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Source: Journal of Labor Research
Resulting in 28 citations.
1. Artz, Benjamin
Taengnoi, Sarinda
The Gender Gap in Raise Magnitudes of Hourly and Salary Workers
Journal of Labor Research 40,1 (March 2019): 84-105.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-018-9277-8
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Gender Differences; Risk-Taking; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The gender gap in promotions literature typically uses survey to survey imputed hourly wage changes to measure the earnings effects of promotions alone. By distinction, we study raises with and without promotions using data within surveys that uniquely identify both the current and most recent wages of hourly workers separate from salary workers. In cross-section estimates we identify a gender gap in raise magnitude favoring men only among hourly workers who achieve promotions, but this result vanishes in fixed effects estimates. No gender gaps emerge in any other instance, including for salary workers and raises absent of promotion. We further contribute to the literature by uniquely controlling for natural ability and risk preferences of the workers, the time passed since earning the raise, and also whether the responsibility of the worker's job changed with the raise.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin and Sarinda Taengnoi. "The Gender Gap in Raise Magnitudes of Hourly and Salary Workers." Journal of Labor Research 40,1 (March 2019): 84-105.
2. Benham, Harry C.
Union-Nonunion Wage Differentials Revisited
Journal of Labor Research 8,4 (December 1987): 369-383.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/ur287l177660574g/
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Unions; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An attempt is made to develop union-nonunion wage differential estimates that separate the issue of a union productivity differential from the issue of union exercise of monopoly power. A multiple-indicator model is proposed in which education, experience, job tenure, and wages are determined by workers' productivity and ability. Estimates of union-nonunion wage differentials obtained using this model are compared with estimates obtained using standard methods. The data are from the Young Men cohort of the NLS. The results suggest that the simpler standard techniques underestimate the monopoly power of unions, while the more elaborate conventional techniques tend to overcorrect for labor quality differences and overestimate the differentials. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Benham, Harry C. "Union-Nonunion Wage Differentials Revisited." Journal of Labor Research 8,4 (December 1987): 369-383.
3. Bratsberg, Bernt
Ragan, James F. Jr.
Have Unions Impeded Growing Wage Dispersion Among Young Workers?
Journal of Labor Research 18,4 (December 1997): 593-612.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0l431u0073189177/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Skills; Unions; Wage Equations; Wage Gap; Wages, Young Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Wage inequality is examined for young males over the period 1980-1993. While wage inequality increased substantially for nonunion workers over this period, wage inequality increased only modestly for union workers. In part, this difference results from divergent trends in skill prices -returns to skill rose in the nonunion sector but contracted slightly in the union sector. In particular, returns to education increased sharply in the nonunion sector while remaining stagnant in the union sector. At least for young workers, these findings suggest that unions have been largely successful in resisting market pressures for greater wage inequality. We also uncover evidence suggesting that, as relative returns to education decline in the union sector, highly educated young workers become less likely to choose union employment.
Bibliography Citation
Bratsberg, Bernt and James F. Jr. Ragan. "Have Unions Impeded Growing Wage Dispersion Among Young Workers?" Journal of Labor Research 18,4 (December 1997): 593-612.
4. Brown, Christian
Incarceration and Earnings: Distributional and Long-Term Effects
Journal of Labor Research 40,1 (March 2019): 58-83.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-018-9280-0
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Earnings; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Supply; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Before and after incarceration, the typical prisoner differs from the typical American in several ways, including education, employment prospects, and earnings. Current research on the effect of incarceration on earnings predominantly uses techniques that characterize incarceration's effect on mean wages and is limited to observing wages immediately after release. I employ data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and a variety of quantile regressions to estimate differential incarceration penalties across the wage and income distribution. I also estimate the long-term effects of incarceration on mean wages, income, and labor supply. Results suggest that the incarceration wage penalty is relatively homogenous across wages, while more severe penalties are estimated at lower income levels, suggestive of incarceration's deleterious effect on labor supply. Mean earnings and labor supply penalties are most severe in the period after release but gradually diminish over time for releasees that do not experience additional incarceration spells.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian. "Incarceration and Earnings: Distributional and Long-Term Effects." Journal of Labor Research 40,1 (March 2019): 58-83.
