Search Results

Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Resulting in 12 citations.
1. Averett, Susan L.
Fletcher, Erin K.
Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes
Maternal and Child Health Journal 20,3 (March 2016): 655-664.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-015-1865-0
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Mothers; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother.

Methods: A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families.

Results: In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA.

Conclusions: Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant.

Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Erin K. Fletcher. "Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes." Maternal and Child Health Journal 20,3 (March 2016): 655-664.
2. Bell, Janice F.
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Diehr, Paula K.
Maternal Work and Birth Outcome Disparities
Maternal and Child Health Journal 12,4 (July 2008): 415-426.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/w41u402327vjp318/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAMA: Journals of the American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Ethnic Differences; Fertility; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We tested relations between aspects of maternal work and birth outcomes in a national sample and in subgroups known to experience disparities.

Methods: Three indices of work attributes (Status and Recognition, Physical Demands, and Exposure to Conflict) were derived by factor analysis of variables extracted from the Department of Labor's O*Net database. The indices were linked to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth using occupation codes for the primary jobs held by women who gave birth between 1979 and 2000 and worked during the quarter prior to birth (n = 3,386 births to n = 2,508 mothers). Multiple regression was used to model birth outcomes as functions of the work attribute indices, controlling for several measures of socioeconomic status and risk factors for adverse birth outcomes.

Results: In the full sample, work-related Physical Demands were associated with lower average birthweight and increased odds of preterm birth while Status and Recognition was associated with higher average birthweight and lower odds of fetal growth restriction. In stratified models, Status and Recognition was associated with higher birth weight among women with low (versus high) income and with lower odds of preterm birth among women with low (versus high) education. Physical Demands were associated with higher rates of preterm birth among women with low (versus high) income and education and among African-American mothers (compared to Whites).

Conclusions: The work environment is an important predictor of healthy births. Relations between maternal work attributes and birth outcomes differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and according to the outcome under investigation. Further research with measures of work attributes specific to maternal work experiences is recommended to confirm our findings.

Bibliography Citation
Bell, Janice F., Frederick J. Zimmerman and Paula K. Diehr. "Maternal Work and Birth Outcome Disparities." Maternal and Child Health Journal 12,4 (July 2008): 415-426.
3. Davis, Esa M.
Babineau, Denise C.
Wang, Xuelei
Zyzanski, Stephen J.
Abrams, Barbara
Bodnar, Lisa M.
Horwitz, Ralph I.
Short Inter-pregnancy Intervals, Parity, Excessive Pregnancy Weight Gain and Risk of Maternal Obesity
Maternal and Child Health Journal 18,3 (April 2014): 554-562.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-013-1272-3
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Modeling; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14–22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95 % CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95 % CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of <12 months; no significant association was seen for longer inter-pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95 % CI 1.81, 3.21; p < 0.001) than women without. Primiparous and nulliparous women had similar obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Davis, Esa M., Denise C. Babineau, Xuelei Wang, Stephen J. Zyzanski, Barbara Abrams, Lisa M. Bodnar and Ralph I. Horwitz. "Short Inter-pregnancy Intervals, Parity, Excessive Pregnancy Weight Gain and Risk of Maternal Obesity." Maternal and Child Health Journal 18,3 (April 2014): 554-562.
4. Deardorff, Julianna
Berry-Millett, Rachel
Rehkopf, David
Luecke, Ellen
Lahiff, Maureen
Abrams, Barbara
Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and Age at Menarche in Daughters
Maternal and Child Health Journal 17,8 (October 2013): 1391-1398.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-012-1139-z
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at Menarche; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Life Course; Mothers and Daughters; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Life course theory suggests that early life experiences can shape health over a lifetime and across generations. Associations between maternal pregnancy experience and daughters’ age at menarche are not well understood. We examined whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) were independently related to daughters’ age at menarche. Consistent with a life course perspective, we also examined whether maternal GWG, birth weight, and prepubertal BMI mediated the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and daughter’s menarcheal age. We examined 2,497 mother-daughter pairs from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate whether maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) and GWG adequacy (inadequate, recommended, and excessive) were associated with risk for earlier menarche among girls, controlling for important covariates. Analyses were conducted to examine the mediating roles of GWG adequacy, child birth weight and prepubertal BMI. Adjusting for covariates, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (HR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.36) and excess GWG (HR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.27) were associated with daughters’ earlier menarche, while inadequate GWG was not. The association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight and daughters’ menarcheal timing was not mediated by daughter’s birth weight, prepubertal BMI or maternal GWG. Maternal factors, before and during pregnancy, are potentially important determinants of daughters’ menarcheal timing and are amenable to intervention. Further research is needed to better understand pathways through which these factors operate.
Bibliography Citation
Deardorff, Julianna, Rachel Berry-Millett, David Rehkopf, Ellen Luecke, Maureen Lahiff and Barbara Abrams. "Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and Age at Menarche in Daughters." Maternal and Child Health Journal 17,8 (October 2013): 1391-1398.
5. Hartman, John D.
Craig, Benjamin M.
Examining the Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Child Behavior Problems Using Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Maternal and Child Health Journal 22,12 (December 2018): 1780-1788.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-018-2577-z
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Mothers, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: Examining the association between maternal smoking and losses in childhood health-related quality of life due to behavior problems provides parents and policymakers another tool for the valuation of smoking cessation during pregnancy.

