Search Results

Source: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Resulting in 15 citations.
1. Akers, Aletha Y.
Cohen, Elan D.
Marshal, Michael P.
Roebuck, Geoff
Yu, Lan
Hipwell, Alison E.
Objective and Perceived Weight: Associations with Risky Adolescent Sexual Behavior
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 48,3 (September 2016): 129-137.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/48e11416/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Intercourse; Contraception; Gender Differences; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Obesity; Sexual Behavior; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased sexual risk-taking, particularly among adolescent females, but the relationships between obesity, perceived weight and sexual risk behaviors are poorly understood.

METHODS: Integrative data analysis was performed that combined baseline data from the 1994-1995 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (from 17,606 respondents in grades 7-12) and the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (from 7,752 respondents aged 12-16). Using six sexual behaviors measured in both data sets (age at first intercourse, various measures of contraceptive use and number of partners), cluster analysis was conducted that identified five distinct behavior clusters. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis examined associations between adolescents' weight status (categorized as underweight, normal-weight, overweight or obese) and weight perception and their cluster membership.

RESULTS: Among males, being underweight, rather than normal-weight, was negatively associated with membership in increasingly risky clusters (odds ratio, 0.5), as was the perception of being overweight, as opposed to about the right weight (0.8). However, being overweight was positively associated with males' membership in increasingly risky clusters (1.3). Among females, being obese, rather than normal-weight, was negatively correlated with membership in increasingly risky clusters (0.8), while the perception of being overweight was positively correlated with such membership (1.1).

CONCLUSIONS: Both objective and subjective assessments of weight are associated with the clustering of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, and these behavioral patterns differ by gender.

Bibliography Citation
Akers, Aletha Y., Elan D. Cohen, Michael P. Marshal, Geoff Roebuck, Lan Yu and Alison E. Hipwell. "Objective and Perceived Weight: Associations with Risky Adolescent Sexual Behavior." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 48,3 (September 2016): 129-137.
2. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Mott, Frank L.
Neubauer, Stefanie A.
Friendships and Early Relationships: Links to Sexual Invitation among American Adolescents Born to Young Mothers
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34, 3 (2002): 118-126.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12137125
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age at First Birth; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Dating; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Preadolescent friendships and early teenage dating relationships have implications for adolescent sexual initiation that may differ by race and gender.

METHODS: Data on participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children are used to profile friendship and dating patterns among a sample of youth born to relatively young mothers. Logistic regression analyses examine whether these patterns predict early sexual initiation, and whether there are differences associated with gender and race.

RESULTS: As youth moved from late childhood to midadolescence, they shifted from having almost exclusively same-sex, same-grade friends to having more relationships with persons who are of the opposite sex and older. By ages 15-16, 34% had had sexual intercourse; the proportion was significantly higher among blacks (45%) than among others (31%). Most adolescents reported neither frequent dating nor a steady partner by ages 15-16, although the prevaleance of such reports was related to friendship patterns in late childhood. Twelve percent of youth who initiated sex in early adolescence did so outside of a dating relationship. For most subgroups examined, the odds of initiating intercourse during early adolescence were associated with going steady, but not with frequency of dating.

CONCLUSIONS: Prior social networking is an important element in predicting early sexual activity. Overall, youth whose mothers gave birth at young ages remain sexually inexperienced into middle adolescence, but certain subgroups are more likely than others to initiate early sexual activity.

Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C., Frank L. Mott and Stefanie A. Neubauer. "Friendships and Early Relationships: Links to Sexual Invitation among American Adolescents Born to Young Mothers." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34, 3 (2002): 118-126.
3. Gemmill, Alison
Perceived Subfecundity and Contraceptive Use Among Young Adult U.S. Women
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 50,3 (September 2018): 119-127.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/psrh.12072
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Contraception; Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Women who view themselves as having difficulty becoming pregnant (i.e., being subfecund) may feel that they do not need to use contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancy. However, subfecundity perceptions are not always medically accurate and may therefore confer a false sense of protection. The extent to which perceived fecundity is related to contraceptive use is not well understood.

METHODS: Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between perceived fecundity at age 25–30 and contraceptive use among 2,091 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort.

RESULTS: Compared with women who considered themselves very likely to become pregnant, those who thought that they were only somewhat likely and those who viewed themselves as not very likely to do so had significantly higher risks of not using contraceptives within the next year (risk ratios, 1.9 and 2.4, respectively). Results were similar in analyses controlling for either a medical diagnosis of infertility, a history of multiple miscarriages or stillbirths, or absence of pregnancy following at least six months of unprotected sex, suggesting that perceived subfecundity operates independently of experienced subfecundity.