5. Cannonier, Colin
Does the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Increase Fertility Behavior?
Journal of Labor Research 35,2 (June 2014): 105-132.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-014-9181-9/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA); Fertility; First Birth; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), implemented in August 1993, grants job-protected leave to any employee satisfying the eligibility criteria. One of the provisions of the FMLA is to allow women to stay at home for a maximum period of 12 weeks to give care to the newborn. The effect of this legislation on the fertility response of eligible women has received little attention by researchers. This study analyzes whether the FMLA has influenced birth outcomes in the U.S. Specifically, I evaluate the effect of the FMLA by comparing the changes in the birth hazard profiles of women who became eligible for FMLA benefits such as maternity leave, to the changes in the control group who were not eligible for such leave. Using a discrete-time hazard model, results from the difference-in-differences estimation indicate that eligible women increase the probability of having a first and second birth by about 1.5 and 0.6 % per annum, respectively. Compared to other women, eligible women are giving birth to the first child a year earlier and about 8.5 months earlier for the second child.
Bibliography Citation
Cannonier, Colin. "Does the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Increase Fertility Behavior?" Journal of Labor Research 35,2 (June 2014): 105-132.
6. Cho, Insoo
Orazem, Peter
Rosenblat, Tanya
Are Risk Attitudes Fixed Factors or Fleeting Feelings?
Journal of Labor Research 39,2 (June 2018): 127-149.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-018-9262-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Labor Force Participation; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the stability of measured risk attitudes over time, using a 13-year longitudinal sample of individuals in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. We find that an individual's risk aversion changes systematically in response to personal economic circumstances. Risk aversion increases with lengthening spells of employment and time out of labor force, and decreases with lengthening unemployment spells. However, the most important result is that the majority of the variation in risk aversion is due to changes in measured individual tastes over time and not to variation across individuals. These findings that measured risk preferences are endogenous and subject to substantial measurement errors suggest caution in interpreting coefficients in models relying on contemporaneous, one-time measures of risk preferences.
Bibliography Citation
Cho, Insoo, Peter Orazem and Tanya Rosenblat. "Are Risk Attitudes Fixed Factors or Fleeting Feelings?" Journal of Labor Research 39,2 (June 2018): 127-149.
7. Fadlon, Yariv
Statistical Discrimination and the Implication of Employer-Employee Racial Matches
Journal of Labor Research 36,2 (June 2015): 232-248.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-015-9203-2
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Racial Equality/Inequality; Supervisor Characteristics; Wage Levels

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, I test the empirical validity of a statistical discrimination model that incorporates employer's race. I argue that if an employer statistically discriminates less against an employee that shares the same race (matched) than an employee who does not share the same race (mismatched), then the correlation between the employee's wage and his skill level (AFQT) is stronger for a matched employee than for a mismatched employee. Using data from the NLSY97, which includes information about the racial background of employees and their supervisors, I find evidence that is consistent with a statistical discrimination model for young male employees.
Bibliography Citation
Fadlon, Yariv. "Statistical Discrimination and the Implication of Employer-Employee Racial Matches." Journal of Labor Research 36,2 (June 2015): 232-248.
8. Filiz, S. Elif
Mothers' Involuntary Job Loss and Children's Academic Achievement
Journal of Labor Research 37,1 (March 2016): 98-127.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-015-9218-8/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Displaced Workers; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Maternal Employment; Parental Influences; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I examine the impact of mothers' involuntary job loss on children's academic achievement. Single mothers' job displacement affects children's math and reading test scores negatively and statistically significantly in the short run. Displacement of married mothers has no impact on their children's test scores. The decline in income and a worsening of child's behavioral problems are two channels through which single mothers' job loss impacts test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Filiz, S. Elif. "Mothers' Involuntary Job Loss and Children's Academic Achievement." Journal of Labor Research 37,1 (March 2016): 98-127.
