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Source: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Blau, David M.
The Effect of Child Care Characteristics on Child Development
Working Paper, Department of Economics and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, March 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Child Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Blau, David M. "The Effect of Child Care Characteristics on Child Development." Working Paper, Department of Economics and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, March 1997.
2. Liu, Haiyong
A Migration Study of Mother's Work, Welfare Participation, and Child Development
Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, November 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Endogeneity; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Simultaneity; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates how women's migration and labor supply behaviors respond to changes in Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) policies and labor market conditions. It also traces out how these responses influence educational inputs and child outcomes. The research approach incorporates a new empirical framework for characterizing the simultaneity and endogeneity of decision making about migration, welfare program participation, and labor supply, recognizing that all of the decisions could impact their children's acheivement outcomes. No other paper had linked migration and work decisions to welfare participation and the impacts of welfare policies on children. Preliminary results show that poor and low-educated single women with children do change their residential locations in response to changes in welfare policies and labor market conditions. The magnitude of this response in the form of migration, however, is modest. In addition, such policy changes often have large and important impacts on particular at-risk groups. For example, increases in a state's welfare benefits can significantly increase the fraction of in-migrants who newly decide to enter welfare. Similarly, the impacts on the children of those women who would move out of state in the presence of work requirements are large. On average, using New York as an example, their children's achievment test scores would fall by 3.5 percentile points because of their mothers' new relocation decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Liu, Haiyong. "A Migration Study of Mother's Work, Welfare Participation, and Child Development." Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, November 2002.
3. Liu, Haiyong
Mroz, Thomas
van der Klaauw, Wilbert
Maternal Employment, Migration, and Child Development
Working Paper, Department of Economics, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, April 2005.
Also: http://www.unc.edu/~vanderkl/maternal3.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Common Core of Data (CCD); Maternal Employment; Migration; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use longitudinal models to investigate the interactions and interdependencies between parental inputs and school inputs as determinants of a child's development. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we integrate information on household migration, maternal employment decisions, and the mother's wage rate with observations on child outcomes for 7184 persons over 10 years. A mother maximizes her utility that depends on the household's consumption, her "leisure" time, and her child's achievement outcome. The mother solves a stochastic optimization problem where she is uncertain of her future wages and job prospects. She can only imperfectly influence her child's development. We use semi-parametric maximum likelihood procedures to estimate the structure of her preferences and the stochastic child production process under the assumption that the mother maximizes her expected utility. The statistical model follows directly from the theoretical framework. We relax many functional form assumptions that have been imposed by previous researchers who have studied how parents and schools can affect a child's development. Our preliminary investigations with simplified versions of this approach indicate that we are able to explain and reject several of the counter-intuitive estimation results found in the literature on the determinants of children's school performance.
Bibliography Citation
Liu, Haiyong, Thomas Mroz and Wilbert van der Klaauw. "Maternal Employment, Migration, and Child Development." Working Paper, Department of Economics, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, April 2005.
4. McElroy, Marjorie B.
Kniesner, Thomas J.
Family Structure, Race, and Feminization of Poverty
Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1986
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Background; Family Structure; Life Cycle Research; Marital Status; Poverty; Remarriage; Welfare; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The substantial increase in the number of women living in poverty during the 1970s and the 1980s has been termed the feminization of poverty. Our research analyzes theoretically and empirically changes in family structure and the concomitant contribution to this trend. Our empirical work utilizes the NLS Mature Women's data to analyze the poverty experience of women at a crucial stage in the life cycle. Emphasized are the joint roles of chance, choice, and exogenous background factors in determining family structure. In particular, we present estimated multivariate hazard factors for divorce and remarriage and their relationship to poverty entry and exit. The focus is on predetermined factors--including both welfare generosity and demographics. We conclude by conjecturing that (at least through the year 2000) poverty will be defeminized.
Bibliography Citation
McElroy, Marjorie B. and Thomas J. Kniesner. "Family Structure, Race, and Feminization of Poverty." Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1986.
5. Oertel, Ronald
Sensitivity of School Re-enrollment to Market Conditions and the Cost of Attendance
Working Paper, Department of Economics, The University of North Carolina, November 22, 2006.
Also: http://www.roa.unimaas.nl/seminars/pdf2007/oertel.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; College Enrollment; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Wage Equations; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Industrial realignment, in part stemming from liberalized international trade, has motivated policymakers to encourage 'lifelong learning' and skill retooling. In light of these discussions it is important to understand current reenrollment behavior, already a nontrivial phenomenon. I estimate a dynamic stochastic discrete choice model of schooling and labor force participation decisions over the life-cycle on a sample drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). I use the estimates to simulate the effects of tuition subsidies restricted to individuals who are returning to school after an absence. I find that even large targeted subsidies induce only modest changes in reenrollment and earnings. The most important contributors to this result are the very large negative effects of accumulated time out of school and of prior labor force participation on the consumption value of schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Oertel, Ronald. "Sensitivity of School Re-enrollment to Market Conditions and the Cost of Attendance." Working Paper, Department of Economics, The University of North Carolina, November 22, 2006.
