Search Results

Source: Family Planning Perspectives
Resulting in 27 citations.
1. Abma, Joyce C.
Mott, Frank L.
Substance Use and Prenatal Care During Pregnancy Among Young Women
Family Planning Perspectives 23,3 (May-June 1991): 117-122.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135823
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Deviance; Drug Use; Hispanics; Household Composition; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Substance Use; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data on a cohort of young mothers from the NLSY were examined for use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana during pregnancies leading to first births. A substantial proportion of women (45 percent) were found to have used at least one of these substances. White women were more likely to use a substance during pregnancy than were Hispanic or black women; women with a prospective father present in the household were less likely than other women to use a substance. Compared with well-educated and older women, less-educated and younger women were more likely to smoke cigarettes or marijuana during pregnancy, but were less likely to drink alcohol. Only about 13 percent of women used more than one substance. Nineteen percent of the women received no prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. Less-educated and younger women were least likely to receive early prenatal care. Multivariate analysis found no association between neglect of prenatal care and substance use. Ra ther, the analysis revealed that the two behaviors shared likely antecedents, such as whether the prospective father was in the home prior to the pregnancy. Copyright: 1991 Alan Guttmacher Institute
Bibliography Citation
Abma, Joyce C. and Frank L. Mott. "Substance Use and Prenatal Care During Pregnancy Among Young Women." Family Planning Perspectives 23,3 (May-June 1991): 117-122.
2. Ahn, Namkee
Teenage Childbearing and High School Completion: Accounting for Individual Heterogeneity
Family Planning Perspectives 26,1 (January 1994): 17-21.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2136091
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Fertility; Heterogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; Household Composition; Marital Instability; Regions; School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Some of the major repercussions of early childbearing are a lower likelihood of school completion and advanced education, a lower likelihood of working in the future or of earning high wages, and a greater risk of failed marriages. Estimates from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-1987) indicate that differences in high school completion rates between women who had a teenage birth and those who did not are affected by the birth itself, family background, and individual heterogeneity. Merely having a teenage birth leads to a 50% reduction in the likelihood of completing school as compared with not having a teenage birth, but individual heterogeneity (normal differences between individuals) accounts for a 42% reduction in likelihood of completion among those giving birth before age 17, and a 30% reduction for those giving birth between ages 17-19. The study concluded that elimination of births to teenagers would reduce the gap in high school completion by about one-half between women who have births as teenagers and those who do not, and this gap can be narrowed further if family background (maternal education and parental marital stability) among the teenage mothers is improved.
Bibliography Citation
Ahn, Namkee. "Teenage Childbearing and High School Completion: Accounting for Individual Heterogeneity." Family Planning Perspectives 26,1 (January 1994): 17-21.
3. Baydar, Nazli
Consequences for Children of Their Birth Planning Status
Family Planning Perspectives 27,6 (November-December, 1995): 228-234, 245.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2136174l
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Birth Order; Birthweight; Body Parts Recognition; Child Development; Childbearing; Cognitive Development; Family Income; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Memory for Location; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Parenthood; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Temperament; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale); Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite continuing high levels of unintended childbearing in the United States and its assumed negative consequences for children, surprisingly little research has examined its effects on children's cognitive, emotional and academic outcomes. With mistimed and unwanted births accounting for 39% of births to ever-married women aged 15-44 in 1988(1) and 67% of those to their never-married counterparts,(2) it is important to understand whether planning status is associated with developmental deficits in children. If such an association exists, then its sources must be investigated. Understanding the consequence of unintendedness will facilitate evaluations of preventive programs and remedial interventions, as well as facilitate assessments of the effects of ineffective contraceptive use and limited access to abortion services.
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli. "Consequences for Children of Their Birth Planning Status." Family Planning Perspectives 27,6 (November-December, 1995): 228-234, 245.
4. Eggebeen, David J.
Crockett, Lisa J.
Hawkins, Alan J.