9. Freeman, Richard B.
The Effect of Unionism on Worker Attachment to Firms
Journal of Labor Research 1,1 (March 1980): 29-61.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/nuv04375m2326455/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Behavior; Grievance System; Job Tenure; Unions; Wage Effects; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Findings from an investigation of the effect of unionism on job tenure show that: (1) trade unionism is associated with greater job tenure and lower probabilities of separation; (2) the increase in worker attachment to firms resulting from unionism is due to changes in worker behavior caused by union work settings; and (3) some of the union effect on tenure appears due to grievance systems which give unions a voice in the job market. In addition, findings suggest that unions have non-monopoly wage effects on the job market.
Bibliography Citation
Freeman, Richard B. "The Effect of Unionism on Worker Attachment to Firms." Journal of Labor Research 1,1 (March 1980): 29-61.
10. Girtz, Robert
The Mediation Effect of Education on Self-Esteem and Wages
Journal of Labor Research 35,4 (December 2014): 358-372.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-014-9187-3/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Self-Esteem; Wages; Wages, Adult

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research suggests a positive relationship between adolescent self-esteem and adult wages. Drawing data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I refine the empirical relationship between self-esteem, wages, and education. The effect of self-esteem on wages is positive and significant when estimating models for the entire sample. This effect, however, becomes statistically insignificant when estimating models for subsamples sorted by educational level. In addition, mediation models suggest that roughly one-third of the total effect of self-esteem on wages is mediated by education. In total, these results indicate that there is a significantly less pronounced direct effect of self-esteem on wages than previously found in the literature. A substantial portion of the effect self-esteem has on wages occurs through its effect on educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Girtz, Robert. "The Mediation Effect of Education on Self-Esteem and Wages." Journal of Labor Research 35,4 (December 2014): 358-372.
11. Heywood, John S.
Parent, Daniel
Performance Pay, the Gender Gap, and Specialization within Marriage
Journal of Labor Research 38,4 (December 2017): 387-427.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-017-9256-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Marriage; Motherhood; Performance pay; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We show that the large gender earnings gap at the top of the distribution (the glass ceiling) and the motherhood penalty are associated with each other and that both are uniquely associated with performance pay. These patterns appear consistent with specialization by gender. We show that among married couples with children, the hours worked by wives are strongly and persistently negatively correlated with earnings of the husbands only when those husbands work in performance pay jobs. There is no correlation between husbands' hours and wives' earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Heywood, John S. and Daniel Parent. "Performance Pay, the Gender Gap, and Specialization within Marriage." Journal of Labor Research 38,4 (December 2017): 387-427.
12. Hunt, Janet C.
Kiker, B. F.
Williams, C. Glyn
The Effect of Type of Union on Member-Nonmember Wage Differentials
Journal of Labor Research 8,1 (March 1987): 59-65.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/745h8mh50651g8p5/
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Local Area Unemployment; Unions; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It has been shown that the union-nonunion wage differential can be decomposed into bargaining and membership effects. A study was conducted to discuss the membership effect and to examine the role of type of union as a factor in wage determination. An empirical model was proposed and data obtained from a sample of 1,065 workers between the ages of 18 and 27 in the 1971 cross-section of the Young Men cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey. Results tended to reaffirm the existence of a membership effect of unions that is separate from a bargaining effect. It also was found that the ability to confer a wage advantage to union members relative to nonmembers depended on the type of bargaining unit. The compensatory aspect of higher wages for unstable work was dominant, particularly among craft workers. The effect of local unemployment rate on wage was ambiguous and generally insignificant.
Bibliography Citation
Hunt, Janet C., B. F. Kiker and C. Glyn Williams. "The Effect of Type of Union on Member-Nonmember Wage Differentials." Journal of Labor Research 8,1 (March 1987): 59-65.
13. Jolly, Nicholas A.
Phelan, Brian J.
