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Source: Evaluation and Program Planning
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Brady-Smith, Christy
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Waldfogel, Jane
Fauth, Rebecca
Work or Welfare? Assessing the Impacts of Recent Employment and Policy Changes on Very Young Children
Evaluation and Program Planning 24,4 (November 2001): 409-425
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Education; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Income; Welfare

We explore the implications of the rapid influx of low-income mothers into the workforce and PRWORA work requirements during the middle to late 1990s for the well-being of young children. Our premise is that some families with young children will be better off, while others will be worse off than low-income cohorts from a decade ago. We focus on six policy provisions from the 1990s that are likely to influence the well-being of young, low-income children in the coming decades: (a) work requirements for mothers of young children; (b) education requirements for teenage mothers of young children; (c) child care subsidies; (d) child care regulations; (e) family leave; and (f) the Earned Income Tax Credit. For each of these provisions, we discuss the actual policy as well as the implementation (i.e. practice) of the policy at the state level. We then consider what policy-relevant research has to say about the possible impact of early maternal employment, income, and child care on young children, highlighting research on low-income families where possible. Much of the research we review is based on data collected prior to the rapid changes in the proportion of low-income mothers in the workforce and in state and federal requirements and programs that occurred in the mid-1990s. Thus, we conclude with speculations on how the current trends in workforce participation and welfare and other policies may impact young children in the coming decades.
Bibliography Citation
Brady-Smith, Christy, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Jane Waldfogel and Rebecca Fauth. "Work or Welfare? Assessing the Impacts of Recent Employment and Policy Changes on Very Young Children." Evaluation and Program Planning 24,4 (November 2001): 409-425.
2. Thakuriah, Piyushimita
Persky, Joseph
Soot, Siim
Sriraj, P.S.
Costs and Benefits of Employment Transportation for Low-Wage Workers: An Assessment of Job Access Public Transportation Services
Evaluation and Program Planning 37 (April 2013): 31-42.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149718912000894
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Commuting/Type, Time, Method; Economic Well-Being; Human Capital; Program Participation/Evaluation; Transportation; Wages

This paper focuses on an evaluation of public transportation-based Employment Transportation (ET) services to transport low-wage workers to jobs in the US. We make an attempt to capture a more comprehensive range of intended and unintended outcomes of ET services than those traditionally considered in the case of public transportation services. Using primary data from 23 locations across the country, we present a framework to evaluate how transportation improvements, in interaction with labor markets, can affect users’ short-run economic welfare, users’ long-run human capital accumulation and non-users’ short-run economic welfare. These services were partially funded by a specialized program - the Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC) program - which was consolidated into larger transit funding programs by recent legislation. In the sites examined, we found that low wage users benefitted from self-reported increased access to jobs, improvements in earnings potential, as well as from savings in transport cost and time. Simulations show the potential of users to accrue long-term worklife benefits. At the same time, users may have accrued changes in leisure time as a result of transitioning from unemployment to employment, and generated a range of societal impacts on three classes of non-users: the general tax-paying public, the general commuting public in the service operating area and other low-wage workers in local labor markets.
Bibliography Citation
Thakuriah, Piyushimita, Joseph Persky, Siim Soot and P.S. Sriraj. "Costs and Benefits of Employment Transportation for Low-Wage Workers: An Assessment of Job Access Public Transportation Services." Evaluation and Program Planning 37 (April 2013): 31-42.