Patterns of Adult Male Coresidence Among Young Children of Adolescent Mothers
Family Planning Perspectives 22,5 (September-October 1990): 219-223.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135496
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at Birth; Childhood Residence; Children; Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; General Assessment; Household Composition; Household Structure; Mothers, Adolescent; Mothers, Race; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the extent to which a sample of young children resided during their first three years of life in a household in which an adult male was present. Data from the NLSY on children ages 3 to 6 in 1986 who were born to adolescent mothers were utilized. Four measures of exposure to the adult male were developed: (1) duration of coresidence (the number of interview years in which a male was present in the child's household); (2) timing of coresidence (when in relationship to the child's birth the male entered the household); (3) stability of the living arrangement (the number of times a primary male moved into or out of the child's household); and (4) the relationship of the adult male to the child. Differences by race and mother's age at birth were analyzed. It was found that: (1) well over three-quarters of the white children (81%) but less than half (45%) of the black children lived with an adult male during the full time period studied; (2) children of older mothers, those who were ages 20 or older at the child's birth, were more likely to be born into a household where an adult male was present; (3) 79% of children born to older white mothers experienced a stable living arrangement, i.e., no movement of the male in or out of the household, in their first three years compared to 45% of children born to the youngest white mothers; and (4) almost 60% of the black children studied experienced at least one transition in their first three years of life and almost a third (32%) experienced two or more. Plans for future research on the impact of these patterns on the child's well-being are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Eggebeen, David J., Lisa J. Crockett and Alan J. Hawkins. "Patterns of Adult Male Coresidence Among Young Children of Adolescent Mothers." Family Planning Perspectives 22,5 (September-October 1990): 219-223.
5. Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Morgan, S. Philip
Adolescent Mothers and Their Children in Later Life
Family Planning Perspectives 19,4 (July-August 1987): 142-151.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135159
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Children; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; First Birth; Marital Status; Mothers, Adolescent; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Reviews the results of a longitudinal study of over 300 primarily urban black women who gave birth as adolescents in the 1960s with follow-up results obtained from reinterviews in 1972 and 1984 with both the mothers and their then teenage children. This study found that a substantial majority of the mothers completed high school, found regular employment, and escaped dependence on public assistance. However, while many teenage mothers do break out of the cycle of poverty, the majority did not fare as well as they would have had they been able to postpone parenthood. Data from the 1982 NLSY, 1983 Current Population Survey, and 1982 National Survey of Family Growth are used to provide comparisons with national samples of women. Interviews with the teenage children of the mothers originally interviewed in 1966 revealed that: (1) mother's economic status had pervasive effects on the child's academic performance; (2) receipt of welfare in the first five years after the child's birth had a negative impact on preschool behavior and temperament; and (3) mother's marital status was clearly associated with poor academic performance and behavior problems among adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and S. Philip Morgan. "Adolescent Mothers and Their Children in Later Life." Family Planning Perspectives 19,4 (July-August 1987): 142-151.
6. Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr.
Levine, Judith A.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The Children of Teenage Mothers: Patterns of Early Childbearing in Two Generations
Family Planning Perspectives 22,2 (March-April 1990): 54-61.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135509
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Inner-City; Mothers and Daughters; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Teenagers; Underclass

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Twenty years after a mostly black group of Baltimore women became adolescent mothers, the majority of their first-born children had not become adolescent parents, a finding that challenges the popular belief that the offspring of teenage mothers are themselves destined to become adolescent parents. Almost all of the offspring had had intercourse by age 19. About half of the young women had experienced a pregnancy before that age, and approximately one-third of the young men reported having impregnated a partner before age 19. The Baltimore youths were just as likely to have had a live birth before age 19 as were the children of teenage mothers in a national sample of urban blacks, and both of these groups were more likely to have done so than were the children of older mothers in the national sample. In the Baltimore sample, maternal welfare experience only increased a daughter's likelihood of early childbearing if welfare was received during her teenage years. Within the Baltimore sample, a direct comparison of the daughters who became adolescent mothers with their own mothers at a comparable age reveals that the daughters have bleaker educational and financial prospects than their mothers had, and are less likely to ever have married. These results suggest that today's teenage parents may be less likely than were previous cohorts of adolescent mothers to overcome the handicaps of early childbearing. This trend could portend the growth of an urban underclass, even though only a minority of the offspring of teenage mothers go on to become adolescent parents.
Bibliography Citation
Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr., Judith A. Levine and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "The Children of Teenage Mothers: Patterns of Early Childbearing in Two Generations." Family Planning Perspectives 22,2 (March-April 1990): 54-61.
7. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Reid, Lori Lynn
Mott, Frank L.
