Search Results

Source: Criminology
Resulting in 20 citations.
1. Apel, Robert John
Bushway, Shawn D.
Brame, Robert
Haviland, Amelia
Nagin, Daniel S.
Paternoster, Raymond
Unpacking the Relationship Between Adolescent Employment and Antisocial Behavior: A Matched Samples Comparison
Criminology 45,1 (February 2007): 67-97.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2007.00072.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Crime; Employment, In-School; Employment, Part-Time; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study reexamines the consistent linkage between first-time employment at age 16 during the school year and problem behaviors. Group-based trajectory modeling is used to stratify youths based on their developmental history of crime and substance abuse. Data (N = 1,185) were taken from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Contrary to most prior research, results revealed no overall effect of working on either criminal behavior or substance abuse. There is some indication, however, that work may have a salutary effect on these behaviors for some individuals who had followed trajectories of heightened criminal activity or substance abuse prior to their first-time employment.
Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert John, Shawn D. Bushway, Robert Brame, Amelia Haviland, Daniel S. Nagin and Raymond Paternoster. "Unpacking the Relationship Between Adolescent Employment and Antisocial Behavior: A Matched Samples Comparison." Criminology 45,1 (February 2007): 67-97.
2. Apel, Robert John
Kaukinen, Catherine
On the Relationship Between Family Structure and Antisocial Behavior: Parental Cohabitation and Blended Households
Criminology 46,1 (February 2008): 35-70.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2008.00107.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Cohabitation; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Formation; Family Structure; Heterogeneity; Household Composition; Parents, Non-Custodial

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the last several decades, the American family has undergone considerable change, with less than half of all adolescents residing with two married biological parents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we construct an elaborate measure of family structure and find considerable heterogeneity in the risk of antisocial and delinquent behavior among groups of youth who reside in what are traditionally dichotomized as intact and nonintact families. In particular, we find that youth in "intact" families differ in important ways depending on whether the two biological parents are married or cohabiting and on whether they have children from a previous relationship. In addition, we find that youth who reside with a single biological parent who cohabits with a nonbiological partner exhibit an unusually high rate of antisocial behavior, especially if the custodial parent is the biological father. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Criminology is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.

Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert John and Catherine Kaukinen. "On the Relationship Between Family Structure and Antisocial Behavior: Parental Cohabitation and Blended Households." Criminology 46,1 (February 2008): 35-70.
3. Arum, Richard
Beattie, Irenee Rose
High School Experience and the Risk of Adult Incarceration
Criminology 37,3 (August 1999): 515-539.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00495.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Education; Event History; High School; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Market Demographics; Life Course; Unemployment Rate, Regional

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study assesses the effects of high school educational experiences on the risk of incarceration for young men aged 19-36 using event history analysis and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data. High school education serves as a defining moment in an individual's life course. Young men who enroll in secondary occupational course work significantly reduce their likelihood of incarceration both overall and net of differences in the adult labor market. High school student/teacher ratios and student composition also significantly affect an individual's risk of incarceration.
Bibliography Citation
Arum, Richard and Irenee Rose Beattie. "High School Experience and the Risk of Adult Incarceration." Criminology 37,3 (August 1999): 515-539.
4. Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
Doherty, Elaine Eggleston
When the Ties that Bind Unwind: Examining the Enduring and Situational Processes of Change Behind the Marriage Effect
Criminology 51,2 (May 2013): 399-433.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12008/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Divorce; Life Course; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the continued growth of research demonstrating that marriage promotes desistance from crime, efforts aimed at understanding the mechanisms driving this effect are limited. Several theories propose to explain why we observe a reduction in offending after marriage including identity changes, strengthened attachments, reduced opportunities, and changes to routine activities. Although mechanisms are hard to measure, we argue that each proposed mechanism implies a specific change process, that is, whether the change that ensues after marriage is enduring (stable) or situational (temporary). Drawing on a medical model framework, we cast the role of marriage as a treatment condition and observe whether the effect of marriage is conditional on staying married or whether the effect persists when the “treatment” is taken away (i.e., divorce). We use 13 years of monthly level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), a nationally representative sample containing close to 3,000 individuals with an arrest history, to examine changes in relationship status and arrest from adolescence into young adulthood. Estimates from multilevel within-individual models reveal greater support for situational mechanisms in that divorce is detrimental particularly for those in longer marriages; yet they also reveal important caveats that suggest a closer examination of the marriage effect. This research adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding the marriage effect by redirecting desistance research away from asking if marriage matters to asking how marriage affects desistance. A better understanding of this change process has important implications for criminal justice policy.
