Search Results

Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Doherty, William
Impact of Divorce on Locus of Control Orientation in Adult Women: A Longitudinal Study
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44,4 (April 1983): 834-840.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/psp/44/4/834/
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Divorce; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Disruption; Marriage; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Using longitudinal data for adult women from the NLS, this study examined the relation between getting divorced and changes in the individual's locus of control orientation. The sample contained 1,814 white women ages 32-46 years who were in their first marriage in 1969. Marital status and locus of control (an 11-item abbreviated version of Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale) were measured in 1969, 1972, and 1977. Based on previous literature on locus of control and life events and on divorce, stress, and mental health, the author hypothesized that divorced people, in comparison with those who remained married, would show a short-term increase in externality from 1969-1972, followed by a return over the next 5 years to levels of locus of control comparable to that of the group who remained married. It was also hypothesized that locus of control scores would not predict the likelihood of becoming divorced over the 8-year period. All three hypotheses were confirmed. The findings were discussed in the context of two larger theoretical issues: the influence of important life events on locus of control and the causal direction in the well-documented association between divorce and mental health.
Bibliography Citation
Doherty, William. "Impact of Divorce on Locus of Control Orientation in Adult Women: A Longitudinal Study." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44,4 (April 1983): 834-840.
2. Doherty, William
Baldwin, Cynthia
Shifts and Stability in Locus of Control During the 1970s: Divergence of the Sexes
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48,4 (April 1985): 1048-1053.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022351407603975
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Control; Gender Differences; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Sex Roles

Using NLS data from the Older Men, Mature Women, Young Men, and Young Women cohorts, this study investigates changes in locus of control orientation from the late 1960s through the late 1970s. Each subject was administered a locus of control scale three times over a seven or eight year period. The scale was an 11-item abbreviated version of Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E; Rotter, 1966). The findings showed close similarity in locus of control scores among the four groups in the late 1960s and the early 1970s. However, by 1976-78 both groups of women had moved substantially toward the external end of the scale, while both groups of men remained basically unchanged. Changes in scores for women could not be accounted for by demographic factors entered into multiple regression analyses. The authors suggest a "cultural-shift" interpretation of the sex differences found: women in the mid-1970s became more aware of the external constraints on their ability to meet their goals in the labor force and other settings; as a group men presumably did not experience similar changes in their perceptions. Overall, the findings presented here document a major divergence between the sexes on perceived control during a decade when sex role issues reached national prominence.
Bibliography Citation
Doherty, William and Cynthia Baldwin. "Shifts and Stability in Locus of Control During the 1970s: Divergence of the Sexes." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48,4 (April 1985): 1048-1053.
3. Erol, Ruth Yasemin
Orth, Ulrich
Self-Esteem Development From Age 14 to 30 Years: A Longitudinal Study
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101,3 (September 2011): 607-619.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022351411601155
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Growth Curves; Hispanics; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Personality/Ten-Item Personality Inventory-(TIPI); Racial Differences; Risk-Taking; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem

We examined the development of self-esteem in adolescence and young adulthood. Data came from the Young Adults section of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which includes 8 assessments across a 14-year period of a national probability sample of 7,100 individuals age 14 to 30 years. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases during adolescence and continues to increase more slowly in young adulthood. Women and men did not differ in their self-esteem trajectories. In adolescence, Hispanics had lower self-esteem than Blacks and Whites, but the self-esteem of Hispanics subsequently increased more strongly, so that at age 30 Blacks and Hispanics had higher self-esteem than Whites. At each age, emotionally stable, extraverted, and conscientious individuals experienced higher self-esteem than emotionally unstable, introverted, and less conscientious individuals. Moreover, at each age, high sense of mastery, low risk taking, and better health predicted higher self-esteem. Finally, the results suggest that normative increase in sense of mastery accounts for a large proportion of the normative increase in self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Bibliography Citation
Erol, Ruth Yasemin and Ulrich Orth. "Self-Esteem Development From Age 14 to 30 Years: A Longitudinal Study." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101,3 (September 2011): 607-619.
4. Garrison, S. Mason
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Decomposing the Causes of the Socioeconomic Status-Health Gradient with Biometrical Modeling
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology published online (8 November 2018): DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000226.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2018-56705-001.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Kinship; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The consistent relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health has been widely covered in the media and scientific journals, which typically argue that physical-health inequalities are caused by material disadvantage directly or indirectly (e.g., chronic environmental-stress, health care resources, etc.). Such explanations do not explain the finely stratified health differences across the entire range of SES. Recent theories have helped address such limitations, but implicate multiple different explanatory pathways. For example, differential epidemiology articles have argued that individual differences are the "fundamental cause" of the gradient (Gottfredson, 2004). Alternatively, variants of allostatic load theory (McEwen & Stellar, 1993), such as the Risky Families model (Repetti, Taylor, & Seeman, 2002) implicate the early home-environment. These theory-driven pathways align with interpretations associated with biometrical models; yet, little research has applied biometrical modeling to understanding the sources of the gradient. Our study presents several innovations and new research findings. First, we use kinship information from a large national family dataset, the NLSY79, whose respondents are approximately representative of United States adolescents in 1979. Second, we present the first biometrical analysis of the relationships between SES and health that uses an overall SES measure. Third, we separate physical and mental health, using excellent measurement of each construct. Fourth, we use a bivariate biometrical model to study overlap between health and SES. Results suggest divergent findings for physical and mental health. Biometrical models indicate a primarily genetic etiology for the link between SES and physical health, and a primarily environmental etiology for the link between SES and mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Garrison, S. Mason and Joseph Lee Rodgers. "Decomposing the Causes of the Socioeconomic Status-Health Gradient with Biometrical Modeling." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology published online (8 November 2018): DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000226.
5. Hart, Daniel
Atkins, Robert L.
Matsuba, M. Kyle
The Association of Neighborhood Poverty with Personality Change in Childhood
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94,6 (June 2008): 1048-1061.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022351408600795
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Children, Poverty; Head Start; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Inner-City; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Temperament

The child sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n.d.) was analyzed to examine the relation of undesirable personality change in early childhood to neighborhood economic deprivation. Participants in the survey who had complete data at Time 1 (3-4 years of age) and Time 2 (5-6 years of age) and who remained in the same neighborhood during both time periods were included in the analyses. The results indicated that neighborhood economic disadvantage was associated with undesirable personality change even after controlling for family-level variables such as maternal education, family income, and cognitive and emotional support in the home environment for children. The association of personality change with neighborhood economic deprivation was not mediated by maternal depression, Head Start participation, cognitive and emotional support in the home, or maternal trust in the neighborhood. The authors discuss recommendations for future investigations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Hart, Daniel, Robert L. Atkins and M. Kyle Matsuba. "The Association of Neighborhood Poverty with Personality Change in Childhood." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94,6 (June 2008): 1048-1061.
6. Orth, Ulrich
The Family Environment in Early Childhood Has a Long-term Effect on Self-esteem: A Longitudinal Study from Birth to Age 27 Years.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 114,4 (April 2018): 637-655.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-06114-001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Childhood; Family Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Self-Esteem

A better understanding is needed of the factors that shape the development of individual differences in self-esteem. Using a prospective longitudinal design, this research tested whether the family environment in early childhood predicts self-esteem in later developmental periods. Data came from a nationally representative U.S. sample of 8,711 participants, who reported on their self-esteem biannually from age 8 to 27 years. Moreover, during the participants' first 6 years of life, biannual assessments of their mothers provided information on the quality of the home environment (covering quality of parenting, cognitive stimulation, and physical home environment), quality of parental relationship, presence of father, maternal depression, and poverty status of the family. The analyses were conducted using nonlinear regression analyses of age-dependent correlation coefficients, which were controlled for the effects of child gender and ethnicity. The results suggested that the family environment in early childhood significantly predicted self-esteem as the children grew up. Although the effects became smaller with age, the effects were still present during young adulthood. The largest effects emerged for quality of home environment. Moreover, the results suggested that the effects of home environment, presence of father, and poverty are enduring, as indicated by a nonzero asymptote in the time course of effects from age 8 to 27 years. Finally, quality of home environment partially accounted for the effects of the other predictors. The findings suggest that the home environment is a key factor in early childhood that influences the long-term development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Orth, Ulrich. "The Family Environment in Early Childhood Has a Long-term Effect on Self-esteem: A Longitudinal Study from Birth to Age 27 Years." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 114,4 (April 2018): 637-655.
7. Orth, Ulrich
Robins, Richard W.
Meier, Laurenz L.
Disentangling the Effects of Low Self-Esteem and Stressful Events on Depression: Findings From Three Longitudinal Studies
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97,2 (August 2009): 307-321.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022351409601011
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Berkeley Intergenerational Studies; CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem; Stress

