Search Results

Source: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Chang, Jen Jen
Halpern, Carolyn T.
Kaufman, Jay S.
Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Father's Involvement, and the Trajectories of Child Problem Behaviors in a US National Sample
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161,7 (July 2007): 697-703.
Also: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/161/7/697?ck=nck
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Child Health; Children, Behavioral Development; Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; Fathers, Involvement; Growth Curves; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Racial Differences; Substance Use; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective To examine the effect of maternal depressive symptoms on child problem behavior trajectories and how the father's positive involvement may modify this association.

Design Secondary data analysis using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

Setting A nationally representative household sample of men and women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

Participants The study sample includes 6552 mother-child dyads interviewed biennially between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2002; children were 0 to 10 years old at baseline.

Main Outcome Measures Maternal self-reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed repeatedly using a modified Child Behavior Checklist.

Results Linear growth curve models indicate that the adverse effects of maternal depressive symptoms on child problem behavior trajectories become negligible after controlling for the father's involvement and other covariates, including the child's age, sex, and race/ethnicity; the mother's educational level; maternal age at child birth; number of children; poverty status; urban residence; and father's residential status. Positive involvement by the father was inversely associated with child problem behavior trajectories. The effects of maternal depressive symptoms on child problem behaviors varied by the level of the father's positive involvement.

Conclusion When the father actively compensates for limitations in the depressed mother's functioning, the child's risk of problem behaviors may be reduced.

Bibliography Citation
Chang, Jen Jen, Carolyn T. Halpern and Jay S. Kaufman. "Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Father's Involvement, and the Trajectories of Child Problem Behaviors in a US National Sample." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161,7 (July 2007): 697-703.
2. Faith, Myles S.
Heshka, Stanley
Keller, Kathleen, L.
Sherry, Bettylou
Matz, Patty E.
Pietrobelli, Angelo
Allison, David B.
Maternal-Child Feeding Patterns and Child Body Weight: Findings from a Population-Based Sample
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 157,9 (September 2003): 926-932.
Also: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/157/9/919
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Children, Behavioral Development; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: Certain mother-child feeding patterns (MCFPs) may promote childhood obesity and/or disordered eating. The objectives of this study were to assess the demographic correlates of select MCFPs and to test whether differences in these MCFPs are associated with child body mass index (BMI: kg/m2) z-scores in a population-based study.

Design: A secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) Main and Child Cohorts was conducted on more than 1,000 Hispanic, African American, and non-Hispanic/non-African American? (NHNAA) children, aged 3?6 years. MCFPs were measured by three interview questions probing mother-allotted child food choice, child compliance during meals, and child obedience during meals.

Results: Mothers of NHNAA children allotted greater food choice than mothers of African American or Hispanic children. Maternal BMI and other demographic measures were unrelated to MCFPs. The lowest levels of mother-allotted child food choice and child eating compliance were associated with reduced child BMI, with mean BMI z-scores = -.36 and -.41 respectively. Effect sizes were small, however, and MCFPs did not discriminate children who were overweight or at-risk for overweight from children who were not (p> .05).

Conclusions: Feeding strategies providing the least child food choice were associated with reduced child BMI. However, feeding relations did not relate to child overweight status.