The Long-Run Effects of Job Displacement on Sources of Health Insurance Coverage
Journal of Labor Research 38,2 (June 2017): 187-205.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-017-9246-7
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Insurance, Health; Medicaid/Medicare; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines job displacement's long-run effect on health insurance coverage and source of coverage. We find that displacement lowers the probability that an individual receives health insurance even ten years after job loss. However, those without children at the time of job loss largely drive this result. While displaced workers with and without children face similar losses in access to employer-provided health insurance, those with children mostly offset these losses by acquiring health insurance from other sources, particularly through the increased use of Medicaid.
Bibliography Citation
Jolly, Nicholas A. and Brian J. Phelan. "The Long-Run Effects of Job Displacement on Sources of Health Insurance Coverage." Journal of Labor Research 38,2 (June 2017): 187-205.
14. Kalachek, Edward
Raines, Fredric Q.
Trade Unions and Hiring Standards
Journal of Labor Research 1,1 (March 1980): 63-75.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f326267405471406/
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Behavior; Job Search; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The empirical data are compatible with the hypothesis that employers respond to union wage premiums by raising the educational component of hiring standards. This behavioral mechanism by which rents are liquidated appears to be bringing about a significant shift in the quality location of American workers. More education increasingly represents preparation for a union job. Normative considerations aside, the implications of the process for the distribution of income and for the allocation of educational resources would seem to warrant serious consideration.
Bibliography Citation
Kalachek, Edward and Fredric Q. Raines. "Trade Unions and Hiring Standards." Journal of Labor Research 1,1 (March 1980): 63-75.
15. Kosteas, Vasilios D.
The Effect of Exercise on Earnings: Evidence from the NLSY
Journal of Labor Research 33,2 (June 2012): 225-250.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f70733h231243mw4/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, George Mason University
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Earnings; Exercise; Physical Activity (see also Exercise); Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates whether engaging in regular exercise leads to higher earnings in the labor market. While there has been a recent surge of interest by economists on the issue of obesity, relatively little attention has been given to the economic effects of regular physical activity apart from its impact on body composition. I find that engaging in regular exercise yields a 6 to 10% wage increase. The results also show that while even moderate exercise yields a positive earnings effect, frequent exercise generates an even larger impact. These findings are fairly robust to a variety of estimation techniques, including propensity score matching.
Bibliography Citation
Kosteas, Vasilios D. "The Effect of Exercise on Earnings: Evidence from the NLSY." Journal of Labor Research 33,2 (June 2012): 225-250.
16. Kosteas, Vasilios D.
Renna, Francesco
The Impact of Job Displacement on Employer Based Health Insurance Coverage
Journal of Labor Research 30,4 (2009): 317-327.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/fg75964861187501/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Benefits, Insurance; Displaced Workers; Insurance, Health

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We analyze the effect of job displacement on the probability that employer based health insurance is made available to workers. Using fixed and random effects logit models, we do find that displacement is associated with a lower probability of having access to an employer based health insurance plan. Overall this penalty is quite small (between 2 and 3 percentage points), but it becomes substantial (about 16 percentage points) for displaced workers who have been with the current employer for less than 6 months. While we do not find evidence that the penalty associated with being displaced has worsened in recent years, we do find that employers respond to economic hardship by cutting back on fringe benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Kosteas, Vasilios D. and Francesco Renna. "The Impact of Job Displacement on Employer Based Health Insurance Coverage ." Journal of Labor Research 30,4 (2009): 317-327.
17. Leigh, Duane E.
Racial Differentials in Union Relative Wage Effects: A Simultaneous Equations Approach
Journal of Labor Research 1,1 (March 1980): 95-114.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p33x3jl503330013/
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Job Training; Racial Differences; Regions; Schooling; Simultaneity; Unions; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigated the effect of relative wages on union status and the effect of unions in raising wages using a three-equation model determining unionism and union and nonunion wage rates. Parameters of the model were estimated using the NLS examples of Young and Older Men. The primary focus of the analysis was on racial differentials of these effects within age groups. Estimation of the unionism equation indicated that for both age cohorts, union status is generally as sensitive to the personal characteristics and industry of employment of blacks as it is for whites. Among middle-aged men, the predicted union-nonunion wage differential has a positive and significant impact on union status, with the estimates obtained for whites exceeding that for blacks. The effect of relative wages for young men was found to be positive but not statistically significant for either racial group. The interpretation given these results is that choice of union status appears to be more constrained by employer selectivity for young workers and for middle-aged blacks than it is for middle-aged whites.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Racial Differentials in Union Relative Wage Effects: A Simultaneous Equations Approach." Journal of Labor Research 1,1 (March 1980): 95-114.
