceration history and romantic relationship transitions; specifically, the transition out of cohabiting relationships through either marriage or dissolution, and the transition out of marriage through divorce or legal separation. I utilized lifetime event histories of marital and cohabiting unions, as well as lifetime histories of incarcerations to conduct dynamic analyses of these relationships. I consider the association between union transitions and multiple dimensions of involvement with the corrections system: incarceration during the span of a union (proximal relationship consequences), average time spent incarcerated prior to the union (severity of criminal behavior), and number of incarcerations prior to the union (instability through frequent contact with corrections). Preliminary findings suggest that both severity and frequency of incarceration prior to marriage are associated with divorce, and cohabiting unions are less likely to transition to marriage when an incarceration occurs during the union.
Bibliography Citation
Jakubowski, Jessica. "Incarceration History and Relationship Transitions in Young Adulthood." Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011.
85. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
White Collar Occupational Stress, Heavy Drinking-Smoking in Later Life, and the Moderating Effects of Social Support: A Longitudinal Study of Older Men
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1994
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Occupational Status; Stress; Support Networks; White Collar Jobs

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The identification of risk factors has been established as a critical need in studies of problem drinking among older adults. This analysis is a cohort-based prospective study of risk factors in the workplace based on the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of older men. The nationally representative NLS sample (5,020 men aged 45-59 when first surveyed in 1966) consists of re-interviews in 1990 with 2,092 survivors then aged 69 to 84, 1,341 widows of decedents, and, in the absence of a living widow, 865 proxy relatives of decedents. Three central issues are examined in the white-collar occupational group (N=795): (1) heavy drinking and cigarette smoking may be synergistically interrelated; (2) their combined prevalence among older men may be largely attributed to addictive patterns established earlier in life in response to self-perceived occupational stress (pace, pressure, and fatigue); (3) instrumental or emotional forms of social support provided in later years may moderate the residual effects of work stress on addictive behavior. A series of multivariate statistical analyses supported all three hypotheses. Heavy drinking and smoking concurrence was significantly more likely among survivors, and also in widow's accounts of decedents, who reported a history of chronic occupational stress, particularly the work pace variety experienced in the middle to late pre-retirement years. With little exception, the social support variable which was found to comprehensively moderate the direct effects of occupational stress among older men was a spouse who was designated a special confidant in a trusting, helping personal relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "White Collar Occupational Stress, Heavy Drinking-Smoking in Later Life, and the Moderating Effects of Social Support: A Longitudinal Study of Older Men." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1994.
86. Johnson, Kecia
Johnson, Jacqueline
Penalties Compounded for African American Men: Incarceration, Earnings and Racial Inequality In Labor Markets
Presented: Montreal, Quebec, Canada, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Incarceration/Jail; Racial Differences; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine racial variation in wage penalties associated with incarceration by comparing the earnings trajectories of African American, Latino, and white male ex-offenders with non-offenders. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2002), our findings reveal that while incarceration generally has a negative effect on wages, the impact of incarceration on wages is the most severe for African American men. When compared to white non-offenders, white ex-offenders experience the highest wage penalties due to incarceration of any group, yet they still out earn all African American and Latino men. Meanwhile, the wage difference between African American non-offenders and ex-offenders across their careers is smaller than any white or Latino men and African American men earn significantly less than all others, regardless of their former incarceration status. Explanations for these patterns include racial differences in pre-incarceration wages and the dramatic racial disparities in imprisonment rates that render more African American men subject to earnings penalties associated with former incarceration status. We contend that because racialized incarceration stigmas challenge the labor market options and economic trajectories of all African American men, young, low-wage African American men who have no history of incarceration are also penalized.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Kecia and Jacqueline Johnson. "Penalties Compounded for African American Men: Incarceration, Earnings and Racial Inequality In Labor Markets." Presented: Montreal, Quebec, Canada, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006.
87. Jones, Charles
Haan, Michael
Longitudinal Surveys of Children and Youth: Perspectives from Outside the USA
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, August 12, 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Britain, British; British Cohort Study (BCS); British National Survey of Health & Development (NSHD); Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Overview, Child Assessment Data

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Focusing on the issue of "external validity" we provide brief outlines of selected large scale longitudinal studies of child populations in Great Britain, Canada and the United States, each situated in its national and historical context. Examination of several such studies shows a considerable amount of variety beneath the label "longitudinal surveys". Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth appears to be midway between British and US models of longitudinal surveys of young children and, while as yet little known to US sociologists, appears to have greater external validity and ought to be superior for making policy-relevant estimates about child and adolescent populations.
Bibliography Citation
Jones, Charles and Michael Haan. "Longitudinal Surveys of Children and Youth: Perspectives from Outside the USA." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, August 12, 2005.
88. Kauffman-Berry, Andrea
Examining the Mechanics of Latino Racialization: What Factors Predict How People Racially Classify Self-identified Latinos?
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Hispanics; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Social; Racial Studies; Research Methodology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How are people who self-identify as Latino racially classified by others? Further, what factors predict how a person will racially classify someone who self-identifies as Latino? This study measures the distribution of racial classifications for a sample of individuals who identify as Latino. It then examines the mechanics of Latino racialization by modeling factors that predict how an individual will be racially classified. Data for this study comes from a longitudinal sample of racial classification events occurring in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97). Results of the multinomial logistic regression with random effects demonstrate that the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, such as receiving welfare payments or being incarcerated, as well as the characteristics of racial classifiers, such as having a college degree or being born during or after 1964, predict how Latinos are racially classified. these results suggest that upward or downward socioeconomic mobility may influence the way they are racially classified, particularly as white or other. This finding underscores a difficulty in conducting research on the socioeconomic incorporation of Latinos in the U.S. If Latinos who experience upward socioeconomic mobility are more likely to be racially classified as "white" and those who experience downward socioeconomic mobility are more likely to be racially classified as "other", then these racially-defined groups may be changing in ways that obscure the socioeconomic experiences of Latinos in the U.S. By examining the mechanism of racialization for Latinos this study expands on our understanding of race in the U.S.
Bibliography Citation
Kauffman-Berry, Andrea. "Examining the Mechanics of Latino Racialization: What Factors Predict How People Racially Classify Self-identified Latinos?" Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
89. Kauffman-Berry, Andrea
How Latino Identity Drives Patterns of Change in Racial Classification Over Time
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Hispanics; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines how interviewers go about racially classifying self-identified Latino respondents. To examine the process by which interviewers decide what racial classification to give each respondent, this research asks four questions. First, what are the odds that a racial classification will change from Time N to Time N+1? Second, how are these odds different depending upon the kind of change in racial classification that occurs? For instance, how are the odds of a change from white to other different from the odds of a change from other to black? Third, what role does Latino self-identification play in this process? How do the odds that a racial classification will change vary for respondents who self-identified as Latino in 1997 compared to those who did not? Fourth, if Latino identity is found to drive patterns of change in racial classification, do these changes in racial classification occur randomly among self-identified Latino respondents or do they occur in predictable ways? Do the odds that a self-identified Latino respondent will experience a change in racial classification differ depending on a series of possible independent variables, such as incarceration, arrest, or completion of a B.A. since the date of the last interview? This research systematically models how these factors may predict changes in racial classification over time using multinomial logistic regression models with respondent fixed effects using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997.
Bibliography Citation
Kauffman-Berry, Andrea. "How Latino Identity Drives Patterns of Change in Racial Classification Over Time." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
90. Kauffman-Berry, Andrea
Racial Fluidity, Skin Tone, and Immigrant Status in the NLSY97
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Immigrants; Racial Studies; Skin Tone

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Building explicitly on the work of Saperstein and Penner (2010, 2012), this study examines changes in racial classification and racial identification at the individual level over time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a dataset including a nationally-representative sample of youths between the ages of 12-17 in December of 1996, with data collected annually through 2011, this research asks two questions. First, do interviewer-reported racial classification and self-reported racial identification change at the individual level over time? Second, if racial classification does change at the individual level over time, how can these changes be characterized? To address the first question, this study uses transition matrices to determine rates of "racial migration" between racial classifications at the individual level over time. Preliminary results demonstrate that racial classification does indeed change at the individual level in the NLSY97 sample. This study makes several theoretical contributions to our understanding of processes of racial classification, racial identification, and racial stratification within the U.S. racial system. First, this analysis has implications for two theories about the role of skin tone in the U.S. racial system: Bonilla-Silva’s notion of "pigmentocracy" and the traditional "one drop rule." Further, this study explores the dynamic processes of racial identification and racial classification among immigrants in the NLSY97. With a representative sample of immigrant youths, this research explores if processes of racial classification and racial identification differ among first and second generation immigrants than among the non-immigrant native born.
Bibliography Citation
Kauffman-Berry, Andrea. "Racial Fluidity, Skin Tone, and Immigrant Status in the NLSY97." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
91. Killewald, Alexandra
Lundberg, Ian
New Evidence against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Husbands, Income; Marriage; Transition, Adulthood; Wage Dynamics; Wages; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Marriage is associated with increases in men's wages. Recent research claims the long-term wage benefits of marriage for men are as high as 20 percent and begin prior to marriage, as men anticipate marriage or experience wage benefits of unmarried partnership. We argue instead that marriage has no causal effect on men's wages in either the short or long term and that research on the marriage wage premium has overlooked literature in other subfields suggesting that marriage occurs when wages are already rising unusually rapidly. A vast literature documents that entrance into marriage depends on economic circumstances, suggesting that effects may flow from wages to marriage, rather than the reverse. Furthermore, the demographic literature on the transition to adulthood suggests that emerging adulthood is a time of both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes. Using data from the NLSY79, we evaluate these perspectives, considering both the effects of getting married and remaining married. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying at a time that their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Ian Lundberg. "New Evidence against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
92. Killewald, Alexandra
Zhuo, Xiaolin
Mothers' Long-Term Employment Patterns
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Employment, Part-Time; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research on maternal employment has disproportionately focused on the experiences of married, college-educated mothers and examined either current employment status or return to work immediately following a birth. Drawing on the life course perspective, we instead conceptualize maternal careers as long-term life course patterns. Using data from the NLSY79 and optimal matching, we document five common employment patterns of American mothers over the first 18 years of maternity. About 60% experience either steady, full-time employment (41%) or steady nonemployment (20%). The rest experience "mixed" patterns: long-term part-time employment (14%), or a long period of nonemployment following maternity, then a return to employment approximately 6 (15%) or 12 (10%) years following the first birth. We find that consistent employment following maternity, either full-time or part-time, is characteristic of women with more economic advantages, while women who experience low levels of employment disproportionately lack a high school degree and are more likely to be Hispanic. Consistent part-time labor is distinctive to white women: Hispanic and African American women are underrepresented in this group compared to either consistent full-time employment or long-term nonemployment. Furthermore, race is one of the only predictors of whether a mother is employed consistently full-time versus part-time. Our results support the importance of studying maternal employment across the economic spectrum, considering motherhood as a long-term characteristic, and moving away from research approaches that consider employment as a binary or continuous measure and overlook the qualitative distinctness of particular employment patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Xiaolin Zhuo. "Mothers' Long-Term Employment Patterns." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
93. King, Michael D.
First-Generation College Students and the Timing of Marriage
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; College Education; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There has been a considerable amount of research documenting the relationship between educational attainment and union formation as well as the relationship between parental education and children's union formation. In almost all cases, though, these two lines of work are carried out in isolation from each other. This paper fills this void in prior literature by examining the interaction between child and parent education and its influence on the timing of first marriage, paying particular attention to first-generation college students. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I explore if and how marital timing of college graduates varies by parental education. I find that first-generation college attendees marry earlier than other college attendees. However, among those who have not married by the time they complete a bachelor's degree, there are relatively few differences between first- and continuing-generation college students in their marriage timing. These results offer important insight into the complex relationships between social mobility and demographic processes and provide new evidence about the equalizing effects of higher education, research on which has traditionally focused only on economic outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
King, Michael D. "First-Generation College Students and the Timing of Marriage." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
94. Kissling, Alexandra
Partnership Status and Sleep Quality among Mothers
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Marital Status; Mothers, Health; Racial Differences; Sleep

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While there is a growing body of literature devoted to sleep as a health behavior, we know less about how social roles, such as partnership and parenthood, matter for sleep. The present study works from the protection, crisis, and selection theoretical perspectives to explore differences in sleep quality by partnership status among mothers. The present study further assesses the degree of racial variation in these effects of various partnership statuses on sleep quality. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (N=12,868), results show that married mothers are less likely to experience problem sleep than cohabiting, formerly partnered, and lone mothers. However, there are no significant difference in sleep quality when comparing these unmarried groups to one another. This finding suggests that marriage adds greatly to sleep quality. However, this result only holds for white mothers, as there are no differences in sleep quality by marital status. By highlighting the importance of partnership statuses for sleep, this study provides evidence that social relationships may be a key factor contributing to the stratification of sleep problems among adults.
Bibliography Citation
Kissling, Alexandra. "Partnership Status and Sleep Quality among Mothers." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
95. Kofman, Yelizavetta
Hidden Social Costs of Precarious Employment: Marriage Formation in a Period of Rising Precarity
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Employment; Gender Differences; Job Characteristics; Job Tenure; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transition to adulthood has become increasingly prolonged since the late 1970s. Despite widespread public and scientific concern, the exact mechanisms that delay the transition to adulthood are largely unknown. This paper argues that part of the answer lies in examining another key contemporary trend: the rise of precarious employment since the 1970s and the attendant increase in uncertainty and risk for workers. I examine the effects of precarious employment (i.e. jobs with a nonstandard employment relationship, short tenure, and/or lack of benefits) on first marriage, one traditional marker of adulthood. Using data from the NLSY97, I find that the odds of having a first marriage are reduced for women (but not men) that have a nonstandard job or a job with short tenure. Further, having a job that lacks health insurance and retirement benefits reduces the odds of first marriage for both men and women. More work on disentangling the causal effects and mechanisms of precarious employment are necessary as this phenomenon continues to grow.
Bibliography Citation
Kofman, Yelizavetta. "Hidden Social Costs of Precarious Employment: Marriage Formation in a Period of Rising Precarity." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
96. Kofman, Yelizavetta
Life on a Tightrope: The Role of Precarious Employment on Moving Back Home
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Employment, Intermittent; Propensity Scores; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While there is increasing scholarly and public interest in precarious employment--jobs that entail a nonstandard contract, are short term, and/or do not provide fringe benefits--few studies have considered the effects of such employment beyond the workplace. I use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N=6650), and event history and propensity score matching methods, to examine the effect of precarious employment on home return and home leaving during young adulthood (age 25-30). Among young adults that have completed their education, had at least one job spell and one spell of living independently, I find significant negative effects of having a nonstandard contract job and of having a short term job on the probability of moving back home. On the other hand, having a job that provides health insurance and having a job with employer-provided retirement savings has a significant positive effect on leaving the parental home after a spell of living at home. This research suggests that it is not only earnings (which I adjust for in all models) that are important factors shaping young adults' transition to independent living; rather, the uncertainty involved in precarious employment may force young adults to rely on their parents as a safety net well into their late 20s.
Bibliography Citation
Kofman, Yelizavetta. "Life on a Tightrope: The Role of Precarious Employment on Moving Back Home." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
97. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Christie-Mizell, C. André
Depression and Adolescent Overweight: Exploring Race Differences
Presented: Montreal, Quebec, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Gender Differences; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this paper examines the relationship between depression and overweight in adolescence. We also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Our findings indicate that over a four year period that depression is only related to increases in weight for African American females. Step-family arrangements and poor neighborhood quality were more related to weight gain among white females. With the exception of household income predicting higher weight for African American males, our models were not very predictive for either African American or white males.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and C. André Christie-Mizell. "Depression and Adolescent Overweight: Exploring Race Differences." Presented: Montreal, Quebec, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006.
98. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Comparing Across a Decade
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Birth; Age at First Intercourse; Attitudes; Childbearing, Adolescent; Contraception; Depression (see also CESD); Deviance; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Behavior; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking; Runaways; Self-Esteem; Sexual Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this research, we compare adolescents from 1994 and 2004 to investigate the extent to which early sexual activity, and early parenthood may be linked with a range of proximate attitudes and behavior. Our particular focus is on exploring whether or not there are distinctive differences in these associations across gender and period. The data we use are from the 1979-2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the linked 2004 Young Adult data file. Our sample includes 860 youth between the ages of 14 and 18 in 1994 and 1934 youth between the same ages in 2004.