Bibliography Citation
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth and Elaine Eggleston Doherty. "When the Ties that Bind Unwind: Examining the Enduring and Situational Processes of Change Behind the Marriage Effect." Criminology 51,2 (May 2013): 399-433.
5. Dornfeld, Maude
Kruttschnitt, Candace
Do the Stereotypes fit? Mapping Gender-Specific Outcomes and Risk Factors
Criminology 30,3 (1992): 397-419.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01110.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Differences; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It has generally been accepted that boys and girls differ in their behavioral and emotional responses to stressful family events. These gender differences could be due to either different family risk factors affecting boys and girls or to boys coping differently in response to the same negative family events. These two alternative hypotheses form the basis of our analysis. Specifically, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we assess whether and how (I) marital discord, (2) marital stability and change, (3) harsh discipline, and (4) maternal deviance impact three different outcomes for males and females: delinquency, alcohol use, and depression. Multivariate analyses reveal that, although females generally display more vulnerabilities to specific dimensions of family life than males, the responses to these risk factors are not constrained to gender-stereotypic outcomes
Bibliography Citation
Dornfeld, Maude and Candace Kruttschnitt. "Do the Stereotypes fit? Mapping Gender-Specific Outcomes and Risk Factors." Criminology 30,3 (1992): 397-419.
6. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
Self-Control Theory and the Concept of Opportunity: The Case For A More Systematic Union
Criminology 46,4 (November 2008): 1039-1072.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2008.00135.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study is to advance the idea that low self-control — one of the strongest known predictors of crime—likely has effects that are conditional on the supply of criminal opportunities. Some scholars initially interpreted the theory to make this exact prediction, but Gottfredson and Hirschi (2003) have rejected this interpretation. They have insisted that the simplistic nature of most crimes ensures that opportunities are limitless and that variation in opportunity simply reflects variation in self-control. We trace the history of this uncertain position of opportunity in self-control theory and argue that it should play a significant role in the theory, even if Gottfredson and Hirschi did not originally envision this. Next, we draw on routine activities theory and applications of it to individual offending to offer a theoretical statement of how opportunity should be incorporated into self-control theory. Last, using data from a national sample of juveniles, we test the arguments that have been made. The analysis suggests that the effects of low self-control on delinquency partially depend on the availability of criminal opportunities, as indicated by the time juveniles spend with their friends or away from the supervision of their parents.
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "Self-Control Theory and the Concept of Opportunity: The Case For A More Systematic Union." Criminology 46,4 (November 2008): 1039-1072.
7. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis
Criminology 44,4 (December 2006): 739-774.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2006.00062.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research on self-control theory consistently supports its central prediction that low self-control significantly affects crime. The theory includes other predictions, however, that have received far less scrutiny. Among these is the argument that self-control is developed early in childhood and that individual differences emerging then persist over time. The purpose of this study is to provide a rigorous test of the stability thesis. First, we examine the extent of stability and change in self-control for a national sample of U.S. children age 7 to age 15. Second, we consider whether parenting continues to affect self-control during adolescence--a period after the point at which self-control differences should be fixed. The analysis revealed strong absolute and relative stability of self-control for more than 80 percent of the sample, and this stability emerged in large part as early as age 7. Contradicting the theory was a smaller portion of respondents (roughly 16 percent) who experienced substantial absolute and relative changes in self-control even after the age of 10. Moreover, parental socialization continued to affect self-control during adolescence, even after accounting for both prior self-control and exposure to parental socialization.