18. Leigh, Duane E.
Hills, Stephen M.
Male-Female Differences in the Potential for Union Growth Outside Traditionally Unionized Industries
Journal of Labor Research 8,2 (June 1987): 131-142.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/4k3n44336u171572/
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using recent NLS data on preferences for union representation, this paper examines whether differences by sex exist in the potential for union organizing outside of traditionally unionized industries. The methodology used distinguishes between workers' preferences for union representation and the relative supply of union jobs in explaining interindustry differences in the extent of unionization. Within the private sector, women employed in industries other than traditionally unionized industries are found to have at least as strong a preference for unionization as comparable men, but a considerably lower opportunity for unionized employment given the desire for union representation. Comparing the public sector with traditionally organized industries, the greater extent of unionization in the public sector is largely explained by a stronger desire for union representation on the part of both male and female public sector employees.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Stephen M. Hills. "Male-Female Differences in the Potential for Union Growth Outside Traditionally Unionized Industries." Journal of Labor Research 8,2 (June 1987): 131-142.
19. Lowen, Aaron
Sicilian, Paul
"Family-Friendly" Fringe Benefits and the Gender Wage Gap
Journal of Labor Research 30,2 (June 2009): 101-119.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/kx48421695121rk2/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Occupational Segregation; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evidence suggests a large portion of the gender wage gap is explained by gender occupational segregation. A common hypothesis is that gender differences in preferences or abilities explain this segregation; women may prefer jobs that provide more "family-friendly" fringe benefits. Much of the research provides no direct evidence on gender differences in access to fringe benefits, nor how provision affects wages. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we find that women are more likely to receive family-friendly benefits, but not other types of fringe benefits. We find no evidence that the differences in fringe benefits explain the gender wage gap. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Lowen, Aaron and Paul Sicilian. ""Family-Friendly" Fringe Benefits and the Gender Wage Gap." Journal of Labor Research 30,2 (June 2009): 101-119.
20. McHenry, Peter
McInerney, Melissa P.
Estimating Hispanic-White Wage Gaps Among Women: The Importance of Controlling for Cost of Living
Journal of Labor Research 36,3 (September 2015): 249-273.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-015-9210-3
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Hispanic Studies; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite concern regarding labor market discrimination against Hispanics, previously published estimates show that Hispanic women earn higher hourly wages than white women with similar observable characteristics. This estimated wage premium is likely biased upwards because of the omission of an important control variable: cost of living. We show that Hispanic women live in locations (e.g., cities) with higher costs of living than whites. After we account for cost of living, the estimated Hispanic-white wage differential for non-immigrant women falls by approximately two-thirds. As a result, we find no statistically significant difference in wages between Hispanic and white women in the NLSY97.
Bibliography Citation
McHenry, Peter and Melissa P. McInerney. "Estimating Hispanic-White Wage Gaps Among Women: The Importance of Controlling for Cost of Living." Journal of Labor Research 36,3 (September 2015): 249-273.
21. Mendez, Fabio
Sepulveda, Facundo
Monopsony Power in Occupational Labor Markets
Journal of Labor Research published online (3 June 2019): DOI: 10.1007/s12122-019-09289-w.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-019-09289-w
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Labor Market Demographics; Monopsony Employers; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We collect data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and create comparable measures of monopsonistic power for up to 46 occupational labor markets in the USA, starting in 1979 and ending in 2000. Our results suggest most occupational labor markets during that period were characterized by substantial amounts of monopsonistic, wage-setting power. Furthermore, after controlling for individual, time, and industry fixed effects, our results show a negative and significant correlation between the extent of monopsony power that characterizes a market and both, the wages and fringe benefits received by workers.