Methods: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child and Young Adult data, this study retrospectively examined a cohort of 4114 women and 8668 children. In addition to questions focusing on maternal smoking and general demographics, each survey included the Behavior Problems Index (BPI), a 28-item questionnaire with six subscales measuring childhood behavior problems (antisocial behavior, anxiousness/depression, headstrongness, hyperactivity, immature dependency, and peer conflict/social withdrawal). Responses to the BPI, completed by mothers with children ages 4–14, were summarized on a QALY scale using published preference weights.

Results: Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy experience additional QALY losses of 0.181, on average, per year due to increased behavior problems. Boys suffered larger QALY losses associated with maternal smoking (0.242) compared to girls (0.119; p value = .021), regardless of age. Moreover, heavier smoking during pregnancy (i.e., 1 or more packs/day) was associated with larger QALY losses (0.282; p-value < .001).

Conclusions for Practice: These findings illustrate the burden of maternal smoking during pregnancy on child health, namely behavioral problems. The losses in QALYs may be incorporated into economic evaluations for smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy. Future research will investigate how maternal smoking following childbirth is associated with child QALYs.

Bibliography Citation
Hartman, John D. and Benjamin M. Craig. "Examining the Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Child Behavior Problems Using Quality-Adjusted Life Years." Maternal and Child Health Journal 22,12 (December 2018): 1780-1788.
6. Headen, Irene
Mujahid, Mahasin S.
Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Abrams, Barbara
Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain Differ by Pre-pregnancy Weight
Maternal and Child Health Journal 19,8 (August 2015): 1672-1686.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-015-1682-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) varies by race/ethnicity and modifies the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, which disproportionately affect racial/ethnic minorities. Yet studies investigating whether racial/ethnic disparities in GWG vary by pre-pregnancy BMI are inconsistent, and none studied nationally representative populations. Using categorical measures of GWG adequacy based on Institute of Medicine recommendations, we investigated whether associations between race/ethnicity and GWG adequacy were modified by pre-pregnancy BMI [underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), or obese (≤30.0 kg/m2)] among all births to Black, Hispanic, and White mothers in the 1979 USA National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort (n = 6,849 pregnancies; range 1-10). We used generalized estimating equations, adjusted for marital status, parity, smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, and multiple measures of socioeconomic position. Effect measure modification between race/ethnicity and pre-pregnancy BMI was significant for inadequate GWG (Wald test p value = 0.08). Normal weight Black [risk ratio (RR) 1.34, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.52] and Hispanic women (RR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.15, 1.54) and underweight Black women (RR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.07, 1.79) experienced an increased risk of inadequate GWG compared to Whites. Differences in risk of inadequate GWG between minority women, compared to White women, were not significant among overweight and obese women. Effect measure modification between race/ethnicity and pre-pregnancy BMI was not significant for excessive GWG. The magnitude of racial/ethnic disparities in inadequate GWG appears to vary by pre-pregnancy weight class, which should be considered when designing interventions to close racial/ethnic gaps in healthy GWG.
Bibliography Citation
Headen, Irene, Mahasin S. Mujahid, Alison K. Cohen, David Rehkopf and Barbara Abrams. "Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain Differ by Pre-pregnancy Weight." Maternal and Child Health Journal 19,8 (August 2015): 1672-1686.
7. Joyce, Theodore J.
Kaestner, Robert
Korenman, Sanders D.
Stability of Pregnancy Intentions and Pregnancy-Related Maternal Behaviors
Maternal and Child Health Journal 4,3 (September 2000): 171-178.
Also: http://www-us.ebsco.com/online/direct.asp?ArticleID=K1FLUG8TF79MGQBYVFV2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAMA: Journals of the American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Fertility; Infants; Marital Status; Mothers, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: Our objectives were to characterize the stability of pregnancy intention and to examine whether stability is associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation, smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Methods: We use a sample of women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) for whom information on pregnancy intention was collected both during pregnancy and after delivery. In bivariate analyses we compare outcomes and characteristics of women whose pregnancy intention changed between the prenatal and postpartum periods. With