Diathesis-stress models of depression suggest that low self-esteem and stressful events jointly influence the development of depressive affect. More specifically, the self-esteem buffering hypothesis states that, in the face of challenging life circumstances, individuals with low self-esteem are prone to depression because they lack sufficient coping resources, whereas those with high self-esteem are able to cope effectively and consequently avoid spiraling downward into depression. The authors used data from 3 longitudinal studies of adolescents and young adults, who were assessed 4 times over a 3-year period (Study 1; N 359), 3 times over a 6-week period (Study 2 N = 249). and 4 times over a 6-year period (Study 3 N 2,403). In all 3 studies, low self-esteem and stressful events independently predicted subsequent depression but did not interact in the prediction. Thus, the results did not Support the self-esteem buffering hypothesis but suggest that low self-esteem and Stressful events operate as independent risk factors for depression. In addition, the authors found evidence in all 3 Studies that depression, but not low self-esteem, is reciprocally related to stressful events, suggesting that individuals high in depression are more inclined to subsequently experience stressful events.
Bibliography Citation
Orth, Ulrich, Richard W. Robins and Laurenz L. Meier. "Disentangling the Effects of Low Self-Esteem and Stressful Events on Depression: Findings From Three Longitudinal Studies." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97,2 (August 2009): 307-321.
8. Orth, Ulrich
Robins, Richard W.
Roberts, Brent W.
Low Self-Esteem Prospectively Predicts Depression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95,3 (2008): 695-708.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022351408601247
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Berkeley Intergenerational Studies; CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem; Stress

Low self-esteem and depression are strongly correlated in cross-sectional studies, yet little is known about their prospective effects on each other. The vulnerability model hypothesizes that low self-esteem serves as a risk factor for depression, whereas the scar model hypothesizes that low self-esteem is an outcome, not a cause, of depression. To test these models, the authors used 2 large longitudinal data sets, each with 4 repeated assessments between the ages of 15 and 21 years and 18 and 21 years, respectively. Cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that low self-esteem predicted subsequent levels of depression, but depression did not predict subsequent levels of self-esteem. These findings held for both men and women and after controlling for content overlap between the self-esteem and depression scales. Thus, the results supported the vulnerability model, but not the scar model, of self-esteem and depression.
Bibliography Citation
Orth, Ulrich, Richard W. Robins and Brent W. Roberts. "Low Self-Esteem Prospectively Predicts Depression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95,3 (2008): 695-708.
9. Smith, Herbert L.
Dechter, Aimee R.
No Shift in Locus of Control Among Women During the 1970s
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60,4 (April 1991): 638-640.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022351402022756
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Internal-External Attitude; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Contrary to reports published previously (Doherty, 1983; Doherty and Baldwin, 1985), there is no evidence of a shift in locus of control among U.S. women during the 1970s--at least not as revealed by responses of female subjects from the NLS of Mature Women and Young Women to a battery of Rotter Scale items administered on three occasions during that decade. The authors show that the apparent shift toward more external responses is completely an artifact of uncorrected coding errors in earlier releases of these data. The absence of any true change in locus of control among these women raises substantial questions about theories put forward to explain this nonexistent shift. The authors counsel circumspection.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Herbert L. and Aimee R. Dechter. "No Shift in Locus of Control Among Women During the 1970s." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60,4 (April 1991): 638-640.