Search Results

Source: Economics and Human Biology
Resulting in 23 citations.
1. Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude
Kugler, Adriana D.
Intergenerational Persistence of Health: Do Immigrants Get Healthier as They Remain in the U.S. for More Generations?
Economics and Human Biology 23 (December 2016): 136-148.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X16301137
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Asthma; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Depression (see also CESD); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Health; Parental Influences

It is well known that a substantial part of income and education is passed on from parents to children, generating substantial persistence in socioeconomic status across generations. In this paper, we examine whether another form of human capital, health, is also largely transmitted from generation to generation. Using data from the NLSY, we first present new evidence on intergenerational transmission of health outcomes in the U.S., including weight, height, the body mass index (BMI), asthma and depression for both natives and immigrants. We show that between 50% and 70% of the mothers' health status persists in both native and immigrant children, and that, on average, immigrants experience higher persistence than natives in BMI. We also find that the longer immigrants remain in the U.S., the less intergenerational persistence there is and the more immigrants look like native children. Unfortunately, the more generations immigrant families remain in the U.S., the more children of immigrants resemble natives' higher BMI.
Bibliography Citation
Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude and Adriana D. Kugler. "Intergenerational Persistence of Health: Do Immigrants Get Healthier as They Remain in the U.S. for More Generations?" Economics and Human Biology 23 (December 2016): 136-148.
2. Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas
Tchernis, Rusty
Measuring Effects of SNAP on Obesity at the Intensive Margin
Economics and Human Biology 31 (September 2018): 150-163.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X17302253
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps)

The effects of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on obesity have been the focus of much debate. However, causal interpretation of estimates from previous studies, comparing participants to non-participants, is complicated by endogeneity and possible misreporting of participation in SNAP. In this paper, we take a novel approach to examine quasi-experimental variation in SNAP benefit amount on adult obesity. Children of SNAP households qualify for free in-school meals, thus freeing some additional benefits for the household. A greater proportion of school-age children eligible for free in-school meals proxies for an exogenous increase in the amount of SNAP benefits available per adult. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 we show that school meals represent a non-trivial part of the food budget for SNAP households. We find that increases in SNAP benefits have no effect on obesity levels for the full sample of those who report SNAP participation. To better isolate the effects of additional benefits from other potential changes we restrict our analysis to adults living in households with at least one child under 5 years of age. In this setting, we find that additional SNAP benefits reduce BMI and the probability of being obese for SNAP adults. Specifically, when one child in a household of four becomes school-aged, adult BMI is expected to decrease by 0.23 units and the probability of being obese decreases by 2.58 percentage points or by about 10%.
Bibliography Citation
Almada, Lorenzo Nicolas and Rusty Tchernis. "Measuring Effects of SNAP on Obesity at the Intensive Margin." Economics and Human Biology 31 (September 2018): 150-163.
3. Averett, Susan L.
Sikora, Asia
Argys, Laura M.
For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index
Economics and Human Biology 6,3 (December 2008): 330-349.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X08000543
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Racial Differences

Recent increases in the incidence of obesity and declines in marriage have prompted policymakers to implement policies to mitigate these trends. This paper examines the link between these two outcomes. There are four hypotheses (selection, protection, social obligation and marriage market) that might explain the relationship between marital status transitions and changes in Body Mass Index (BMI). The selection hypothesis suggests that those with a lower BMI are more likely to be selected into marriage. The protection hypothesis states that married adults will have better physical health as a result of the increased social support and reduced incidence of risky behavior among married individuals. The social obligation hypothesis states that those in relationships may eat more regular meals and/or richer and denser foods due to social obligations which may arise because of marriage. Finally, the marriage market hypothesis indicates that when adults are no longer in the marriage market they may not maintain a healthy BMI because doing so is costly and they are in a stable union-or on the other hand, adults may enhance their prospects in the marriage market by losing weight. Taking advantage of longitudinal data and complete marriage histories in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we estimate individual fixed effects models to examine associations between the change in log BMI and the incidence of overweight and obesity, and changes in relationship status controlling for the effects of aging and other respondent characteristics. We find no support for the marriage protection hypothesis. Rather we find evidence supporting the social obligation and marriage market hypotheses-BMI increases for both men and women during marriage and in the course of a cohabiting relationship. Separate analyses by race and ethnicity reveal substantial differences in the response of BMI to relationship status across these groups.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Asia Sikora and Laura M. Argys. "For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index." Economics and Human Biology 6,3 (December 2008): 330-349.
4. Brown, Christian
Routon, P. Wesley
On the Distributional and Evolutionary Nature of the Obesity Wage Penalty
Economics and Human Biology 28 (February 2018): 160-172.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X17301089
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Obesity; Wage Effects; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