Using a partial correlation approach, we explore differences in the correlates of sexual activity initiation and early parenthood between 1994 and 2004. We find that youth who are inclined towards risk taking are more likely to be sexually active. Additionally, there is fairly systematic evidence that for girls only, early sex and having a child are in various ways linked with depression, having low self-esteem, and having little sense of control over their lives. The results for young men are less consistent, in several instances suggesting substantially different motivations for sexual activity between the genders.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Frank L. Mott. "Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Comparing Across a Decade." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007.
99. Kramer, Karen
Kramer, Amit
Chung, WonJoon
Work Demands, Family Demands, and BMI: A Gendered Experience
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Employment; Gender Differences; Household Demand; Stress; Weight; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although many scholars believe that work and family demands are negatively related to individual’s long-term physical health only few studies have examined this relationship, mostly using cross-sectional designs. Drawing on gender roles theory the time availability perspective, we propose that the relationship between work demands, family demands, and health stronger for women than for men. Using a nationally representative sample of 4,297 individuals who were contentiously employed between 1994 and 2008 we find that work demands are related to both negative and positive effects on BMI and that working more hours raises women’s, but not men’s, BMI. We discuss theoretical implications of the relationships between work, family and physical health.
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Karen, Amit Kramer and WonJoon Chung. "Work Demands, Family Demands, and BMI: A Gendered Experience." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
100. Kramer, Karen
Pak, Sunjin
Relative Earnings in Families and Depression
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between income and psychological well-being is well established. Yet almost all research on income and well-being is conducted at the individual level or household level, without taking into account the role played by relative earnings within the context of couples. In this study I estimate the effect of relative earnings of mothers and fathers on their depression levels over time. Specifically, I examine whether non-traditional division of paid labor (stay-at-home or secondary-earner father, and primary- or sole-earner mother) is associated with higher levels of depression than traditional division of paid labor (Primary- or sole-earner father, and stay-at-home or secondary-earner mother). Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY79) I find support for the overarching hypothesis that non-traditional division of paid labor is associated with higher depression levels for both mothers and fathers. Furthermore, I find that gender ideology does not seem to moderate this relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Karen and Sunjin Pak. "Relative Earnings in Families and Depression." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
101. Kramer, Karen
Pak, Sunjin
Park, So Young
Paid Parental Leave Duration, Number of Children, and Income Growth: A Longitudinal Analysis
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Wage Growth; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is a growing awareness in the literature that work-family policies, while allowing employees to better balance work and life outside work, may also result in penalties, or lower rewards for employees who use such policies. In this paper we explore this proposition by examining the effect of paid parental leave use on salary growth of men and women after the birth of their first and second child. In addition, we explore whether the age gap between the first and second child is related to salary growth over time. Using the commitment hypothesis model and the ideal workers norms framework, we hypothesize that parents will be penalized for having children, that they will be further penalized for using paid parental leave, and that men will be penalized more for taking leave. We use the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth for 1979 and 1997 to test our hypotheses with a sample of individuals who worked continuously (returned to work after taking their paid leave). We find that both men and women are penalized in term of their salary growth for having their first child, but only women are penalized for having a second child. Further, we find that taking parental leave results in a significant reduction in the slope of wage growth and that it takes women five to seven years to catch up with the salary growth of employees who did not take parental leave, while for men it takes almost 12 years to catch up. Age gap between children is not significantly related to salary growth. We conclude with implication to theory and future research.
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Karen, Sunjin Pak and So Young Park. "Paid Parental Leave Duration, Number of Children, and Income Growth: A Longitudinal Analysis." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
102. Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan
Racial Differences in First Union Formation
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Parents, Single; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study explores how the first union formation processes based on a variety of indicators for young people's socioeconomic conditions vary between African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Findings suggest that the process of entering cohabiting unions does differ between African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. That is, non-Hispanic whites who come from disadvantaged family backgrounds, in terms of low levels of parental incomes and education, and who have nonmarital births are more likely to enter cohabiting unions than to stay single, as compared with their non-Hispanic white peers with more advantaged backgrounds and those who have no children born outside of marriage. Yet, African Americans are significantly less likely to enter cohabiting unions and are more likely to stay single, as compared with similarly disadvantaged non-Hispanic whites. I then discuss how the findings on racial differences in the process of entering first unions can shed light on how racial and educational differences in cohabitation outcomes take shape among recent cohorts of cohabitors.
Bibliography Citation
Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan. "Racial Differences in First Union Formation." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
103. Kuperberg, Arielle
McMillan, Allison
Mazelis, Joan Maya
Are Student Loans Worth It? Stratification in Work-Life Balance, Income, and Family
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Cost; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Assistance; Leisure; Socioeconomic Factors; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do student loans and the education that they enable impact young adulthood? Student loans are a potential avenue of social mobility for young adults who may not otherwise be able to attend college, but recent increases to the cost of college have led some to question whether they in fact perpetuate inequality. Drawing upon the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 cohort) and multiple waves of data covering 1997-2013 when respondents were age 17-33, this study examines selection into student loans and completed education, and stratification in work-life balance, income, marriage and parenthood by education completed by 2013 and whether or not respondents took out students loans. Work-life balance is measured via working hours, employment, working regular overtime, and sentiments about wanting time for relaxation and leisure. We also examine and account for pre-existing differences in leisure by examining engagement in reading and taking extra classes for fun when respondents were teens. We find that education is related to differences in all the measures we examine, and taking out student loans is additionally related to wanting time for leisure in adulthood and reading more and taking more classes in teenagehood, working hours and employment during the younger ages we examined, and with income and weak but growing differences in marriage and parenthood at older ages.
Bibliography Citation
Kuperberg, Arielle, Allison McMillan and Joan Maya Mazelis. "Are Student Loans Worth It? Stratification in Work-Life Balance, Income, and Family." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
104. Lawrence, Matthew
When I Was Your Age: The Intergenerational Transmission of Mothers' High School Academic Programs
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children, School-Age; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; High School Curriculum; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Associations between parents' completed educational attainments and their children's educational outcomes are important indicators of intergenerational inequalities in schooling. As Mare (2011) has noted, however, identifying the causes of parental statuses - not only their effects - is essential for clarifying how they shape children's opportunities. Since parents' total years of schooling or highest degrees received are themselves educational outcomes, examining parents' earlier educational experiences may reveal more about the ways families reproduce advantages and disadvantages. This paper adopts this perspective to estimate the causal effect of the type of academic curriculum mothers pursued in high school on the type of academic curriculum their children pursued at the same educational stage.

I link mother-child pairs across the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 and its Children and Young Adult Survey, and use a marginal structural model with inverse probability of treatment weighting to estimate the causal effects. I find that a mother's pre-college educational experiences contribute significantly to the total effect of her schooling on her child's outcomes. The total effect decomposes into a direct effect and an indirect effect. The direct effect is stronger than the indirect effect, suggesting that a mother's earlier educational experiences independently influence her child's high school curriculum beyond influencing the probability she reached a certain level of schooling. These findings confirm that identifying the causes of parental attainment and the multiple pathways that connect them to children's outcomes yields insights about how families transmit advantages and disadvantages across generations.

Bibliography Citation
Lawrence, Matthew. "When I Was Your Age: The Intergenerational Transmission of Mothers' High School Academic Programs." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
105. Lee, Chioun
Do Blacks and Whites Experience Depression Differently: Assessing the Validity of the CES-D
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is one of the most widely used measures for depressive symptoms in social science research. Although some researchers have highlighted problems with aspects of the scale’s validity, its validity has not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, using white and African American young women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I investigate the construct and convergent validity of the CES-D through a step-wise process, applying multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For the first two steps, I test construct validity, examining item bias through whole completed items followed by testing the structural equivalence of the CES-D subscales by race. I also assess the convergent validity of CES-D using structural relationships between the four domains of the CES-D and two domains of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. I find that items related to interpersonal problems in the CES-D inflate levels of depression for African American women. The findings from the test of convergent validity are contradictory: African American women who report higher self-esteem are more likely to report higher depression in the CES-D subscale ‘interpersonal problems’. An implication is that a domain of the CES-D scale, ‘interpersonal problems’, might not properly measure depressive symptoms and might instead address other concepts for African American women. These biased items are partly responsible for racial/ethic disparities in mental health measured by the CES-D.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Chioun. "Do Blacks and Whites Experience Depression Differently: Assessing the Validity of the CES-D." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
106. Lee, Dohoon
Childhood Disadvantage, Nonmarital Childbearing, and Birth Intendedness
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Childhood; Family Influences; First Birth; Parenting Skills/Styles; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Scholarship on family change in the United States has advanced our understanding of the causes and consequences of nonmarital fertility. However, it has paid limited attention to differential nonmarital childbearing behavior by birth intendedness. Building on a variety of socialization theories, this paper proposes childhood disadvantage as a key determinant of women's intended and unintended nonmarital childbearing. This study hypothesizes that childhood disadvantage is associated with intended nonmarital childbearing through social learning and detachment processes, while it is associated with unintended nonmarital childbearing through social control, insecure bonding, and self-regulation processes. Results from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data show that family instability, low quality parenting, and a lower level of cognitive development increase the risk of an intended nonmarital first birth, whereas exposure to poverty, a lower level of cognitive stimulation, and a lower level of socioemotional development increase the risk of an unintended nonmarital first birth. Various domains of childhood disadvantage thus represent distinct socialization processes that are linked to unmarried women's birth intention and eventual childbearing. Given these findings, this paper suggests the need to take into account the differential roles of childhood disadvantage in increasingly heterogeneous fertility behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Dohoon. "Childhood Disadvantage, Nonmarital Childbearing, and Birth Intendedness." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
107. Lee, Haena
Maternal Employment, Adolescent’s Unhealthy Lifestyle and their Body Mass Index: Evidence from NLSY 97
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Activities; Body Mass Index (BMI); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Physical Activity (see also Exercise)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, I examine the question of whether mother’s working status is associated with their adolescent’s body mass index, over and above the impact of adolescent’s unhealthy lifestyle (e.g., breakfast skipping, fruits/vegetables consumption, and spending more time on TV and less time on exercise). I hypothesize that (1) maternal employment may be positively associated with adolescent’s body mass index adjusting for individual socioeconomic status (SES) and that (2) adolescent’s eating habits and physical activities may mediate this association. (3) Partly because adolescent with working mothers may skip breakfast, consume less fruits and vegetables, spend more time on TV and exercise less, responsive to time constraints and less monitoring by working mothers. Using the Logistic Regression Model, data are derived from adolescent aged from 12-17 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 (NLSY97) round 1 (year 1997). Findings indicate that there is no direct association between maternal employment and childhood obesity than their counterpart non-employed mothers. Rather, a strong impact of individual-level characteristics, such as parent’s net worth and mother’s body mass index (BMI), is founded to play a pivotal role in adolescent BMI. Further, these associations are more unavoidable and are actually mediated entirely by adolescent’s unhealthy eating habits and their sedentary activities. Therefore, prevention and intervention of adolescent’s obesogenic behaviors within the familial context, regardless of their maternal employment status, must be considered in order to prevent further significant increase in the prevalence of adolescent obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Haena. "Maternal Employment, Adolescent’s Unhealthy Lifestyle and their Body Mass Index: Evidence from NLSY 97." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
108. Leech, Tamara G. J.
Subsidized Housing, Public Housing and Adolescent Problem Behavior
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Home Ownership; Neighborhood Effects; Public Housing; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: This study examines the relationship between public housing residence, subsidized housing residence and problem behavior – violence and substance use – among adolescents.

Methods: Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth main survey and young adult survey in 2004. The sample includes 2,530 adolescents aged 14-19. A stratified, propensity matching method was used to determine the treatment effect of public housing and subsidized housing residence, respectively.

Results: There was no significant relationship between violence, heavy alcohol or heavy marijuana use, or other drug use and public housing residence. However, subsidized housing residents had significantly lower rates of violence and hard drug use, and marginally significant lower rates of heavy marijuana/alcohol use.

Conclusions: First, the results suggest that the depiction of risk behavior among teens in public housing needs to be clarified. Labeling or stereotyping teens living in public and subsidized housing as violent and/or drug users is misleading. Second, the results illustrate the value of distinguishing between public housing and subsidized housing populations in academic studies. Third, and most importantly, the present results indicate that the consistent, positive effect of vouchers is not due to a lower standard among the typical comparison group: public housing. Therefore, future studies should focus on conceptualizing and analyzing the ways that subsidized housing protects adolescent residents, beyond comparisons to public housing environments.

Bibliography Citation
Leech, Tamara G. J. "Subsidized Housing, Public Housing and Adolescent Problem Behavior." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
109. Leibbrand, Christine
Does Geographic Stagnation Correspond to Economic Stagnation? The Migration Decline and its Association with Economic Well-being
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Economic Well-Being; Geocoded Data; Migration; Mobility, Economic

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Internal migration has long played an important role in increasing individuals' and families' access to economic opportunities and, as a result, improving their economic wellbeing. However, the United States has been experiencing a continuous decline in internal migration rates since the 1980s, suggesting that migration may be less beneficial now than in the past or that recent generations of individuals are less able to migrate than their predecessors. In this study, I explore these possibilities and examine whether the migration decline is suggestive of harmful changes to the American opportunity structure and to individuals' chances for upward economic mobility. To do this, I utilize restricted, geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data and harmonize these data for the 1979 and 1997 cohorts. I find that the economic returns to inter-state migration have actually increased over time. However, non-migrants in the 1997 cohort are economically worse off than both migrants and non-migrants in the 1979 cohort. It may therefore be the case that the migration decline is due, in part, to migration becoming increasingly out of reach for some families and to the negative consequences of being "rooted" in place.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. "Does Geographic Stagnation Correspond to Economic Stagnation? The Migration Decline and its Association with Economic Well-being." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
110. Leibbrand, Christine
Migrating for Opportunity? Internal Migration and Economic Advancement among Black and White Women and Men
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Geocoded Data; Migration; Mobility; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Considerable research has shown that internal migration may benefit male partners' employment outcomes at the expense of female partners' employment outcomes, but that migration offers benefits for unpartnered, childless females that mirror the benefits experienced by both partnered and unpartnered males. Despite the considerable amount of research that has been conducted on the returns to migration among females and males, there are a number of important, open questions. In particular, much of the migration research has focused on the returns to migration for white men and white women. Analyses that do include minority men and women usually jointly analyze the relationship between migration and economic mobility while controlling for race, without disentangling the potentially unique and important economic trajectories of different minority groups. Using geocoded, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 data from 1979 to 2012, I am able to examine how migration across county and state lines influences the earnings trajectories of Black, Hispanic, and White females and males across their lifetimes, while accounting for previous earnings trajectories and unobserved characteristics. In doing so, I am also able to observe whether migration is associated with increases or decreases in the economic disparities between these groups.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. "Migrating for Opportunity? Internal Migration and Economic Advancement among Black and White Women and Men." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
111. Leibbrand, Christine
Parental Nonstandard Schedules and Child Academic Outcomes
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Educational Outcomes; Gender Differences; Parental Influences; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Approximately 1 in 5 working Americans are now employed in a nonstandard schedule that falls outside of the typical 7am to 7pm work day. Much of the work on these schedules indicates that they negatively influence children's academic development. However, the majority of studies focus on infants and toddlers, with elementary school-age children relatively understudied. Likewise, the role of the child's gender and of the father's shift schedule has been neglected. To broaden understanding of the effects of parental nonstandard schedules on children, and how these effects may depend upon the gender of the child, I analyze data from the NLSY79 and its Child Supplement from 1990-2006. Overall, the findings indicate that mothers' nonstandard schedules and fathers' irregular schedules harm girls' academic outcomes. For boys, fathers' rotating shifts tend to be associated with worse academic outcomes, with little evidence that mothers' nonstandard schedules are harmful for boys. In contrast, mothers' irregular shifts are positively related to reading comprehension outcomes for both boys and girls, hinting at the potential benefits associated with these schedules. None of these relationships are explained by parental closeness or involvement in schooling, however.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. "Parental Nonstandard Schedules and Child Academic Outcomes." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
112. Leupp, Katrina M.
Bargaining Bonus or Breadwinning Burden? Relative Earnings, Gender, Parenthood and Mental Health
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Bargaining Model; Depression (see also CESD); Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A body of research tests the specialization and bargaining perspectives for explaining gendered behavior within the home. Though relative income across households is a key explanatory component in the socioeconomic gradient in health and mortality, it is unclear how relative earnings within households impact health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 in fixed effects models, the paper tests the relevancy of household bargaining, specialization, and equity models for understanding the relationship between relative spousal earnings and depression. Results indicate that increases in relative earnings decrease depressive symptoms, but only for individuals who earn less than their spouse. The beneficial effect of increased relative earnings differs by gender and parental status: relative to men without children, mothers benefit the least from gains in income share while fathers benefit the most. These findings lend greater support to bargaining and exchange perspectives than to the specialization model, and highlight the roles of equity and gender display in determining when increases in bargaining power have consequences for mental health.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Bargaining Bonus or Breadwinning Burden? Relative Earnings, Gender, Parenthood and Mental Health." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
113. Leupp, Katrina M.
Even Supermoms Get the Blues: Employment, Gender Attitudes and Depression
Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Employment; Health Factors; Labor Force Participation; Motherhood; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Health