The Effects of Early Childbearing on Schooling Over Time
Family Planning Perspectives 33, 6 (November-December, 2001): 259-627.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3030193
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Family Structure; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Context: In recent studies, the effects of teenage childbearing on the schooling of young women have been smaller than those in earlier research. The discrepancy has been attributed to the use in the later studies of controls for unmeasured differences between young women who start childbearing early and those who do not, but could instead reflect changes in the effect of early childbearing over time. Methods: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Labor Market Experience of Youth and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics are used to identify the reasons for this difference. Logistic regression, ordinary least-squares regressions and fixed-effects models examine the impact of early childbearing on rates of high school graduation and college attendance, and number of years of schooling completed through age 29. Results: The two data sets show a significant negative impact of a teenage birth on rates and years of completed schooling. For example, teenage mothers completed 1.9-2.2 fewer years of education than do women who delay their first birth until age 30 or older. Moreover, compared with women who give birth at age 30 or older, teenage mothers have odds of high school completion 10-12% as high and odds of postsecondary schooling 14-29% as high. Unobserved differences between young mothers and their childless peers reduce, but do not eliminate, the effects of early births. Effects on high school completion declined in recent periods because more young women completed high school, regardless of the timing of their first birth. However, the gap between early and later childbearers in postsecondary school attendance widened from 27 to 44 percentage point between the early 1960s and the early 1990s. Conclusions: Given the current importance of a college education, teenage childbearers today are at least as disadvantaged as those of past generations.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L., Lori Lynn Reid and Frank L. Mott. "The Effects of Early Childbearing on Schooling Over Time." Family Planning Perspectives 33, 6 (November-December, 2001): 259-627.
8. Hollander, Dore
Having a Premarital Birth Reduces the Likelihood a Woman Will Marry
Family Planning Perspectives 27,5 (September-October 1995): 221-222.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2136281
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Studies; Marital Status; Marriage; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Poverty; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from four large U.S. surveys (National Survey of Family Growth, 1988, 8,450 women; National Survey of Families and Households, 1987-1988, 13,017 women and men; National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1989, 5,369 women; National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, 1987, 3,679 women) indicate that premarital childbearing reduces the likelihood that a woman will marry by 9-41% compared to childless women. When women who marry within six months of giving birth were excluded from the calculation, on the assumption that they married the child's father, premarital birth was associated with a 20-53% reduction in the likelihood of marriage. The likelihood of marriage is further reduced if the woman is on welfare. The obstacle to marriage does not appear to be associated with the stigma of premarital childbirth, the inability of the woman to participate in activities in which she is likely to meet men, or the loss of Aid to Families with Dependent Children which occurs upon marriage. The researchers found that these women generally did not have children as a result of poor marriage prospects; instead, the unintended childbirth derailed plans for marriage. They also found that premarital childbearing was related to an increased risk of subsequent poverty, both among women who never marry and those who marry but experience later marital disruption. Premarital childbearing resulted in adverse consequences for both the mother and the child in terms of education and poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Hollander, Dore. "Having a Premarital Birth Reduces the Likelihood a Woman Will Marry." Family Planning Perspectives 27,5 (September-October 1995): 221-222.
9. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Adolescent Fertility and the Educational Attainment of Young Women
Family Planning Perspectives 27,1 (January 1995): 23-28.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135973
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Education; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Fertility; Hispanics; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study finds that early childbearing reduces the educational attainment of young women by one to three years. The estimates control for both observed and unobserved differences in background and personal characteristics and take account of the endogeneity of fertility. We use an extensive set of predictors for early fertility, including state and county-level policy variables and other indicators of the costs and availability of abortion and contraception. Adolescent fertility has a strong negative effect on the schooling levels achieved by white, black, and Hispanic women. These results suggest that, if public policies are successful in reducing teenage pregnancy and childbearing, they will also increase the educational attainment of disadvantaged young women and improve their chances for economic self-sufficiency.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "Adolescent Fertility and the Educational Attainment of Young Women." Family Planning Perspectives 27,1 (January 1995): 23-28.
10. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Sex, Contraception and Childbearing Among High-Risk Youth: Do Different Factors Influence Males and Females?