The economics literature supports a link between labor market measures, such as earnings, and health conditions, such as obesity. There is reason to believe the effects of obesity on wages may vary for high- and low-earning individuals and that obesity wage effects may evolve over a lifecycle or from generation to generation. Drawing on data from two longitudinal surveys, we estimate quantile and fixed effect quantile regressions, among others, to further examine the obesity wage effect. Results suggest an increasingly severe penalty across the wage distribution for females. Specifically, the highest-earning women may be penalized as much as five times that of the lowest earners. Results for males suggest that penalties may be present at select wage levels, while prior research has generally found no male obesity penalty. We also provide evidence that the obesity penalty has increased across generations and limited evidence that it may slow earnings growth over one's lifetime.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian and P. Wesley Routon. "On the Distributional and Evolutionary Nature of the Obesity Wage Penalty." Economics and Human Biology 28 (February 2018): 160-172.
5. Classen, Timothy J.
Measures of the Intergenerational Transmission of Body Mass Index Between Mothers and Their Children in the United States, 1981 – 2004
Economics and Human Biology 8,1 (March 2010): 30-43.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X09001026
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Obesity; Socioeconomic Factors; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Weight

This research provides estimates of the intergenerational persistence of Body Mass Index (BMI) between women and their children when both are at similar stages of the lifecycle. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the Young Adults of the NLSY79, associations between the weight status of women and their children are measured when both generations are between the ages of 16 and 24. In the entire sample, the measured intergenerational correlation of BMI is significantly different from zero and equal to 0.35. This result differs by gender with a BMI correlation between female children and their mothers of 0.38, compared to a significantly lower BMI correlation of 0.32 between mothers and their sons. Measures of this relationship across the distribution of BMI using quantile regression and quadrant dependence techniques indicate that the intergenerational persistence of BMI is strongest at higher levels of BMI. Strong dependence across generations is found when categorical outcomes of obesity and overweight are implemented. These results provide evidence of the strong persistence of weight problems across generations which may affect economic mobility within families.
Bibliography Citation
Classen, Timothy J. "Measures of the Intergenerational Transmission of Body Mass Index Between Mothers and Their Children in the United States, 1981 – 2004." Economics and Human Biology 8,1 (March 2010): 30-43.
6. Classen, Timothy J.
Hokayem, Charles
Childhood Influences of Youth Obesity
Economics and Human Biology 3,2 (July 2005): 165-187.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X0500033X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Socioeconomic Factors; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Weight

We develop a model to estimate the influence of child and parental characteristics on the likelihood that a child will become an obese or overweight youth. We use this model to test whether it is possible to forecast obesity and overweight among youth. Comparing Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) scores from these forecasts, we find that a model using childhood covariates does as well in forecasting youth obesity and overweight as a model using the covariate values contemporaneous with the youth obesity and overweight outcomes. The datasets used in this paper, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults, provide data from 1986 to 2002, allowing for the study of a child's transition to and from obesity or overweight over a long period. Explanatory variables that significantly influence the likelihood of youth obesity or overweight outcomes include the mother's obesity status and education, the youth's mental health, and certain demographic features including race, sex, and family size. These factors provide potential targets for policies that could be implemented early in life among children most likely to become obese or overweight.
Bibliography Citation
Classen, Timothy J. and Charles Hokayem. "Childhood Influences of Youth Obesity." Economics and Human Biology 3,2 (July 2005): 165-187.
7. Daouli, Joan
Davillas, Apostolos
Demoussis, MIchael
Giannakopoulos, Nicholas
Obesity Persistence and Duration Dependence: Evidence From a Cohort of US Adults (1985-2010)
Economics and Human Biology 12 (January 2014): 30-44.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X13000865
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Gender Differences; Heterogeneity; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Obesity; Wage Differentials; Weight

