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Source: Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Jarjoura, G. Roger
The Conditional Effect of Social Class on the Dropout- Delinquency Relationship
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33,2 (May 1996): 232-255.
Also: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/33/2/232.full.pdf+html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Control; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; High School Dropouts; Social Environment; Social Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 1979/80 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (initial N = 12,686 respondents) are drawn on to test the proposition that middle-class dropouts are more likely to engage in delinquency as a result of dropping out than lower-class dropouts. Social control & strain theory explanations for the observed dropout-delinquency relationships are evaluated. Results support the hypothesis, & indicate that support for strain theory or social control theory is dependent on the reasons for dropping out of school. Implications for intervention are discussed. 6 Tables, 1 Appendix, 28 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Jarjoura, G. Roger. "The Conditional Effect of Social Class on the Dropout- Delinquency Relationship." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33,2 (May 1996): 232-255.
2. Mowen, Thomas
Brent, John
School Discipline as a Turning Point: The Cumulative Effect of Suspension on Arrest
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 53,5 (August 2016): 628-653.
Also: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/53/5/628
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: To examine how school discipline may serve as a negative turning point for youth and contribute to increased odds of arrest over time and to assess whether suspensions received across multiple years may present a "cumulative" increase in odds of arrest.

Methods: Using four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we use a longitudinal hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) to explore how school suspensions contribute to odds of arrest across time while controlling for a number of theoretically important dimensions such as race, age, delinquency, and gender among others.

Results: Results show that youth who are suspended are at an increased risk of experiencing an arrest across time relative to youth who are not suspended and that this effect increases across time. Further, with each subsequent year the youth is suspended, there is a significant increase in odds of arrest.

Conclusion: Supporting prior work, we find that youth who receive a suspension are at an increased odds of contact with the criminal justice system, and increases in the number of suspensions received contribute to significant increases in odds of arrest. Findings demonstrate that suspensions present a form of cumulative effect over time.

Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas and John Brent. "School Discipline as a Turning Point: The Cumulative Effect of Suspension on Arrest." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 53,5 (August 2016): 628-653.
3. Nofziger, Stacey
The "Cause" of Low Self-Control
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 45,2 (May 2008): 191-223.
Also: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/45/2/191.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birth Order; Crime; Discipline; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Injuries; Mothers, Behavior; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Punishment, Corporal; Risk-Taking; Scale Construction; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Self-control theory is one of the most tested theories within the field of criminology. However, one of the basic assumptions of the theory has remained largely ignored. Gottfredson and Hirschi stated that the focus of their general theory of crime is the "connection between the self-control of the parent and the subsequent self-control of the child" (1990:100). However, no study to date has specifically tested this relationship. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study finds that mothers with low self-control do indeed produce children with lower self-control. To begin to understand the mechanism responsible for this relationship, several parenting practices used by the mothers are examined. The analysis shows that the self-control of the mother influences her choice of punishments, as well as having moderate impacts on how she supervises her children. In turn, higher supervision and several choices of punishments affect the development of self-control in the child. This study therefore provides support for a vital, yet previously unexamined, piece of the general theory of crime. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] One of the most extensively debated and empirically tested theories in criminology is Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime (1990). However, one basic assertion of the theory has not been tested. Gottfredson and Hirschi specifically state that "the major 'cause' of low self-control thus appears to be ineffective child-rearing" (1990: 97). If parents fail to instill self-control within their children, delinquency is likely to result. Producing self-control in children requires a great deal of consistent effort. It is expected that parents who lack self-control will not be particularly adept at instilling self-control in their children (Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990: 101). Surprisingly, the crucial role of parental self-control in the development of juvenile self-control, and ultimately juvenile delinquency, has not been examined.

(Author summary: This project will use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Child and Young Adult data to begin to fill this void. These data include information from the females who were part of the original NLSY79 cohort as well as from their children. A measure of the mothers' self-control is developed using items such as their aspirations, their involvement in criminal activities, early and unsafe sexual activity, and alcohol and substance use. The children's self-control is measured by items such as being in an accident or having an injury in the last year, the children's scores from interviewer assessments on temperament, social development, and behavior problems scales, self-reported behavior problems at school, educational expectations, and a series of items assessing risk taking behaviors and attitudes.)