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Popular culture indicates that the cultural model of intensive mothering, which prizes full-time, maternal care for children, remains salient despite women’s high employment rates (Douglas & Michaels 2004). This saliency suggests that women’s experiences of work-family conflict are shaped by cultural pressures to devote themselves to family care as much, or more so, than practical difficulties of juggling employment and family care. This paper examines the impact of attitudes towards women’s employment, employment status, and interactions between the two on depressive symptoms among married women. Results indicate that employment reduces risk of depression, and among employed women, an attitude of complete support for women’s employment is associated with a lower risk of depression than is an attitude of only moderate support. Yet at the same time, women who hold little or no faith in the ability of women to simultaneously meet employment and family care responsibilities have the lowest risk of depression among women who are employed.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Even Supermoms Get the Blues: Employment, Gender Attitudes and Depression." Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011.
114. Leupp, Katrina M.
Married Moms, Money and Mental Health
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Gender Attitudes/Roles; Health, Mental; Household Income; Husbands, Income; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research indicates that employment improves mental health, yet we know less about the mechanisms linking employment and well-being, particularly for married mothers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, this study tests the relevancy of resource and bargaining perspectives for understanding the relationships among married spouses' employment status, relative earnings and depression. Findings indicate that though employment is associated with improved mental health for all, there is little evidence that greater spousal earnings shares are a mechanism for the benefits of employment. Among mothers, having greater earnings relative to one's spouse is detrimental for mental health. In contrast, fathers' and childless men's mental health improves with greater earnings relative to their spouse. Results suggest that gendered parental roles alter the meaning of money, and limit mothers' ability to leverage earnings as a source of household bargaining power to benefit their well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Married Moms, Money and Mental Health." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
115. Leupp, Katrina M.
Mental Health, Social Roles and the Gendered Life Course
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Employment; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Life Course; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines variations in the effects of work and family roles on mental health as men and women age through the life course. Results indicate that as women age towards midlife, parenthood shifts from being positively to negatively associated with symptoms of depression. In contrast, the effect of parenthood on men's depression does not vary as they grow older. Though men and women both receive greater mental health benefits from employment as they approach midlife, the effects of combining employment with parenthood vary by gender and the age of children. These findings highlight gender differences in the saliency of parenthood and employment for shaping the age-gradient in depressive symptoms during adulthood, and suggest that mental health over the life course remains tethered to traditionally gendered roles.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Mental Health, Social Roles and the Gendered Life Course." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
116. Leupp, Katrina M.
More Traditional Each Year? Earnings and Married Mothers' Employment Hours over the Childrearing Years
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; First Birth; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Maternal Employment; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The tendency for socio-economic privilege to increase women's labor force participation calls for greater attention to the employment hours of married mothers, for whom spouses' earnings may reduce the financial incentives to employment. This study examines how women's own earnings and the earnings of their spouse prior to the parenthood shape employment hours for married women with children, and whether the link between mother's employment hours and pre-parenthood earnings changes as their children age. Results from 1979 to 2007 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort indicate that women's own earnings and the earnings of their spouse prior to their first birth have competing effects on mothers' employment hours. As their firstborn child ages from zero to nine, the effects of mothers' own pre-birth earnings on their employment hours weaken. In contrast, the effects of their husband' pre-birth earnings magnify the longer they are parents. Results suggest that the determinants of mothers' employment hours become increasingly gender-traditional over their first ten years of parenthood. Follow-up analyses will compare results from the NLSY79 cohort to the employment hours of the NLSY97 cohort to assess the relevancy of findings to the cohort currently embarking on their parenting years.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "More Traditional Each Year? Earnings and Married Mothers' Employment Hours over the Childrearing Years." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
117. Levy, Brian L.
Sullivan, Esther
Do Mobile Homes Affect Wealth? Analysis of a Cohort Entering Adulthood During the Mobile Home Boom
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the past few decades, mobile homes have emerged as a key source of housing in the United States. Yet, social science offers little evidence on the impacts of long-term residency in mobile homes. This research analyzes how living in a mobile home affects a key measure of social stratification: wealth. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1997 Cohort and a counterfactual research design to study how mobile home residency from adolescence through emerging adulthood affects wealth accumulation by age 30. We also consider racial heterogenetiy and life course pathways in mobile home effects. Results indicate that living in a mobile home has a sizable, negative relationship with wealth that is strongest for whites. Growth models of wealth suggest that this impact of long-term mobile home residency is likely causal. As a result, mobile homes appear to be an increasingly-salient contributor to inequality in America.
Bibliography Citation
Levy, Brian L. and Esther Sullivan. "Do Mobile Homes Affect Wealth? Analysis of a Cohort Entering Adulthood During the Mobile Home Boom." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
118. Li, Xiao
Rural-Urban Differences in Motherhood Wage Penalty
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Rural/Urban Differences; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although a rich body of literature has explored variances in motherhood wage penalties, few studies have explored rural-urban differences in motherhood wage penalties. In this paper, I use data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to examine whether there are rural-urban differences in motherhood wage penalties. Fixed-effects models are used to examine the effects of motherhood on hourly wages across rural and urban contexts and across age groups. Variables including marital status, human capital, job characteristics, availability of family-friendly policies, job satisfaction and work hours are added into the models step by step, to explore how these factors contribute to the rural-urban differences in motherhood wage penalties. The results show that rural young mothers (younger than thirty) experienced a higher level of motherhood wage penalties than urban young mothers. However, when controlling marital status, urban women who were thirty or older experienced a motherhood boost while rural women of the same age group did not. College education, job characteristics, working environment and the availability of family-friendly policies contribute to the rural-urban differences in motherhood wage penalties in important ways.
Bibliography Citation
Li, Xiao. "Rural-Urban Differences in Motherhood Wage Penalty." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
119. Lim, So-Jung
Bad Jobs for Marriage: Job Quality and the Transition to First Marriage
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Gender Differences; Job Characteristics; Marital History/Transitions; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Pensions; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2008, this paper examines the extent to which the quality of jobs that individuals have are associated with the transition to first marriage. Specifically, I evaluate the role of various indicators of job quality on marriage entry including health insurance coverage and the provision of pension benefits, nonstandard hours, and part-time work. Results from the discrete-time hazard models show that job quality matters for both men and women's marriage formation, net of education and income. For men, all indicators of bad jobs decrease the chance of marriage by 11 to 20 percent. Compared to men, only two of four indicators of job quality (i.e., pension benefits and part-time work) are related to women's entry into first marriage, suggesting gender difference in the relationship between job quality and marriage. This study represents one of the first empirical tests of the hypothesis that differences in job quality in the context of labor market uncertainty and polarization may be a key factor for understanding marriage behaviors. Beyond theory, this study can also inform policy debates surrounding the relationship between marriage and well-being and increasing inequality in the U.S.
Bibliography Citation
Lim, So-Jung. "Bad Jobs for Marriage: Job Quality and the Transition to First Marriage." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
120. Lin, Muh-Chung
Marriage and Heavy Drinking among Young Adults
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cohabitation; Health Factors; Marriage; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The gains in health for married people have long been documented in the social sciences. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms through which marriage improves health are rarely explored. This study examines how marriage influences health by shunning one unhealthy behavior: heavy drinking. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), I performed propensity score matching to obtain the effects of marriage on excessive drinking and to account for selection. Results from Mahalanobis and propensity score matching show that married people are significantly less likely to engage in heavy drinking. I also performed diagnostics to assess the validity of propensity scores and the quality of matching. The types of marriage matter: formal marriage has stronger effects, whereas cohabitation is unrelated to any reduction in heavy drinking. The effects of marriage do not differ by gender.
Bibliography Citation
Lin, Muh-Chung. "Marriage and Heavy Drinking among Young Adults." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009.
121. Lo, Celia C.
Ash-Houchen, William
Gerling, Heather M.
Data Spanning Three Decades Illustrate Racial Disparities in Likelihood of Obesity
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Obesity; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Obesity rates have risen significantly in recent decades, with underprivileged Americans being associated with suffering higher rates. Obesity's elevation of health risks, furthermore, appears unequally distributed across different racial/ethnic groups, according to the literature. The present study examined racial disparities in obesity as a function of socioeconomic factors, using a sample of American adults from a 32-year longitudinal study. We accounted for the time factor as we evaluated obesity's associations with selected socioeconomic factors; we also examined race/ethnicity's moderating role in obesity-socioeconomic factors associations over time. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to obtain a final sample of 119,066 person-waves for analysis. A subsample of person-waves numbering 65,702 represented data from White respondents; one numbering 31,618 represented data from Black respondents; and one numbering 21,429 represented data from Hispanic respondents. Needing to consider repeated measures of the same variables over time, we chose generalized estimated equations (GEE) for use in the data analysis. Speaking generally, the obtained results suggested that for the two smaller subsamples, minority ethnicity status introduced disadvantages that helped explain links between obesity and race/ethnicity. Results also showed that White-Black racial disparities in obesity have widened slightly in the past three decades, while White-Hispanic racial disparities have stabilized during the same time period.
Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C., William Ash-Houchen and Heather M. Gerling. "Data Spanning Three Decades Illustrate Racial Disparities in Likelihood of Obesity." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
122. Lucas, Amy
Hardie, Jessica H.
Relationship Quality in Response to Economic Stress Among Young Couples
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Economic Well-Being; Marital Conflict; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth)

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Is economic stability and instability related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimate regression models predicting respondent reports of affection and conflict in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We find that economic factors are an important predictor of affection and conflict for both married and cohabiting couples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the relationship between economic factors and affection operates largely through its impact on the level of conflict in a relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Lucas, Amy and Jessica H. Hardie. "Relationship Quality in Response to Economic Stress Among Young Couples." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
123. Lundberg, Ian
Do Attitudes Matter? Understanding Regional Variation in the Motherhood Wage Penalty in the United States
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): General Social Survey (GSS); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Mothers, Income; Regions; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children have a negative effect on women's wages. Could this effect depend on cultural context? This paper investigates whether cultural values affect the size of the motherhood wage penalty in the United States. Analyzing longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979 and 1997 cohorts, I find a wage penalty of 3.6% per child. Mothers are nested in 4 regions and 2 cohorts, yielding 8 region-cohort combinations. Person fixed-effects models show variation between region-cohorts in the size of the motherhood wage penalty. I use a multilevel model to investigate this variation. General Social Survey (GSS) data on attitudes toward working mothers in each region-cohort serves as a group-level predictor for the effect of the number of children on women's wages. Results suggest that the motherhood wage penalty is significantly smaller in region-cohorts with cultural values which support mothers' employment.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Ian. "Do Attitudes Matter? Understanding Regional Variation in the Motherhood Wage Penalty in the United States." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
124. Lundberg, Ian
Has the Motherhood Penalty Changed? The Declining Effect of Children on Young Women’s Wages
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Job Tenure; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While men’s wages increase when they have children, the presence of children at home is negatively associated with women’s wages. Gender differences in the effect of children on wages are partially responsible for continuing gender wage inequality. Previous research shows that the size of the motherhood wage penalty did not decline between 1975 and 1998 (Avellar and Smock 2003). However, several changes suggest that the penalty may have declined in more recent years. Gender role attitudes have become more egalitarian, the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 increased the availability of maternity leave, and the structure of employment has shifted away from long careers with a single employer toward temporary and contingent work, which may allow mothers to catch up after taking time off work. Using panel data, this study compares the motherhood penalty in two cohorts: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY-79) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY-97). From the NLSY-79 to the NLSY-97, there is a significant decline in the magnitude of the motherhood wage penalty. Motherhood has a more negative influence on job tenure and work experience in the early cohort than the later cohort, and these variables are stronger predictors of wages in the early cohort than in the later cohort. Although these changes demonstrate that mothers are increasingly attached to the labor force, they cannot explain the decline in the motherhood wage penalty.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Ian. "Has the Motherhood Penalty Changed? The Declining Effect of Children on Young Women’s Wages." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
125. Macmillan, Ross
Social Change in Structures of the Life Course: Examining Latent Pathways in the Transition to Adulthood, 1966 to 2010
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent attention to the transition to adulthood has focused on perceived changes to the structure of such transitions with respect to the order and timing of role transitions and the degree to which these reflect large scale changes in culture and economy. At the heart of such research is emergent debates about the nature of the life course and the degree of ‘standardization,’ ‘individualization’ or ‘differentiation’ over time. To extend theory and research, this paper specifies a structural perspective for both heterogeneity in pathways into adulthood and their connection to broad processes of social change and elaborates latent class techniques to longitudinal data to formally map out heterogeneity in pathways into adulthood in terms of interlocked, probabilistic pathways through social roles in the late teens and 20s. We also examine comparable cohorts of men and women drawn from three national, longitudinal samples of the National Longitudinal Surveys that span a period of forty years, 1966-2005, the exact period that researchers suggest significant social change in structures of the life course. In doing so, this research is unique in mapping out the broad character of the life course in terms of multidimensional, dynamic pathways and formally examines how these might have changed over time.
Bibliography Citation
Macmillan, Ross. "Social Change in Structures of the Life Course: Examining Latent Pathways in the Transition to Adulthood, 1966 to 2010." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
126. Maroto, Michelle Lee
When the Kids Come Home: Coresidence with Adult Children and Its Influence on Parental Wealth
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Household Composition; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Net Worth; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1979 cohort data from 1985 through 2012 to investigate how coresidence with adult children influences wealth levels among baby boomer parents. I apply hybrid-mixed effects regression models that partition between- and within-person variation to estimate household equivalent net worth across a set of covariates. By expanding previous research that shows a relationship between increasing economic security, limited wealth, and the rise in multigenerational households among millennials, this study offers broader implications for the interconnectivity of debt and financial hardship across generations. My results show that coresidence with adult children – particularly those over age 25 – was negatively associated with net worth in multiple ways. On average, individuals living with adult children held less wealth than otherwise similar individuals, and these individuals saw their wealth decrease once their children moved back home. Although the effects were largest for non-Hispanic white households, coresidence with adult children led to wealth declines across racial and ethnic groups.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "When the Kids Come Home: Coresidence with Adult Children and Its Influence on Parental Wealth." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
127. Maroto, Michelle Lee
Serafini, Brian
Different Story, Same Ending: Family-related Gender Earnings Penalties and Premiums Across Two Generations
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

