Search Results

Source: Crime and Delinquency
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Andersen, Tia S.
Ouellette, Heather M.
Juvenile Court Outcomes Following Youth's First Arrest: A National Test of the Racial and Ethnic Threat Hypothesis
Crime and Delinquency 65,2 (February 2019): 183-214.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0011128718793616
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Ethnic Differences; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using nationally representative data, this research examined the associations between indicators of minority threat and juvenile justice processing following a first arrest. At intake, increasing Black presence in the community resulted in leniency, rather than severity. Once adjudicated, the size of the Black population had a nonlinear inverted-U shaped relationship with probability of placement. Increasing Hispanic presence was associated with leniency in disposition, and economic threat was not significantly related outcomes. Indicators of minority threat did not exacerbate outcomes for minority youth. These findings suggest that, contrary to the expectations of minority threat theory, the growing presence of minorities in communities may weaken social control and harsh punishments, particularly once the size of the minority population reaches a critical threshold.
Bibliography Citation
Andersen, Tia S. and Heather M. Ouellette. "Juvenile Court Outcomes Following Youth's First Arrest: A National Test of the Racial and Ethnic Threat Hypothesis." Crime and Delinquency 65,2 (February 2019): 183-214.
2. Apel, Robert John
Paternoster, Raymond
Bushway, Shawn D.
Brame, Robert
A Job Isn't Just a Job: The Differential Impact of Formal Versus Informal Work on Adolescent Problem Behavior
Crime and Delinquency 52,2 (April 2006): 333-69.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/52/2/333
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Council on Crime and Delinquency
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavioral Problems; Child Labor; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Employment, Youth; Job Patterns; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research consistently demonstrates a positive correlation between hours of employment and problem behavior for adolescents. In response, the National Research Council (1998) proposed limits on youth work involvement, and its recommendation forms the basis for proposed legislation to amend federal child labor provisions. An unanticipated consequence may be to increase the amount of time that youths spend in the informal labor market because child labor laws only govern youth employment in the formal labor market. In this article, the authors attempt to address this policy implication and fill a gap in the extant literature by examining the impact of both formal and informal employment on delinquency and substance use. Because work patterns tend to be very different by gender and race or ethnicity, the authors estimate separate models for these subgroups. The authors use longitudinal data to deal with the possibility that there are unobserved differences between those that work and those that do not.
Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert John, Raymond Paternoster, Shawn D. Bushway and Robert Brame. "A Job Isn't Just a Job: The Differential Impact of Formal Versus Informal Work on Adolescent Problem Behavior." Crime and Delinquency 52,2 (April 2006): 333-69.
3. Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
A Game of Catch-Up? The Offending Experience of Second-Generation Immigrants
Crime and Delinquency 60,1 (February 2014): 60-84.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/60/1/60.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Ethnic Differences; Immigrants; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evidence continues to accumulate documenting a generational disparity in offending whereby second-generation immigrants (the children of immigrants) evidence a precipitous increase in offending compared with their first-generation, foreign-born peers. An understanding of this pattern is most often couched in terms reflective of segmented assimilation theory highlighting the unique assimilation experiences and challenges faced by the children of immigrants. Importantly, alternative explanations of this pattern exist, namely, those promoting a regression to the mean hypothesis—born and socialized in the U.S. mainstream, second-generation immigrants are simply native-born youth. Using data from nine waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this alternative hypothesis is evaluated. The differential influence of variables tapping into important family, school, peer, and neighborhood domains on offending trajectories are compared across second-generation immigrant and native-born subsamples. The results reveal a high degree of similarity comparing second-generation immigrants and native-born Whites. At the same time, differences are also observed when compared with native-born Black and Hispanic peers particularly among measures of more serious offending. Implications of these findings for theory and policy are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth. "A Game of Catch-Up? The Offending Experience of Second-Generation Immigrants." Crime and Delinquency 60,1 (February 2014): 60-84.
4. Bjerregaard, Beth
Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship
Crime and Delinquency 56,1 (January 2010): 3-34.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/56/1/3.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or ethnographic in nature, and therefore does not reveal the causal nature of these relationships. This research attempts to establish the temporal ordering of these relationships while controlling for a variety of relevant variables and to determine whether the relationships between drug involvement and violence differ for gang members versus nongang members. The findings indicate that gang membership is weakly associated with drug involvement, including both usage and sales. This involvement, however, does not appear to be related to assaults. Results suggest that gang membership is not determinative of drug involvement among a national random sample of youth.
Bibliography Citation
Bjerregaard, Beth. "Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship." Crime and Delinquency 56,1 (January 2010): 3-34.
5. Brame, Robert
Bushway, Shawn D.
Paternoster, Raymond
Turner, Michael G.
Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23
Crime and Delinquency 60,3 (April 2014): 471-486.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/60/3/471.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Gender Differences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we examine race, sex, and self-reported arrest histories (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97; N = 7,335) for the period 1997 through 2008 covering cumulative arrest histories through ages 18 and 23. The analysis produces three key findings: (a) males have higher cumulative prevalence of arrest than females and (b) there are important race differences in the probability of arrest for males but not for females. Assuming that the missing cases are missing at random (MAR), about 30% of Black males have experienced at least one arrest by age 18 (vs. about 22% for White males); by age 23 about 49% of Black males have been arrested (vs. about 38% for White males). Earlier research using the NLSY97 showed that the risk of arrest by age 23 was 30%, with nonresponse bounds [25.3%, 41.4%]. This study indicates that the risk of arrest is not evenly distributed across the population. Future research should focus on the identification and management of collateral risks that often accompany arrest experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Brame, Robert, Shawn D. Bushway, Raymond Paternoster and Michael G. Turner. "Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23." Crime and Delinquency 60,3 (April 2014): 471-486.
6. Guo, Siying
Metcalfe, Christi
Religion as a Social Control: A Longitudinal Study of Religious Involvement and Substance Use
Crime and Delinquency published online (18 July 2018): DOI: 10.1177/0011128718787510.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0011128718787510
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Modeling, Random Effects; Religion; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The study examines the longitudinal relationship between religious involvement and substance use within emerging adulthood, accounting for changes in religious involvement over time and exploring variations across age, sex, race/ethnicity, and substance (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs). To this end, random effects models are used focusing on 11 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The findings demonstrate that increases in religious attendance are associated with reduced odds of all forms of substance use. In addition, the religious attendance-substance use relationship becomes weaker with age. Overall, religious attendance has a similar relationship with substance use among males and females, as well as Whites and non-Whites, with a few notable exceptions.
Bibliography Citation
Guo, Siying and Christi Metcalfe. "Religion as a Social Control: A Longitudinal Study of Religious Involvement and Substance Use." Crime and Delinquency published online (18 July 2018): DOI: 10.1177/0011128718787510.
7. Kim, Ryang Hui
Age-Sensitive Effect of Adolescent Dating Experience on Delinquency and Substance Use
Crime and Delinquency 59,5 (August 2013): 670-696.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/59/5/670.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Crime; Dating; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses a developmental perspective and focuses on examining whether the impact of adolescent dating is age-sensitive. Dating at earlier ages is hypothesized to have a stronger effect on adolescent criminal behavior or substance use, but the effect would be weaker as one ages. The data obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 are used to investigate this research question. The age-sensitive effect is measured by the interaction term between dating and age in the fixed effects modeling. The results show that when an adolescent changes from nondating to dating, the probability of committing criminal activities or using substances increases, but the influence of adolescent dating decreases as one ages. In addition, the dating effect decreases more rapidly among female adolescents than male adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Ryang Hui. "Age-Sensitive Effect of Adolescent Dating Experience on Delinquency and Substance Use." Crime and Delinquency 59,5 (August 2013): 670-696.
8. Makarios, Matthew
Cullen, Francis T.
Piquero, Alex R.
Adolescent Criminal Behavior, Population Heterogeneity, and Cumulative Disadvantage: Untangling the Relationship Between Adolescent Delinquency and Negative Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood
Crime and Delinquency 63,6 (June 2017): 683-707.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0011128715572094
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Heterogeneity; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Developmentalists suggest that adolescent criminal involvement encourages later life failure in the social domains of education, welfare, and risky sexual activities. Although prior research supports a link between crime and later life failure, relatively little research has sought to explain why this relationship exists. This research attempts to understand why crime leads to negative social outcomes by testing hypotheses derived from the perspectives of population heterogeneity and cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the results reveal that net of control variables and measures of population heterogeneity, adolescent criminal behavior consistently predicts school failure, being on welfare, and risky sexual activities. The findings also suggest that after controlling for delinquency, adolescent arrest negatively affects these factors. Furthermore, stable criminal traits and adolescent delinquency interact when predicting measures of poor social adjustment in early adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Makarios, Matthew, Francis T. Cullen and Alex R. Piquero. "Adolescent Criminal Behavior, Population Heterogeneity, and Cumulative Disadvantage: Untangling the Relationship Between Adolescent Delinquency and Negative Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood." Crime and Delinquency 63,6 (June 2017): 683-707.
9. McNulty, Thomas L.
Bellair, Paul E.
Watts, Stephen J.
Neighborhood Disadvantage and Verbal Ability as Explanations of the Black–White Difference in Adolescent Violence: Toward an Integrated Model
Crime and Delinquency 59,1 (February 2013): 140-160.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/59/1/140.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Cognitive Ability; Crime; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Modeling, Multilevel; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article develops a multilevel model that integrates individual difference and sociological explanations of the Black–White difference in adolescent violence. Our basic premise is that low verbal ability is a criminogenic risk factor that is in part an outcome of exposure to neighborhood and family disadvantages. Analysis of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth reveals that verbal ability has direct and indirect effects (through school achievement) on violence, provides a partial explanation for the racial disparity, and mediates the effect of socioeconomic disadvantage at the neighborhood level. Results support the view that neighborhood and family disadvantages have repercussions for the acquisition of verbal ability, which, in turn, serves as a protective factor against violence. We conclude that explanation of the race difference is best conceived as originating from the segregation of Blacks in disadvantaged contexts.