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis." Criminology 44,4 (December 2006): 739-774.
8. Hill, Gary D.
Crawford, Elizabeth M.
Women, Race, and Crime
Criminology 28,4 (November 1990): 601-626.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1990.tb01340.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Control; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Geographical Variation; Psychological Effects; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Self-Reporting; Sex Roles; Urbanization/Urban Living

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An investigation of whether black and white female criminality results from the same antecedent variables, based on self-reports of criminal involvement from the 1979-1980 NLS (N = 992 black and 2,878 white females, ages 18-23). Factors analyzed were social control, urbanism, strain, gender liberation and socialization, self-concept, deprivation, and maturation. Holding the race variable constant, findings show that social-psychological factors have a significant effect on white female criminality, whereas for black females, more significant effects are derived from structural/deprivation forces. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Gary D. and Elizabeth M. Crawford. "Women, Race, and Crime." Criminology 28,4 (November 1990): 601-626.
9. Jarjoura, G. Roger
Does Dropping Out of School Enhance Delinquent Involvement? Results from a Large-Scale National Probability Sample
Criminology 31,2 (May 1993): 149-172.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01126.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study seeks to improve on previous research on the relationship between dropping out of school and later involvement in delinquency. Using data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the analysis addresses two problems with prior studies in this area: (I) By controlling for many variables that may account for observed dropout-delinquency associations, it is possible to explore the possibility that the relationship may be spurious (2) By examining the effects of different reasons for dropping out, the study avoids the assumption that dropouts are a homogeneous group. Results indicate that the effect of dropping out of school on later offending is more complicated than previous research leads one to believe. In addition, dropping out does not always enhance the likelihood of a person's later delinquent involvement.
Bibliography Citation
Jarjoura, G. Roger. "Does Dropping Out of School Enhance Delinquent Involvement? Results from a Large-Scale National Probability Sample." Criminology 31,2 (May 1993): 149-172.
10. Larson, Matthew
Sweeten, Gary
Breaking Up Is Hard to Do: Romantic Dissolution, Offending, and Substance Use During the Transition to Adulthood
Criminology 50,3 (August 2012): 605-636.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2012.00272.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Dating; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent studies have directed attention to the nature of romantic involvement and its implications for offending over the life course. However, this body of research has overlooked a defining aspect of nonmarital romantic relationships: Most come to an end. By drawing on insights from general strain theory, the age-graded theory of informal social control, and research on delinquent peer exposure, we explore the impact of romantic dissolution on offending and substance use during late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Using data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we arrive at three general conclusions: 1) Experiencing a breakup is directly related to a range of antisocial outcomes; 2) the effect of a breakup is dependent on post-breakup relationship transitions; and 3) a breakup is associated with increases in offending and substance use among males and in substance use among females. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our findings for the future of research on romantic involvement and crime over the life course.
Bibliography Citation
Larson, Matthew and Gary Sweeten. "Breaking Up Is Hard to Do: Romantic Dissolution, Offending, and Substance Use During the Transition to Adulthood." Criminology 50,3 (August 2012): 605-636.
11. Porter, Lauren C.
DeMarco, Laura
Beyond the Dichotomy: Incarceration Dosage and Mental Health
Criminology published online (22 December 2018): DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12199.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12199
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The findings from a growing body of research reveal that incarceration is detrimental for both physical and mental health. Incarceration, however, is typically conceptualized and operationalized as a dichotomy; individuals either have, or have not, been incarcerated. Considering that incarceration can range from one day to several years, a dichotomous measure may be overlooking important variations across lengths of exposure. In addition, most inmates are incarcerated more than once. In this study, we help to fill this gap by examining the relationship between incarceration dosage, measured as time served and number of spells, and mental health among a sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. By using fixed‐effects modeling, we find that the number of spells and the months incarcerated are positively related to mental health symptoms and the likelihood of depression. The association, however, is contingent on whether a respondent is currently or formerly incarcerated. Among current inmates, more time served is expected to improve mental health and the number of spells is unrelated to either outcome.