6. Oertel, Ronald
The Effect of Tuition and Labor Market Conditions on College Entry, Dropout and Re-enrollment
Working Paper, Department of Economics, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, December 2, 2007.
Also: http://www.unc.edu/~oertel/Job_paper.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Keyword(s): Bayesian; College Dropouts; College Education; College Enrollment; Human Capital; Modeling; Tuition; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Industrial realignment in the United States, in part stemming from liberalized international trade, has motivated policymakers to encourage 'lifelong learning' and skill retooling. In light of these discussions it is important to understand current college going behavior, with a particular focus on college entry or re-entry at older ages, which is already a nontrivial phenomenon. I estimate a dynamic stochastic discrete choice model of schooling and labor force participation decisions over the life-cycle on a sample drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). Employing value function interpolation methods in solving the dynamic programming problem, I estimate the model by Maximum Likelihood. My estimates fit the observed patterns reasonably well. I then ask how enrollment behavior would change in response to alterations in people's opportunities, including subsidies targeted at individuals already in the labor market. One such simulation shows that even a policy that fully eliminates tuition for persons with at least one year of work experience will raise the number of individuals who obtain a college degree by only 2.4%.
Bibliography Citation
Oertel, Ronald. "The Effect of Tuition and Labor Market Conditions on College Entry, Dropout and Re-enrollment." Working Paper, Department of Economics, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, December 2, 2007.
7. Polachek, Solomon W.
Occupational Segregation: A Defense of Human Capital Predictions
Mimeo, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Human Capital Theory; Life Cycle Research; Occupational Segregation; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, the evidence presented on questions posed by Beller ("Occupational Segregation by Sex: Determinants and Changes," Journal of Human Resources, Spring, l982) and by England ("The Failure of Human Capital to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation," Journal of Human Resources, Spring l98l) is reviewed in an attempt to determine whether, as these authors allege, their evidence refutes the human capital explanation of the sex wage differential. It is found that both papers are consistent with neoclassical predictions. Specifically it is shown: (1) that England's findings are consistent with the neoclassical expectation that occupational segregation plays less of a role in explaining the wage differential than do traditional human capital variables; (2) that while earnings profiles generated with data that include a measure of occupational segregation are not ideal for testing human capital predictions, these profiles nonetheless yield parameters consistent with neoclassical theory; (3) that Beller's claim that economy-wide discrimination is so extensive that it dwarfs human capital effects is unfounded, and that, on the contrary, the evidence she presents is entirely consistent with the life cycle expectations model of occupational choice; and (4) that recasting England's assertions in multivariable regression form yields findings consistent with those of existing neoclassically- based studies.
Bibliography Citation
Polachek, Solomon W. "Occupational Segregation: A Defense of Human Capital Predictions." Mimeo, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1982.
8. Polachek, Solomon W.
Occupational Segregation: A Human Capital Approach
Mimeo, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Human Capital Theory; Occupational Segregation; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Currently human capital models are applied almost exclusively to explain earnings distribution. These models have been severely criticized because of their failure to explain existing occupational patterns. This paper introduces the concept of heterogeneous human capital so that optimal kinds as well as amounts of human capital can be determined. Inferences concerning occupational structure are derived by assuming that each occupation entails the use of a different kind of human capital. The model is applied to analyze occupational segregation by sex. It is found that if women were to have a full lifetime labor force attachment, then human capital considerations would dictate a 35 percent increase in the number of women professionals, a more than doubling of the number of women in managerial professions, and a diminution of the number of women in menial occupations in excess of 25 percent. These results for the first time indicate the potential strength of the human capital model in explaining occupational segregation by sex.
Bibliography Citation
Polachek, Solomon W. "Occupational Segregation: A Human Capital Approach." Mimeo, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1977.
9. Rabon, John Stuart
Fertility, Maternal Employment, and the Effect on a Child's Cognitive Achievement
Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina, March 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Keyword(s): Achievement; Cognitive Development; Fertility; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Here I present a model of the female life-cycle decision making process, focusing on fertility and maternal employment, and the pathways through which she affects her children's cognitive outcomes. Previous analyses which model cognitive achievement are more limited in scope through modeling fewer endogenous decisions and/or use a limited sample to discover the effect of specific government policies. Here, I explicitly account for the relationship between a woman's family-size and career preferences and how those preferences affect her child's cognitive outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Rabon, John Stuart. "Fertility, Maternal Employment, and the Effect on a Child's Cognitive Achievement." Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina, March 2011.