Bibliography Citation
McNulty, Thomas L., Paul E. Bellair and Stephen J. Watts. "Neighborhood Disadvantage and Verbal Ability as Explanations of the Black–White Difference in Adolescent Violence: Toward an Integrated Model." Crime and Delinquency 59,1 (February 2013): 140-160.
10. Mitchell, Ojmarrh
Caudy, Michael S.
Race Differences in Drug Offending and Drug Distribution Arrests
Crime and Delinquency 63,2 (February 2017): 91-112.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0011128714568427
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The War on Drugs' emphasis on apprehending low-level drug offenders dramatically increased the number of arrests for drug distribution and exacerbated racial and ethnic disparities in such arrests. Although these disparities have been the topic of much discussion, they rarely have been the subject of multivariate empirical scrutiny. This research examines the degree to which race differences in drug offending, nondrug offending, and community context explain race differences in the likelihood of experiencing a drug distribution arrest in a longitudinal sample of youthful respondents (age 12-29). Our results indicate that in comparison with White drug offenders, Hispanic drug offenders' greater likelihood of arrest is largely due to differences in community context; however, African Americans' greater likelihood of arrest is not explained by differences in offending or community context. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Mitchell, Ojmarrh and Michael S. Caudy. "Race Differences in Drug Offending and Drug Distribution Arrests." Crime and Delinquency 63,2 (February 2017): 91-112.
11. Morash, Merry
Rucker, Lila
An Exploratory Study of the Connection of Mother's Age at Childbearing to Her Children's Delinquency in Four Data Sets
Crime and Delinquency 35,1 (January 1989): 45-93.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/35/1/45.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Crime and Delinquency
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Delinquency/Gang Activity; First Birth; Longitudinal Data Sets

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the relationship between early childbearing and delinquent outcomes for the child. Using data from the London Longitudinal Survey, the Philadelphia Cohort Study, the NLSY, and the National Survey of Children, it was found that: (1) although there is a relationship between mother's age at first child's birth and delinquency, it is conditioned by the presence of a father or stepfather; and (2) the connection between mother's age and father's presence while not strong was persistent across both U.S. and British samples and across racial/ethnic group samples. Policy implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Morash, Merry and Lila Rucker. "An Exploratory Study of the Connection of Mother's Age at Childbearing to Her Children's Delinquency in Four Data Sets." Crime and Delinquency 35,1 (January 1989): 45-93.
12. Vander Ven, Thomas Michael
Cullen, Francis T.
The Impact of Maternal Employment on Serious Youth Crime: Does the Quality of Working Conditions Matter?
Crime and Delinquency 50,2 (April 2004): 272-292.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/50/2/272
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Council on Crime and Delinquency
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Multilevel; Occupational Status; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Social critics and the general public have for some time voiced a variety of concerns related to the increasing entrance of women into the paid labor market. A popular assumption has been that the children of working women are prone to criminal activity. The authors analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), using multiple regression models to examine whether the occupational status of mothers has criminogenic effects on their children during adolescence and early adulthood (15- to 19-year-olds). After tracing the effects of maternal resources, work hours, and occupational controls to criminality, the authors find that cumulative time spent by mothers in paid employment had no measurable influence on criminal involvement. On the other hand, coercively controlled maternal work over time was related to greater criminal involvement (in their children) in adolescence. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Vander Ven, Thomas Michael and Francis T. Cullen. "The Impact of Maternal Employment on Serious Youth Crime: Does the Quality of Working Conditions Matter? ." Crime and Delinquency 50,2 (April 2004): 272-292.
13. Walters, Glenn D.
Cognitive Mediation of Crime Continuity: A Causal Mediation Analysis of the Past Crime-Future Crime Relationship
Crime and Delinquency 61,9 (November 2015): 1234-1256.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/61/9/1234
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Expectations/Intentions; Incarceration/Jail; Psychological Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing data from two large samples, cognitive variables were evaluated as potential mediators of the past crime–future crime relationship. In the first study, the reconstructed General Criminal Thinking (GCTrc) score of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was found to mediate the relationship between past adult convictions/juvenile adjudications and future recidivism in 1,101 male federal prisoners. In the second study, a cognitive appraisal of one's future chances of arrest was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported delinquency between the ages of 13 and 15 and self-reported delinquency between the ages of 17 and 19 in 1,414 male and female members of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) cohort. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the mediating effects in both studies were reasonably robust to violations of the sequential ignorability assumption. These findings suggest that cognitive factors may play a role in encouraging continuity from the early to the later stages of criminal involvement.
Bibliography Citation
Walters, Glenn D. "Cognitive Mediation of Crime Continuity: A Causal Mediation Analysis of the Past Crime-Future Crime Relationship ." Crime and Delinquency 61,9 (November 2015): 1234-1256.