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Source: Ph.D. Dissertation
Resulting in 313 citations.
1. Akabayashi, Hideo
On The Role of Incentives in The Formation of Human Capital in The Family
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Endogeneity; Family Background; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Labor Economics; Modeling; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Parents, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

This research proposes a new view of the formation of human capital in the family. The traditional assumption has been to treat children's early characteristics as a result of "family background," in other words, an exogenous spillover from the parents. In contrast, I insist that the characteristics develop as human capital partly due to children's effort, and that parents' strategic intervention is important as incentives. My framework is used to interpret a variety of phenomena observed in child development and parent-child relationships. I first develop a game theoretic model between a myopic child and an altruistic parent with imperfect monitoring. It predicts that a particular type of parent's actions (e.g., praise and punishment) can be an endogenous input for the child's development by giving incentives for good effort. Psychologists have observed that an "authoritative" mother, who establishes firm control and admires her child's achievements, has children who are likely to be competent in their development. The implication of my model is consistent with this observation. I then test the prediction of the model using data of mother-child pairs from The Children Supplement of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1986-92. I constructed measures of the severity and variation of a mother's "incentive actions" (punishing and praising) from variables in the Home Observation of the Environment (HOME). It is found that a child's effort is a good predictor of early intellectual development and is likely to be induced by the mother's intervening actions as predicted. Finally, the model is further extended to explain why in some families unstable parent-child relationships, such as "child abuse," may occur. I additionally assume that a parent cannot observe a child's human capital accumulation and that a child's discount factor develops endogenously as the child develops. I construct a model where a parent uses the Kalman filter to form beliefs regarding a child's developing human capital. The model predicts that the parent's estimate of the child's effort may be divergent and negatively-biased due to the endogenous instability of the child's development process. This suggests the possibility of persistently punitive intervention.
Bibliography Citation
Akabayashi, Hideo. On The Role of Incentives in The Formation of Human Capital in The Family. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1996.
2. Allen, Leana Cristine
A Life Course Analysis of the Relationship Between Military Service and Criminal Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): p. 1218
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Crime; Life Course; Military Service; Military Training; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Veterans; Vietnam War

Throughout U.S. history, the military has served as one of the largest employers and educators of young men and women. As such, it has had a great influence in the lives of a large proportion of the U.S. population. Despite the potential impact of military service in later life, little research attention has focused on this topic, particularly in criminology. The few studies that have examined the relationship between military service and criminal behavior tend to have ignored pre-military characteristics, and results vary depending on the time period during which the sample served in the military. This study applies a life course framework to the question of how military service influences later criminal behavior. The main purpose of this research is to determine whether military service changes existing trajectories of criminal behavior and/or whether the military provides another setting for the continuation of pre-military behavior patterns. Other important considerations include selection into the military, the timing of military service in an individual's life, and the historical context of service. For example, do those who enter the military at an earlier age experience greater change in criminal behavior than those who enter later in life? Additionally, does the influence of military service on criminal behavior differ by historical context?

To address these questions, this study uses four data sets; three birth cohorts (1942, 1945, and 1949) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Men in these samples served during different historical periods from the beginning of the Vietnam War to the early period of the all-volunteer force. Statistical methods were used to account for potential differences in selection and the presence of unobserved heterogeneity. Results suggest that there is an important influence of military service on later criminal behavior, but the specific direction of the effect depends on the historical period in which service occurred. In particular, serving in the military during the Vietnam era was related to reduced offending, and service during the volunteer era was related to increased offending. These results were significant even after controlling for race, education, socioeconomic status, age, and prior criminal behavior patterns.

