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Source: Journals of Gerontology
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Crystal, Stephen
Waehrer, Keith
Later-Life Economic Inequality in Longitudinal Perspective
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,6 (November 1996): S307-S318.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/51B/6/S307.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Economic Changes/Recession; Economic Well-Being; Mobility; Pensions

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men were used to estimate economic inequality within three 5-year cohorts as they moved from midlife to later life. The Gini index of inequality increased steadily after age 59, supporting the hypothesis that within-cohort inequality increases in late life. However, a transition analysis found considerable mobility in relative status for individuals over a 15-year period. These results suggest the need to develop a longitudinal perspective on later-life economic status which distinguishes between individual-level and population-level outcomes and identifies the life events and characteristics of individuals that predict changes in economic status. Further research is needed on the processes which lead to later-life inequality, and on the distributional impact of public and private pension policies.
Bibliography Citation
Crystal, Stephen and Keith Waehrer. "Later-Life Economic Inequality in Longitudinal Perspective." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,6 (November 1996): S307-S318.
2. Hayward, Mark D.
Friedman, Samantha
Chen, Hsinmu
Career Trajectories and Older Men's Retirement
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 53B,2 (March 1998): S91-S103.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/53B/2/S91.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Labor Market; Occupational Status; Retirement

The idea of a long and stable career rewarded by retirement is a fixture of the American social ethos and political economy. The paradox is that many Americans' careers do not fit this image. Here, we examined how the structure of the career, as compared to only those circumstances proximate to retirement, is important for understanding career endings. Based on labor force histories drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, we observed that the occupational roles held through the mid and late career combine additively to influence retirement and disability experiences, with different conditions of work coming into play depending on the career stage. Occupational roles in the mid career also have long-term, indirect effects, operating through the onset of health problems and the adequacy of pension benefits. Although retirement and disability are not hinged to occupational mobility per se, these career endings are sensitive to major discontinuities in the career and work role in terms of unemployment and labor force mobility. (AUTHOR)
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Samantha Friedman and Hsinmu Chen. "Career Trajectories and Older Men's Retirement." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 53B,2 (March 1998): S91-S103.
3. Hayward, Mark D.
Friedman, Samantha
Chen, Hsinmu
Race Inequities in Men's Retirement
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,1 (January 1996): S1-S10.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/51B/1/S1.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Disability; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Male Sample; Mortality; Racial Differences; Retirement

Assessed inequities of retirement access for black and white older men. Cohort-based prospective analysis of mid- and late-career labor force behavior was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (NLS). The NLS is a nationally representative sample of 5,020 men, aged 45-59 in 1966, who were followed for 17 years. A multistate life table model was used to identify how labor force experiences and mortality determined the labor force participation rates (LFPRs) and the qualities of the retirement life cycle for blacks and whites. Results showed that black men's lower LFPRs were a function of disability. Despite lower LFPRs than whites, however, blacks spent a greater portion of their lives both working and disabled, reducing the retirement period. Race differences in the retirement life cycle were also highly sensitive to mortality. Although race did not affect the risk of reentry, retirement reversals were more common among whites than blacks due to differential exposure. The combination of higher disability and mortality rates among blacks suggests that health is a key determinant of retirement inequity. It is concluded that reducing black mortality to that of whites would substantially narrow the life cycle difference, although mortality is not generally thought to be policy manipulable. (AR) (AgeLine Database, copyright 1996 AARP, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Samantha Friedman and Hsinmu Chen. "Race Inequities in Men's Retirement." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,1 (January 1996): S1-S10.
4. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Artis, Julie E.
Women's Caregiving and Paid Work: Causal Relationships in Late Midlife
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 52B,4 (July 1997): S170-S179.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/52B/4/S170.abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Part-Time Work

Used 1984 and 1987 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women to examine the causal relationship between employment and caring for an ill or disabled friend or relative over the 3 yr. period, and to study the ways these women balanced their caregiving demands and their employment. A total of 3,147 women participated in both the 1984 and 1987 samples; 1,389 cases contained complete information on all independent variables: demographic data, caregiving, employment characteristics, and employment history. Results showed that employment did not affect whether or not women started caregiving, but that women who did start were more likely to reduce employment hours or to stop work.Thus, the causal relationship between employment and caregiving in late midlife is largely unidirectional, with women reducing work hours to meet caregiving demands. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1998 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K. and Julie E. Artis. "Women's Caregiving and Paid Work: Causal Relationships in Late Midlife." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 52B,4 (July 1997): S170-S179.
5. Stetz, Thomas A.
Beehr, Terry A.
Organizations' Environment and Retirement: The Relationship between Women's Retirement, Environmental Munificence, Dynamism, and Local Unemployment Rate
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 55,4 (July 2000): S213-S221
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/4/S213.abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Retirement; Unemployment Rate; Working Conditions

Objectives. Low munificence and high dynamism of an industry's environment and high local area unemployment rates were assumed to indicate uncertainty and influence retirement. It was predicted that, while controlling for personal variables, rates of retirement would vary across industries, that munificence would have a negative relationship with retirement, and that dynamism and unemployment rate would have positive relationships with retirement. Methods. The study relies on four waves (from 1986 to 1992) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey's Mature Women Cohort, and logistic regression was used to examine the extent of the proposed relationships. Results. Retirement rate varied across industries and had a positive relationship with munificent environments, but retirement was not related to dynamism or unemployment rates. Conclusions. The results suggest that environmental factors may influence retirement timing. Additional theoretical and empirical work is suggested to help sort out direct environmental effects and possible moderating third variables.
Bibliography Citation
Stetz, Thomas A. and Terry A. Beehr. "Organizations' Environment and Retirement: The Relationship between Women's Retirement, Environmental Munificence, Dynamism, and Local Unemployment Rate." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 55,4 (July 2000): S213-S221.