Copyright of Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Nofziger, Stacey. "The "Cause" of Low Self-Control." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 45,2 (May 2008): 191-223.
4. Piquero, Alex R.
Brezina, Timothy
Turner, Michael G.
Testing Moffitt's Account of Delinquency Abstention
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 42,1 (February 2005): 27-55
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An established finding in criminology is that most adolescents engage in delinquency. Still, studies continue to identify a small group of individuals who refrain from delinquency even when it is nonnative for their same-age peers. Moffitt's developmental taxonomy provides some reasons for delinquency abstention, but research has been slow to assess these hypotheses. Herein, the authors use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine one of Moffitt's unexplored abstention hypotheses: that some individuals abstain because individual characteristics block their access to delinquent peer networks and, hence, opportunities to mimic antisocial behavior In addition, the authors also present the first empirical examination of gender differences in abstention. The results support some aspects of Moffitt's hypotheses concerning the importance of peer networks, but provide mixed evidence regarding the personal characteristics associated with delinquency abstention and involvement in deviant peer networks. Directions for future research and theorizing are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Piquero, Alex R., Timothy Brezina and Michael G. Turner. "Testing Moffitt's Account of Delinquency Abstention." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 42,1 (February 2005): 27-55.
5. Pratt, Travis C.
Turner, Michael G.
Piquero, Alex R.
Parental Socialization and Community Context: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Structural Sources of Low Self-Control
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41,3 (August 2004): 219-244.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=14012333&db=aph
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Discipline; Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Racial Differences; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Several empirical studies have attempted to estimate the effect of low self-control on criminal and "analogous" behaviors. Most of these studies have shown that low self-control is an important feature of the cause(s) of crime. Although research is begining to emerge that targets more specifically the "roots" of self-control via parental socialization (the most salient factor in the development of self-control according to Hirschi and Gottfredson), researchers have yet to explore the degree to which the structural characteristics of communities may influence patterns of parental socialization and, in turn, individual levels of self-control. To address this question, the authors employ longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine community-level influences on parental socialization and self-control. The results indicate (1) self-control was predicted both cross-sectionally and longitudinally by both parental socialization and adverse neighborhood conditions, (2) the total effect of adverse neighborhood conditions on children's levels of self-control was just as strong as the total effect for indicators of parental socialization, and (3) important race differences did emerge, particularly with regard to the interrelationships between our neighborhood-level measures and parental socialization. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Pratt, Travis C., Michael G. Turner and Alex R. Piquero. "Parental Socialization and Community Context: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Structural Sources of Low Self-Control." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41,3 (August 2004): 219-244.
6. Pyrooz, David Cyrus
From Colors and Guns to Caps and Gowns? The Effects of Gang Membership on Educational Attainment
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 51,1 (February 2014): 56-87.
Also: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/51/1/56.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): College Degree; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Handguns, carrying or using; High School Completion/Graduates; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: This study examined the effects of adolescent gang membership on educational attainment over a 12-year period. A broader conceptualization of gang membership--as a snare in the life course--is used to study its noncriminal consequences.

Method: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and propensity score matching were used to assess the cumulative and longitudinal effects of gang membership on seven educational outcomes, including educational attainment in years and six educational milestones. After adjusting for nonrandom selection into gangs, youths who joined a gang were compared annually to their matched counterparts from 1998 to 2009.

Results: Selection-adjusted estimates revealed disparities between gang and nongang youth in education attainment. Youth who joined gangs were 30 percent less likely to graduate from high school and 58 percent less likely to earn a four-year degree than their matched counterparts. The effects of gang membership on educational attainment were statistically observable within one year of joining, and accumulated in magnitude over time to reach -0.62 years (ES=0.25) by the final point of observation.

Conclusion: The snare-like forces linked to the onset of gang membership have consequences that spill into a range of life domains, including education. These findings take on added significance because of a historical context where education has a prominent role in social stratification.

Bibliography Citation
Pyrooz, David Cyrus. "From Colors and Guns to Caps and Gowns? The Effects of Gang Membership on Educational Attainment." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 51,1 (February 2014): 56-87.
7. Pyrooz, David Cyrus
Densley, James A.
Selection into Street Gangs: Signaling Theory, Gang Membership, and Criminal Offending
Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency 53,4 (July 2016): 447-481.
Also: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/53/4/447
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Scale Construction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A signaling scale was constructed using a mixed graded response model and national longitudinal data to explore the thesis that (1) gang prospects select into gangs using hard-to-fake signals of quality and gangs, in turn, receive and interpret these signals to select high-quality over low-quality prospects and (2) the selection process in a signaling framework conditions the well-established relationship between gang membership and criminal offending.
Bibliography Citation
Pyrooz, David Cyrus and James A. Densley. "Selection into Street Gangs: Signaling Theory, Gang Membership, and Criminal Offending." Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency 53,4 (July 2016): 447-481.
8. Tapia, Michael
Gang Membership and Race as Risk Factors for Juvenile Arrest
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 48,3 (August 2011): 364-395.
Also: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/48/3/364
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Black Youth; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Hispanic Youth; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang × Race interaction on those arrests. The focus on youth’s earliest point of contact with the juvenile justice system corresponds to the latest priority of the federal initiative on Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC). Using Poisson regression to analyze longitudinal data on a representative sample of U.S. teens, results support both main effects and interaction hypotheses. Gang membership, racial minority status, and their interaction each increase the risk of arrest, controlling for other demographic and legal items. Results suggest that bias against these groups is most pronounced with less serious crimes. Main effects for Black youth are stronger than for Hispanic youth, underscoring the importance of conducting tests for each minority group separately. Interactions for Black and Hispanic gang youth are equally robust, suggesting they warrant similar priority in policy initiatives to reduce DMC.
Bibliography Citation
Tapia, Michael. "Gang Membership and Race as Risk Factors for Juvenile Arrest ." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 48,3 (August 2011): 364-395.