CONCLUSION: Because few studies have investigated fecundity perceptions in their own right, more research is needed to understand how women evaluate their fecundity and to integrate these perceptions into broader frameworks describing women's perception of pregnancy risk. Such work may help identify potential levers to improve contraceptive use.

Bibliography Citation
Gemmill, Alison. "Perceived Subfecundity and Contraceptive Use Among Young Adult U.S. Women." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 50,3 (September 2018): 119-127.
4. Hollander, Dore
Upward Mobility Benefits White Women's Infants, But Not Black Women's
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 39,1 (March 2007): 60-61.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/39060_207/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Family Income; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Social; Poverty; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children born to white women who grew up in poverty but whose economic situation improved by adulthood have reduced odds of being low-birth-weight; in an analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this association was unaffected by the inclusion of maternal background characteristics and health-related behaviors during pregnancy. The same relationship does not hold for infants born to blacks, however. Rather, their likelihood of being low-birth-weight is associated with maternal marital status, household composition at the time of the birth and weight gain during pregnancy.

See: Colen CG et al., Maternal upward socioeconomic mobility and black-white disparities in infant birthweight, American Journal of Public Health, 2006, 96(11):2032-2039.

Bibliography Citation
Hollander, Dore. "Upward Mobility Benefits White Women's Infants, But Not Black Women's." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 39,1 (March 2007): 60-61.
5. Huang, Chien-Chung
Pregnancy Intention from Men's Perspectives: Does Child Support Enforcement Matter?
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 37,3 (September 2005): 119-124.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/3711905/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Child Support; Children, Well-Being; Contraception; Modeling, Logit; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Sexual Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Most research on pregnancy intention has focused on women's perspectives and characteristics. Because decisions about sexual activity and contraceptive use usually involve both men and women, it is important to understand factors associated with men's intentions--for example, child support enforcement--to maximize the potential for reducing unwanted pregnancies. METHODS: Data from the 1982-2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used in multinomial logit analyses to examine the determinants of pregnancy intention from men's perspectives. RESULTS: Forty-six percent of pregnancies reported by never-married men were unwanted, compared with 21% of those reported by married men. Stronger child support enforcement was marginally associated with men's decreased likelihood of being involved in an unwanted pregnancy compared with no pregnancy (coefficient, -0.14) and of being involved in an unwanted pregnancy compared with a wanted pregnancy (-0.15). Without the improvement of child support enforcement over the survey period, the rate of unwanted pregnancies would have been an estimated 7% higher than the observed rate. CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening child support enforcement may have a positive impact on preventing unwanted pregnancies. Programs designed to reduce unwanted pregnancies and nonmarital births should include information on child support enforcement to increase their success. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Chien-Chung. "Pregnancy Intention from Men's Perspectives: Does Child Support Enforcement Matter?" Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 37,3 (September 2005): 119-124.
6. Korenman, Sanders D.
Kaestner, Robert
Joyce, Theodore J.
Consequences for Infants of Parental Disagreement in Pregnancy Intention
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34,4 (July-August 2002): 198-205.
Also: https://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3419802.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Composition; Infants; Marital Status; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Health; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Despite the well-established literature on couples' pregnancy intention and on the consequences of unintended pregnancy, the effects of parents' disagreement in fertility intentions has not been explored. Parental disagreement in pregnancy intention,as well as a father's pregnancy intention, may affect infant health.

RESULTS: Infants whose conception was intended by their mother but not their father are at elevated risk of adverse health events. When a pregnancy was not intended by the mother, the risks are higher than they are if both parents intended the pregnancy, but they differ little according to the father's intention. Thus, it may be useful to classify pregnancies as intended by both parents or not intended by at least one. In comparisons of siblings, unintended fertility (so defined) is associated with delayed prenatal care and reduced initiation of breastfeeding.

CONCLUSION: Information on both parent's fertility intentions is needed to identify infants at risk of adverse health and developmental outcomes.