Family Planning Perspectives 30,4 (July-August 1998): 163-169.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991677
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Attitudes; Childbearing, Adolescent; Contraception; Control; Deviance; Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Runaways; Self-Esteem; Sexual Activity; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Context: The likelihood that adolescents will engage in sexual activity, use contraceptives or become parents is influenced by a range of attitudes and behaviors. These factors may differ for males and females. Methods: Data on female respondents to the 1979-1992 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the linked 1994 young adult data file on their children provided background information on 959 adolescents who had been born to young mothers. Partial correlation analysis was used to examine the factors related to sexual behavior, contraceptive use and childbirth, controlling for maternal and familial characteristics, in this relatively disadvantaged sample.

Results: Youth who are inclined toward risk-taking and those who have run away from home are more likely than others to be sexually active. For young women, having intercourse at an early age, not using contraceptives and having a child are linked with depression, low self-esteem and little sense of control over their lives. The results for young men are less consistent and often in the opposite direction. Young people who have become parents evidence greater maturity than their childless peers; women are less likely to consume alcohol or to spend time with friends who drink and men are more likely to participate in socially productive work. Conclusions: Although sexual behavior is tied to risk taking in both adolescent males and females some noticeable psychological differences are evidenced early. Behaviorally, there is room for optimism in that young parents appear to adopt more mature traits.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Frank L. Mott. "Sex, Contraception and Childbearing Among High-Risk Youth: Do Different Factors Influence Males and Females?" Family Planning Perspectives 30,4 (July-August 1998): 163-169.
11. Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Effects of State Welfare, Abortion, and Family Planning Policies on Premarital Childbearing Among White Adolescents
Family Planning Perspectives 22,6 (November-December 1990): 246-251+275.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135680
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Planning; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Government Regulation; Marital Status; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the impact of public policies and programs on the probability and resolution of premarital pregnancies. Data from the 1979-1986 NLSY fertility and marital histories of a sample of young white women who were ages 14-16 in 1979 are examined. Various measures of a state's abortion funding policies, the restrictiveness of its abortion laws, the availability of family planning services, the extent of welfare benefits, and proportions of women at risk of unintended pregnancies are developed. It was found that: (1) laws restricting contraceptive availability were associated with a higher risk of pregnancy; (2) policies restricting public funding of abortion reduced the likelihood that young women would obtain an abortion; and (3) higher welfare benefits reduced the probability that pregnant teenagers would marry before the birth of their child.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Robert D. Plotnick. "Effects of State Welfare, Abortion, and Family Planning Policies on Premarital Childbearing Among White Adolescents." Family Planning Perspectives 22,6 (November-December 1990): 246-251+275.
12. Marsiglio, William
Adolescent Fathers in the United States: Their Initial Living Arrangements, Marital Experience and Educational Outcomes
Family Planning Perspectives 19,6 (November-December 1987): 240-241+243-251.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135104
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Fathers; Fertility; Hispanic Youth; Household Composition; Marital Status; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the NLSY show that seven percent of young males who were aged 20-27 in 1984 had fathered a child while they were teenagers, more than three-quarters of them nonmaritally. One-third of them married within 12 months of conception, and half of all of the young men lived with their child shortly after the child's birth. Overall, young black men were more likely to have been responsible for a nonmarital first birth than were males of other racial backgrounds, and only 15 percent of black teenagers lived with their first child. Multivariate analyses indicate that only black or Hispanic youths and those who fathered a child at age 16 or younger were significantly less likely to have lived with their first child; those who were raised Catholic were more likely to have done so. Teenage fathers, regardless of their marital status at conception or age at first birth, were much more likely to have been high school dropouts than were other male teenagers. Those with a maritally conceived child had a particularly high drop-out rate - almost 62 percent. A multivariate analysis revealed that a teenage father's living with his child shortly after birth was not significantly related to his completion of high school, while being black was positively associated. The racial difference may mean that norms or social and familial supports are more influential for young black males in minimizing the possible deleterious effects of teenage fatherhood on schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Marsiglio, William. "Adolescent Fathers in the United States: Their Initial Living Arrangements, Marital Experience and Educational Outcomes." Family Planning Perspectives 19,6 (November-December 1987): 240-241+243-251.
13. Marsiglio, William
Mott, Frank L.