Bibliography Citation
Porter, Lauren C. and Laura DeMarco. "Beyond the Dichotomy: Incarceration Dosage and Mental Health." Criminology published online (22 December 2018): DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12199.
12. Pyrooz, David Cyrus
McGloin, Jean Marie
Decker, Scott H.
Parenthood as a Turning Point in the Life Course for Male and Female Gang Members: A Study of Within-Individual Changes in Gang Membership and Criminal Behavior
Criminology 55,4 (November 2017): 869-899.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12162/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The impact of parenthood on leaving a street gang is not well understood. This is likely because researchers in prior studies have not accounted for multiple dimensions of gang exit, possible gender differences, and potential selection bias. In this study, we use a sample of 466 male and 163 female gang members from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 to consider the within-individual relationship between changes in parenthood and changes in claiming gang membership and offending. These data offer the opportunity to consider gender differences and birth parity (i.e., first or second child). The results from a series of fixed-effects models reveal that motherhood is associated with enduring reductions in both the odds of claiming gang membership and the rate of offending, whereas fatherhood has a temporary beneficial impact on gang membership and offending only for those fathers who reside with their children. In most cases, the beneficial effect of having a child rests in becoming a parent for the first time. On the whole, our study findings demonstrate that parenthood serves as a turning point for a particular group of noteworthy offenders—gang members.
Bibliography Citation
Pyrooz, David Cyrus, Jean Marie McGloin and Scott H. Decker. "Parenthood as a Turning Point in the Life Course for Male and Female Gang Members: A Study of Within-Individual Changes in Gang Membership and Criminal Behavior." Criminology 55,4 (November 2017): 869-899.
13. Ramey, David
The Influence of Early School Punishment and Therapy/Medication on Social Control Experiences during Young Adulthood
Criminology 54,1 (February 2016): 113-141.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12095/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Children, Mental Health; Criminal Justice System; Depression (see also CESD); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The use of suspensions and expulsions by American public school administrators has increased dramatically over the past 40 years. Meanwhile, a growing number of childhood misbehaviors have been diagnosed by doctors as medical conditions and are being treated with therapy or medication. As these trends develop at different rates for boys of different racial and ethnic groups, the connection between childhood and adult social control remains untested empirically. By using a prospective panel of 3,274 White, Black, and Hispanic males (15,675 person-years) and multilevel logistic models, I examine whether and how school punishment and/or the use of therapy or medication during childhood contributes to involvement in the criminal justice or mental health systems during young adulthood. The findings suggest that school punishment is associated with greater odds of involvement in the criminal justice system but not the mental health system. The use of therapy and/or medication during childhood is associated with higher odds of involvement in the mental health system but not the criminal justice system. Finally, although the relationship between school punishment and involvement with the criminal justice system is similar for White, Black, and Hispanic men, the relationship between medicalized social control during childhood and young adulthood is stronger for Whites than for non-Whites.
Bibliography Citation
Ramey, David. "The Influence of Early School Punishment and Therapy/Medication on Social Control Experiences during Young Adulthood." Criminology 54,1 (February 2016): 113-141.
14. Siennick, Sonja E.
Tough Love? Crime and Parental Assistance in Young Adulthood
Criminology 49,1 (February 2011): 163-195.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00221.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Delinquency/Gang Activity; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Parental Investments

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The writer explored the limits of others' willingness to help offenders by analyzing parents' financial assistance of grown offending and nonoffending offspring. Data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health showed that despite their strained relationships with their parents, young adult offenders received more parental assistance than do their nonoffending peers and even their own nonoffending siblings. This was partly because they tend to have a variety of other life circumstances that trigger parental assistance. The writer suggested that parents' reactions to offending offspring are curtailed by role norms and obligations of familial duty.