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Recent research suggests that the gender gap in earnings has almost vanished among young millennials, who comprise the youngest cohort of workers born between 1980 and 1984. Nevertheless, women in this cohort still report lingering sources of gender inequity, particularly in terms of the work-family conflicts that have also plagued baby boomer women. We apply hybrid mixed effects models to two longitudinal surveys – the NLSY 1979 baby boomer cohort, and the NLSY1997 millennial cohort - to compare earnings disparities by gender, marriage, and parental status for young workers. These models allow us to parse out between-gender differences in earnings and changes over time within respondents’ earnings that coincide with marriage and childbirth. Our findings show that between-gender inequalities have become less pronounced compared to those observed among the boomer generation, suggesting that millennial wives, mothers, and, most notably, single women have made some labor market gains. However, marriage and parenthood effects that reward men and disadvantage women still persist and explain much of the within-gender inequality that occurs with changing family responsibilities. Finally, we find that the timing of family transition is an important determinant of future earnings, especially among young women.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee and Brian Serafini. "Different Story, Same Ending: Family-related Gender Earnings Penalties and Premiums Across Two Generations." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
128. Mason, Katherine
Modeling Discrimination: Gender, Weight, and Income Inequality
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Body weight; Gender Differences; Income; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Contemporary public discussions about the obesity epidemic and its consequences tend to focus on the potential impacts weight can have on one's health and quality of life. To the extent that associations between socioeconomic status and weight enter the conversation, it is usually to acknowledge that lower-SES people (especially the urban poor) may have limited access to fresh produce and gym memberships. In this paper, however, I examine the social and economic consequences of fatness. Using statistical data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this paper draws on economic theories of statistical and prejudicial discrimination to examine the nature and the extent of the disadvantages overweight people face. Building on previous findings of overweight income disadvantage in this dataset [in particular, Gortmaker et al (1993)], my study finds significant gender differences in the presence and amount of discrimination affecting women's and men's income. Further, due to differing types of discrimination (statistical for overweight men and prejudicial for overweight women), this study suggests that the disadvantages overweight women face are not only more severe than those experienced by overweight men, but also that these disadvantages will worsen over time relative to overweight men's.
Bibliography Citation
Mason, Katherine. "Modeling Discrimination: Gender, Weight, and Income Inequality." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
129. McClendon, David
Getting Married in the Great Recession: Local Contexts and Marriage Formation among U.S. Young Adults
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; Cohabitation; Economic Changes/Recession; Economics, Regional; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How has the Great Recession shaped the transition to first marriage among young adults in the United States? In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, in conjunction with the American Community Survey and other data sources, to begin to assess the impact of the recession on young adults’ marriage formation behavior, focusing on the importance of local economic conditions and the supply of economically attractive partners and how these might differ for men and women. Preliminary results indicate that (1) there was a measurable decline in marriage during the period following the recession among young adult men and women, and (2) consistent with research on previous marriage cohorts, local labor and marriage market conditions continue to be consequential for contemporary young adults’ marriage behavior. However, recession-era period effects do not appear to be accounted for by these local conditions. This article also provides a much-needed update to the marriage-market literature in the US with a nationally representative sample of young adults and finds important differences in the effects of the local sex composition on marriage formation between single and cohabiting men and women.
Bibliography Citation
McClendon, David. "Getting Married in the Great Recession: Local Contexts and Marriage Formation among U.S. Young Adults." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
130. McCloud, Laura
Family Debt as Investment in Young Adult Children
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Degree; Debt/Borrowing; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Parental Investments

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One result of the democratization of credit is that consumer loans, particularly credit card loans, became available to the majority of American households. Despite the salience of this financial resource, stratification researchers have yet to conceptualize consumer credit as a valuable resource parents use to facilitate children’s status attainment. Using data from the 1979 Cohort and the Young Adults sample of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, I explore how parents' histories of indebtedness influence status attainment in their young adult children. I find that young adults largely advantage from their parents' consumer debt during early adulthood. The children of parents who historically carry high consumer balances are more likely to enroll in college and graduate with a Bachelor's degree. Conversely, I find that young adults whose parents do not carry consumer debt over time are significantly less likely to enroll in or graduate from college. While I find young adults benefit by having parents who historically carry high consumer debt balances, I am hesitant to conclude that the influence is overwhelmingly advantageous. Because the young adult children of high debt parents are more likely to amass high debts themselves, the advantages they see in early adulthood from their parents' consumer debt use may be jeopardized by having to repay their own debts in later life.
Bibliography Citation
McCloud, Laura. "Family Debt as Investment in Young Adult Children." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
131. McKane, Rachel G.
Young Adult Drinking and Depression: Consequences of Poverty, Maternal Depression, and Childhood Behavioral Problems
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Children, Behavioral Development; Depression (see also CESD); Mothers, Health; Parental Influences; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective of this research is to investigate the relationships among childhood poverty, maternal depressive symptoms, internalizing and externalizing childhood behavioral problems, and depressive symptoms and alcohol use in young adulthood. Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample and path analysis, the model presented in this paper finds that both childhood poverty and maternal depressive symptoms are associated with negative behavioral outcomes in childhood and young adulthood. This model also examines mediating effects of maternal depressive symptoms, and both externalizing and internalizing childhood behavioral problems. The findings indicate that the relationship between childhood poverty and young adult depressive symptoms is mediated by maternal depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the model also indicates that the relationship between childhood poverty and young adult alcohol use is mediated by both maternal depressive symptoms and externalizing behavioral problems. These findings support the family stress model, which signifies the role financial strain can play in creating poor parental mental health, which in turn creates deleterious behavioral outcomes for children. This research presented in this study suggests that the family stress model can be expanded to include negative outcomes in young adulthood. It is clear that a comprehensive understanding of the implications of economic instability on the life course cannot exclude mental health.
Bibliography Citation
McKane, Rachel G. "Young Adult Drinking and Depression: Consequences of Poverty, Maternal Depression, and Childhood Behavioral Problems." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
132. Merry, Joseph
Tracing the U.S. Deficit in PISA to Early Childhood: Evidence from the United States and Canada
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Cognitive Ability; Cross-national Analysis; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Why does the U.S. lag behind so many other countries on international assessments of cognitive skills? The traditional view targets school-based explanations – U.S. schools are less efficient, attract poorer teachers, and lack the proper incentives. But the U.S. educational system may also serve children with greater academic challenges when compared with other countries. Simple comparisons of international test scores fail to reveal whether the U.S. deficit is a function of school problems, or broader societal challenges. One way of gaining leverage on this issue is to understand when U.S. students fall behind their international counterparts. I compare reading/vocabulary test scores for U.S. and Canadian children (ages 4-5) in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) and Canada’s National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY). I then compare the magnitude of these differences to similar cohorts of students at ages 15-16 using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Findings indicate that while the Canadian advantage at ages 15-16 is substantial (0.30 standard deviation units), this advantage already existed at ages 4-5, before formal schooling had a chance to matter. I discuss the implications of this pattern for interpreting international test score rankings.
Bibliography Citation
Merry, Joseph. "Tracing the U.S. Deficit in PISA to Early Childhood: Evidence from the United States and Canada." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
133. Min, Stella
Taylor, Miles G.
Estimating the Effect of Student Loan Debt on Timing of Marriage among Race/Ethnic Groups
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Debt/Borrowing; Ethnic Differences; Financial Assistance; Marriage; Racial Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Emerging literature suggests student loans are negatively associated with the transition to marriage. Yet, due to historical differences in marital behavior and disproportionate educational financing among non-whites, the consequences of educational debt and family formation are likely to vary by race/ethnicity. To add further complications, selection into student loans is nonrandom, making it difficult to draw strong conclusions concerning the consequences of these loans. Accounting for nonrandom selection into student loans using propensity scores, this study employs discrete time event history models to empirically test the relationship between student loan debt and timing of first marriage among White, Black, and Hispanic college graduates using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Postmatching results reveal the negative impact of student loans and marriage primarily affect Hispanic graduates. Hispanic young adults nearly half as likely to marry compared to their counterparts without loans. However, black and white graduates with student loans are more likely to marry than their peers without debt. Our results suggest that student loans uniquely affect race/ethnic groups, advantaging some groups while harming others.
Bibliography Citation
Min, Stella and Miles G. Taylor. "Estimating the Effect of Student Loan Debt on Timing of Marriage among Race/Ethnic Groups." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
134. Monaghan, David B.
The Effects of Post-Natal Enrollment and Attainment on Children's Educational Attainment
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Modern higher education serves a large number students who are themselves already parents. But does college-going by parents have a beneficial impact on their children's educational outcomes? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 and the NLSY Children and Young Adults Survey, I estimate the impact of maternal college enrollment and bachelor’s completion on already-born children. For a range of educational outcomes, estimated effects of both enrollment and attainment are sizeable. Estimated effects seem to be larger if children were somewhat older when their mother either returned to college or earned a bachelor’s degree. And the impact of post-natal schooling seems to be stronger on female children than on male children. These results strongly suggest that supporting postsecondary enrollment and completion by parents could be a very effective strategy for boosting children's educational outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Monaghan, David B. "The Effects of Post-Natal Enrollment and Attainment on Children's Educational Attainment." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
135. Monaghan, David B.
The Impact of Non-traditional College-going on Entry into Marriage and Divorce
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Divorce; Education, Adult; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage; Modeling, Marginal Structural

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Today, participation in higher education has expanded well beyond the 18-23 year age range; nearly 40% of all undergraduates are at least 25 years of age. However, most scholarship on the relationship between education and marriage implicitly assumes that individuals obtain all of their education in their youth, in one spell, and prior to attaining other major adult statuses. As a result, we know little about how college-going at older ages impacts one's transitions into and out of marriage. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I ask how college enrollment and bachelor’s completion at older ages impacts 1) entry into marriage for those unmarried at 25, and 2) dissolution of existing unions. Because time-varying confounders are endogenous with the independent variables of interest, I employ marginal structural models to estimate the independent impacts of educational variables. There does not appear to be any impact of college enrollment or completion on entry into marriage. Completing college seems to protect against divorce, but only for males.
Bibliography Citation
Monaghan, David B. "The Impact of Non-traditional College-going on Entry into Marriage and Divorce." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
136. Morgan, S. Philip
Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie
Life Course Dynamics of Unintended and Mistimed Pregnancies Among American Women
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 12, 2005.
Also: http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/2/0/9/8/pages20988/p20988-1.php
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fertility; Life Course; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study relies on longitudinal, prospective assessments of fertility intentions and behaviors of 1957 to 1961 birth cohorts of U.S. women to evaluate the correspondence between pregnancies explicitly reported as unwanted or mistimed, and those associated with changing intentions. We first assess the contribution of unwanted and mistimed pregnancies to the observed fertility of these cohorts of women, and then examine the dynamic contribution of life course factors to changing intentions. We build on a framework developed by Bongaarts (2001) in selecting the life course factors that merit attention in this regard.

Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative survey which prospectively follows the parallel evolution of fertility intentions and reproductive histories. To ensure that the analyses reach the near end of the respondents' reproductive years, the sample is restricted to 2,720 women 40 years or older in 2002 (vital registration statistics indicate that only 1-2% of the U.S. TFR is due to women above 40).

Bibliography Citation
Morgan, S. Philip and Amélie Quesnel-Vallée. "Life Course Dynamics of Unintended and Mistimed Pregnancies Among American Women." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 12, 2005.
137. Mossakowski, Krysia N.
A Social Psychological Perspective of Racial/Ethnic Inequality in Wealth
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Assets; Ethnic Differences; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our knowledge remains limited about why there are large racial/ethnic differences in wealth among the middle class in the United States. Owning a home and having positive net worth (i.e., more assets than debts) are important aspirations for the middle class because they signify wealth. This study uses a social psychological perspective to explore whether the effects of earlier psychological dispositions on these indicators of wealth differ for Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites. Results reveal that a stronger sense of personal control over life and higher self-esteem significantly increase the odds of achieving positive net worth and homeownership, controlling for race/ethnicity, other demographics, educational attainment, current employment, income, and the socioeconomic status of the family of origin. Moreover, interaction effects indicate that the influence of internal locus of control on wealth is stronger for Whites than Blacks. Overall, this study’s findings suggest that the journey between social origins and destinations does not simply need socioeconomic resources, but also psychological resources that come from within the self-concept of the individual. The public policy and mental health implications for the Black middle class are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Mossakowski, Krysia N. "A Social Psychological Perspective of Racial/Ethnic Inequality in Wealth." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
138. Mossakowski, Krysia N.
Why is There a Long-term Relationship between Disadvantaged Family Background and Symptoms of Depression?
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Parental Influences; Poverty; Self-Esteem; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition, Adulthood

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An extensive literature has documented that disadvantaged parental socioeconomic status earlier in life has harmful mental health consequences. What warrants further inquiry is why. Using social stress theory and data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study highlights mediating mechanisms from the transition to adulthood that help to explain why there is a long-term relationship between disadvantaged family background and symptoms of depression at ages 29 to 37. Results indicate that levels of self-esteem at ages 15 to 23 substantially explain the inverse relationship between parental education and subsequent levels of depressive symptoms. The depressive effect of low parental occupational prestige is largely explained by cumulative exposure to poverty status across 16 years. Overall, the implications of these findings are that policymakers and social welfare interventions should target self-esteem enhancement and the prevention of poverty spells during the journey to adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Mossakowski, Krysia N. "Why is There a Long-term Relationship between Disadvantaged Family Background and Symptoms of Depression?" Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
139. Mouw, Ted
Kalleberg, Arne L.
Stepping Stone versus Dead End Jobs: Occupational Pathways out of Working Poverty in the NLSY 1979-2006
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Mobility, Economic; Occupational Prestige; Occupations; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we test for the existence of pathways of upward mobility for low wage workers by studying patterns of intragenerational occupational mobility in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) from 1979-2006. We argue that stepping stone links of upward mobility between specific pairs of occupations can be identified by whether or not the accumulation of experience increases the probability of movement between these occupations. In contrast, a dead end job is one which both pays low wages and where the accumulation of occupational experience reduces the probability of upward mobility. We use two data sets to detect potential stepping stone links between occupations. First, we measure the skill similarity between occupations using data on occupational skill requirements from the O*NET occupational database. Second, we use data on occupational mobility from matched samples of the Current Population Survey (CPS) to identify possible career ladders based on either significant one-way flows between occupations or positive age effects on occupational transitions. We test these links using data on career histories from the NLSY. A key aspect of our approach is an empirical strategy that simultaneously models wage mobility (a dichotomous indicator of low versus high pay) and occupational mobility (among detailed 3-digit occupations). In order to estimate our models with detailed occupations and multiple observations for each individual, we first randomly sample from the choice set of occupations and then use a latent-class conditional logit model (Train 2008) to allow for individual heterogeneity.
Bibliography Citation
Mouw, Ted and Arne L. Kalleberg. "Stepping Stone versus Dead End Jobs: Occupational Pathways out of Working Poverty in the NLSY 1979-2006." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
140. Mowen, Thomas
Shifting Parenting Styles and the Effect on Juvenile Delinquency
Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles

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The importance of parenting styles on childhood development and early adolescent social and behavioral outcomes has been well documented within academic literature (Schaffer et al., 2009; Brand et al., 2009; Claes et al., 2005; Sirvanli-Ozen, 2005; Darling & Steinberg 1993; Lamborn et al., 1991) and the effects of parenting styles on juvenile delinquency have also been well researched (Hoeve, 2007; Pires & Jenkins, 2007; Claes et al., 2005; Duncan et al., 1998; Kandel, 1996; Simons & Robertson, 1989). While there have been a number of studies which show parenting practices evolve with the age of the child (Dix et al., 1986; Feldman et al., 1989; Smaller & Youniss, 1989), and parenting practices can change due to the effects of circumstances such as discrimination (Brody et al., 2008) and divorce (Simons et al., 1993), the literature on adolescent behavior and parenting styles has overlooked the impact of shifting parenting styles on delinquency. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current research examines 1) the extent and nature of parenting style changes during adolescence, and 2) the influence of such parenting style shifts on juvenile delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas. "Shifting Parenting Styles and the Effect on Juvenile Delinquency." Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011.
141. Munsch, Christin L.
The Effect of Unemployment and Relative Income Disparity on Infidelity for Men and Women
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Income Level; Sexual Activity; Unemployment

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This paper uses social identity theory and social exchange theory to develop an interactional model of infidelity. I argue that, for men, unemployment and relative income disparity may threaten gender identity by calling into question the traditional notion of men as providers and breadwinners. Having multiple sexual partners may be an attempt to restore gender identity in response to these threats. Because normative gender expectations differ for men and women, it is unlikely that unemployment and relative income disparity lead women to engage in extradyadic sex. Rather, for women, fidelity and infidelity may be functions of social exchange. Economic dependency may compel women to exchange sexual exclusivity for a share of men's income. I test these assertions using panel data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97).
Bibliography Citation
Munsch, Christin L. "The Effect of Unemployment and Relative Income Disparity on Infidelity for Men and Women." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
142. Munsch, Christin L.
Rogers, Matthew
Is Breadwinning a Health Hazard? The Relationship between Relative Income and Self-Reported Mental and Physical Health
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Husbands, Income; Marriage