The Impact of Sex Education on Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Premarital Pregnancy Among American Teenagers
Family Planning Perspectives 18,4 (July-August 1986): 151-154+157-162.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135324
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavior; Childbearing; Contraception; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth, a U.S. panel survey of 6,288 women and 6,398 men who have been interviewed each year since 1979 when they were 14-22 years old. The principal objectives of this research were to document the proportion of a recent cohort of teenagers who had taken a sex education course and the extent to which they were exposed to five types of course instruction, and to examine systematically the relationship between exposure to a sex education course and sex-related behaviors of young women. The findings indicated that the majority of young people (66 percent of women and 79 percent of men) had become sexually active by age 19. A notable finding was that a sizeable proportion of youth had sexual intercourse for the first time without having taken a sex education course. Among those teens who became sexually active by age 19, only 53 percent of women and 35 percent of men had taken a sex education course before they first had intercourse. Analyses revealed, after controlling for a series of sociodemographic factors, that 15- to 16-year-old girls who were virgins and who had taken a sex education course were slightly more likely to initiate sexual activity within the year after their course than those who had not taken a course; no relationship was found between course taking and sexual activity for 17- and 18-year-old women. Young women who had previously taken a sex education course were significantly more likely to use effective contraceptives than were teenagers who had never had a course. However, course taking did not affect young women's probability of experiencing a nonmarital pregnancy before age 20 in a multivariate context.
Bibliography Citation
Marsiglio, William and Frank L. Mott. "The Impact of Sex Education on Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Premarital Pregnancy Among American Teenagers." Family Planning Perspectives 18,4 (July-August 1986): 151-154+157-162.
14. McLaughlin, Steven D.
Grady, William R.
Billy, John O. G.
Lansdale, Nancy S.
The Effects of the Sequencing of Marriage and First Birth During Adolescence
Family Planning Perspectives 18,1 (January-February 1986): 12-18.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135194
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Birthweight; Educational Attainment; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Status; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Racial Differences; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Whether or not they marry, black adolescent mothers are more likely than whites to attend school following the birth of their first child. Marrying to legitimate a birth reduces the likelihood that a teenager will return to school after childbearing; this impact of marriage is much stronger among black than among white teenagers. The timing of marriage appears to affect school enrollment among white teenagers through its impact on living arrangements. However, the negative impact of marriage on educational achievement does not seem to be a consequence of earlier differences in educational expectations among the teenagers. The timing of marriage and the likelihood of separation from their husbands in later years if they marry before the birth is also discussed in terms of black and white mothers. Intervals between first birth and second for those who marry either before or during the pregnancy or after birth are examined in terms of the two races. In addition, low-birth-weights for the various marital situations are examined.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Steven D., William R. Grady, John O. G. Billy and Nancy S. Lansdale. "The Effects of the Sequencing of Marriage and First Birth During Adolescence." Family Planning Perspectives 18,1 (January-February 1986): 12-18.
15. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Nord, Christine Winquis
Peterson, James Lloyd
Nonvoluntary Sexual Activity Among Adolescents
Family Planning Perspectives 21,3 (May-June 1989): 110-114.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135660
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Poverty; Sexual Activity; Underreporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 1987 round of the National Survey of Children indicate that seven percent of Americans aged 18-22 have experienced at least one episode of nonvoluntary sexual intercourse. Women were more likely than men to report having had such an experience, with just under half of all nonvoluntary experiences among women occurring before the age of 14. Multiple classification analysis reveals that white women who had lived apart from their parents before age 16, those who had been brought up in poverty, those who had a physical, emotional or mental limitation when they were young, those whose parents had been heavy drinkers, those whose parents had used illegal drugs and those whose parents had smoked cigarettes when they themselves were teenagers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual abuse. Six percent of young white women with no risk factors, nine percent of those with one, 26 percent of those with two, and 68 percent of those with three or more had been sexually abused before or during adolescence. The analyses are based on data from the third wave of the National Survey of Children (NSC) conducted in 1987, Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) carried out in 1982, and the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Force Behavior of Youth (NLSY) for the years 1983-1985.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Christine Winquis Nord and James Lloyd Peterson. "Nonvoluntary Sexual Activity Among Adolescents." Family Planning Perspectives 21,3 (May-June 1989): 110-114.
16. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Waite, Linda J.
