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Source: National Poverty Center
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Cunha, Flavio
Heckman, James J.
Formulating, Identifying and Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation
Presented: Ann Arbor, MI, The Long-Run Impact of Early Life Events, A Workshop Sponsored by the National Poverty Center, December 13-14, 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Poverty Center
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; I.Q.; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Cycle Research; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Skill Formation; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper estimates models of the evolution of cognitive and noncognitive skills and explores the role of family environments in shaping these skills at different stages of the life cycle of the child. Central to this analysis is identification of the technology of skill formation. We estimate a dynamic factor model to solve the problem of endogeneity of inputs and multiplicity of inputs relative to instruments. We identify the scale of the factors by estimating their effects on adult outcomes. In this fashion we avoid reliance on test scores and changes in test scores that have no natural metric. Parental investments are generally more effective in raising noncognitive skills. Noncognitive skills promote the formation of cognitive skills but, in most specifications of our model, cognitive skills do not promote the formation of noncognitive skills. Parental inputs have different effects at different stages of the child's life cycle with cognitive skills affected more at early ages and noncognitive skills affected more at later ages.
Bibliography Citation
Cunha, Flavio and James J. Heckman. "Formulating, Identifying and Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation." Presented: Ann Arbor, MI, The Long-Run Impact of Early Life Events, A Workshop Sponsored by the National Poverty Center, December 13-14, 2007.
2. Goosby, Bridget J.
Cheadle, Jacob E.
Birth Weight, Math, and Reading Achievement Growth: A Multilevel Between-Sibling, Between-Families Approach
Working Paper #07-21, National Poverty Center, August 2007.
Also: http://npc.umich.edu/publications/u/NPC%20Working%20Paper%20BW%20math%20and%20reading.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Poverty Center
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Birthweight; Educational Attainment; Family Environment; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We used multilevel covariance structure analysis to study the relationship between birth weight, family context, and youth math and reading comprehension growth from approximately age 5 until about age 14. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample (CNLSY79), we build on previous research examining both the causal relationship between birth weight and subsequent academic achievement disparities, distinguishing between birth weight and other contextual social confounders both within and between families. Taking into account family characteristics, including those that vary between-siblings within-families, we find that lower birth weight is associated with lower math and reading scores at age 5. Although these birth weight gaps do not increase as children age, they do not decrease either. Additional findings indicate that the home environment has important developmental consequences from early childhood and into adolescence. Overall, this pattern of findings paints a complex picture of disadvantage, beginning in the womb and extending through a variety of mechanisms into adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Goosby, Bridget J. and Jacob E. Cheadle. "Birth Weight, Math, and Reading Achievement Growth: A Multilevel Between-Sibling, Between-Families Approach." Working Paper #07-21, National Poverty Center, August 2007.
3. Hill, Carolyn J.
Holzer, Harry J.
Labor Market Experiences and Transitions to Adulthood
Working Paper #06-32, The National Poverty Center, University of Michigan,September 2006.
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: National Poverty Center
Keyword(s): Behavior; Cohabitation; Labor Market Outcomes; Marital Status; Risk-Taking; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzes labor market behaviors for young adults, their changing patterns for cohorts that are twenty years apart, and their associations with transitions to adulthood as measured by living with parents, being married, or cohabiting. We analyze these issues using data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), specifically focusing on young people ages 20-22 in 1984 and 2002. Consistent with data from other sources, we find that youth in the later cohort tend to live at home or cohabit with greater frequency, but to marry less frequently, than those in the earlier cohort. These findings can be observed among youth in all education/enrollments groups and all race/gender groups. Regression analyses show evidence of some link between contemporaneous labor market outcomes and living arrangements, but these effects are too small to account for changes over time in these behaviors. We also find some relationships between academic and labor market outcomes as well as risky behaviors of youth during high school, on the one hand; and later labor market outcomes and living arrangements, on the other. These suggest the presence of unmeasured characteristics (like independence, maturity and the like) that help to account for differences across individuals in their living arrangements as young adults.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Carolyn J. and Harry J. Holzer. "Labor Market Experiences and Transitions to Adulthood." Working Paper #06-32, The National Poverty Center, University of Michigan,September 2006..
4. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being
Working Paper No. 04-10, National Poverty Center, The University of Michigan, June 2004.
Also: http://www.npc.umich.edu/publications/workingpaper04/paper10/04-10.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Poverty Center
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Well-Being; Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); School Progress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The booming economy of the mid-to- late 1990's helped single mothers reach unprecedented employment levels. Researchers have been concerned with the largely unaddressed questions of whether single mothers who enter the workforce will be able to earn a living wage, the stability of women's jobs over time, and the links between these job characteristics and child well-being. In this paper, we use data from a nationally- representative sample of single mothers whose employment experiences we observe over a two-year period during the mid-to-late 1990's. We rely on mothers' weekly work histories to create detailed patterns of employment, which we then link to change over time in the well-being of the mothers' adolescent children. Controlling for a wide array of background characteristics and potential selection factors, we find that, relative to being continuously employed in a good job, adolescents whose mothers lose a job without regaining employment show declines in mastery and self-esteem. Those whose mothers are continuously employed in a bad job show an increase in grade repetition and those whose mothers are either persistently out of the labor force or lose more than one job show an increased likelihood of school drop-out. These effects are largely unexplained by concomitant changes in family income.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being." Working Paper No. 04-10, National Poverty Center, The University of Michigan, June 2004.
5. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Associations of Family Structure States and Transitions During Middle Childhood
Working Paper No. 07-15, National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, June 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Poverty Center
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Household Composition; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Hierarchical Linear Models (i.e., multilevel models), we estimate associations of family structure states and transitions with children's achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. We consider whether these associations vary by children's ages, as well as the quality of their home environments in early childhood. Results suggest that both residing in and transitioning to a single-mother family during middle childhood is associated with small increases in behavior problems. These associations are stronger for children who experienced higher quality home environments in early childhood. Results for transitions to and residence in step families are less consistent, although we find some evidence that residence in a step family may be associated with small short-term increases in behavior problems. We find little consistent evidence linking any types of family structure states or transitions to children's achievement during middle childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Associations of Family Structure States and Transitions During Middle Childhood." Working Paper No. 07-15, National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, June 2007.