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While scholars have carefully tracked the amount of time men and women spend on both paid and domestic labor, the consequences of defining and prescribing marital responsibilities based on gender--particularly among young men and women who reportedly desire egalitarian relationships--are less well-known. In this study, we use nationally representative survey data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 (NLSY97) to examine the relationship between men's and women's relative income contributions in marriage, a measure of household specialization, and physical and mental health. We find strong evidence that breadwinning has adverse effects on men's health. As relative income increases--that is, as men take on a greater share of the household income--depression increases and physical health declines. Relative income is negatively associated with women's depression and unrelated to women's physical health.
Bibliography Citation
Munsch, Christin L. and Matthew Rogers. "Is Breadwinning a Health Hazard? The Relationship between Relative Income and Self-Reported Mental and Physical Health." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
143. Mykyta, Laryssa
The Timing of Childhood Poverty, Contextual Risk and Educational Outcomes in Early Adulthood
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior, Prosocial; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Poverty; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parenting Skills/Styles; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, I use data on the children of female respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-C) to construct a measure of childhood poverty that captures both the duration and timing of economic disadvantage at ages 0 through 14. I use this measure to examine how exposure to poverty throughout childhood influences educational attainment in early adulthood (ages 20-24). I also explore the extent to which a youth’s family, peer and school environment mediate the negative effects of poverty. Consistent with previous research, my findings suggest that exposure to persistent and long term childhood poverty significantly reduces educational attainment, particularly for females, even when mediating family, peer and school contexts are considered. However, early childhood poverty does not affect educational attainment as young adults who escape poverty by age 5 do not differ significantly from those with no poverty experience. My results also suggest that contextual factors mediate the effect of poverty exposure on educational attainment in early adulthood, and that family processes reduce the effects of poverty experience on educational outcomes more than peer or school environment.
Bibliography Citation
Mykyta, Laryssa. "The Timing of Childhood Poverty, Contextual Risk and Educational Outcomes in Early Adulthood." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009.
144. Nau, Michael
Inequality and Retirement Savings among Young Adults
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Retirement; Savings; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Why do some households have more wealth than others? This question is key for understanding contemporary social stratification, given recent rapid rise of wealth inequality, household debt, and growing importance of individual savings for economic security. Yet exactly how wealth accumulation works is not well understood. This study adopts a novel analytical approach to studying wealth accumulation by modeling the risk of a key savings event: the initiation of savings for retirement among young adults. By examining the "risk factors" that shape the decision to save, this study integrates mainstream, psychology-oriented savings research with insights from wealth scholars and specialists in other areas of stratification.
Bibliography Citation
Nau, Michael. "Inequality and Retirement Savings among Young Adults." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
145. O'Brien, Laureen K.
Lubold, Amanda M.
Opting Out or Pushed Out?: Women's Decisions to Leave Work and Career
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Discrimination, Sex; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent qualitative scholarship has highlighted the importance of negative workplace relationships and structural inequalities in predicting highly-educated mothers' departures from top managerial and executive jobs, a phenomenon known as "Opting-out." This quantitative research examines whether perceptions of sex discrimination at work affect mothers' "opting-out" behavior using data from the National Longitudinal Study Young Women Cohort (1968-2003). We find that while women who perceive discrimination actually experience fewer weeks out of the labor force, the effects of discrimination perceptions operate differently for white and non-white women. Non-white women who perceive discrimination experience more time out of the labor force than their white counterparts. Other factors, such as marital status and number of children, do have a positive effect on women's absence from the workforce.
Bibliography Citation
O'Brien, Laureen K. and Amanda M. Lubold. "Opting Out or Pushed Out?: Women's Decisions to Leave Work and Career." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
146. Oi, Katsuya
The Sense of Control, Cumulative Advantages and Disadvantages from Status Attainment and Stress Moderation
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Stress

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The present study extends the literature on one of the most important personality traits for health, known as the sense of control (SOC), which governs two path ways that link childhood environments and adult health: status attainment and stress moderation. The SOC influences health by inducing the accumulation and mobilization of necessary resources (e.g., health knowledge). In addition, cumulative exposure to stress over the life course can be buffered through a SOC over life, directly interacting with the individual health trajectory. To articulate these ideas, the present study addresses the following questions: 1) Does age at change in the SOC matter to health? 2) How does the individual trajectory of the SOC determine important life outcomes with significant health consequences? ; 3) Is change in perceived stress a function of concurrent change in the SOC throughout the life course? We address these questions by drawing from several data sources: The Aging, Status and Sense of Control (ASSC), and The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). With latent change score modeling (LCSM), the first question is addressed by estimating and comparing the effect size of age-specific latent change in the SOC on health. The second question adds educational attainment and late career outcomes between the SOC trajectory and health. The third question is addressed by modeling dual latent change between perceived stress and the SOC. Preliminary results are supportive to my expectations, suggesting the two significant pathways wherein the SOC generates cumulative advantages and disadvantages to health.
Bibliography Citation
Oi, Katsuya. "The Sense of Control, Cumulative Advantages and Disadvantages from Status Attainment and Stress Moderation." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
147. Pacholok, Shelley L.
Heimdal, Kristen R.
Explaining Differences in the Timing of First Births Among Young Adults: Contextual Effects
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Neighborhood Effects

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This paper examines the relationship between race, marital status and the timing of first births among young adults using NLSY data. Racial differences in marital status at first birth, and the timing of first births, are well established in the literature. The timing of first births is earlier for Blacks relative to Whites, and Blacks are more likely to experience a first birth outside of marriage. This paper focuses on potential explanations for these differences. Specifically, we examine family background variables and neighborhood characteristics. Respondent characteristics such as level of education and fertility expectations are also considered. Employing event history analysis we find that family background variables and neighborhood characteristics do have a significant effect on the risk (hazard) of experiencing a first birth. We conclude with a discussion of the results and highlight possible avenues for future work in this area.
Bibliography Citation
Pacholok, Shelley L. and Kristen R. Heimdal. "Explaining Differences in the Timing of First Births Among Young Adults: Contextual Effects." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2003.
148. Pais, Jeremy
Disparate Trajectories of the Effects of Health on Work Participation: A Latent Class Growth Approach
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Disability; Disabled Workers; Health Factors; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research on racial and ethnic disparities in the area of health and work are limited by the simple way functional health trajectories are conceptualized. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this project will use a novel latent class growth analysis to capture the multifaceted connections between health and work participation that transpire over the life course. By capturing the different types of functional health trajectories, this project will improve our assessment of the extent, magnitude, and cause of the racial and ethnic disparities in health and in work participation. This study will also advance core theoretical arguments concerning how social factors at the individual and community level affect racial and ethnic health/work disparities. As a result, we will gain new knowledge about how and why health limitations unequally affect the ability of minorities and whites to participate in work.
Bibliography Citation
Pais, Jeremy. "Disparate Trajectories of the Effects of Health on Work Participation: A Latent Class Growth Approach." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
149. Parker, Brandy R.
Fry, Sarah V.
Not Without a Price: The Influence of Conviction on Illegal Earnings
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Earnings

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Research on the effectiveness of criminal justice sanctions as a deterrent for crime is mixed but tends to suggest sanctions have either a null or criminogenic effect on future offending. Moreover, a growing literature documents negative impacts of criminal justice sanctions on the acquisition of conventional capital. This is problematic because conventional capital acquisition should promote desistance from crime, leading to the question of whether sanctions promote persistence or desistance from crime, and whether a lack of success in conventional pursuits encourages selection into and success in criminal labor markets. Bridging research on sanctions, blocked opportunities, crime and the life course, and criminal achievement we ask two questions. First, do sanctions influence selection into and success in illegal earnings? Second, if an association between sanctions and illegal earnings exists, can it be partially explained by a lack of conventional capital acquisition? We use waves 2 through 7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to address our research questions. Findings reveal criminal conviction to be a consistent and powerful predictor of both selection into and the amount earned through illegal activities among late adolescent and young adult males. Moreover, part of the association between the two appears to work through a lack of accumulated conventional capital, though indicators of criminal capital and embeddedness also help explain the link between sanctions and illegal earnings. Results are discussed in light of policy and theoretical implications.
Bibliography Citation
Parker, Brandy R. and Sarah V. Fry. "Not Without a Price: The Influence of Conviction on Illegal Earnings." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
150. Penner, Anna
The Impact of Family Adversity: Behavioral Outcomes of Having a Disabled Sibling during Childhood
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Children, Behavioral Development; Disability; Siblings

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Utilizing secondary data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults, this paper examines behavioral outcomes among children (ages 4-14) who have had a disabled sibling. Current estimates maintain that more than one in eight American families have a disabled child, suggesting that a substantial portion of our children have a disabled sibling, and yet little sociological literature examines their experiences using nationally representative data. I investigate whether children with disabled siblings are at greater risk for behavioral problems during their childhood than children whose siblings are not disabled, and find that, on average, children with a disabled sibling have more reports of behavioral problems than children whose siblings are not disabled. Any gap that shows these children are at greater risk for behavioral problems and delinquency is important to note—if we can support these children early on and give them tools to cope and excel, then we may decrease the aid they require as they enter adolescence and adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Penner, Anna. "The Impact of Family Adversity: Behavioral Outcomes of Having a Disabled Sibling during Childhood." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
151. Petts, Richard James
Paternity Leave, Religion, and Father Involvement with Children
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fathers, Involvement; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Religion

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Expectations for fathers have changed in recent decades, and fathers are now expected to be more involved in their children's lives. However, little research has examined policies that would allow fathers to meet the increased demands placed on them. Using data from the NLSY97, this study contributes to this gap in the literature by focusing on the determinants and consequences of paternity leave-taking, examining whether religious fathers are more likely to take paternity leave, whether paternity leave is linked to father involvement, and whether this relationship is moderated by religious participation. Overall, results from this study were mixed. Most new fathers in the NLSY97 did not take paid paternity leave. Results also suggest that weekly religious attendance increases the likelihood of taking a few days of paid paternity leave, but monthly attendance decreases the likelihood of taking 1-2 weeks of paid paternity leave. In addition, although this study provides no evidence linking paternity leave-taking to father involvement, results suggest that religious participation is associated with a higher likelihood of reading and bathing/dressing children daily among fathers who take paternity leave. Future research should continue to focus on the determinants and consequences of paternity leave as well as strategies to increase father engagement in family life more generally.
Bibliography Citation
Petts, Richard James. "Paternity Leave, Religion, and Father Involvement with Children." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
152. Petts, Richard James
Knoester, Chris
Li, Qi
Attitudes, Patterns, and Predictors of Paternity Leave-Taking among U.S. Fathers
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fathers; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Surprisingly few studies have focused on paternity leave-taking in the U.S. This study utilizes data from four national datasets to provide a comprehensive examination of the attitudes, practices, and predictors of paternity leave-taking in the U.S. Specifically, this study focuses on (a) describing attitudes towards, and practices of, paternity leave-taking in the U.S. and (b) analyzing the extent to which economic capital, social capital, and father identities predict these attitudes and practices. The results indicate that most people support paid paternity leave opportunities in the U.S. Yet, rates of paid paternity leave-taking are relatively low and most fathers take total leaves that last one week or less. Economic capital, social capital, and father identities that prioritize engaged fathering are positively associated with taking leave and taking longer periods of leave. Overall, the results emphasize that the current structure of U.S. paternity leave policies may contribute to patterns of inequality due to more advantaged fathers having greater access and ability to take paternity leave than less advantaged fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Petts, Richard James, Chris Knoester and Qi Li. "Attitudes, Patterns, and Predictors of Paternity Leave-Taking among U.S. Fathers." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
153. Pham-Kanter, Genevieve
Sons, Daughters, and Maternal Weight
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children; Mothers; Mothers and Daughters; Sons; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although the effect of parents on children has been the focus of much research on health and families, the influence of children on their parents has been far less studied. In this paper, I examine the effect of the sex composition of children on the weight trajectory of mothers. I find that women who have teenage daughters weigh (on average) 5-7 lbs less than women with teenage sons, and that the presence of an additional daughter in the family depresses mothers' weights even further. I evaluate several hypotheses that might be generating this weight difference, including the possibility that women who have sons may have increased bargaining power, giving them leverage to gain weight; that women who have daughters may intensify their appearance-oriented behaviors; and that women who have sons may be exposed to more high-calorie eating environments. I also evaluate the possibility that biological mechanisms might be generating this weight gap. I find evidence in support of the bargaining power and appearance-oriented behavior hypotheses, and less evidence in support of the social eating and biological hypotheses. These results shed light on mechanisms of social inequality that may be occurring on a day-to-day basis within families.
Bibliography Citation
Pham-Kanter, Genevieve. "Sons, Daughters, and Maternal Weight." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
154. Ping, Jing
Is Negative Selection True for College Major?
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Propensity Scores; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)

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Previous research finds that college education brings much less difference in returns for individuals from high social origins than for individuals of low socioeconomic status. But without considering qualitative factors of college, it likely omits true underlying mechanism. In this paper, I address this gap by zooming into the qualitative dimension of college and discussing the heterogeneous effect of STEM major on future wages across people of different social origins. This study focuses on individuals who were between 14 and 17 years old in 1979 in NLSY79 dataset. I construct propensity scores indicating the likelihood of selecting STEM major and utilize hierarchical linear model to check the existence of heterogeneous effect on STEM major on wages in 1998, 2002 and 2006. The results show that although there is indeed a trend that people who come from disadvantaged status are more likely to choose STEM major, no statistically significant evidence supports either the positive selection hypothesis or negative selection hypothesis. In other words, the higher probability of selecting STEM major does not necessarily indicate either more difference or less difference in the returning benefits between STEM graduates and Non-STEM graduates, but in general, people who select STEM major can earn more than those who do not.
Bibliography Citation
Ping, Jing. "Is Negative Selection True for College Major?" Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
155. Porter, Lauren C.
DeMarco, Laura
Beyond the Dichotomy: Exposure to Incarceration and Depressive Symptoms
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing body of research suggests that incarceration is detrimental for both physical and mental health. However, this literature tends to adopt a view of incarceration as a status rather than an experience or episode. That is, incarceration is typically conceptualized and operationalized as a dichotomy: individuals either have, or have not, been incarcerated. Considering that incarceration can range from one day to several years, a dichotomous measure may be overlooking important variations across lengths of exposure. This study helps to fill this gap by examining the relationship between exposure to incarceration, measured as time served and number of spells, and depressive symptoms among a sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Using a fixed effects approach, we find that depressive symptoms increase with number of months and number of spells incarcerated, however this relationship does not appear salient when limiting the sample to former inmates only. Additionally, among current inmates the number of months incarcerated is associated with lower levels of depression, suggesting a possible adaptation to prison after a period of time.
Bibliography Citation
Porter, Lauren C. and Laura DeMarco. "Beyond the Dichotomy: Exposure to Incarceration and Depressive Symptoms." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
156. Pudrovska, Tetyana
Sherman-Wilkins, Kyler
Gender Ideology and Depressive Symptoms among Older Black and White Women
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Gender Attitudes/Roles; Life Course; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the 1967-1995 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine the association between gender ideology and depressive symptoms among older black and white women. This study uses a theoretical framework integrating the gender relations theory, the life-course perspective, and the intersectionality approach to explore how gender beliefs become embodied as psychological distress. The findings reveal that black and white women with traditional gender ideology exhibit more depressive symptoms than their peers with egalitarian gender beliefs. Moreover, traditional gender ideology has a stronger effect on black women's than white women's depression. Consistent with the life-course perspective, results indicate that gender ideology earlier in life has enduring implications for later depression. We argue that gender ideology can be viewed as a pathway through which social and cultural dimensions of gender and race influence depressive symptoms at the individual level and generate within-gender heterogeneity in mental health.
Bibliography Citation
Pudrovska, Tetyana and Kyler Sherman-Wilkins. "Gender Ideology and Depressive Symptoms among Older Black and White Women." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
157. Qian, Yue
Educational Assortative Mating and Income Dynamics in Couples: A Longitudinal and Dyadic Perspective
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Husbands, Income; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Wives, Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The reversal of the gender gap in education could have far-reaching consequences for marriage and family lives. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and longitudinal multilevel dyad models to investigate how the educational pairing of spouses at the time of marriage shapes income dynamics in couples over the marital life course. Husbands' income earned at the start of marriage varies by the educational pairing of spouses, but change in husbands' income with marital duration is very comparable across three types of educational pairings of spouses. For wives, both their initial income at marriage and change in income after marriage vary by the educational pairing of spouses, with wives who marry a less-educated husband than themselves having more positive change in income over the marital life course. These results suggest that it remains important for husbands to bring income into the family no matter what educational levels they have relative to their wives, whereas the rise of women's education and the increasing prevalence of women marrying down in education likely protect women from earning less after marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Qian, Yue. "Educational Assortative Mating and Income Dynamics in Couples: A Longitudinal and Dyadic Perspective." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
158. Quadlin, Natasha Y.
Funding Sources, Family Income, and Fields of Study at Four-year Colleges
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Cost; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Debt/Borrowing; Family Income; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research shows that receiving loans, family contributions, and grants has implications for college students, but one key outcome has been overlooked--fields of study. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I assess how college funding is associated with first-term major and course selection throughout college. I find that as students' funding from loans increases, they are more likely to major in applied non-STEM fields (e.g., business), and less likely to be undeclared during the first term--particularly if they are from low- or middle-income families. Conversely, as funding from family contributions increases, students are more likely to be undeclared, and less likely to major or take courses in applied non-STEM fields. Receiving grants has little association with major or course fields. I argue that funding sources act as opportunities and constraints for college students, and that fields of study are the product of multiple sources of inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Quadlin, Natasha Y. "Funding Sources, Family Income, and Fields of Study at Four-year Colleges." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
159. Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie
Dehaney, Suzanne
Ciampi, Antonio
Contingent Work and Depressive Symptoms: Contribution of Health Selection and Moderating Effects of Employment Status
Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association's 104th Annual Meeting, August 9, 2009.
Also: http://www.soc.cas.cz/download/476/Am%E9lie%20Quesnel-Vall%E9e_Contingent_work_and_depressive_symptoms.ppt
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Employment, Part-Time; Health, Mental; Labor Supply; Work, Atypical; Work, Contingent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For a complete resume of the paper, see, COOPER, JACKIE: Employee Mental Health Strained By Temp Work Medical New Today 12 Aug 2009. Also: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/160396.php
Bibliography Citation
Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie, Suzanne Dehaney and Antonio Ciampi. "Contingent Work and Depressive Symptoms: Contribution of Health Selection and Moderating Effects of Employment Status." Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association's 104th Annual Meeting, August 9, 2009.
160. Quiroz, Christopher
McClintock, Elizabeth
Bringing Work Home: How Occupational Sex Composition Influences Traditional Gender Roles
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Occupational Attainment; Occupations, Non-Traditional