This study investigates dynamic patterns of obesity persistence and identifies the determinants of obesity-spell exits and re-entries. We utilize longitudinal data from the NLSY79 covering the period 1985-2010. Non-parametric techniques are applied to investigate the relationship between exit from obesity and spell duration. Multivariate discrete hazard models are also estimated, taking into account duration dependence and observed and time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity. In all cases, the probability of exiting obesity is inversely related to the duration of the obesity spell. Without controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, the probability of exit after one wave in obesity is 31.5 per cent; it is reduced to 3.8 per cent after seven or more waves. When time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account, the estimated probabilities are slightly larger and broadly similar (36.8 and 10.3, respectively), which suggests that the identified negative duration dependence is not primarily due to composition effects. The obtained results indicate that public health interventions targeting the newly obese may be particularly effective at reducing incidence of long durations of obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Daouli, Joan, Apostolos Davillas, MIchael Demoussis and Nicholas Giannakopoulos. "Obesity Persistence and Duration Dependence: Evidence From a Cohort of US Adults (1985-2010)." Economics and Human Biology 12 (January 2014): 30-44.
8. Dasgupta, Kabir
Solomon, Keisha T.
Family Size Effects on Childhood Obesity: Evidence on the Quantity-Quality Trade-off Using the NLSY
Economics and Human Biology 29 (May 2018): 42-55.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X17301077
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Health; Family Size; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Obesity; Parental Influences; Siblings

In this study, we use matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Surveys to study the effects of family size on child health. Focusing on excess body weight indicators as children's health outcome of interest, we examine the effects of exogenous variations in family size generated by twin births and parental preference for mixed sex composition of their children. We find no significant empirical support in favor of the quantity-quality trade-off theory in instrumental variable regression analysis. This result is further substantiated when we make use of the panel aspects of the data to study child health outcomes of arrival of younger siblings at later parities. Specifically, when we employ child fixed effects analysis, results suggest that birth of a younger sibling is related to a decline in the likelihood of being overweight by 4 percentage points and a drop in the probability of illness by approximately 5 percentage points.
Bibliography Citation
Dasgupta, Kabir and Keisha T. Solomon. "Family Size Effects on Childhood Obesity: Evidence on the Quantity-Quality Trade-off Using the NLSY." Economics and Human Biology 29 (May 2018): 42-55.
9. Guettabi, Mouhcine
Munasib, Abdul
The Impact of Obesity on Consumer Bankruptcy
Economics and Human Biology 17 (April 2015): 208-224.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X14000884
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity

Over the last two decades, both bankruptcy and obesity rates in the U.S. have seen a steady rise. As obesity is one of the leading causes of medical and morbidity related economic costs, its influence on personal bankruptcy is analyzed in this study. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we employ a duration model to investigate the relative importance of obesity on the timing of bankruptcy. Even after accounting for possible endogeneity of BMI and controlling for a wide variety of individual and aggregate-level confounding factors, being obese puts one at a greater risk of filing for bankruptcy.
Bibliography Citation
Guettabi, Mouhcine and Abdul Munasib. "The Impact of Obesity on Consumer Bankruptcy." Economics and Human Biology 17 (April 2015): 208-224.
10. Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Powell, Lisa M.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Body Weight on Adult Wages
Economics and Human Biology 9,4 (December 2011): 381-392.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X11000803
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Education; Obesity; Occupational Choice; Wages

Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna, Edward C. Norton and Lisa M. Powell. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Body Weight on Adult Wages." Economics and Human Biology 9,4 (December 2011): 381-392.
11. Kalist, David E.
Siahaan, Freddy
The Association of Obesity with the Likelihood of Arrest for Young Adults
Economics and Human Biology 11,1 (January 2013): 8-17.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X1200007X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Arrests; Body Mass Index (BMI); Crime; Obesity; Weight