multivariate methods, we analyze the correlates of switching pregnancy intention as well as the association between switching and maternal behaviors. Results: Women whose pregnancy intention changes between the two assessments are similar in marital status and socioeconomic background to those who report both during pregnancy and after delivery that the pregnancy is unintended. Disagreement during pregnancy between the parents' pregnancy intentions is the most important predictor of instability in the mother's pregnancy intention. Effects of unintended pregnancy on the timing of initiation of prenatal care, smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding based on reports after delivery are smaller than those based on reports during pregnancy, although differences are not statistically significant. Adverse effects of unintended pregnancy are greater when pregnancies reported by the mother to be unintended at either assessment are combined into a single category for unintended pregnancy. Conclusion: Unstable pregnancy intention may be a marker for adverse maternal behaviors related to infant health.
Bibliography Citation
Joyce, Theodore J., Robert Kaestner and Sanders D. Korenman. "Stability of Pregnancy Intentions and Pregnancy-Related Maternal Behaviors." Maternal and Child Health Journal 4,3 (September 2000): 171-178.
8. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Brown, Barbara B.
Fan, Jessie X.
Smith, Ken R.
Zick, Cathleen D.
Are You What Your Mother Weighs? Evaluating the Impact of Maternal Weight Trajectories on Youth Overweight
Maternal and Child Health Journal 14,5 (September 2010): 680-686.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/t1x7867w47417875/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: JAMA: Journals of the American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Family Characteristics; Home Environment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we investigate how three alternative measures of maternal body mass index (BMI) relate to youth overweight. We contrast the typical cross-sectional measure of maternal BMI with a longitudinal mean and a standard deviation in maternal BMI. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, we estimate logistic regressions that relate maternal BMI to the risk of a youth being overweight while controlling for other familial characteristics. Participants in this study are 918 males and 841 females who were age 16-21 and either healthy weight or overweight in 2006. To be eligible for inclusion, teens were 15 years old by December 2006. After comparing several measures of maternal weight, we find that higher mean maternal BMI measured over the life of the adolescent has the strongest relationship with the odds of youth overweight for both male and female adolescents. For boys, a one unit increase in mother's mean BMI increases the odds of being overweight by 16% (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.20) while for girls the increase in the odds of being overweight is 13% (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.09-1.18). Our findings suggest that researchers should move beyond static measures of maternal weight when examining the correlates of youth BMI. Maternal weight histories offer additional insights about the youth's home environment that are associated with the risk of a youth being overweight.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori, Barbara B. Brown, Jessie X. Fan, Ken R. Smith and Cathleen D. Zick. "Are You What Your Mother Weighs? Evaluating the Impact of Maternal Weight Trajectories on Youth Overweight." Maternal and Child Health Journal 14,5 (September 2010): 680-686.
9. Luecke, Ellen
Cohen, Alison K.
Brillante, Miranda
Rehkopf, David
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Hendrick, C. Emily
Abrams, Barbara
Similarities in Maternal Weight and Birth Weight Across Pregnancies and Across Sisters
Maternal and Child Health Journal published online (21 July 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s10995-018-2602-2.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-018-2602-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings; Sisters

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: The current study examined how prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and birth weight cluster between births within women and between women who are sisters.

Methods: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we utilized nested, multivariable hierarchical linear models to examine the correlation of these three outcomes between births (n = 6006) to women (n = 3605) and sisters (n = 3170) so that we can quantify the clustering by sibship and by woman for these three pregnancy-related outcomes.

Results: After controlling for confounding covariates, prepregnancy BMI (intraclass correlation (ICC) 0.24, 95% CI 0.16, 0.32), gestational weight gain (ICC 0.23, 95% CI 0.16, 0.31), and infant's birthweight (ICC 0.07, 95% CI 0.003, 0.13) were correlated between sisters. Additionally, all three outcomes were significantly correlated between births for each sister, suggesting that prepregnancy BMI (ICC 0.82, 95% CI 0.81, 0.83), gestational weight gain (ICC 0.45, 95% CI 0.42, 0.49), and birth weight (ICC 0.31, 95% CI 0.28, 0.35) track between pregnancies in the same woman. .