Bibliography Citation
Allen, Leana Cristine. A Life Course Analysis of the Relationship Between Military Service and Criminal Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): p. 1218.
3. Alston, David, Jr.
Sex and Race Differences in Locus of Control and Adult Criminal Involvement: Towards An Integration of Self and Social Structural Perspectives
Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 02A (2001): 782
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Crime; Educational Status; Family Background; Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Racial Differences; Religious Influences

This research explores the extent alternative theoretical perspectives explain criminal involvement and deviant behavior for young adult white and black men and women. I use a self and social structural model to examine sex-race differences in how age, social structure, and various attitudinal measures are related to locus of control and frequency of criminal involvement. A core set of concepts are examined and operationalized using data from the National Longitudinal Youth Survey. The core concepts can be divided into several areas: age, family background, educational experiences, cognitive skills, current family and work status, religious experiences, gender ideology, and workplace inequality. The relationship between these concepts, locus of control and criminal involvement are tested across subgroups: white men, black men, white women, and black women. Several interactions between educational experiences and between cognitive skills and educational experiences are also tested.

The analyses revealed a variety of differences in locus of control development and criminal involvement for men and women, whites and blacks. The findings lead to the general conclusion that the social origins of locus of control follow a different path for African Americans than for whites, and different still across categories of gender. The empirical findings suggest that African American men were particularly disheartened. The findings also suggest that it would be promising for future research to explore the "self-reliant social psychology" surrounding locus of control development of African Americans.

Bibliography Citation
Alston, David, Jr. Sex and Race Differences in Locus of Control and Adult Criminal Involvement: Towards An Integration of Self and Social Structural Perspectives. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 02A (2001): 782.
4. Amott, Teresa L.
Three Essays on Occupational Segregation: Women and Men in the Labor Force
Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston College, 1980. DAI-A 41/02, p. 734, August 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Wages

The nature and extent of occupational segregation of women and men in the United States labor force is examined in three essays. The first essay documents occupational segregation and utilizes factor analysis to differentiate the characteristics of jobs held predominantly by women from those of jobs held predominantly by men. The second essay discusses and evaluates theories of occupational segregation which have been put forth by economists. The third essay presents empirical work which is designed to identify the mechanisms generating and perpetuating sex segregation in the labor force. The effect of occupational sex-type upon wages is examined for a sample of women and men from the National Longitudinal Surveys. The results are consistent with both supply- and demand-based models of segregation. Wages fall as the female share of employment in an individual's occupation approaches a turning point, after which a rising share of female employment is associated with a wage premium ceteris paribus. This pattern is observed for white women and men of both races; black women, however, receive a wage premium as the female share of employment approaches a turning point, and are penalized for participation in occupations in which the female share of employment exceeds the turning point.
Bibliography Citation
Amott, Teresa L. Three Essays on Occupational Segregation: Women and Men in the Labor Force. Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston College, 1980. DAI-A 41/02, p. 734, August 1980.
5. Anderson, Douglas K.
Paths Through Secondary Education: Race/Ethnic and Gender Differences
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Education, Secondary; Ethnic Differences; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Gender Differences; High School Dropouts; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Racial Differences; School Completion

Secondary education is a series of transitions: entry to high school, grade repetition, dropout, re-enrollment after dropout, and alternative diploma-earning. After documenting race/ethnic and gender differences in these transitions, this work examines the correlates and determinants of each transition. The analysis is based primarily on hazard rate models of secondary schooling histories from 1978-79 to 1985-86 of 5,755 individuals drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1960 to 1964 birth cohorts. Male students are more likely to repeat grades, a difference not explained by any characteristics included in this analysis. There was no appreciable gender difference in dropout rates. Ability is a strong predictor of grade repetition, while dropout depends on ability, background, and many intervening variables. Analyses of re-enrollment and earning alternative diplomas (GEDs) revealed few reliable race/ethnic or gender differences. All else equal, black dropouts returned to school at higher rates than white dropouts, and male dropouts returned at lower rates than female dropouts.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Douglas K. Paths Through Secondary Education: Race/Ethnic and Gender Differences. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994.
6. Atkins, Robert L.
Perinatal and Infancy Factors Associated with Personality Functioning During Early Childhood
Ph.D. Dissertation, Temple University, October 2004. DAI-B 65/04, p. 2135, Oct 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Development; Children, Poverty; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Infants; Mothers, Education; Poverty; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Risk-Taking; Temperament