Early Childbearing and Educational Attainment
Family Planning Perspectives 9,5 (September-October 1977): 220-225.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2134432
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Child Care; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

These data show that early childbearing is strongly associated with a lower level of educational attainment, especially among young women attending school at the time of the birth of the first child, even when other factors known to affect educational attainment are taken into account. The negative impact of early childbearing on a woman's educational attainment is probably due to the difficulty and cost of arranging child care and running a household (if the woman heads her own household or is married), to the necessity of earning a living, and, not least, to the pressures she may encounter from family and friends to devote herself to child care. There is no evidence that the young mother is ever able to catch up educationally with her childless peers. In fact, quite the opposite occurs; teenage mothers are unable to catch up and fall further behind their former classmates who have postponed parenthood.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Linda J. Waite. "Early Childbearing and Educational Attainment." Family Planning Perspectives 9,5 (September-October 1977): 220-225.
17. Mott, Frank L.
The Pace of Repeated Childbearing among Young American Mothers
Family Planning Perspectives 18,1 (January-February 1986): 5-7+9-12.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135193
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Family Background; Fertility; First Birth; Hispanics; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Women who give birth at ages 16 and younger are more likely to bear a second child within the next two years than women who have their first child at ages 17-18 or at ages 19-22. However, there are important racial and ethnic differences in the likelihood of rapid repeated childbearing. Among whites, age at first birth has little effect on the proportions who have a second birth quickly; but among blacks, it has a significant inverse effect, with younger women more likely than older women to have a second child quickly. At nearly all ages at first birth, Hispanic mothers are more likely than either whites or blacks to have a second birth soon after the first. While the youngest black mothers (16 and under) are more likely than the youngest whites to have a rapid second birth, the oldest white mothers (19-22) are more likely than the oldest blacks. Socioeconomic background, marital status at first birth, and wantedness of the first birth also affect the pace of repeated childbearing. Compared with young mothers whose own mothers are high school graduates, those whose mothers are dropouts are more likely to have a second child within two years. Multivariate analysis is used to determine whether age at first birth independently affects the probability of a rapid second birth once the effect of parental education, marital status, wantedness of the first birth and other variables are controlled. The analysis shows that age at first birth exerts a significant independent effect on the pattern of repeated childbearing among all women, and that major racial and ethnic variations remain in that pattern.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. "The Pace of Repeated Childbearing among Young American Mothers." Family Planning Perspectives 18,1 (January-February 1986): 5-7+9-12.
18. Mott, Frank L.
Fondell, Michelle M.
Hu, Paul N.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
The Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High-Risk Adolescent Population
Family Planning Perspectives 28,1 (January-February 1996): 13-18.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135957
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Demography; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Socioeconomic Factors; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study using data for mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children aged 14 or older indicates that, after accounting for a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic antecedents, children are significantly more likely to become sexually active before age 14 if their mother had sex at an early age and if she has worked extensively. In addition, early sexual debut is eight times as likely among black boys as among non-Hispanic white boys. Children who use controlled substances at an early age are more than twice as likely to have sex before age 14 as those who do not, although the type of substance having an effect is different for girls (cigarettes) and boys (alcohol). Church attendance is an important determinant of delayed sexual activity but only when a child's friends attend the same church. (Full text available online from EBSCO.)
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Michelle M. Fondell, Paul N. Hu, Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "The Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High-Risk Adolescent Population ." Family Planning Perspectives 28,1 (January-February 1996): 13-18.
19. Mott, Frank L.
Haurin, R. Jean
Linkages Between Sexual Activity and Alcohol and Drug Use Among American Adolescents
Family Planning Perspectives 20,3 (May-June 1988): 128-136.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135701
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Alcohol Use; Behavioral Problems; Deviance; Drug Use; Fertility; Gender Differences; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research describes the patterns of initiation into drug and alcohol use, and early sexual activity for a cohort of young men and women reaching maturity in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Results indicate that while substantial proportions of youth have used marijuana prior to their 16th birthday, much smaller proportions have tried harder substances or experienced sexual intercourse, with males generally showing higher rates of initiation at all ages than females. Comparisons between various levels of alcohol use highlight the sensitivity of initiation patterns to the definition of substance usage employed. This research emphasizes the general nonparticipation or singularity of participation in these adolescent behaviors, with only modest percentages of youth experiencing multiple events at early ages or in proximity to one another. However, for those youth who do use one or more substances at a given age, the likelihood is greater that they will soon become sexually active. While the converse is also true, it is more so for girls than boys, suggesting stronger linkages among these activities for females.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and R. Jean Haurin. "Linkages Between Sexual Activity and Alcohol and Drug Use Among American Adolescents." Family Planning Perspectives 20,3 (May-June 1988): 128-136.