Bibliography Citation
Korenman, Sanders D., Robert Kaestner and Theodore J. Joyce. "Consequences for Infants of Parental Disagreement in Pregnancy Intention." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34,4 (July-August 2002): 198-205.
7. Manlove, Jennifer S.
Logan, Cassandra
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Ikramullah, Erum N.
Pathways from Family Religiosity to Adolescent Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 40,2 (June 2008): 105-117.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/4010508/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Intercourse; Contraception; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Religious Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Few studies with nationally representative longitudinal data have examined whether and how family religiosity is associated with adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior. METHODS: Data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to examine associations between a multidimensional measure of family religiosity assessed during early adolescence and reproductive health outcomes (sexual activity, number of partners and consistent contraceptive use) at age 17. Pathways through which family religiosity is associated with these outcomes were identified using structural equation models. RESULTS: Family religiosity was negatively associated with adolescent sexual activity, both directly (beta, −0.14) and indirectly (−0.02). The indirect association was mediated by family cohesion (as reflected in parental monitoring among the entire sample and among males, and in parent-teenager relationship quality and family routine activities among females) and negative peer behaviors. Greater family religiosity was indirectly associated with having fewer sexual partners (−0.03) and with using contraceptives consistently (0.02); these relationships were mediated through later age at first sex, more positive peer environments and higher levels of parental monitoring and awareness. However, among sexually active males (but not females), family religiosity was directly and negatively associated with contraceptive consistency (−0.11). CONCLUSION: Cohesive family environments and positive peer networks contribute to reduced levels of risky sexual behavior among adolescents from religious families. Parents who monitor their children's activities and peer environments, engage their families in regular activities and foster strong parent-child relationships can help reduce risky sexual behavior, regardless of family religiosity. Parental involvement in prevention programs may help reduce rates of teenage pregnancy and STDs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Manlove, Jennifer S., Cassandra Logan, Kristin Anderson Moore and Erum N. Ikramullah. "Pathways from Family Religiosity to Adolescent Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 40,2 (June 2008): 105-117.
8. Manlove, Jennifer S.
Steward-Streng, Nicole R.
Peterson, Kristen
Scott, Mindy E.
Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Transition to a Teenage Birth in the United States
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 45,2 (June 2013): 89-100.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/4508913/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Intercourse; Childbearing, Adolescent; Contraception; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Differences; Family Environment; Immigrants; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Racial Differences; School Performance; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort were used to link characteristics of white, black, U.S.-born Hispanic and foreign-born Hispanic adolescents to teenage childbearing. Following a sample of 3,294 females aged 12-16 through age 19, discrete-time logistic regression analyses were used to examine which domains of teenagers' lives were associated with the transition to a teenage birth for each racial and ethnic group, and whether these associations help explain racial and ethnic and nativity differences in this transition.
Bibliography Citation
Manlove, Jennifer S., Nicole R. Steward-Streng, Kristen Peterson, Mindy E. Scott and Elizabeth Wildsmith. "Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Transition to a Teenage Birth in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 45,2 (June 2013): 89-100.
9. Manlove, Jennifer S.
Welti, Kate
Barry, Megan C.
Peterson, Kristen
Schelar, Erin
Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Relationship Characteristics and Contraceptive Use Among Young Adults
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 43,2 (June 2011): 119-128. doi: 10.1363/4311911. Epub 2011 May 17.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/4311911/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Contraception; Dating; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Young adults have high rates of unintended childbearing and STDs, yet little research has examined the role of relationship characteristics in their contraceptive use.

METHODS:
Data collected from the 2002-2005 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth yielded a sample of 4,014 dating relationships among sexually active 18-26-year-olds. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic and multinomial logistic regressions assessed associations between relationship characteristics and contraceptive use at last sex.

RESULTS:
In three-quarters of the relationships, respondents had used some method at last intercourse; respondents in 26% of the relationships had used a condom only, in 26% a hormonal method only and in 23% dual methods. Compared with respondents in relationships in which first sex occurred within two months of starting to date, those who first had sex before dating were more likely to have used any method at last sex (odds ratio, 1.4), particularly condoms or dual methods (relative risk ratio, 1.5 for each). The relative risk of using a hormonal method only, rather than no method or condoms only, increased with relationship duration (1.01) and level of intimacy (1.1-1.2). Discussing marriage or cohabitation was associated with reduced odds of having used any method (0.7) and a reduced relative risk of having used condoms alone or dual methods (0.6 for each). Increasing levels of partner conflict and asymmetry were also linked to reduced odds of any method use (0.97 and 0.90, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:
Prevention programs should address relationship context in contraceptive decision making, perhaps by combining relationship and sex education curricula to foster communication and negotiation skills.
Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.