This paper examines whether obesity is associated with the likelihood of arrest. We hypothesize that obese individuals are less likely to commit crime and be arrested because their body weights may prevent them from successfully engaging in certain criminal activities, particularly those that are physically intensive. To test this hypothesis, we use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and panel data techniques and find that obesity is negatively related to arrest. In one specification, for example, we found that the odds of an obese man being arrested are 64 percent of those of a healthy weight man. The social costs of obesity may be overstated if obesity reduces the likelihood of arrest because the obese are less criminally active.
Bibliography Citation
Kalist, David E. and Freddy Siahaan. "The Association of Obesity with the Likelihood of Arrest for Young Adults." Economics and Human Biology 11,1 (January 2013): 8-17.
12. Lantis, Robert M.
Teahan, Brittany A.
The Effect of Unemployment Insurance on Alcohol Use and Abuse Following Job Loss
Economics and Human Biology 30 (September 2018): 92-103.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X18300480
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Geocoded Data; State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance

We investigate whether unemployment insurance (UI) policy affects the drinking behavior of the unemployed. Using NLSY data supplemented with Geocode data, we estimate the effect of benefit replacement rates on changes in individual alcohol consumption following job loss. Identification relies on variation in replacement rates across states and over time. Results indicate that a 100% increase in benefit replacement rate, roughly equivalent to a state moving from the lowest to the highest replacement rate, would, on average, result in unemployed individuals consuming 19.1 additional drinks a month. Looking at the change in an individual's binge drinking upon job loss, individuals receiving the highest level of benefits are 14.7% more likely to increase their binge drinking than those receiving the least generous benefits. We find that individuals' responsiveness to changes in replacement rates vary based on drinking history, industry labor market conditions, education, and age.
Bibliography Citation
Lantis, Robert M. and Brittany A. Teahan. "The Effect of Unemployment Insurance on Alcohol Use and Abuse Following Job Loss." Economics and Human Biology 30 (September 2018): 92-103.
13. Minor, Travis
An Investigation into the Effect of Type I and Type II Diabetes Duration on Employment and Wages
Economics and Human Biology 11,4 (December 2013): 534-544.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X13000397
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Employment; Gender Differences; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wage Rates; Wages

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, the current study examines the effect of type I and type II diabetes on employment status and wages. The results suggest that both the probability of employment and wages are negatively related to the number of years since the initial diagnosis of diabetes. Moreover, the effect of diabetes duration on the probability of employment appears to be nonlinear, peaking around 16 years for females and 10 years for males. A similar negative effect on wages is found only in male diabetics. Finally, the results suggest that failure to distinguish between type I and type II diabetics may lead to some counterintuitive results.
Bibliography Citation
Minor, Travis. "An Investigation into the Effect of Type I and Type II Diabetes Duration on Employment and Wages." Economics and Human Biology 11,4 (December 2013): 534-544.
14. Pinkston, Joshua C.
The Dynamic Effects of Obesity on the Wages of Young Workers
Economics and Human Biology 27,A (November 2017): 154-166.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X16301654
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages

This paper considers effects of body mass on wages in the years following labor market entry. The preferred models allow current wages to be affected by both past and current body mass, as well as past wages, while also addressing the endogeneity of body mass. I find that a history of severe obesity has a large negative effect on the wages of white men. White women face a penalty for a history of being overweight, with some evidence of additional penalties that begin above the threshold for severe obesity. Furthermore, the effects of past wages on current wages imply that past body mass has additional, indirect effects on wages, especially for white women.
Bibliography Citation
Pinkston, Joshua C. "The Dynamic Effects of Obesity on the Wages of Young Workers." Economics and Human Biology 27,A (November 2017): 154-166.
15. Powell, Lisa M.
Bao, Yanjun
Food Prices, Access to Food Outlets and Child Weight
Economics and Human Biology 7,1 (March 2009): 64-72.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X09000070
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Growth; Child Health; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Modeling, Random Effects; Mothers, Education; Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child–mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Lisa M. and Yanjun Bao. "Food Prices, Access to Food Outlets and Child Weight." Economics and Human Biology 7,1 (March 2009): 64-72.
16. Price, Joseph P.
Swigert, Jeffrey
Within-Family Variation in Obesity
Economics and Human Biology 10,4 (December 2012): 333-339.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X1200069X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood; Obesity; Siblings; Weight