Bibliography Citation
Faith, Myles S., Stanley Heshka, Kathleen Keller, Bettylou Sherry, Patty E. Matz, Angelo Pietrobelli and David B. Allison. "Maternal-Child Feeding Patterns and Child Body Weight: Findings from a Population-Based Sample." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 157,9 (September 2003): 926-932.
3. Gortmaker, Steven L.
Must, Aviva
Sobol, Arthur M.
Peterson, Karen E.
Colditz, Graham A.
Dietz, William H.
Television Viewing as a Cause of Increasing Obesity Among Children in the United States, 1986-1990
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 150,4 (April 1996): 356-362.
Also: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/150/4/356
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Television Viewing; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has increased, and television viewing has been suggested as a cause. We examined the relation between hours of television viewed and the prevalence of overweight in 1990, and the incidence and remission of overweight from 1986 to 1990 in a nationally representative cohort of 746 youths aged 10 to 15 years in 1990 whose mothers were 25 to 32 years old. Overweight was defined as a body mass index higher than the 85th percentile for age and gender. RESULTS: We observed a strong dose-response relationship between the prevalence of overweight in 1990 and hours of television viewed. The odds of being overweight were 4.6 (95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 9.6) times greater for youth watching more than 5 hours of television per day compared with those watching 0 to 2 hours. When adjustments were made for previous overweight (in 1986), baseline maternal overweight, socioeconomic status, household structure, ethnicity, and maternal and child aptitude test scores, results were similar (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 12.1). We also found significant relations between television viewing and increased incidence and decreased remission of overweight during this 4-year period, adjusted for baseline covariates. The adjusted odds of incidence were 8.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.6 to 26.5) times greater for youth watching more than 5 hours of television per day compared with those watching for 0 to 2 hours. Estimates of attributable risk indicate that more than 60% of overweight incidence in this population can be linked to excess television viewing time. CONCLUSION: Television viewing affects overweight among youth, and reductions in viewing time could help prevent this increasingly common chronic health condition.
Bibliography Citation
Gortmaker, Steven L., Aviva Must, Arthur M. Sobol, Karen E. Peterson, Graham A. Colditz and William H. Dietz. "Television Viewing as a Cause of Increasing Obesity Among Children in the United States, 1986-1990." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 150,4 (April 1996): 356-362.
4. Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew
Relationship of Corporal Punishment and Antisocial Behavior by Neighborhood
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,10 (October 2005): 938-942.
Also: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/159/10/938
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Ethnic Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Parenting Skills/Styles; Punishment, Corporal; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of corporal punishment with children's behavior problems while accounting for neighborhood context and while using stronger statistical methods than previous literature in this area, and to examine whether different levels of corporal punishment have different effects in different neighborhood contexts. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: 1943 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Internalizing and externalizing behavior problem scales of the Behavior Problems Index. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Parental use of corporal punishment was associated with a 0.71 increase (P<.05) in children's externalizing behavior problems even when several parenting behaviors, neighborhood quality, and all time-invariant variables were accounted for. The association of corporal punishment and children's externalizing behavior problems was not dependent on neighborhood context. The research found no discernible relationship between corporal punishment and internalizing behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew. "Relationship of Corporal Punishment and Antisocial Behavior by Neighborhood." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,10 (October 2005): 938-942.
5. Lee, Joyce M.
Gebremariam, Achamyeleh
Vijan, Sandeep
Gurney, James G.
Excess Body Mass Index–Years, a Measure of Degree and Duration of Excess Weight, and Risk for Incident Diabetes
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 166,1 (January 2012): 42-48.
Also: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/166/1/42
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Body Mass Index (BMI); Health Factors; Obesity; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To evaluate the relation between excess body mass index (BMI)–years, a measure of the degree to which an individual's BMI (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) exceeds the reference BMI and the duration for which he or she carries excess BMI, and incident diabetes.

Design: Longitudinal analysis.

Setting: United States of America.

Participants: A total of 8157 adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 21 years at the start of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 with self-reported measures of height, weight, and diabetes status (type unspecified) from 1981 through 2006.

Main Exposure: Excess BMI-years, which were calculated by subtracting the actual BMI from the reference BMI (25.0 for adults or 85th percentile for adolescents) for each study year and cumulating excess BMI for the study duration.

Main Outcome Measure: We conducted logistic regression models to predict presumed type 2 diabetes (after excluding presumed type 1 diabetes) as a function of age, sex, race, excess BMI-years, and specific interactions.

Results: A higher level of excess BMI-years was associated with an increased risk of diabetes. For example, on average, white men aged 40 years with 200 excess BMI-years had 2.94 times (95% confidence interval, 2.36-3.67) higher odds of developing diabetes compared with men of the same age and race with 100 excess BMI-years. For a given level of excess BMI-years, younger compared with older and Hispanic and black compared with white individuals had higher risk of developing diabetes. Our study is limited by use of self-reported data without specification of diabetes type.

Conclusions: Because younger compared with older individuals have a higher risk of self-reported diabetes for a given level of excess BMI-years and cumulative exposure to excess BMI is increasing among younger US birth cohorts, public health interventions should target younger adults.