Bibliography Citation
Luecke, Ellen, Alison K. Cohen, Miranda Brillante, David Rehkopf, Jeremy R. Coyle, C. Emily Hendrick and Barbara Abrams. "Similarities in Maternal Weight and Birth Weight Across Pregnancies and Across Sisters." Maternal and Child Health Journal published online (21 July 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s10995-018-2602-2.
10. Patel, Payal H.
Sen, Bisakha
Teen Motherhood and Long-Term Health Consequences
Maternal and Child Health Journal 16,5 (July 2012): 1063-1071.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h106j82n80062753/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Health Factors; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mothers, Adolescent; Mothers, Health

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.
Bibliography Citation
Patel, Payal H. and Bisakha Sen. "Teen Motherhood and Long-Term Health Consequences." Maternal and Child Health Journal 16,5 (July 2012): 1063-1071.
11. Steinberg, Jecca Rhea
Sanders, Lee M.
Cousens, Simon
Small-for-Gestational-Age Births are Associated with Maternal Relationship Status: A Population-Wide Analysis
Maternal and Child Health Journal 20,8 (August 2016): 1651-1661.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-016-1964-6
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Infants; Marital Stability; Marital Status; Mothers; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: To examine the association between maternal relationship status during pregnancy and infant birth outcomes.

Methods: Observational study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 men and women between the ages of 14 and 21. We used data from surveys of women reporting childbirth between 1979 and 2004. Relationship status was defined as relationship with an opposite-sex partner in the child's birth year. Relationship stability was defined as the consistency in relationship status in the 1 year before, of, and after the child's birth. Childbirth outcome included small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. We applied random effects logistic regression models to assess the association between relationship status and stability and childbirth outcome—adjusting for maternal race, infant sex, history of miscarriage, employment, maternal age, multiparity, cohort-entry year, household poverty status, and tobacco use.

Results: The study included 4439 women with 8348 live births. In fully adjusted models, term SGA infants were more commonly born to partnered women (AOR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.20–2.73) and unmarried women (AOR 1.82; CI 1.34–2.47; LRT p value 0.0001), compared to married women. SGA infants were also more commonly born in unstable relationships (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.14–2.63; LRT p value 0.01) compared to stable relationships.

Conclusions for Practice: Maternal relationship status and stability during pregnancy is independently associated with risk of SGA infant birth.

Bibliography Citation
Steinberg, Jecca Rhea, Lee M. Sanders and Simon Cousens. "Small-for-Gestational-Age Births are Associated with Maternal Relationship Status: A Population-Wide Analysis." Maternal and Child Health Journal 20,8 (August 2016): 1651-1661.
12. Tanda, Rika
Salsberry, Pamela J.
Reagan, Patricia Benton
Fang, Muriel Z.
The Impact of Prepregnancy Obesity on Children’s Cognitive Test Scores
Maternal and Child Health Journal 17,2 (February 2013): 222-229.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/800p605l320n7861/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To examine the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and cognitive test scores of children at early primary school age. A descriptive observational design was used. Study subjects consist of 3,412 US children aged 60–83 months from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Mother and Child Survey. Cognitive test scores using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test reading recognition and mathematics tests were used as the outcomes of interest. Association with maternal prepregnancy obesity was examined using the ordinary least square regression controlling for intrauterine, family background, maternal and child factors. Children of obese women had 3 points (0.23 SD units) lower peabody individual achievement test (PIAT) reading recognition score (p = 0.007), and 2 points (0.16 SD units) lower PIAT mathematics scores (p < 0.0001), holding all other factors constant. As expected, cognitive test score was associated with stimulating home environment (reading: β = 0.15, p < 0.0001, and math: β = 0.15, p < 0.0001), household income (reading: β = 0.03, p = 0.02 and math: β = 0.04, p = 0.004), maternal education (reading: β = 0.42, p = 0.0005, and math: β = 0.32, p = 0.008), and maternal cognitive skills (reading: β = 0.11, p < 0.0001, and math: β = 0.09, p < 0.0001). There was a significant association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores that could not be explained by other intrauterine, family background, maternal, and child factors. Children who live in disadvantaged postnatal environments may be most affected by the effects of maternal prepregnancy obesity. Replications of the current study using different cohorts are warranted to confirm the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Tanda, Rika, Pamela J. Salsberry, Patricia Benton Reagan and Muriel Z. Fang. "The Impact of Prepregnancy Obesity on Children’s Cognitive Test Scores ." Maternal and Child Health Journal 17,2 (February 2013): 222-229.