We use data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to document the degree to which childhood obesity varies among siblings. We find considerable differences in body weight between siblings with over half of the siblings differing by more than 20 age-specific percentiles in terms of the body mass index. Even among identical twins, there is an average BMI difference of 12 percentiles. This variation is important for the use of econometric approaches that involve sibling comparisons.
Bibliography Citation
Price, Joseph P. and Jeffrey Swigert. "Within-Family Variation in Obesity." Economics and Human Biology 10,4 (December 2012): 333-339.
17. Slade, Peter
Body Mass and Wages: New Evidence from Quantile Estimation
Economics and Human Biology 27,A (November 2017): 223-240.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X16301320
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wages

I estimate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on wages across the unconditional distribution of wages. I find that for whites and Hispanics the effect of BMI is generally decreasing across the wage distribution; at the.9 quantile of the wage distribution, a two standard deviation increase in BMI reduces wages by 8% for white males, 13% for white females, 9% for Hispanic males, and 16% for Hispanic females. Conversely, at the.1 quantile, a two standard deviation increase in BMI affects wages by less than 2% for all these groups. For black males, the effect of BMI is positive, and either increasing or non-linear in wages. For black females, the estimates tend to be more uniform across the wage distribution. I discuss possible explanations for these inter-quantile differences including preference discrimination, productivity differences, and statistical discrimination. The results point to a new explanation for the observed correlation between socioeconomic status and body weight: individuals with higher income earning potential have differential incentives to maintain a lower BMI.
Bibliography Citation
Slade, Peter. "Body Mass and Wages: New Evidence from Quantile Estimation." Economics and Human Biology 27,A (November 2017): 223-240.
18. Smith, Patricia K.
Bogin, Barry
Bishai, David M.
Are Time Preference and Body Mass Index Associated? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Economics and Human Biology 3,2 (July 2005): 259-270.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X05000286
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Obesity; Racial Differences; Time Preference; Weight

The prevalence of obesity among both adults and children in the U.S. has risen to all time highs in the past two decades. We propose that an increase in the marginal rate of time preference has contributed to increasing obesity. More people are consuming more calories than they expend because they have become less willing to trade current pleasure for potential future health benefits. Accordingly, this paper explores the association between body mass index (BMI) and time preference. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to test our hypothesis that time preference and BMI are positively related. We find some evidence that there is such a positive association among black and Hispanic men and black women.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Patricia K., Barry Bogin and David M. Bishai. "Are Time Preference and Body Mass Index Associated? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Economics and Human Biology 3,2 (July 2005): 259-270.
19. Smith, Patricia K.
Zagorsky, Jay L.
"Do I Look Fat?" Self-Perceived Body Weight and Labor Market Outcomes
Economics and Human Biology 30 (September 2018): 48-58.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X17302617
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Employment; Labor Market Outcomes; Self-Perception; Wages; Weight

Research reporting that greater body weight is associated with lower wages and employment, particularly among women, focuses on how employers perceive workers. In contrast, we examine whether workers' own perceptions of body weight influence labor market outcomes. Numerous studies find that misperception of body weight influences health behaviors and health, both mental and physical. For example, anorexia nervosa involves the over-perception of weight and raises the risk of cardiovascular disease. Do the health consequences of inaccurate self-perceived weight carry through to the labor market? We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to investigate patterns in weight misperception and three labor market outcomes. We find little evidence that either over-perception or under-perception of weight is associated with wages, weeks worked, or the number of jobs held for women and men.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Patricia K. and Jay L. Zagorsky. ""Do I Look Fat?" Self-Perceived Body Weight and Labor Market Outcomes." Economics and Human Biology 30 (September 2018): 48-58.
20. Stifel, David C.
Averett, Susan L.
Childhood Overweight in the United States: A Quantile Regression Approach
Economics and Human Biology 7,3 (December 2009): 387–397.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X09000446
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Gender Differences; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Weight

