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Source: OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Currie, Janet
Van Parys, Jessica
Early Life Health: Consequences for Human Capital Formation
Presented: Paris, France, Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics, May-June 2011.
Also: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTABCDE/Resources/7455676-1292528456380/7626791-1303141641402/7878676-1306699356046/Plenary-Session-3-Currie.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Paris, France)
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Parts Recognition; Child Development; Children, Poverty; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Initial Tentative Observations:
• Estimated effects of early life shocks are not uniformly larger in poor countries. • May suggest limited possibilities for mitigation even in rich countries. • Investigation of this question may shed more light on mechanisms underlying long run effects of early life shocks.

We Need Better Data
• Agreement on more subtle and uniform measures of health at birth and in early childhood. • Data linking adults to conditions in early life (though cohort level data is increasingly available).

Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Jessica Van Parys. "Early Life Health: Consequences for Human Capital Formation." Presented: Paris, France, Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics, May-June 2011.
2. Quintini, Glenda
Manfredi, Thomas
Going Separate Ways? School-To-Work Transitions in the United States and Europe
OECD Social. Employment and Migration Working Papers No: 90, Paris, France: OECD, Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, 20 August 2009.
Also: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/fulltext/5kscgm205q9q.pdf?expires=1287583717&id=0000&accname=guest&checksum=B5CFB88628594EE118959CDE26BA7533
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Paris, France)
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; Cross-national Analysis; Employment, Intermittent; Employment, Youth; European Community Household Panel (ECHP); Job Patterns; Methods/Methodology; Transition, Adulthood; Transition, School to Work; Transitional Programs; Vocational Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper derives school-to-work transition pathways in the United States and Europe between the late 1990s and the early 2000s. To do so, it uses Optimal Matching, a technique developed to sequence DNA. The key advantage of using this technique is that, rather than focusing on a specific point in time or a single destination, such as employment, inactivity or unemployment, they convey information on all activities undertaken by youth over the transition period, their sequence and their persistence. Strong similarities are found between the United States and Europe. However, pathways in the United States are characterised by significantly more dynamism than in Europe: youth in employment tend to change jobs more frequently while inactive or unemployed youth are more likely to experience several short spells rather than a single long one. School-to-work transition pathways in the United States also involve less time spent in unemployment than in Europe. The share of school-leavers involved in pathways dominated by employment is larger in the United States than in Europe and non-employment traps are less frequent in the United States. The most successful European countries in terms of school-to-work transitions are those where apprenticeships are widespread. On the other hand, European countries with a high incidence of temporary work among youth have a significantly smaller share of youth belonging to pathways dominated by employment and a larger share of youth in pathways characterised by frequent job changes separated by long unemployment spells. At the individual level, qualifications, gender, ethnicity and motherhood are found to influence the probability of disconnecting from the labour market and education for a prolonged period of time. Overall, the analysis shows the potential of Optimal Matching as a descriptive tool for the study of school-to-work transitions. It also tentatively explores how pathways obtained through Optimal Matching could be used for fur ther analysis to draw policy-relevant conclusions. At present, data availability appears to be the main barrier to fully exploiting this novel technique.
Bibliography Citation
Quintini, Glenda and Thomas Manfredi. "Going Separate Ways? School-To-Work Transitions in the United States and Europe." OECD Social. Employment and Migration Working Papers No: 90, Paris, France: OECD, Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, 20 August 2009.