Bibliography Citation
Siennick, Sonja E. "Tough Love? Crime and Parental Assistance in Young Adulthood." Criminology 49,1 (February 2011): 163-195.
15. Simpson, Sally S.
Elis, Lori
Doing Gender: Sorting Out the Caste and Crime Condundrum
Criminology 33,1 (February 1995): 47-81.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1995.tb01171.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Gender Differences; Mobility, Social; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Racial Studies; Self-Reporting; Social Environment; Social Roles; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Explorations of the relationship between inequality and crime have examined the significance of class, gender, and racial oppression, but few theorists have considered how gender and racial oppression moderate etiological factors predictive of delinquency. Reviewing the literature in this area, several research hypotheses are generated regarding the formation of hegemonic masculinities and femininities within social institutions (work, family, peer groups, and schools), the ways in which "doing gender" must be modified by race, and the relationship among social structure, social action, and delinquency. In addition, self-report data (N = 4,578 juveniles) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979/80) are used to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that gender and race do in fact modify independent-variable effects on property and violent delinquency. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Simpson, Sally S. and Lori Elis. "Doing Gender: Sorting Out the Caste and Crime Condundrum." Criminology 33,1 (February 1995): 47-81.
16. Sweeten, Gary
Bushway, Shawn D.
Paternoster, Raymond
Does Dropping Out Of School Mean Dropping Into Delinquency?
Criminology 47,1 (February 2009): 47-91.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00139.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; Ethnic Differences; High School Diploma; High School Dropouts; Hispanic Youth; Racial Differences; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Approximately one third of U.S. high-school freshmen do not earn their high-school diploma on time. For African-American and Hispanic students, this figure nearly reaches one half. The long-term economic consequences of dropping out of school for both the student and the larger community have been well documented. It has also been argued that school dropouts put themselves at a higher risk for delinquent and criminal behavior when they leave school. Although it seems plausible that dropping out might increase the potential for delinquent conduct, another view states that dropping out is simply the final event in a long, gradual process of disenchantment and disengagement from school. Dropouts show evidence of school failure and developmental problems years in advance. It has been argued, therefore, that the actual event of finally leaving school has no causal effect on criminal or delinquent behavior because it has been so long in coming. In this article, we examine the effect of leaving school early, and the reason for dropping out, on delinquent behavior with the use of panel data models from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Through an appeal to identity theory, we hypothesize that the effect of dropping out is not uniform but varies by the reason for leaving school, gender, and time. This conjecture receives only partial empirical support. Implications for future work in the area are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Criminology is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary, Shawn D. Bushway and Raymond Paternoster. "Does Dropping Out Of School Mean Dropping Into Delinquency?" Criminology 47,1 (February 2009): 47-91.
17. Thompson, Melissa
Uggen, Christopher
Dealers, Thieves, and the Common Determinants of Drug and Nondrug Illegal Earnings
Criminology 50,4 (November 2012): 1057-1087.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2012.00286.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Drug Use; Earnings; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; National Supported Work Demonstration Project

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drug crime often is viewed as distinctive from other types of crime, meriting greater or lesser punishment. In view of this special status, this article asks whether and how illegal earnings attainment differs between drug sales and other forms of economic crime. We estimate monthly illegal earnings with fixed-effects models, based on data from the National Supported Work Demonstration Project and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Although drug sales clearly differ from other types of income-generating crime, we find few differences in their determinants. For example, the use of cocaine or heroin increases illegal earnings from both drug and nondrug crimes, indicating some degree of fungibility in the sources of illegal income. More generally, the same set of factors—particularly legal and illegal opportunities and embeddedness in criminal and conventional networks—predicts both drug earnings and nondrug illegal earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Melissa and Christopher Uggen. "Dealers, Thieves, and the Common Determinants of Drug and Nondrug Illegal Earnings." Criminology 50,4 (November 2012): 1057-1087.