Bibliography Citation
Lee, Joyce M., Achamyeleh Gebremariam, Sandeep Vijan and James G. Gurney. "Excess Body Mass Index–Years, a Measure of Degree and Duration of Excess Weight, and Risk for Incident Diabetes." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 166,1 (January 2012): 42-48.
6. Straus, Murray A.
Sugarman, David B.
Giles-Sims, Jean
Spanking by Parents and Subsequent Antisocial Behavior of Children
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 151,8 (August 1997): 761-767.
Also: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/151/8/761
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Behavioral Problems; Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Discipline; Family Background; Gender Differences; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Punishment, Corporal; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To deal with the causal relationship between corporal punishment and antisocial behavior (ASB) by considering the level of ASB of the child at the start of the study. Methods: Data from interviews with a national sample of 807 mothers of children aged 6 to 9 years in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement. Analysis of variance was used to test the hypothesis that when parents use corporal punishment to correct ASB, it increases subsequent ASB. The analysis controlled for the level of ASB at the start of the study, family socioeconomic status, sex of the child, and the extent to which the home provided emotional support and cognitive stimulation. Results: Forty-four percent of the mothers reported spanking their children during the week prior to the study and they spanked them an average of 2.1 times that week. The more spanking at the start of the period, the higher the level of ASB 2 years later. The change is unlikely to be owing to the child's tendency toward ASB or to confounding with demographic characteristics or with parental deficiency in other key aspects of socialization because those variables were statistically controlled. Conclusions: When parents use corporal punishment to reduce ASB, the long-term effect tends to be the opposite. The findings suggest that if parents replace corporal punishment by nonviolent modes of discipline, it could reduce the risk of ASB among children and reduce the level of violence in American society.
Bibliography Citation
Straus, Murray A., David B. Sugarman and Jean Giles-Sims. "Spanking by Parents and Subsequent Antisocial Behavior of Children." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 151,8 (August 1997): 761-767.
7. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Christakis, Dimitri A.
Children's Television Viewing and Cognitive Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of National Data
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,7 (July 2005): 619-625.
Also: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/159/7/619
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Television Viewing; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To test the independent effects of television viewing in children before age 3 years and at ages 3 to 5 years on several measures of cognitive outcomes at ages 6 and 7 years.

Design: Using data from a nationally representative data set, we regressed 4 measures of cognitive development at ages 6 and 7 years on television viewing before age 3 years and at ages 3 to 5 years, controlling for parental cognitive stimulation throughout early childhood, maternal education, and IQ.

Results: Before age 3 years, the children in this study watched an average of 2.2 hours per day; at ages 3 to 5 years, the daily average was 3.3 hours. Adjusted for the covariates mentioned earlier, each hour of average daily television viewing before age 3 years was associated with deleterious effects on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test Reading Recognition Scale of 0.31 points (95% confidence interval [CI], –0.61 to –0.01 points), on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test Reading Comprehension Scale of 0.58 points (95% CI, –0.94 to –0.21 points), and on the Memory for Digit Span assessment from the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children of –0.10 points (95% CI, –0.20 to 0 points). For the Reading Recognition Scale score only, a beneficial effect of television at ages 3 to 5 years was identified, with each hour associated with a 0.51-point improvement in the score (95% CI, 0.17 to 0.85 points).

Conclusions: There are modest adverse effects of television viewing before age 3 years on the subsequent cognitive development of children. These results suggest that greater adherence to the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines that children younger than 2 years not watch television is warranted.

Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. and Dimitri A. Christakis. "Children's Television Viewing and Cognitive Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of National Data." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,7 (July 2005): 619-625.
8. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Glew, Gwen M.
Christakis, Dimitri A.
Katon, Wayne
Early Cognitive Stimulation, Emotional Support, and Television Watching as Predictors of Subsequent Bullying Among Grade-School Children
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,4 (April 2005): 384-388.
Also: http://www.commercialalert.org/tvbullying.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Bullying/Victimization; Children, School-Age; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Modeling, Logit; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Television Viewing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

BACKGROUND: Bullying is a major public health issue, the risk factors for which are poorly understood.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and television viewing at age 4 years are independently associated with being a bully at ages 6 through 11 years.

METHODS: We used multivariate logistic regression, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to adjust for multiple confounding factors.

RESULTS: Parental cognitive stimulation and emotional support at age 4 years were each independently protective against bullying, with a significant odds ratio of 0.67 for both variables associated with a 1-SD increase (95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.82 for cognitive stimulation and 0.54-0.84 for emotional support). Each hour of television viewed per day at age 4 years was associated with a significant odds ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.11) for subsequent bullying. These findings persisted when we controlled for bullying behavior at age 4 years in a subsample of children for whom this measure was available.

CONCLUSION: The early home environment, including cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and exposure to television, has a significant impact on bullying in grade school.

Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J., Gwen M. Glew, Dimitri A. Christakis and Wayne Katon. "Early Cognitive Stimulation, Emotional Support, and Television Watching as Predictors of Subsequent Bullying Among Grade-School Children." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,4 (April 2005): 384-388.