The association of perinatal and infancy risk factors to maladjusted personality functioning in early childhood was investigated using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Sample (NLSY-CS). Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) and multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low levels of maternal education and poverty during the first year of life were significant in the prediction of the under-controlled personality type at 5 and 6 years of age. Factors such as prenatal cigarette smoking and low birth weight were not significant in the prediction of maladjusted personality functioning. The implications of these results for personality functioning research and early intervention programs are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Atkins, Robert L. Perinatal and Infancy Factors Associated with Personality Functioning During Early Childhood. Ph.D. Dissertation, Temple University, October 2004. DAI-B 65/04, p. 2135, Oct 2004.
7. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Child Outcomes as Signals and the Receipt of Child Support
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Support; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Family Structure; Family Studies; Fertility; Heterogeneity; Parents, Non-Custodial; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Children from nonintact families achieve educational outcomes that are significantly lower than children from intact families. Empirical evidence suggests that the receipt of child support makes up for over half of this educational disadvantage. Moreover, previous work estimates that child support has benefits for the children that receive it that is several times greater than that of other dollars. This result would arise if (1) unobserved factors such as the noncustodian's altruism toward the child or the level of conflict between the parents are correlated with both the child support and child achievement outcomes or (2) noncustodial parents use child support strategically to influence custodians to invest more heavily in the children. This study considers both possibilities. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this study evaluates the impact of child achievement on child support payments. The empirical model accounts for the endogeneity of family structure, fertility, measurement error in child achievement, and the quality of the information the noncustodian has about the child through a semiparametric, maximum likelihood framework. A discrete factor specification of unobserved heterogeneity links the child outcomes, the propensity that a woman and her child are eligible to receive child support, and the amount of child support received. The empirical results provide strong evidence that child achievement has a positive effect on both the receipt and amount of child support. This result is robust across various specifications and actually increases substantially with the inclusion of controls for the endogeneity of family structure and for the endogeneity and measurement error associated with the proxies for child achievement. This is the relationship predicted by a principal-agent model in which the noncustodial parent is unable to observe the resources devoted to the child by the custodian, but does observe a signal of those resources. The findings of this study improves our understanding of the links between child support and child achievement. It points out some low-cost policies that could increase the well-being of children in nonintact families. Consider, for example, a change in school policies to send report cards to noncustodial as well as custodial parents. This provides the noncustodian with more accurate information regarding the child's achievement. If the custodial parent recognizes that it is now easier for the noncustodian to monitor the resources devoted to the child, this policy may lead to increased investments in the child.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen. Child Outcomes as Signals and the Receipt of Child Support. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.
8. Aukstikalnis, Amy Marie
Gender Differences in the Job Turnover Behavior of Young Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Houston, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Gender Differences; Industrial Relations; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Labor Turnover; Modeling; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Quits

This study uses data from the 1979 through 1991 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to analyze gender differences in the job-quitting behavior of young workers on their first career jobs. Using a semi-parametric duration model, significant gender differences in the job-quitting behavior of young workers are found. For both Blacks and Whites, the coefficient estimates of the model and the shape of quit hazard functions are different for men and women. For both men and women, however, the shape of the hazard function coincides with theoretical predictions. The quit hazard functions peak early in employment duration, and then tend to decline with job tenure thereafter. The quit hazard function, however, appears to decline more gradually for women than for men. By the end of the fourth year of employment, however, the quit hazard rates of men and women, within race groups, tend to equalize.
Bibliography Citation
Aukstikalnis, Amy Marie. Gender Differences in the Job Turnover Behavior of Young Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Houston, 1995.
9. Averett, Susan L.
Child Care Costs and Female Labor Supply: An Empirical Investigation of the Effects of the Child Care Tax Credit on Female Labor Supply & Demand for Child Care
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, 1991. DAI-A 52/06, p. 2235, December 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Labor Supply; Mothers; Taxes