18. Vogel, Matt
South, Scott J.
Spatial Dimensions of the Effect of Neighborhood Disadvantage on Delinquency
Criminology 54,3 (August 2016): 434-458.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12110/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research examining the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adolescent offending typically examines only the influence of residential neighborhoods. This strategy may be problematic as 1) neighborhoods are rarely spatially independent of each other and 2) adolescents spend an appreciable portion of their time engaged in activities outside of their immediate neighborhood. Therefore, characteristics of neighborhoods outside of, but geographically proximate to, residential neighborhoods may affect adolescents' propensity to engage in delinquent behavior. We append a spatially lagged, distance-weighted measure of socioeconomic disadvantage in "extralocal" neighborhoods to the individual records of respondents participating in the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (N = 6,491). Results from negative binomial regression analyses indicate that the level of socioeconomic disadvantage in extralocal neighborhoods is inversely associated with youth offending, as theories of relative deprivation, structured opportunity, and routine activities would predict, and that the magnitude of this effect rivals that of the level of disadvantage in youths' own residential neighborhoods. Moreover, socioeconomic disadvantage in extralocal neighborhoods suppresses the criminogenic influence of socioeconomic disadvantage in youths' own neighborhoods, revealing stronger effects of local neighborhood disadvantage than would otherwise be observed.
Bibliography Citation
Vogel, Matt and Scott J. South. "Spatial Dimensions of the Effect of Neighborhood Disadvantage on Delinquency." Criminology 54,3 (August 2016): 434-458.
19. Widdowson, Alex O.
Siennick, Sonja E.
Hay, Carter
The Implications of Arrest for College Enrollment: An Analysis of Long-Term Effects and Mediating Mechanisms
Criminology 54,4 (November 2016): 621-652.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12114/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; College Enrollment; High School Completion/Graduates; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study draws on labeling theory and education research on the steps to college enrollment to examine 1) whether and for how long arrest reduces the likelihood that high-school graduates will enroll in postsecondary education and 2) whether any observed relationships are mediated by key steps in the college enrollment process. With 17 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) and propensity score matching, we derived matched samples of arrested and nonarrested but equivalent youth (N = 1,761) and conducted logistic regression and survival analyses among the matched samples to examine the short- and long-term postsecondary consequences of arrest. The results revealed that arrest reduced the odds of 4-year college enrollment directly after high school, as well as that high-school grade point average and advanced coursework accounted for 58 percent of this relationship. The results also revealed that arrest had an enduring impact on 4-year college attendance that extended into and beyond emerging adulthood. Two-year college prospects were largely unaffected by arrest. These findings imply that being arrested during high school represents a negative turning point in youths' educational trajectory that is, in part, a result of having a less competitive college application. Implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O., Sonja E. Siennick and Carter Hay. "The Implications of Arrest for College Enrollment: An Analysis of Long-Term Effects and Mediating Mechanisms." Criminology 54,4 (November 2016): 621-652.
20. Wright, John Paul
Cullen, Francis T.
Parental Efficacy And Delinquent Behavior: Do Control And Support Matter?
Criminology 39,3 (August 2001): 677-705 .
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00937.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Control; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recently, the concept of "collective efficacy" has been advanced to understand how communities exert control and provide support to reduce crime. In a similar way, we use the concept of "parental efficacy" to highlight the crime reducing effects associated with parents who support and control their youth. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we examine the inter-relationship between parental controls and supports and their joint influence on youthful misbehavior. The results show that (1) support and control are intertwined, and (2) that parental efficacy exerts substantive effects on adolescent delinquency for the sample as a whole and across varying age groups.

Using data from the 1992 wave of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this study examined the interrelationship between parental controls and supports and their joint influence on youthful misbehavior.
Bibliography Citation
Wright, John Paul and Francis T. Cullen. "Parental Efficacy And Delinquent Behavior: Do Control And Support Matter?" Criminology 39,3 (August 2001): 677-705 .