The prevalence of overweight children in the United States has increased dramatically over the past two decades, and is creating well-known public health problems. Moreover, there is also evidence that children who are not overweight are becoming heavier. We use quantile regression models along with standard ordinary least squares (OLS) models to explore the correlates of childhood weight status and overweight as measured by the Body Mass Index (BMI). This approach allows the effects of covariates to vary depending on where in the BMI distribution a child is located. Our results indicate that OLS masks some of the important correlates of child BMI at the upper and lower tails of the weight distribution. For example, mother's education has no effect on black children, but is associated with improvements in BMI for overweight white boys and underweight white girls. Conversely, mother's cognitive aptitude has no effect on white boys, but is associated with BMI improvements for underweight black children and overweight white girls. Further, we find that underweight white children and black girls experience similar improvements in BMI as they get older, but that for black boys there is little if any association between age and BMI anywhere in the BMI distribution.
Bibliography Citation
Stifel, David C. and Susan L. Averett. "Childhood Overweight in the United States: A Quantile Regression Approach." Economics and Human Biology 7,3 (December 2009): 387–397. A.
21. Wada, Roy
Tekin, Erdal
Body Composition and Wages
Economics and Human Biology 8,2 (July 2010): 242-254.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X10000213
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Methods/Methodology; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Obesity; Wage Determination

We develop measures of body composition - body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) - using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research use body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. This paper also contributes to the growing literature on the role of non-cognitive factors on wage determination. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Wada, Roy and Erdal Tekin. "Body Composition and Wages." Economics and Human Biology 8,2 (July 2010): 242-254.
22. Zagorsky, Jay L.
Health and Wealth: The Late-20th Century Obesity Epidemic in the U.S.
Economics and Human Biology 3,2 (July 2005): 296-313.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X05000304
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Health Factors; Inheritance; Obesity; Racial Differences; Wealth; Weight

Obesity is a rapidly growing public health issue. This paper investigates obesity's relationship to individuals' wealth by analyzing data from a large U.S. longitudinal socio-economic survey. The results show a large negative association between BMI and White female's net worth, a smaller negative association for Black women and White males and no relationship for Black males. Weight changes and dieting also appear associated with wealth changes. Individuals who lose small amounts of weight experience little change in net worth, but those who lose large amounts of weight have a dramatically improved financial position, with Whites showing larger changes than Blacks.
Bibliography Citation
Zagorsky, Jay L. "Health and Wealth: The Late-20th Century Obesity Epidemic in the U.S. ." Economics and Human Biology 3,2 (July 2005): 296-313.
23. Zagorsky, Jay L.
Smith, Patricia K.
The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Adult Fast-Food Consumption in the U.S.
Economics and Human Biology 27,A (November 2017): 12-25.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X16300363
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wealth

Health follows a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in developed countries with disease prevalence falling as SES rises. This pattern is partially attributed to differences in nutritional intake, with the poor eating the least healthy diets. This paper examines whether there is an SES gradient in one specific aspect of nutrition: fast-food consumption. Fast food is generally high in calories and low in nutrients. We use data from the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to test whether adult fast-food consumption in the United States falls as monetary resources rise (n = 8,136). This research uses more recent data than previous fast-food studies and includes a comprehensive measure of wealth in addition to income to measure SES. We find little evidence of a gradient in adult fast-food consumption with respect to wealth. While adults in the highest quintile are 54.5% less likely to report fast-food consumption than those in the lowest quintile, adults in the second and third quintiles are no less likely to report fast food-food intake than the poorest. Contrary to popular belief, fast-food consumption rises as income rises from the lowest to middle quintiles. The variation in adult fast-food consumption across income and wealth groups is, however, small. Those in the wealthiest quintile ate about one less fast-food meal on average than those in the lowest quintile. Other factors play a bigger role in explaining fast-food consumption: reading ingredient labels is negatively associated while soda consumption and hours of work are positively associated with fast-food consumption.
Bibliography Citation
Zagorsky, Jay L. and Patricia K. Smith. "The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Adult Fast-Food Consumption in the U.S." Economics and Human Biology 27,A (November 2017): 12-25.