20. Mott, Frank L.
Marsiglio, William
Early Childbearing and Completion of High School
Family Planning Perspectives 17,5 (September-October 1985): 234-237.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135098
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Attainment; Fertility; First Birth; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data are presented documenting the extent of high school completion among current 20-26 year old women. Women who have a child before completion are far less likely to eventually obtain a secondary credential than women who postpone childbearing until their 20s. Among women who complete high school but bear a child prior to the date of high school accreditation, almost 40 percent obtain their credential through the GED program.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and William Marsiglio. "Early Childbearing and Completion of High School." Family Planning Perspectives 17,5 (September-October 1985): 234-237.
21. Mott, Frank L.
Maxwell, Nan L.
School-Age Mothers: 1968-1979
Family Planning Perspectives 13,6 (November-December 1981): 287-292.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2134593
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Dropouts; Fertility; High School Completion/Graduates; Household Composition; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Teenagers; Unemployment; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1968 NLS of Young Women and the 1979 NLSY, this study compares the early childbearing behavior of young women in the late 1960s and 1970s. It contrasts separately for black and white non-college bound women the percentages who had a first birth while still in high school, their family situations, socioeconomic characteristics, access to income support, employment situations and their future employment intentions.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and Nan L. Maxwell. "School-Age Mothers: 1968-1979." Family Planning Perspectives 13,6 (November-December 1981): 287-292.
22. Namerow, Pearila Brickner
Kalmuss, Debra S.
Subsequent Childbearing Among Teenage Mothers: The Determinants of a Closely Spaced Second Birth
Family Planning Perspectives 26,4 (July-August 1994): 149-153+159.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2136238
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Educational Status; Ethnic Groups; Family Background; Marital Status; Mothers, Adolescent; Mothers, Education; Parental Marital Status; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Socioeconomic Factors; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth reveal that approximately one-quarter of teenage mothers have a second child within 24 months of their first birth. The prevalence of closely spaced second births is greatest (31%) among young women whose first birth occurred prior to age 17. Teenage mothers' characteristics before the first birth (such as race or ethnicity and parents' level of education) and at the time of the first birth (such as years of schooling completed and whether their first birth was wanted) influence whether they have a rapid second birth. For example, those with more educated parents are less likely than others to have had a closely spaced second birth. In addition, young mothers who obtain additional schooling in the period after their first birth are less likely to have a closely spaced second birth, while those who marry are more likely to have a rapid second birth.
Bibliography Citation
Namerow, Pearila Brickner and Debra S. Kalmuss. "Subsequent Childbearing Among Teenage Mothers: The Determinants of a Closely Spaced Second Birth." Family Planning Perspectives 26,4 (July-August 1994): 149-153+159.
23. O'Connor, M. L.
Men Who Father Children Out of Wedlock Face Reduced Odds of Marrying and Increased Socioeconomic Hardship
Family Planning Perspectives 30,5 (September-October 1998): 248-249.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991613
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Fathers and Children; Fertility; Income; Marital Status; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Digest. According to data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, men who father children outside of marriage are more likely to be at a social disadvantage, will attain less education and earn less money, and be out of work more often. Subsequent marriage does not totally counterbalance the effects of premarital fatherhood. COPYRIGHT 1998 Alan Guttmacher Institute
Bibliography Citation
O'Connor, M. L. "Men Who Father Children Out of Wedlock Face Reduced Odds of Marrying and Increased Socioeconomic Hardship." Family Planning Perspectives 30,5 (September-October 1998): 248-249.
24. Ruch-Ross, Holly S.
Jones, Elizabeth D.
Musick, Judith S.