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We explore the relationship between occupational sex composition and traditional gender ideology by using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth. Previous studies indicate two possible theories to describe how occupational context would affect gender opinions. First, gender deviance neutralization theory suggests that men and women in gender-atypical occupations would hold more traditional gender beliefs as a form of gender compensation. Second, gender conventionality theory suggests individuals in gender-atypical occupations would be more likely to break from tradition gender opinions and have greater egalitarian perceptions. We find that men and women do not compensate for gender-atypical career settings by adopting traditional gender opinions. The results indicate that men with egalitarian opinions are more likely to select into gender-atypical occupations, thus confirming the salience of gender conventionality theory for men. Occupational context has no effect for women respondents which supports previous findings that gender norms for women are more robust to external influences than for men. The implications for the findings are also addressed.
Bibliography Citation
Quiroz, Christopher and Elizabeth McClintock. "Bringing Work Home: How Occupational Sex Composition Influences Traditional Gender Roles." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
161. Rackin, Heather
Gibson-Davis, Christina
In Search of a New Family Form: The Distribution and Duration of Shotgun Cohabitation
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; First Birth; Marital Status; Marriage; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Shotgun marriage in which a marital union occurred post-conception but pre-birth has largely disappeared from the family formation landscape. Here, we identify a new type of relationship that may have supplanted shotgun marriage: shotgun cohabitation, in which couples began cohabiting after conception but prior to the birth. We use data from the first ten rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey 1997 (NLS97) to analyze household relationship types at the time of a first birth. We find that 12% of parents are in a shotgun cohabitation relationship, compared to 6% in a shotgun marriage. Shotgun cohabitations also account for nearly one-quarter of all unions. Contrary to expectations, relationships which began as a result of a pregnancy were not more likely to dissolve than relationships that did not. However, both shot-gun cohabitations and cohabitations that existed before a birth dissolved much faster than both types of marriages.
Bibliography Citation
Rackin, Heather and Christina Gibson-Davis. "In Search of a New Family Form: The Distribution and Duration of Shotgun Cohabitation." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
162. Ramey, David
The Influence of Social Status and Social Control on the Health Behaviors of Young Adults
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Life Course; Marital Status; Obesity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Socioeconomic Background; Wealth; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Scholars have long demonstrated racial and socioeconomic disparities in health behaviors. However, we know little about when such disparities emerge or when they begin to influence larger gaps in health and well-being in the US. This paper analyzes three health behaviors, smoking, drinking, and poor weight management, during young adulthood, a significant period of development in the life-course. Results suggest that, as a time of experimentation and development, racial and socioeconomic disparities during young adulthood are not as prevalent as during other times in the life course. Furthermore, life-course events during adolescence and young adulthood significantly influence the odds of poor health behavior during this period. Results suggest that addressing health disparities through behavioral means alone may be insufficient. Rather, structural barriers to life chances, including education and marriage, are likely more important in explaining health disparities.
Bibliography Citation
Ramey, David. "The Influence of Social Status and Social Control on the Health Behaviors of Young Adults." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
163. Redmond, Deidre L.
Jackson, Pamela Braboy
Young Adult Offspring and Mothers' Depression
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Motherhood; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The research literature on parenthood and mental health has directed a great deal of attention toward children and parents when they are young. Recent research demonstrates that even during their adult years, children continue to have an impact on parents’ psychological well-being. This study explores how young adult offspring have an impact on mothers’ depression scores, examining the effects of the closeness of their relationship and offspring’s relationship status and attainment of economic and psychological resources. The data for this study are from a 2004 and 2006 sample of mothers and their young adult children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY). Mothers’ depression scores are predicted based on information provided by their young adult offspring. Mothers benefit from the success of their children economically and from the closeness of their relationship. However, higher depression scores are found among mothers whose children have become socially independent. The results support prior research on adult development and highlight the complexities of midlife parenting.
Bibliography Citation
Redmond, Deidre L. and Pamela Braboy Jackson. "Young Adult Offspring and Mothers' Depression." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
164. Reeder, Lori
Kahn, Joan R.
The Effects of Student Loan Debt on the Transition to Parenthood
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Fertility; Gender Differences; Student Loans; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) cohort to examine the relationship between student loan debt and fertility decisions during the transition to adulthood. We hypothesize that the burden of loan debt will lead women (and men) to feel greater financial insecurity and therefore postpone (and potentially forego) the family building process. We test these ideas using two approaches: first, we use cross-sectional data from the 2009 wave of the NLSY97 (when respondents were ages 24-30) to explore the relationship between loan debt and both childlessness and the number of children ever born. We find that, net of all controls in the model, student loan debt is negatively and significantly associated with the fertility of young adult women. It appears that the key difference is between those with and without debt, since among those with debt, there is relatively little difference by level of debt. In the second part of our analysis, we will use event history methods to model the impact of time-varying measures of debt on the timing of first births.
Bibliography Citation
Reeder, Lori and Joan R. Kahn. "The Effects of Student Loan Debt on the Transition to Parenthood." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
165. Remster, Brianna
Hodges, Melissa J.
The Gendered Effect of Incarceration on Wages
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Incarceration/Jail; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite a growing body of research on the consequences of incarceration, most systematic studies are limited to men. This shortcoming persists notwithstanding several theoretical traditions suggesting that women may experience the consequences of incarceration differently than men. A primary example is research on the incarceration wage penalty; studies find that men who have been incarcerated earn less over time than never incarcerated men. Yet women have different amounts of human and social capital and work experience and may face greater stigma post release than men. This study addresses this gap in the literature by assessing (1) whether women experience an incarceration wage penalty and how it compares to men's and (2) whether wage penalty mechanisms differ for women compared to men. Using data uses from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that women experience a stronger wage penalty for incarceration than men. Moreover, the mechanisms work differently. Consistent with prior work, human capital explains the bulk of the penalty for men, while a larger residual penalty suggests that stigma is more important for women. These results illustrate the need for applying a gendered lens to consequences of incarceration research.
Bibliography Citation
Remster, Brianna and Melissa J. Hodges. "The Gendered Effect of Incarceration on Wages." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
166. Rohrman, Shawna
Healthy Paths? The Transition to Adulthood and Trajectories of Self-Rated Health
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Formation; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Social Roles; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is a large body of work demonstrating the relationship between health and transitions into and out of social roles. Much of this work focuses on one or a narrow set of role transitions at a time, which may not reflect the complexity with which we occupy social roles in our lives. Recent work on the transition to adulthood has examined five key role transitions (education, employment, residential independence, marriage, and parenthood) in combination with one another by identifying paths to adulthood--i.e., different configurations of role transitions made between adolescence and adulthood. However, there are few studies that examine whether these different paths have implications for young adult health. This study attempts to fill the gap by investigating whether health trajectories--changes in health from adolescence to adulthood—differ depending on one's path to adulthood. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), an annual and ongoing representative sample of young people, spanning from ages 12 to 30. Results indicate that there are differences across paths to adulthood, and those differences appear to favor paths where individuals continue their education beyond high school and delay family formation.
Bibliography Citation
Rohrman, Shawna. "Healthy Paths? The Transition to Adulthood and Trajectories of Self-Rated Health." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
167. Rybinska, Anna
Predictive Power of Early Adulthood Reports of Intentions for Childlessness
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Qualitative studies of childlessness frequently point out to the importance of women's preferences in the process of remaining childless. Childless women often describe their status as a deliberate decision to avoid parenthood, situated within the structure of their lives. Despite these narratives, predictive validity of intentions for childlessness (i.e. intentions to have no children) is rarely examined. Findings from previous analyses point out to a strong predictive power of childless intentions: women who intend childlessness rarely become mothers and childless intentions, once verbalized, tend to be stable. This project complements existing research by investigating the link between intentions for childlessness reported in early adulthood and permanent childlessness at the end of women's reproductive careers for a recent cohort of American women. I use the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth and estimate a logistic regression model. I hypothesize that the women who intend to have no children in early adulthood will have a high probability of remaining childless over the life course. Moderating effects of personality traits and socio-demographic factors are explored.
Bibliography Citation
Rybinska, Anna. "Predictive Power of Early Adulthood Reports of Intentions for Childlessness." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
168. Sanabria, Tanya
Penner, Andrew M.
Domina, Thurston
Failing at Remediation? College Remedial Course-taking, Failure and Long-term Student Outcomes
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Earnings; Educational Outcomes; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Schooling, Post-secondary

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many students who enroll in post-secondary education are not adequately prepared to succeed in college-level courses. Colleges offer remedial coursework to help underprepared students. Despite the prevalence of remediation, previous research presents contradictory findings regarding the short and long-term effects of remediation. This paper contributes to this literature by examining whether the degree completion and wage outcomes associated with remedial education vary by whether students pass or fail remedial courses. Using the NLSY Postsecondary Transcript-1997 data we find that 40 percent of students who take remedial coursework fail one or more of their remedial courses, and that underrepresented minority students and students working more than 20 hours per week had higher odds of failing remedial coursework. Students who took and passed their remedial coursework had higher odds of graduating from college and had higher earnings than students who did not take remedial coursework, but students who failed at least one remedial course had lower odds of degree completion and earned 5 percent lower wages over a five-year average. Our findings suggest that while many students may benefit from remedial education, a substantial number of students struggle with remedial coursework.
Bibliography Citation
Sanabria, Tanya, Andrew M. Penner and Thurston Domina. "Failing at Remediation? College Remedial Course-taking, Failure and Long-term Student Outcomes." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
169. Serafini, Brian
The Declining Significance of Motherhood? Differential Effects of Children on Boomer and Millennial Women's Wages
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Maternal Employment; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Motherhood; Mothers, Income; Parenthood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although studies demonstrate that mothers earn lower wages than childless women among older cohorts of workers, questions remain as to whether parenthood still leads to the same earnings disparities for millennial women and men as it has for the baby boomer cohort. To answer this question, we apply decomposition and hybrid mixed effects models to National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 data to examine the intracohort effects of parenthood across generations of baby boomers and millennials. We find that parenthood does not affect earnings among millennials in the same way as it has for baby boomer women, but, even with changing relationships, motherhood is still very much a factor for millennial women. Although OLS models show a similar motherhood penalty among millennial women, more detailed decomposition models highlight the employment factors contributing to these trends and hybrid mixed effects models indicate that selection into parenthood has also played a role in these changes.
Bibliography Citation
Serafini, Brian. "The Declining Significance of Motherhood? Differential Effects of Children on Boomer and Millennial Women's Wages." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
170. Shafer, Kevin M.
Social Exchange in Remarriage: Are Marriages More Traditional the Second Time Around?
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Marriage; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Divorce and subsequent remarriage have become an important part of American family life in recent decades. However, there are significant gender differences in the likelihood and formation of remarriage. In first marriage, both men's and women's socioeconomic status is positively associated with first marriage formation—a move away from traditional marriage where men's, but not women's, economic status was important in the marriage market. However, empirical work focusing on the claim that first marriage and remarriage formation are similar is lacking. In this paper I analyze the individual characteristics associated with the likelihood of remarriage for men and women. The results indicate that remarriage formation is consistent with traditional marriages where economic status has a positive effect on remarriage for men, but not for women. Instead, women’s remarriage chances are associated with family background, race/ethnicity, age and parental status are associated with remarriage. These findings are particularly robust in light that first marriage patterns between the continuously married and divorced are similar and less gendered than remarriage.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. "Social Exchange in Remarriage: Are Marriages More Traditional the Second Time Around?" Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
171. Shandra, Carrie L.
Hogan, Dennis P.
School-to-Work Initiatives and the Early Employment of Young Adults with Disabilities
Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, July 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Benefits, Fringe; Disability; Disabled Workers; Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education; Vocational Guidance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transition from school to work is a critical juncture in the life course of all adolescents. However, this transition is particularly critical for young persons with disabilities – a disproportionate percentage of whom leave high school and neither work nor continue their education. This study utilizes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to consider how participation in various school-based and work-based programs affects the post-high school employment of young persons with disabilities. Longitudinal analyses indicate that school-based programs are associated with many positive employment outcomes while work-based programs are related to employer-offered health insurance and paid sick days. Results suggest that school-to-work programs are effective in facilitating vocational success for this population; however, efficacy varies by program type and employment outcome.
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L. and Dennis P. Hogan. "School-to-Work Initiatives and the Early Employment of Young Adults with Disabilities." Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, July 2008.
172. Shattuck, Rachel
Rendall, Michael S.
Retrospective Versus Panel Reports of First Employment in the Life Courses of U.S. Women
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Employment, History; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Research Methodology; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates accuracy of reporting on young women's first employment, comparing retrospective reports in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the first wave of the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP) to annual panel reports in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). We evaluate differences in recall accuracy by time elapsed between period reported on and interview. We also evaluate differences in reporting accuracy by race/ethnicity, nativity and mother's education, juxtaposed with the salience and complexity of each group's employment histories. We find relatively small, but statistically-significant differences between reporting in the SIPP and NSFG versus the NLSY97, in a direction that suggests some forgetting of episodes of first job or employment spell of at least six months duration in retrospective reports. We also find some evidence that more complex and less salient (part-time) employment experiences result in more recall errors: Young women with a mother who did not graduate from high school and young women with a college-graduate mother had both the highest proportions of their early employment in part-time jobs and the largest magnitudes of error in recalling first stable job or employment spell. We found no indications of substantial race/ethnic differences in reporting. Overall, our results are reassuring with respect to the ability of surveys to capture accurately summary indicators of first stable employment in retrospective questions.
Bibliography Citation
Shattuck, Rachel and Michael S. Rendall. "Retrospective Versus Panel Reports of First Employment in the Life Courses of U.S. Women." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
173. Shippee, Nathan
Cumulative Exposure to Violence Predicting Risk and Rate of Future Violent Behavior
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Bullying/Victimization; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Siblings; Social Contacts/Social Network