While the increasing labor force participation rates of mothers with young children is a well documented phenomenon, little is known about the role child care costs play in this increase, or how these costs influence the demand for quality and quantity of child care. This dissertation is a theoretical and empirical exploration of the effects of the child care credit in the U.S. income tax system on female labor supply and the choice of formal versus informal child care arrangements. This tax credit, inherent in the U.S. federal income tax code since 1976, provides a subsidy to working families towards both the quantity and quality of formal child care purchased. This subsidy creates a nonlinear budget set similar in shape to that created by a progressive income tax. Data from the youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys are utilized to estimate the labor supply function of the mother. The labor supply response is found to be quite large with respect to changes in the wage net of care costs. A variety of specifications are estimated and the results appear to be robust. Policy simulations are performed to determine the effects of various proposals concerning the federal funding of child care. The results from simulating the model indicate that subsidization of child care costs through policies enacted by the government can influence female labor supply. Specifically, a government policy that has the effect of raising net wage rate, perhaps by increasing the percentage of child care costs that are subsidized, can have substantial impacts on female labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. Child Care Costs and Female Labor Supply: An Empirical Investigation of the Effects of the Child Care Tax Credit on Female Labor Supply & Demand for Child Care. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, 1991. DAI-A 52/06, p. 2235, December 1991.
10. Axelrod, David Allen
Three Essays on Latency in Economics and Decision-Making
Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers University, 1990
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Racial Differences; Time Preference

The first essay invokes latency in decision-making to rationalize positive time preference. A person is seen as economically self-determined when they specify their own preferences/utility function, a latent decision. This is analogous to choosing one's own problem, or project, to work on. Time preference expresses the mixing of temporally distinct projects. The determination of discounting of future time periods is seen as portfolio selection. The variables which affect these weights are the expected utility within the moment, and that utility's variance. This is interpreted to mean that a person preferring certainty, and perceiving increasing uncertainty into the future, will tend to focus her attention toward the present. It is suggested that time preference can be influenced by information about the future. The second essay reviews and extends Richard Stone's article, 'On the Interdependence of Blocks of Transactions.' A factor analysis is run using U.S. macroeconomic data for the period 1969-1984, and contrasted with Stone's analysis for 1922-1938. Stone's 'inner variables' are shown not to work well with the more recent data. A new interpretation is then provided within an extra-market influence framework. It is concluded that monetary influence is the largest factor in the explanation of the data, followed by foreign and fiscal policy influences. Simple regression results are provided for comparison. The third essay develops a competing risks hazard rate model of return to the labor force by young first-time mothers, for NLS 1968-1973 data. The competing risks are: return to the last employer before birth, and returning to a different employer. Significant structural differences are found for white and non-white women samples. The predominant variable associated with duration out of labor force is the woman's time out of labor force before birth. A hypothesis is conjectured that a woman's preferences become more weighted toward expenditures (and away from time with the child) as the child grows older, thus, inducing return to the labor force even if her wage rate and fixed income remains the same.
Bibliography Citation
Axelrod, David Allen. Three Essays on Latency in Economics and Decision-Making. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers University, 1990.
11. Ayala, Mary Ann
Household Productivity and its Effects on Labor Force Participation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Miami, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Dual Economic Theory; Household Models; Labor Force Participation; Wages, Reservation

A structural model of the head of the household's time and dollar-expenditures shares on child-care services is derived and estimated in order to determine whether the technology of household-production exhibits economies of scale and scope. The components of this structural model are used to assess the effects of household-productivity and child-care subsidization on labor force participation.

The components of the structural model include the reservation costs and the costs of market-produced child-care services. The reservation costs, derived in the study by relying on the duality theorems, are used to estimate the effects of household-productivity on labor force participation. These price factors that are related to market-produced child-care are used to estimate the effects of subsidization on labor force participation, independent of other factors. The study group, consisting of 1906 young heads of households, between fourteen and twenty-two years of ages, was selected from the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS-Y).