Bibliography Citation
Mendez, Fabio and Facundo Sepulveda. "Monopsony Power in Occupational Labor Markets." Journal of Labor Research published online (3 June 2019): DOI: 10.1007/s12122-019-09289-w.
22. Nawakitphaitoon, Kritkorn
Occupational Human Capital and Wages: The Role of Skills Transferability Across Occupations
Journal of Labor Research 35,1 (March 2014): 63-87.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-013-9172-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Occupational Investment; Occupations; Skills; Wage Determination; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the effect of accumulated human capital, and particularly occupational human capital, on the workers’ wages. Unlike previous studies that apply occupational tenure as a proxy for occupational human capital, this paper applies the concept of Shaw’s (1984) occupational human capital to capture the transferability of occupational skills and estimates a new measure of occupational human capital, so-called occupational investment. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) from 1979 to 2000, the key findings of this paper suggest that occupational skills from the previous jobs can also affect the workers’ wages at the current job and that occupational investment is one of the important sources of wages supporting the Shaw’s original work on wage determination. Specifically, 5 years of (3-digit) occupational investment relative to current occupational tenure could lead to a wage increase of 7.7 to 18.4 %. I also find that the general labor market experience accounts for a large share of workers’ wages.
Bibliography Citation
Nawakitphaitoon, Kritkorn. "Occupational Human Capital and Wages: The Role of Skills Transferability Across Occupations." Journal of Labor Research 35,1 (March 2014): 63-87.
23. Ormiston, Russell
Does High School Employment Develop Marketable Skills?
Journal of Labor Research 37,1 (March 2016): 53-68.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-015-9219-7
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment, In-School; Human Capital; Occupations; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While decades of academic research have consistently demonstrated a positive relationship between high school employment and adult earnings, the literature is empirically silent in regards to why this association exists. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the hypothesis that high school employment develops "marketable skills" in the form of occupation-specific human capital. By analyzing wage variation attributable to the commonality of skill portfolios across respondents' high school and adult (age 20 and 23) occupations, this study fails to find consistent evidence that the types of skills utilized in high school employment are correlated with adult earnings. Within the framework of the human capital model, this would suggest that the positive, post-school economic gains of in-school work are largely attributable to increases in general human capital (e.g., workplace socialization, character building).
Bibliography Citation
Ormiston, Russell. "Does High School Employment Develop Marketable Skills?" Journal of Labor Research 37,1 (March 2016): 53-68.
24. Robinson, James C.
Workplace Hazards and Workers' Desires for Union Representation
Journal of Labor Research 9,3 (September 1988): 237-249.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/7g06860617243056/
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Job Hazards; Unions; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent economic studies have interpreted labor unions as facilitating the expression of collective worker "voice" as a complement to individual voice and exit strategies that can be adopted by workers acting alone. The influence of job characteristics on worker desires for union representation is examined using 3 data sets that contain explicit information on preferences. Since several sample selection and variable measurement issues have plagued previous studies, this study uses the union and nonunion samples of the 1978 Young Men's National Longitudinal Survey, and the 1980 Young Women's National Longitudinal Survey. Consistent with the union voice hypothesis, results indicate that workers expressing pro-union sentiments are much more likely than anti-union workers to be employed in jobs with hazardous or otherwise disagreeable working conditions. Finally, Farber (1983) and Freeman (1986) find that the market for union jobs is constrained by management resistance to organizing campaigns. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Robinson, James C. "Workplace Hazards and Workers' Desires for Union Representation." Journal of Labor Research 9,3 (September 1988): 237-249.