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines exposure to multiple experiences with crime and violence-- including bullying, witnessing gun violence, having acquaintances in gangs, and having gangs in the surrounding neighborhoods-- and how these risk factors accumulate to affect the risk and rate of future violence. Drawing from perspectives on cumulative adversity, and utilizing the 1997 and 2005 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study uses logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial models to assess the accumulation of exposure to violence. Important controls include recent gang membership of one's own in 2005 and recent binge drinking. Witnessing a shooting, particularly when the victim is a non-stranger, and having siblings in gangs in adolescence significantly increase the odds of engaging in future violence, while only witnessing a shooting significantly increases the rate of future violence. Adverse experiences with violence do indeed accumulate, with the highest-risk teens being those who have been exposed to shootings and to gangs in their social networks. Findings suggest that intervention for these youths should be a high priority, as the ubiquity of violence in their lives provides multiple instances in which to develop violent behavioral adaptations.
Bibliography Citation
Shippee, Nathan. "Cumulative Exposure to Violence Predicting Risk and Rate of Future Violent Behavior." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009.
174. Silva, Fabiana
Generating Labor Market Inequality: Family Background, Employment Histories, and Earnings Disparities
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Degree; Earnings; Economic Well-Being; Employment, History; Family Background; Household Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parents pass on a substantial amount of their economic advantage to their children. While sociologists have long sought to explain this intergenerational transmission of economic status, most of the transmission remains unexplained. I argue sociological explanations have been limited by their focus on pre-labor market factors, such as educational attainment. Instead, drawing on rich week-by-week measures of work experiences from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), I examine the role of labor market experiences--specifically, employment histories--in explaining the intergenerational transmission of economic status. I document a strong association between parental income and employment histories for men without a college degree. Among this group, men from higher-income families accumulate more work experience and tenure, and less unemployment, throughout their careers than men from lower-income families. Further, higher parental income is associated with a faster transition to stable employment for men with at most a high-school education, reducing the "churning" that characterizes the early labor market years of less-educated men. Consequently, conditioning on pre-labor market factors, employment histories mediate approximately one-third of the effect of parental income on earnings among non-college graduates. In contrast, regardless of parental income, college graduates quickly settle into stable, long-term employment. For the purposes of attaining stable employment, a college degree appears to be a powerful resource that leaves little room for family background effects. Ultimately, this study highlights the utility of examining how family background continues to affect individuals after they enter labor force.
Bibliography Citation
Silva, Fabiana. "Generating Labor Market Inequality: Family Background, Employment Histories, and Earnings Disparities." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
175. Smith, Chelsea
The Push and the Pull: Adolescents' Expectations for Early Pregnancy
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Life Course; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Risk-Taking; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Expecting to become pregnant in the near future―a major influence on later behavior—separates adolescents in terms of both their current circumstances and future prospects. The author used categorical measures and multinomial logistic regression to examine expectations for pregnancy within the next 5 years using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97). The sample consisted of respondents in late adolescents, a critical age period when young people’s future plans begin to change from hypothetical ideas to actual realities. With a foundation in theories of the life course, social control, and reasoned action, the goals of this study were: to determine how risky behavior may increase (“push up”) pregnancy expectations and academic success may decrease (“pull down”) expectations, and to examine how such associations may differ by gender and age. Overall, results suggested that risky behavior did act as a push factor and academic success did act as a pull factor, but gender differences were more pronounced for push factors and age differences were more pronounced for pull factors (though not always in the hypothesized direction). Substance use was a common factor whereas delinquency and early sexual activity mattered only for adolescent boys. Academically, gifted classes indeed acted a pull factor for boys but GPA was associated with higher pregnancy expectations for girls. Interaction effects demonstrated that these associations tended to be strongest among younger adolescents. This study revealed that the most disadvantaged young people held higher expectations for experiencing early pregnancy, especially among boys.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Chelsea. "The Push and the Pull: Adolescents' Expectations for Early Pregnancy." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
176. Stevenson, Amanda
The Effect of First Interbirth Interval on Women’s Poverty at Midlife
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Childbearing; First Birth; Poverty; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Understanding the relationship between childbearing and socioeconomic status could help explain one mechanism by which the United States’ gender disparity in poverty comes to exist. However, measuring the relationship between childbearing and socioeconomic status is complicated by the very high prevalence of childbearing among women and multiple sources of endogeneity in the characteristics of childbearing that do vary. Focusing on the timing of childbearing, I use miscarriage as an instrument for delivery to build a counterfactual condition for having a short temporal space between births. Using this approach with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I estimate the effect on midlife poverty of having first and second births within 24 months of each other. My results indicate that these short interbirth intervals are causally related to increased midlife poverty. The results are robust to a variety of alternate specifications of counterfactual conditions and estimation methods.
Bibliography Citation
Stevenson, Amanda. "The Effect of First Interbirth Interval on Women’s Poverty at Midlife." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
177. Stimpson, Matthew
Schneider, Daniel J.
Harknett, Kristen S.
Precarious Employment and Entry into Marriage and Cohabitation
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Benefits, Fringe; Cohabitation; Employment, Intermittent; Job Characteristics; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men's and women's economic resources are important determinants of marriage timing. However, these resources have been measured in very narrow terms in the prior demographic and sociological literature, which generally only considers employment and earnings and does not incorporate more fine-grained measures of job precarity. And yet, scholarship on work and inequality focuses exactly on rising precarity in employment and suggests that this transformation may matter for the lifecourse. There is a notable disconnect then between these two important areas of research. In this paper, we analyze data on a nationally representative sample of the 1980-1984 U.S. birth cohort from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and examine the relationships between men's and women's economic circumstances and their entry into marital or cohabiting unions. We advance existing literature by moving beyond basic measures of employment and earnings to investigate how detailed measures of job quality matter for union formation. We find that men and women in less precarious jobs -- as measured by fringe benefits, compensation structures, and work schedules -- are more likely to marry. Further, differences in job precarity explain a portion of the educational gradient in entry into first marriage. We find that both men's and women's job quality matters for marriage entry. However, poor job quality is much less of a barrier to cohabitation than it is to marriage. Similar paper also presented Chicago IL, APPAM Fall Research Meeting, November 2017.
Bibliography Citation
Stimpson, Matthew, Daniel J. Schneider and Kristen S. Harknett. "Precarious Employment and Entry into Marriage and Cohabitation." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
178. Su, Jessica Houston
Addo, Fenaba
Born Without a Silver Spoon: Wealth and Unintended Childbearing
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing; First Birth; Socioeconomic Factors; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Theoretical and empirical research suggests that wealth is a critical precursor to marriage, but not childbearing. Although wealth may be unrelated to fertility in general, it is unclear whether it is related to unintended childbearing specifically. Unintended births are more common among relatively disadvantaged groups, such as people of color, unmarried adults, and those with low levels of education, and it is possible that wealth accounts for these patterns. In this paper, we examine the linkages between wealth and unintended first births, drawing on data from the NLSY79. Results suggest that wealth is negatively related to the probability of having an unintended first birth, even after controlling for a host of sociodemographic characteristics such as race, marital status, education, and income. Although wealth does not account for racial and marital status disparities in unintended birth, our results suggest that it is a significant and heretofore overlooked correlate of unintended childbearing. Also presented at Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
Bibliography Citation
Su, Jessica Houston and Fenaba Addo. "Born Without a Silver Spoon: Wealth and Unintended Childbearing." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
179. Sugie, Naomi
Beyond Incarceration: The Consequences of Criminal Justice Contact for Mental Health
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Health, Mental; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing literature documents the deleterious consequences of incarceration for mental health. Although salient, incarceration is only one form of custodial citizenship in the United States and, accordingly, considering only incarceration may mask the extent to which the criminal justice system is associated with poor mental health. In this paper, we use the stress process paradigm, along with nationally representative survey data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), to examine the relationship between criminal justice contact--defined as arrest, conviction, and incarceration--and mental health. First, we find that arrest and conviction are more commonly experienced than incarceration and that, similar to incarceration, arrest and conviction are concentrated among race/ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged individuals. Second, results from fixed-effects models, which adjust for stable characteristics of respondents, document that arrest, conviction, and incarceration have similar deleterious consequences for mental health. Third, we find that the association between criminal justice contact and mental health is concentrated among those who resided in highly disadvantaged neighborhoods during adolescence. Taken together, these results suggest that the consequences of criminal justice system contact for mental health have been vastly underestimated.
Bibliography Citation
Sugie, Naomi. "Beyond Incarceration: The Consequences of Criminal Justice Contact for Mental Health." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
180. Tach, Laura
Amorim, Mariana
Multiple-partner Fertility and the Growth in Sibling Complexity
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fertility, Multiple Partners; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transformation of the American family, fueled by cohabitation, divorce, and nonmarital childbearing, has created opportunities for parents to have children with more than one partner. Family scholars have documented the extent of maternal and paternal multiple-partner fertility in the US population, but we know less about these processes from the perspective of children, for whom parental multiple-partner fertility manifests as the presence of half-siblings. This paper uses the 1979 and 1997 Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to examine cohort change in children’s exposure to sibling complexity. We find that the probability of having a half-sibling increased by 30 percent between the two cohorts, with over one in four children now having at least one half-sibling by their 18th birthday. A strong educational gradient in sibling complexity persists across both cohorts, but large racial-ethnic disparities in sibling complexity have narrowed over time. Using demographic decomposition techniques, we find that the shifting racial-ethnic and socioeconomic composition of the U.S. population cannot explain the growth in sibling complexity. We conclude by discussing the shifting relationship contexts that have fueled sibling complexity and considering the implications for child development and social stratification. [Note: Also presented at Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018]
Bibliography Citation
Tach, Laura and Mariana Amorim. "Multiple-partner Fertility and the Growth in Sibling Complexity." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
181. Thorpe, Jared
Dufur, Mikaela J.
The (Conditional) Resource Dilution Model: A Family-level Modification
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Family Resources; Family Size; Family Structure; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The negative relationship between sibship size and educational outcomes has been well documented in social science literature. The majority of studies to date have examined this relationship from the theoretical perspective of the resource dilution model, focusing on the ever-greater division of parental economic resources and time within the nuclear family as the number of children grows. Building upon this model, the conditional resource dilution model posits that the sibsize effect is conditioned by the context surrounding the family unit. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth - 1997 Cohort, we extend the conditional resource dilution model by examining whether the effect of sibsize is conditioned by family type.
Bibliography Citation
Thorpe, Jared and Mikaela J. Dufur. "The (Conditional) Resource Dilution Model: A Family-level Modification." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
182. Tumin, Dmitry
Qian, Zhenchao
Incidence, Predictors, and Resolution of Marital Separations
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marital Disruption; Marital Instability; Marital Status; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Marital separation is legally and socially ambiguous. Does it indicate an end of a marriage or a process of reconciliation? Little is known about the duration of separation and why some initiate separation and some others move straight to divorce. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to explore marital separations in detail. Separation is commonplace: 60% of first marriages lead to separations and 54% of first divorces are preceded by separations. While half of separations last a year or less, some endure for ten years or longer, and may never resolve in a formal divorce. Minorities, women with young children, and the less educated tend to initiate separations rather than divorces and tend to remain separated longer. Our results call attention to separation as a long-term alternative to divorce in vulnerable and disadvantaged populations.
Bibliography Citation
Tumin, Dmitry and Zhenchao Qian. "Incidence, Predictors, and Resolution of Marital Separations." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
183. Tumin, Dmitry
Qian, Zhenchao
Marital Transitions and Weight Changes
Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Divorce; Gender Differences; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Marital transitions cause changes in diet and activity patterns that affect weight. Previous studies show that marriage is linked to weight gain, while marital exit is linked to weight loss. But it is uncertain whether the weight changes that follow marital transitions are significant enough to affect health. Applying marital resource and crisis models, we explore weight changes that predict an increased risk of all-cause mortality in the epidemiological literature. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth ’79, we test whether recent marriages and marital exits affect the odds of experiencing mortality-linked weight changes and explore how sex and age at marital transition is associated with weight changes. We find marriage predicts large weight gain: large gains are more likely for newly married women than men, and more likely for those who married early than those who married later, but level off over time. Marital exits, on the other hand, do not predict weight loss, especially for those who divorce at later ages. We conclude that any marriage transition is, typically, not enough of a shock to lifestyle to elicit large and repeated weight gains.
Bibliography Citation
Tumin, Dmitry and Zhenchao Qian. "Marital Transitions and Weight Changes." Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011.
184. Tyndall, Benjamin D.
Neighborhood Impacts on Child Anxiety and Depression: The Mediating Influences of Maternal Well-Being and Parent-Child Relationships
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Anxiety; Child Health; Depression (see also CESD); Modeling, Structural Equation; Mothers, Health; Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles

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Disordered neighborhoods have been consistently linked with worse well-being for resident children. Though this finding is robust across studies, less is known about how neighborhood characteristics translate into poor psychosocial function in children and how these effects endure throughout childhood. In this paper, I examine one possible process linking disordered neighborhoods to child anxiety and depression through neighborhood effects on maternal well-being and parent-child relationships. Using four waves of nationally representative parent and child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 and Child samples, I estimate structural equation models that suggest disordered neighborhoods increase child anxiety and depression in several ways. First, disordered neighborhoods are associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms which in turn are associated with increased parent-child arguments which are then associated with higher levels of child anxiety and depression. I also find that parents in disordered neighborhoods punish their children more frequently which in turn has negative effects on child well-being. Despite these mediating pathways, strong direct influences of neighborhoods on child well-being remain. These findings demonstrate how structural inequalities at the neighborhood-level and the negative consequences they have for interpersonal relationships can create deleterious effects throughout childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Tyndall, Benjamin D. "Neighborhood Impacts on Child Anxiety and Depression: The Mediating Influences of Maternal Well-Being and Parent-Child Relationships." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
185. Wall, Ian F.
Embodied Disadvantage and Socioeconomic Stratification: Parental Body Mass and Offspring Income in the United States
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Income; Obesity; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Sociologists have a long-standing interest in the social factors that influence life chances and how these factors may have lingering effects over generations, yet intergenerational studies often overlook the role of embodied factors. Well-established relationships in medical and social science literatures justify an investigation of body mass as one such embodied factor. Specifically, body mass is strongly related to socioeconomic position, in an inverse direction; parental body mass is highly correlated with the body mass of their offspring; and higher offspring body mass can negatively influence socioeconomic attainment. I take this series of associations to be a plausible mechanism connecting parental body mass and offspring income, and here I examine this overarching association net of traditional measures of social origin and individual-level controls, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort. Multiple regression analyses suggest that, on average, above-normal parental body mass (BMI≥25) is negatively associated with offspring income in early adulthood, especially for whites. In one analysis, white men with two obese parents (BMI≥30) make an average of ~$8,570 (SE $2,410) less per year than white men with two normal weight parents, net of controls. In the same analysis, having two obese parents is a larger income disadvantage than being black compared to white [$6,580 (SE $1,560)] or being female compared to male [$8,410 (SE $1,330)]. Given that socioeconomic characteristics have strong influences on one’s body mass, I argue that body mass may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic position.
Bibliography Citation
Wall, Ian F. "Embodied Disadvantage and Socioeconomic Stratification: Parental Body Mass and Offspring Income in the United States." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
186. Wang, Sharron
Does Ethnic Capital Matter? An Analysis of Intergenerational Transmission of Education Among Hispanic Americans
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Groups; Geocoded Data; Heterogeneity; Hispanic Studies; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intergenerational transmission of education from parents to children is an important indicator of societal inclusiveness and educational inequality. This topic has been investigated extensively. However, research on the heterogeneity of intergenerational education transmission remains scarce. The present study uses restricted-access data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to investigate whether intergenerational education transmission varies by ethnic capital for Hispanic Americans. Based on immigration generation, Hispanic Americans are grouped into 3+ generation Hispanic Americans (i.e. children of native-born Hispanic parents) and 2nd-generation Hispanic Americans (i.e. children of foreign-born Hispanic parents). Men and women are analyzed separately. Results indicate that an increase in the Hispanic population in counties where Hispanic youths reside decreases father-son transmission of schooling for 3+ generation Hispanics. An increase in the college-educated population in counties where Hispanic youths reside decreases father-son and mother-son transmission of schooling for 2nd generation Hispanics. In other words, intergenerational educational mobility is higher if 3+ generation Hispanic men reside in areas with a larger Hispanic population, and if 2nd generation Hispanic men resided in areas with a larger college-educated population, during their adolescent years. Ethnic capital does not seem to affect intergenerational educational mobility of Hispanic women, non-Hispanic white men, or non-Hispanic white women. Theoretical and empirical implications of the findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Sharron. "Does Ethnic Capital Matter? An Analysis of Intergenerational Transmission of Education Among Hispanic Americans." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
187. Warner, Cody
From the Cot to the Couch? Young Adult Incarceration and Returns to the Parental Household
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing body of research has examined the effect of incarceration on housing and residential outcomes. The results of this work paint a complicated picture; where housing insecurities are common, in some cases helpful, and in other cases a risk factor for recidivism. The current study adds to this literature by focusing on residential independence following release from incarceration. In response to growing shares of young adults living in the parental home, researchers have begun to investigate the causes and consequences of residential independence and later returns home (or boomeranging). Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort, and utilizing event history data that provides the month and year of key life events, I find that exiting prison or jail increases the risk of moving back into the parental home. In addition, the risk of boomeranging is highest in the months and years closest to the release date. I close by considering the implications of these findings, especially given that residence with parents after release may be protective against recidivism.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, Cody. "From the Cot to the Couch? Young Adult Incarceration and Returns to the Parental Household." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
188. Warner, Cody
Incarceration and Residential Mobility Between Poor and Non-Poor Neighborhoods
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Incarceration/Jail; Mobility, Residential; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I examine the impact of incarceration on residential mobility between neighborhoods of varying quality. Little is known about how incarceration, and the subsequent criminal label and stigma, impacts the mobility patterns of the nearly 700,000 convicted offenders who are released from prison every year. My results show that incarceration leads to downward mobility from non-poor into poor neighborhoods. Incarceration is unrelated, on the other hand, to upward mobility out of poor neighborhoods. This effect appears to be driven by correctional contact generally, rather than through physical separation and sentence length. Additional analyses show that the effect of incarceration is strongest among white ex-inmates, who have more to lose than minority ex-inmates in terms of locational attainment outcomes. My results provide evidence that incarceration should be placed alongside human capital characteristics and structural barriers as an important predictor of mobility between poor and non-poor neighborhoods. Furthermore, by funneling ex-inmates into poor neighborhoods, which is itself a risk factor for recidivism, these results have important implications for ex-inmate reentry and reintegration.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, Cody. "Incarceration and Residential Mobility Between Poor and Non-Poor Neighborhoods." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
189. Weingartner, Rose Malinowski
Parent or Not: A Longitudinal View of Fertility Intentions and Outcomes
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In recent years, fears about a population boom have been replaced by observations of declining fertility in many wealthy countries, foretelling an increasingly aging population with fewer people of working age. Research has focused on smaller family sizes, and increase in one- and two-child families, rather than on women and couples with no children, and many studies view childlessness by the time of completed fertility as a side-effect of postponement.