The findings reveal the presence of scale economies in the head of the household's production of child-care services. Higher reservation costs, reflecting higher estimates of household-productivity, lower the household's dollar-expenditures on market-produced child-care services. Among females, but not male youths, higher reservation costs also lower the labor force participation rate.

For illustration, the minimum subsidy requirement associated with a ten percentage point increase in the female youths' labor force participation rate is calculated. Higher reservation costs increase the minimum subsidy requirement.

Bibliography Citation
Ayala, Mary Ann. Household Productivity and its Effects on Labor Force Participation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Miami, 1992.
12. Bae, Seong-O
Women's Human Capital Investment and Its Returns in the United States: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2002. DAI-A 63/11, p. 3814, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; Job Satisfaction; Job Tenure; Job Training; Training; Training, Employee; Women's Studies

During the last few decades, there have been numerous changes in women's human capital investment and labor force participation in the United States. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79, this study addressed how demographic variables affect women's human capital investment, and in turn how women's human capital investment affects their economic and non-monetary returns. This study also examined the patterns of women's human capital investment and its effects on economic and non-monetary returns. Results of the analyses showed that female students had higher grade point averages (GPA), but lower Armed Forces Qualification Tests (AFQT) scores than male students. The results indicated that women invested in post-secondary education as much as men. Marriage and children had negative effects on women's post-secondary education investment. With respect to training, the results demonstrated that women are less likely to be trained than men. Both marriage and children had significant negative effects on women's training investment early in a career. However, these effects attenuated with progression toward the later career. This study found a significant positive relationship between education and training investment and earnings. This positive effect of human capital investment on earnings was found to be stronger later in a career. The results of this study provided evidence that a gender gap in earnings persisted. Higher education provided higher employability. Also found in this study is the fact that women, regardless of education investment, are less likely to be employed than men. Training was found to be positively associated with employability later in a career. Education investment was found to be positively associated with job satisfaction. Training investment was positively related to job satisfaction early in a career. There was no evidence found concerning gender difference in effects of education investment on job satisfaction. Education investment had a negative effect on tenure early in a career, but education investment showed a positive effect on tenure later in a career. Women had less tenure than men. Married people were found to have longer tenure, while the children factor was associated with less tenure. Training was positively related with tenure. Higher education and training investment were found to provide employees with a higher chance to promote. The results of this study also suggested that despite education investment, women are less likely to be promoted than men.
Bibliography Citation
Bae, Seong-O. Women's Human Capital Investment and Its Returns in the United States: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2002. DAI-A 63/11, p. 3814, May 2003.
13. Baharudin, Rozumah
Predictors of Maternal Behavior and Their Effects on the Achievement of Children: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1992. DAI-A 53/09, p. 3377, March 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Disruption; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem

The purposes of this study were to identify factors that predict the parenting behavior of mothers, and factors that predict the achievement of children. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the study focused on 898 mothers (African-American, n = 347; Caucasians, n = 551), and their 6 to 8 year-old children. Consistent with Belsky's model of the determinants of parenting, the quality of the home environment was influenced by maternal characteristics, contextual factors and child characteristics. Mothers who provided better quality home environments were older in age at the time of their first birth, and had higher levels of intelligence and self-esteem. Mothers who had higher levels of family income, fewer children, and had a spouse or partner in the home also provided more supportive home environments. Female children tended to receive more supportive care than male children. Additional analyses showed that the quality of the home environment was related to the achievement of children. Children who did well had mothers who provided more cognitively stimulating home environment.
Bibliography Citation
Baharudin, Rozumah. Predictors of Maternal Behavior and Their Effects on the Achievement of Children: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1992. DAI-A 53/09, p. 3377, March 1993.
14. Bailey, Adrian John
A Longitudinal Analysis of the Migration of Young Adults in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Life Cycle Research; Migration; Mobility; Mobility, Job