25. Routon, P. Wesley
The Effect of 21st Century Military Service on Civilian Labor and Educational Outcomes
Journal of Labor Research 35,1 (March 2014): 15-38.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-013-9170-4
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Labor Force Participation; Military Service; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Propensity Scores; Veterans; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I estimate the effect of military service during the Afghanistan and Iraq wars on civilian labor and educational outcomes using several empirical methodologies including sibling fixed effects and propensity score matching. Since military occupations and training have changed significantly in the past few decades, these effects may be different than those found in previous studies on veterans of earlier theaters. I find that veteran status increases civilian wages by approximately ten percent for minorities but has little or no effect on whites in this regard. Veterans of all demographic groups are found to be equally employable and equally as satisfied with their civilian occupation as non-veterans. For females and minorities, veteran status substantially increases the likelihood one attempts college. These veterans are found to be more apt to pursue and obtain a two year (associate’s) degree instead of a four year (bachelor’s) degree. Lastly, I find mixed evidence that veteran status increases the likelihood of public sector employment.
Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. "The Effect of 21st Century Military Service on Civilian Labor and Educational Outcomes." Journal of Labor Research 35,1 (March 2014): 15-38.
26. Tremblay, Carol Horton
The Impact of School and College Expenditures on the Wages of Southern and Non-Southern Workers
Journal of Labor Research 7,2 (June 1986): 201-211.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q171506445407012/
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Costs; Educational Returns; Racial Differences; Regions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on previous evidence of diminishing earnings returns to greater educational expenditures, the hypothesis that Southern schools and colleges have greater returns than non-Southern schools and colleges is tested but is not accepted. Per pupil expenditures for both school and college, however, significantly raise earnings for Southern male full-time workers. The elasticity of expenditure with respect to the wage for high school graduates is 0.1212 for Southerners and 0.0360 for non-Southerners, and the elasticity for college expenditure is 0.0468 for Southerners and 0.0260 for non-Southerners.
Bibliography Citation
Tremblay, Carol Horton. "The Impact of School and College Expenditures on the Wages of Southern and Non-Southern Workers." Journal of Labor Research 7,2 (June 1986): 201-211.
27. Welsch, David M.
Zimmer, David M.
Do High School Gifted Programs Lead to Later-in-Life Success?
Journal of Labor Research 39,2 (June 2018): 201-218.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-017-9252-9
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Degree; Employment; High School Curriculum; High School Transcripts; Income Level

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the effects of participation in gifted education programs, and offers several contributions to existing research. First, this paper studies the effects of high school programs, as opposed to the more commonly-studied elementary and middle school versions. Second, this paper considers impacts of gifted programs on later-in-life socioeconomic success, including college graduation and eventual employment, as opposed to short-run standardized test outcomes. Third, this paper uses sibling fixed effects, coupled with a recently-proposed decomposition method, as an identification approach. The main conclusion is that gifted programs tend to include students who possess traits that already correlate with later-in-life success. After controlling for those traits, gifted programs, per se, show little statistical relationship to later-in-life outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Welsch, David M. and David M. Zimmer. "Do High School Gifted Programs Lead to Later-in-Life Success?" Journal of Labor Research 39,2 (June 2018): 201-218.
28. Wunnava, Phanindra V.
Ewing, Bradley T.
Union-Nonunion Differentials and Establishment Size: Evidence from the NLSY
Journal of Labor Research 20,2 (March 1999): 177-183.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/v5u727756121r134/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Firm Size; Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Occupational Choice; Unions; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY), both male and female workers in larger establishments receive not only higher wages but also have a higher probability of receiving benefits than those in smaller establishments. This phenomenon reinforces the well documented size effect. This study also provides evidence of vast gender differences in estimated union effects on the different components of the compensation structure. Hence unions should not treat both genders similarly with respect to wages and benefits. Specifically, unions may be successful in attracting more female workers to join rank and file if unions could play an active role in making available maternity (paternity) leave, and also provided opportunities for women to join large establishments..
Bibliography Citation
Wunnava, Phanindra V. and Bradley T. Ewing. "Union-Nonunion Differentials and Establishment Size: Evidence from the NLSY." Journal of Labor Research 20,2 (March 1999): 177-183.