The availability of the 2014 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) cohort allows for new insights into fertility intentions and outcomes, including the eventual parenthood status of women and their original fertility intentions in adolescence. This paper classifies respondents into four fertility intention-outcome typologies: intentional parent, intentional childless, unintentional parent, and unintentional childless, based on women's earliest stated fertility intentions and their parenthood status at the end of childbearing years. Using these typologies as well as individual demographic characteristics and marital transitions over the life course, factors associated with a woman accurately predicting whether or not she will have children are identified.

Past research has identified demographic differences between childless women and mothers, and these hold up in the current data regardless of whether the childlessness is intentional. The current study shows that women’s stated fertility intentions serve as an excellent predictor of actual parenthood by the time of fertility completion. In addition, among women who expected to have children, the end of a marriage serves as a predictor of unintentional childlessness.

Bibliography Citation
Weingartner, Rose Malinowski. "Parent or Not: A Longitudinal View of Fertility Intentions and Outcomes." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
190. Whitworth, Tanya Rouleau
Paik, Anthony
Sex and Education: Does the Onset of Sex during Adolescence Lead to Bad Grades?
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Intercourse; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many U.S. teenagers experience their first sexual intercourse during their high-school years, which has led to growing interest in whether there are negative spillovers of sexual behavior on academic performance. Using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research employed longitudinal individual fixed-effects regression models to estimate the effect of first sexual intercourse on grades among a nationally representative cohort of eight and ninth graders over four waves of data collection. The results indicate that, on average, there are no negative spillovers of first sexual intercourse on grade point averages of male or female students. Separate analyses by race/ethnicity showed that for African American girls and Latinx boys and girls, there is an association between first sexual intercourse and lower grades among younger students, but not for older students. These results highlight an age-specific, gendered, and racialized pattern of negative spillover of first sexual intercourse on academic performance that has not been found in the existing literature.
Bibliography Citation
Whitworth, Tanya Rouleau and Anthony Paik. "Sex and Education: Does the Onset of Sex during Adolescence Lead to Bad Grades?" Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
191. Witteveen, Dirk
Early Career Trajectories: Precarity and Timing within Labor Market Entry
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Job Characteristics; Labor Force Participation; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research on job precarity and job stability have largely neglected the labor market trajectories in which these employment and non-employment situations are experienced. This study addresses the mechanisms of volatility and precarity in observed work histories of labor market entrants using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997. Several ideal-typical post-education pathways are modeled for respondents entering the labor force between 1997 and 2010, with varying indicators and degrees of precarity. A series of predictive models indicate that women, racial-ethnic minorities, and lower social class labor market entrants are significantly more likely to be exposed to the most precarious early careers. Moreover, leaving the educational system with a completed associate's, bachelor's, or post-graduate degree is protective of experiencing the most unstable types of career pattern. While adjusting for these individual-level background and education variables, the findings also reveal a form of 'scarring' as regional unemployment level is a significant macro-economic predictor of experiencing a more hostile and turbulent early career. These pathways lead to considerable earnings penalties five years after labor market entry.
Bibliography Citation
Witteveen, Dirk. "Early Career Trajectories: Precarity and Timing within Labor Market Entry." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
192. Witteveen, Dirk
Macro-economic Effects on Educational Reenrollment: Human Capital Catch-Up or Acquired Risk Aversion?
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Economic Changes/Recession

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Studies have found a range of individual-level effects on either higher or lower likelihoods of educational reenrollment, such as social origin, age, gender, race, and family formation. However, forces applicable to the early career phase have remained understudied in relation to reenrollment patterns. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, this study reveals the impact of the macro-economic climate upon labor market entry on educational reenrollment, adjusted for individual-level background factors. Confirming human capital theory, we find that high school graduates and college dropouts are more likely to reenroll if unemployment rises. Yet contrary to the idea of educational refreshing or updating, both lower- and higher-educated individuals are less likely to return to the educational system if they entered a recessionary labor market. This is explained by an (acquired) risk aversion mechanism.
Bibliography Citation
Witteveen, Dirk. "Macro-economic Effects on Educational Reenrollment: Human Capital Catch-Up or Acquired Risk Aversion?" Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
193. Wolfe, Joseph D.
Bauldry, Shawn
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Multigenerational Educational Attainment and Women's Mortality
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mortality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study develops and tests a model of multigenerational educational attainment and women's mortality. While developed separately, the long arm, personal attainment, and social foreground perspectives suggest a single, overarching process in which parent, personal, and adult child educational attainment provide unique health-related resources at various points in the life course. No single study, however, tests whether the attainment of multiple generations has a cumulative effect on women's mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (NLS-MW), a nationally representative sample with recently updated information on mortality, this paper examines the relationships between mortality and the educational attainment of three generations whose lives, when taken together, span the entirety of the twentieth century. Results indicate that adult child educational attainment is an important predictor of older women's mortality risk, whereas parent, personal, and husband attainment appear to have no association with mortality after adjusting for adult child attainment and sociodemographic controls. An integration of these findings with prior research on mortality suggests a model of multigenerational attainment and mortality in which, as women grow older, the relative importance of each generation's attainment for one's survival shifts from past to future generations.
Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Joseph D., Shawn Bauldry, Eliza K. Pavalko and Melissa A. Hardy. "Multigenerational Educational Attainment and Women's Mortality." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
194. Wu, Joanna
Lleras, Christy
Rethinking "Success": The Role of Families and Communities in Second Generation Immigrants' Transition to Adulthood
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Immigrants; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Nearly one in four children within the United States has an immigrant parent or parents (Hernandez, 2004). A significant portion of these children are born in the U.S. and are often referred to as second generation immigrants. Second generation immigrants currently outnumber foreign-born children by more than six to one, a number that doubled in the past decade (Child Trends, 2010). While many of the same socio-economic factors that negatively affect the outcomes of U.S. children also confront children of immigrants, they are additionally affected by risk factors unique to the immigration process, such as parental citizenship. As this contemporary second generation immigrant cohort transitions into adulthood, they will shape considerably the demographics of the young adult population. Drawing from the life course perspective and resiliency theory, this study utilizes data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY: 1997) to examine how socio-economic and contextual factors within the family and community during adolescence impact the success of second generation immigrants once they reach young adulthood. This study adds to the growing body of literature on the experiences of immigrants by examining not only traditional socio-economic measures of "success" but alternative measures such as health and life satisfaction as well. Findings show that contextual factors early in life have an enduring effect in their transition to young adulthood, but also suggest that the effect of contextual factors is dependent on the outcome examined. Variation by racial groups also emerged across contextual factors and the multiple success indicators.
Bibliography Citation
Wu, Joanna and Christy Lleras. "Rethinking "Success": The Role of Families and Communities in Second Generation Immigrants' Transition to Adulthood." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
195. Yang, Tse-Chuan
Chen, I-Chien
Choi, Seung-won
Kurtulus, Aysenur
Linking Perceived Discrimination during Adolescence to Health during Middle Adulthood via Self-esteem and Risk Behaviors
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Discrimination; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Modeling, Structural Equation; Risk-Taking; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The literature on the effect of perceived discrimination on health has three gaps. First, the causality between perceived discrimination and health is underexplored. Second, the mechanisms through which perceived discrimination affects health remain unclear. Third, most studies focus on racial/ethnic discrimination and other aspects of discrimination are overlooked. This study aims to fill these gaps by testing a research framework that links the discriminatory experience during adolescence to one's health during middle adulthood via self-esteem and risk behaviors at early adulthood. Applying structural equation modeling to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we obtained three key findings: (1) The discriminatory experience during adolescence imposes an adverse impact on one's health during middle adulthood even after accounting for other potential covariates, a detrimental effect lasting for over 30 years; (2) While perceived discrimination reduces self-esteem at early adulthood, it affects only mental health during middle adulthood, rather than general health; and (3) The discriminatory experience promotes risk behaviors at early adulthood and the risk behaviors subsequently compromise the health during middle adulthood. Using a life course perspective, we found that the effect of perceived discrimination is more profound than the literature suggested and that risk behaviors may account for approximately 17% of the total effect of perceived discrimination on health. Our findings highlight the importance of early intervention in coping with perceived discrimination during adolescence, a critical life stage where one develops his/her personality.
Bibliography Citation
Yang, Tse-Chuan, I-Chien Chen, Seung-won Choi and Aysenur Kurtulus. "Linking Perceived Discrimination during Adolescence to Health during Middle Adulthood via Self-esteem and Risk Behaviors." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
196. Yang, Yulin
Childhood Adversity, College Degree, and Long Term Health: An Evident from NLSY97
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; College Education; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Childhood adversity affects individual's long-term health. This paper examines the mechanism of childhood adversity on long-term health by focusing the role of college completion: mediator or moderator. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97) to estimate that model of the probability of poor health over time applying logistic growth model. The result shows that childhood adversity affects individual's initial health status and college completion, but does not affect the health status change over time. College completion affects both initial health status and change over time. About 20% of the effect of adversity on health is explained by college degree in the mediational model. The moderate effect of college completion reflects the protective function of educational attainment on long-term health which is stronger for individuals with childhood adversity.
Bibliography Citation
Yang, Yulin. "Childhood Adversity, College Degree, and Long Term Health: An Evident from NLSY97." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
197. Yasutake, Suzumi
Perez-Patron, Maria J.
From the Adolescence to the Young Adulthood: Cohabitation, Marriage and Mobility of NLSY 97 Cohort
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Marital Status; Mobility, Residential; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cohabitation and migration patterns of young adults have not been well studied despite the increase in cohabitation. This study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 to examine the relationship between mobility and union status in early adulthood (16 to 34) while considering important transition to adulthood life events. We performed logistic regression and liner regression to model the probability of moving and the frequency of moving by union status while controlling for demographic characteristics, school enrollment, income, fertility, household characteristics, region and year. Preliminary findings show that cohabiting men and women are more likely to move compared to their married counterparts, while those not in a union fall somewhere in between. The difference between the married and cohabiting decreased after controlling for fertility. Follow-up analyses of the data will examine the interaction between the union status and fertility on mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Yasutake, Suzumi and Maria J. Perez-Patron. "From the Adolescence to the Young Adulthood: Cohabitation, Marriage and Mobility of NLSY 97 Cohort." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
198. Yetter, Alyssa
Government Assistance and Recidivism
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Program Participation/Evaluation; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The 1990s saw welfare in the spotlight with the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996. This law replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The accompanying debate sparked a small body of criminological research seeking to answer the question of whether government assistance impacts crime rates. By examining government assistance expenditure across place, studies found, with few exceptions, that welfare spending is associated with decreases in homicide and property crime. Missing from this research, however, is any analysis of the effect of welfare assistance on individual criminal activity. I will address this gap in the literature by conducting a within-person analysis of government assistance and recidivism using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Also presented at Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
Bibliography Citation
Yetter, Alyssa. "Government Assistance and Recidivism." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
199. Zajacova, Anna
Burgard, Sarah
Postsecondary Education and Mental Health: Effects of Earned Credits versus Credentials
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, OLS; Schooling, Post-secondary

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does the quantity of education obtained or the specific credentials earned matter more for adult mental health? These two alternatives reflect competing theories of the association between educational attainment and adult mental and physical health --human capital theory and credential theory-- but have been difficult to adjudicate between in past research. We use the new Postsecondary Transcript Files addendum to the NLSY97 that includes detailed information on both the number of postsecondary credits obtained and specific credentials earned to provide new leverage. We focus on depressive symptoms as a particularly salient health dimension in early adulthood. We analyze the data using multiple approaches within the regression (OLS, fixed-effects) and structural equation frameworks. Results show that more credits and higher credentials are each independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. However, if we stratify by or control the terminal postsecondary credential (none, AA, or BA), more earned credits are not associated with additional gains in mental health, suggesting stronger support for credential theory.
Bibliography Citation
Zajacova, Anna and Sarah Burgard. "Postsecondary Education and Mental Health: Effects of Earned Credits versus Credentials." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
200. Zhang, Zhe
How is Motherhood Associated Waistline at Midlife? Women's Fertility History and Body Weight at 40s
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Body Mass Index (BMI); Fertility; Motherhood; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Motherhood is highly associated with women's wellbeing, but few studies examine how motherhood and a complete fertility history are connected with women's midlife wellbeing in the most recent cohort. This study uses NLSY79 (N=3,889) to examine motherhood status and fertility history across women’s body weight at 40s. Findings suggest that childless women have higher body weight than mothers, but mothers are not all the same. Mothers with two children are the most advantaged group in terms of their higher SES background as well as lower body weight at midlife. Mothers' fertility history, particularly age at first birth, parity, and age at last birth, are associated with their midlife body weight. A positive effect of parity and a positive effect of age at last birth are found on midlife body weight, as well as an interaction between the two variables. Socioeconomic status and psychological distress explain partial relationship between fertility history and midlife BMI. I conclude that motherhood contributes to body weight differences at midlife among the contemporary cohort of U.S. women. Future studies should consider the heterogeneity of motherhood in relation to health disparities among women.
Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Zhe. "How is Motherhood Associated Waistline at Midlife? Women's Fertility History and Body Weight at 40s." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
201. Zhang, Zhe
Reczek, Corinne
Colen, Cynthia G.
Boomerang Kids and Mother's Health: Do Young Adult Residential Patterns Predict Maternal BMI Trajectories during Midlife?
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Transition, Adulthood; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from NLSY79 and growth curve models, this paper examines how young adult's residential biography in their transition to adulthood matters for mothers' BMI trajectories in midlife. Compared to mothers whose children followed a "normative" leaving home pattern (left and never returned), we find that mothers of the boomerang kids had higher body weight primarily due to their lower sociodemographic status. Mothers to the young adults who never left home had very high baseline body weight but their weight seems to decrease at a faster rate than mothers of the boomerang kids.
Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Zhe, Corinne Reczek and Cynthia G. Colen. "Boomerang Kids and Mother's Health: Do Young Adult Residential Patterns Predict Maternal BMI Trajectories during Midlife?" Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
202. Zobl, Sara R.
Smock, Pamela Jane
Historical Change in the Transition to Adulthood for American Women
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Life Course; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLSY79 and NLSY97, we document variation in pathways to adulthood within and between two cohorts of American women. We take a holistic perspective in studying historical change in women's life courses, and aim to further sociological understanding of contemporary pathways from youth to adulthood, including implications for life outcomes and inequality among women completing the transition by way of uncommon paths.
Bibliography Citation
Zobl, Sara R. and Pamela Jane Smock. "Historical Change in the Transition to Adulthood for American Women." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.