This research is an investigation of the migration of young adults in an explicitly longitudinal context. Research on migration has traditionally centered on identifying the reasons why people move. That approach is enlarged in this research by shifting the emphasis to investigations of why individuals remain at particular locations for greater or lesser intervals of residence. The emphasis on duration of residence allows for the investigation of a wider range of hypotheses about migration but makes it necessary to use longitudinal information to test these hypotheses. The primary objective of the research was to develop a longitudinal model of migration. This was achieved by using an extension of random utility theory to the longitudinal context. An attempt was made to specify the complete set of factors which had been suggested by largely cross-sectional job search and human capital studies as important controls on the length of the residential sojourn. The conceptual model incorporates four such sources of population heterogeneity: employment factors, mobility constraints, life-cycle factors, and the acquisition of human capital. The model is constructed to emphasize the role of migration history for influencing the duration of the sojourn through these sources of population heterogeneity. A survival analysis suggested that the systematic variation that was present in the distribution of sojourn lengths was linked to migration history. A further set of research hypotheses confirmed the relevance of employment and human capital controls on the length of the sojourn. Parameter estimates obtained from a proportional hazards model suggested that unemployment and previous migration history were most strongly associated with shorter sojourns, and experience in the current labor market with longer sojourns and reduced mobility. The research concludes with a summary of the findings and a discussion of the usefulness of longitudinal methods and models for the analysis of time-space problems.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Adrian John. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Migration of Young Adults in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1989.
15. Baker, Nancy Roux-Teppen
American Indian Women in an Urban Setting
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Discrimination, Age; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Racial Differences; Religious Influences; Urbanization/Urban Living

Educational, marital and family backgrounds, employment history, current activities and assets were examined to determine how well Indian women in urban settings had accommodated themselves to this environment. Comparisons were made with non-Indian urban women from the National Longitudinal Surveys. The sample (fifty women from thirteen states representing eighteen tribes), living in an Ohio industrial SMSA, was also questioned about knowledge of and participation in their Indian cultures. Comparisons with non-Indians showed significant differences--the Indian women were less well educated, held lower status jobs with less pay, and came from larger families where parents had less education and lower socioeconomic statuses. The Indian women themselves had more children and marriages and poorer health. They were generally unskilled and more frequently worked full-time (when health permitted) or held second jobs than non-Indians. Racial discrimination was reported more frequently against Indians; more incidents of age or sex discrimination were not apparent. Comparisons among Indian women, based on childhood geographic areas, indicated that regional historic and political differences were important in retention of traditional heritages. With the Mississippi River as boundary, the eastern group, mostly from southeastern rural areas, was predominantly Cherokee and Lumbee. They had less education, fared less well economically, spoke no Indian languages, and knew less about their history and culture than westerners. All women were Christian with two belonging to the syncretic Native American Church. Easterners were generally Evangelical Fundamentalists while most westerners belonged to mainstream churches. These urban Indian women were not involved in pan-Indian movements; few evinced interest or knowledge of backgrounds beyond pride in their heritage. A third were reservation-born; only three lived there beyond age 15. The women lived wherever low-cost housing was available; no specifically Indian neighborhoods existed. The Indian Center combined features of social service agencies and gathering place. Eastern families had come to the city for jobs; western women had married men from the area. Although some want to eventually return to home bases to be with other Indians or to help their people, most find the comforts and advantages of city life to their liking and would prefer to remain.
Bibliography Citation
Baker, Nancy Roux-Teppen. American Indian Women in an Urban Setting. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1982.
16. Baktari, Paul
Job Competition versus Wage Competition: An Analysis of Competing Models
Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Labor Supply; Overeducation