Bibliography Citation
Manlove, Jennifer S., Kate Welti, Megan C. Barry, Kristen Peterson, Erin Schelar and Elizabeth Wildsmith. "Relationship Characteristics and Contraceptive Use Among Young Adults." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 43,2 (June 2011): 119-128. doi: 10.1363/4311911. Epub 2011 May 17.
10. Manlove, Jennifer S.
Welti, Kate
Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Barry, Megan C.
Relationship Types and Contraceptive Use Within Young Adult Dating Relationships
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 46,1 (March 2014): 41-50.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/46e0514/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Contraception; Dating; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Relationship Conflict

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 2002–2005 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort were used to examine contraceptive use in 3,485 young adult dating relationships. Latent class analysis was employed to develop a typology of relationships using measures of relationship structure (duration) and quality (intimacy, commitment and conflict). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between relationship type and contraceptive use and method choice at last sex.
Bibliography Citation
Manlove, Jennifer S., Kate Welti, Elizabeth Wildsmith and Megan C. Barry. "Relationship Types and Contraceptive Use Within Young Adult Dating Relationships." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 46,1 (March 2014): 41-50.
11. McLeod, Jane D.
Knight, Syndee
Association of Socioemotional Problems With Early Sexual Initiation
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42,2 (June 2010): 93-101.
Also: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123360309/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Intercourse; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Self-Reporting; Sexual Activity; Social Emotional Development

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Research on the association between socioemotional problems and early sexual initiation has not evaluated differences across types of problems, by gender, or by race or ethnicity.

METHODS: Data were analyzed for a sample derived from the Children of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth: 1,836 youth who were 10–11 years old at the 1992, 1994 and 1996 waves. Mothers' reports of their child's socioemotional problems at age 10–11 were assessed; sexual initiation before age 15 was assessed using youth self-reports. Logistic regression analyses estimated associations between socioemotional problems and early initiation; predicted probabilities and group differences were calculated using various regression techniques.

RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of youth had had intercourse before turning 15, and their average level of each problem was higher than the level of those who had not. Both internalizing problems (e.g., depression and dependency) and externalizing problems (e.g., hyperactivity and antisocial behavior) were associated with early sexual initiation (odds ratios, 1.1 and 1.2, respectively), but only externalizing problems retained significance when both types were included in the model (1.2). Among specific problems, only hyperactivity and antisocial behavior were associated with early initiation (1.2 for each). Youth with a high level of externalizing problems had a higher predicted probability of having early sex than did those with a low level (0.28 vs. 0.21). Associations between socioemotional problems and early initiation did not differ by gender or by race or ethnicity.

CONCLUSIONS: Interventions should be targeted at youth with externalizing problems, especially those who engage in antisocial or hyperactive behavior, in an effort to promote positive social interactions.

Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute

Bibliography Citation
McLeod, Jane D. and Syndee Knight. "Association of Socioemotional Problems With Early Sexual Initiation." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42,2 (June 2010): 93-101.
12. Rich, Lauren M.
Kim, Sun-Bin
Employment and the Sexual and Reproductive Behavior of Female Adolescents
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34,3 (May-June 2002): 127-134
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Employment; Employment, History; Employment, Youth; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Women's employment opportunities may reduce the risk of early intercourse and pregnancy, but some evidence has linked adolescent employment and problem behaviors with early intercourse. METHODS: Hazard regression analyses of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Yoputh were used to examine the relationship between employment and the risk of first intercourse before age 20 among women who were aged 14-16 in 1979. The relationship between employment and the risk of a first, nonmarital pregnancy among sexually experienced young women was also assessed. RESULTS: Current employment and cumulative months of past employment are associated with increased hazards of first intercourse (hazard ratios, 1.20 and 1.01, respectively); this association is particularly strong for white young women. Adolescents who work more than 120 hours a month are significantly more likely than nonworking adolescents to experience first intercourse (1.4). Although current employment has no effect on the likelihood of a first, nonmarital pregnancy among white adolescents, it is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy among blacks and with a reduced risk of pregnancy among Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Program planners and policymakers should be aware of the potential association between adolescent employment, particularly intense employment, and the likelihood of initiating intercourse and experiencing pregnancy, even if causality is still unclear.
Bibliography Citation
Rich, Lauren M. and Sun-Bin Kim. "Employment and the Sexual and Reproductive Behavior of Female Adolescents." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34,3 (May-June 2002): 127-134.
13. Shearer, Darlene Louise
Mulvilhill, Beverly A.
Klerman, Lorraine V.
Wallander, Jan L.
Hovinga, Mary E.
Redden, David T.
Association of Early Childbearing and Low Cognitive Ability
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34, 5 (2002): 236-243
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Fertility