Comparing Outcomes in a Statewide Program for Adolescent Mothers with Outcomes in a National Sample
Family Planning Perspectives 24,2 (March-April 1992): 66-71+96.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135468
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Hispanics; Mothers, Adolescent; Sexual Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Article on impact of the Illinois Ounce of Prevention Fund (OPF) Parents Too Soon Project, an intervention program for teenage mothers. Data are based on a study of 1,004 women age 19 and under who were pregnant or had one child and were enrolled in the OPF program during 1985-87, with comparative data for a sample of 790 young mothers from National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY) conducted during 1979-82. Includes 2 tables showing the following: a. Characteristics of OPF and NLSY participants, including race and Hispanic ethnicity, current age, and age at 1st birth; school enrollment and employment status, educational attainment, marital status, living arrangement, whether receiving AFDC, and contraceptive use status, as of baseline survey and 12 months later; and whether experiencing subsequent pregnancy, as of 12 months after baseline survey. b. Statistical analyses comparing OPF and NLSY participants\' likelihood of experiencing a subsequent pregnancy, being employed, and being enrolled in school, 12 months after baseline survey, with controls for selected participant characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Ruch-Ross, Holly S., Elizabeth D. Jones and Judith S. Musick. "Comparing Outcomes in a Statewide Program for Adolescent Mothers with Outcomes in a National Sample." Family Planning Perspectives 24,2 (March-April 1992): 66-71+96.
25. Upchurch, Dawn M.
McCarthy, James
Adolescent Childbearing and High School Completion in the 1980s: Have Things Changed?
Family Planning Perspectives 21,5 (September-October 1989): 199-202.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135571
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Fertility; First Birth; High School Completion/Graduates; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the trends in the association between age at first birth and high school completion over the past thirty years. Data from three national surveys of women, the NLS of Mature Women, Young Women, and NLSY, were utilized in order to examine the experiences of women who were adolescents from the 1950s through the early 1980s. It was found that differentials in percentages completing high school by age at first birth persisted, but were considerably smaller in 1986 than they were in 1958. This convergence occurred because increases in the percentages of school-age mothers graduating from 1958 to 1986 were greater than the gains achieved by all women. However, there were differences by race in the concentration of these gains between 1958 and 1986. Young white mothers experienced the greatest increases between 1975 and 1986, whereas the largest gains for young black mothers were in the earlier period, from 1958 to 1975. To examine changes by socioeconomic status, within racial groups, the authors focused more closely on the period from 1975 to 1986 and found that school-age mothers from more disadvantaged backgrounds had the greatest gains in percent graduating, but that differentials by socioeconomic status persisted in 1986, with more advantaged black and white young mothers still more likely to graduate than their less advantaged counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Upchurch, Dawn M. and James McCarthy. "Adolescent Childbearing and High School Completion in the 1980s: Have Things Changed?" Family Planning Perspectives 21,5 (September-October 1989): 199-202.
26. Witwer, M.
Health of Infants Born to Teenage Mothers Affected More by Family Background than by Mother's Age
Family Planning Perspectives 25,4 (July-August 1993): 191-192.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135934
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Birthweight; Family Background; Fertility; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study of 784 mothers who were part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) suggests that teenage pregnancy and the adverse health outcomes associated with it appear to be strongly mediated by family background characteristics, factors that were found to be more directly related to infant health risks than the mother's youth alone. The study is discussed.

This short item is part of the journal digest - summarizes study reported in Geronimus & Korenman, Amer. J. of Epidemiology, 1993.

Bibliography Citation
Witwer, M. "Health of Infants Born to Teenage Mothers Affected More by Family Background than by Mother's Age." Family Planning Perspectives 25,4 (July-August 1993): 191-192.
27. Witwer, M.
Pregnancy Risk Lessened For Teenagers with High Educational Aspirations
Family Planning Perspectives 25,4 (July/August 1993): 189-190.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135932
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Abortion; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Marriage; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article focuses on how adolescents with high educational expectations are significantly less likely than others to become pregnant, and those who become pregnant are significantly more likely than teenagers with low educational aspirations to have an abortion or to marry before the baby's birth. According to an analysis of data on 1,142 teenagers, those who are more motivated and self-determined and those with positive attitudes toward school are also less likely to have a premarital pregnancy. Adolescent females with high self-esteem are no less likely than others to have a premarital pregnancy, but they are significantly less likely to have a premarital birth, because self-esteem is positively linked with the likelihood of abortion. The analysis of the effects of attitudes and family background characteristics on pregnancy and pregnancy resolution was based on data from non-Hispanic White females who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). NLSY is a multistage, stratified probability sample of 12,686 persons aged 14-21 in 1979.

Digest summary of study published by Plotnick in 1992 American Journal of Sociology.

Bibliography Citation
Witwer, M. "Pregnancy Risk Lessened For Teenagers with High Educational Aspirations." Family Planning Perspectives 25,4 (July/August 1993): 189-190.