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Teenage pregnancy remains a pressing social issue and public health problem in the United States. Low cognitive ability is seldom studied as a risk factor for adolescent childbearing. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used in a matched-pairs nested case-control study comparing women who had a first birth before age 18 with those who did not. Significant differences in Armed Forces Qualifications Test scores and in reproductive and social intervening variables were determined using chisquare analyses and t-tests. Multiple logistic regression models determined the independent effects of specific factors on early childbearing. RESULTS:Women who had their first birth before age 18 had significantly lower cognitive scores than others; women with a second birth before age 20 had significantly lower scores than those with one teenage birth. On average, women with the lowest cognitive scores initiated sexual activity 1.4 years earlier than those with the highest cognitive scores. Among those who had had a sexuality education course, a smaller proportion of women had scores in the first quartile for the overall sample than in the fourth quartile (20% vs. 28%); an even greater difference was seen among women who correctly answered a question about pregnancy risk (14% vs. 43%). Both poverty and low cognitive ability increased the odds of early childbearing. CONCLUSIONS: Young women with low cognitive ability are at increased risk for early initiation of sexual activity and early pregnancy. Further research is needed to design interventions that consider this population's specific information and support needs.
Bibliography Citation
Shearer, Darlene Louise, Beverly A. Mulvilhill, Lorraine V. Klerman, Jan L. Wallander, Mary E. Hovinga and David T. Redden. "Association of Early Childbearing and Low Cognitive Ability." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34, 5 (2002): 236-243.
14. Shearer, Darlene Louise
Mulvilhill, Beverly A.
Klerman, Lorraine V.
Wallander, Jan L.
Hovinga, Mary E.
Redden, David T.
Association of Early Childbearing and Low Cognitive Ability
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34,5 (2002):236-243
Also: http://agi-usa.org/pubs/journals/3423602.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Intelligence

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used in a matched-pairs nested case-control study comparing women who had a first birth before age 18 with those who did not. Significant differences in Armed Forces Qualifications Test scores and in reproductive and social intervening variables were determined using chisquare analyses and t-tests. Multiple logistic regression models determined the independent effects of specific factors on early childbearing. RESULTS: Women who had their first birth before age 18 had significantly lower cognitive scores than others; women with a second birth before age 20 had significantly lower scores than those with one teenage birth. On average, women with the lowest cognitive scores initiated sexual activity 1.4 years earlier than those with the highest cognitive scores. Among those who had had a sexuality education course, a smaller proportion of women had scores in the first quartile for the overall sample than in the fourth quartile (20% vs. 28%); an even greater difference was seen among women who correctly answered a question about pregnancy risk (14% vs. 43%). Both poverty and low cognitive ability increased the odds of early childbearing.
Bibliography Citation
Shearer, Darlene Louise, Beverly A. Mulvilhill, Lorraine V. Klerman, Jan L. Wallander, Mary E. Hovinga and David T. Redden. "Association of Early Childbearing and Low Cognitive Ability ." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34,5 (2002):236-243.
15. Whitworth, Tanya Rouleau
Paik, Anthony
Sex and Education: Does Sexual Debut During Adolescence Lead to Poor Grades?
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health published online (20 May 2019): DOI: 10.1363/psrh.12101.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/psrh.12101
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

METHODS: Data collected over four years from a specific cohort (1,321 eighth‐ and ninth‐graders) of a nationally representative longitudinal study, the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, were examined using fixed‐effects regression models to assess the relationship between first sexual intercourse and grade point average (GPA).

RESULTS: Overall, no relationship was found between students' first sexual intercourse and GPA. For black females and Latinos of either gender, having had first sexual intercourse was associated with a lower GPA (coefficients, -216 and -161, respectively, corresponding to grade point decreases multiplied by 100). For black females, this association was observed only in the context of romantic relationships (-243). The predicted GPAs for black females aged 14 or 15 who reported first intercourse in a romantic relationship were significantly lower than those for their counterparts who had not had intercourse, whereas at 18 this was reversed. For Latinos, the predicted GPAs of 14‐ and 15‐year‐olds who had had sex were also lower than those of their sexually inexperienced counterparts.

Bibliography Citation
Whitworth, Tanya Rouleau and Anthony Paik. "Sex and Education: Does Sexual Debut During Adolescence Lead to Poor Grades?" Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health published online (20 May 2019): DOI: 10.1363/psrh.12101.