In the 1970s, job opportunities and occupational attainment for individuals leaving school underwent an unprecedented downturn. Factors which led to the deterioration of employment opportunities for high school and college graduates were due partly to changes in the supply and demand for educated workers. The increase in the supply of college-trained workers was not matched by a similar increase in demand. The predictions of two competing models used to explain labor market behavior, the wage-competition and the queuing models are tested. To test the predictions of the two models, young white males 14 to 24 years old with different educational backgrounds were selected from the NLS during their first year of entry to the labor market covering the decade from 1966 to 1976. The finding partially supported both of the labor market models, thus demonstrating the value of using queue theory in conjunction with neoclassical theory in studies on the labor market. The results indicated that for high school and college graduates, the relative changes in supplies increased competition both within and between these groups. However, to the extent that changes in supply were caused by the size of the baby boom cohort, implications for investment in education for future cohorts are unclear.
Bibliography Citation
Baktari, Paul. Job Competition versus Wage Competition: An Analysis of Competing Models. Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1980.
17. Balkan, Sule
Social Insurance Programs and Compensating Wage Differentials in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Arizona, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Regions; Simultaneity; Unemployment Insurance; Unemployment Rate; Wage Differentials; Wage Rates

This dissertation brings together empirical analyses of the impact of social insurance programs on compensating wage differentials under different institutional frameworks. I study three periods: the late nineteenth century prior to the introduction of Unemployment Insurance, the Great Depression when Unemployment Insurance is introduced, and then the recent period, in which UI has been long established. Initially, late nineteenth century labor markets with no social programs for workers were investigated. Three different data sets were analyzed from two different states, Maine and Kansas, to examine the precautionary saving behavior of workers and the wage premium they received for the expected unemployment prevalent in their industry. Results showed that workers were receiving statistically and economically significant wage premiums in two of the three samples. Also, in two of the three samples, households were able to save against expected unemployment using family resources. In the second chapter, after reviewing the historical backgrounds of social insurance programs, namely Workers' Compensation, Compensation for Occupational Diseases, and Unemployment Insurance (UI), the empirical literature about the impacts of these programs on wages is reviewed. Later in the chapter, hours and earnings data for various manufacturing industries across forty- eight states for the years 1933-1939 are brought together with the state UI, Workers' Compensation, and Compensation for Occupational Diseases provisions to test the impact of these laws on wage rates. The economic history and origins of UI have not been elaborated before and no previous study has analyzed the simultaneous impacts of different social insurance programs. Results showed that higher accident rates, limited working hours and the higher regional cost of living had a positive impact on wages. Workers' Compensation continued to have a negative impact on wages. During its infancy, UI benefits did not have a statistically significant effect on wages. The last chapter analyzes the impact of UI and the unemployment rate for the labor market of the worker on wage rates using micro level modern data. Results from the analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth suggest that expected UI benefits have a negative and statistically significant impact on wages, holding worker and labor market characteristics constant. However, the unemployment rate of the labor market did not have a statistically significant impact on wages.
Bibliography Citation
Balkan, Sule. Social Insurance Programs and Compensating Wage Differentials in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Arizona, 1998.
18. Bartolich, Eugene
A Study of Managerial Employee Propensity Towards Unionization
Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1990. DAI-A 52/02, p. 699, August 1991
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Quality of Employment Survey (QES); Unions; White Collar Jobs

This study is an empirical investigation into the extent and nature of managerial employee interest in unionization. Two national level surveys, the 1977 Quality of Employment Survey and the 1980 update of the National Longitudinal Surveys, and a 1988 area survey were screened by occupational code for managerial respondents. Based upon previous research, a priori hypotheses were formulated to test the effects of an array of explanatory variables upon the criterion variable, the respondents vote on the call for certification of a union. Explanatory variables tested represented personal, occupational, and industry characteristics identified in previous studies as being related to patterns of unionization. The array of variables was clustered into subsets of variables or constructs commensurate with the hypotheses. Hypotheses were tested for overall effect of the constructs, and individual variables were tested for their effect on the vote outcomes. Testing was done using the loglinear model with the categorical level variables and analysis of variance with the continuous level ones. Results show an increasing trend in the percentage of managers voting for certification of the union for the period from 1977 through 1988. Constructs and individual variables affecting the vote on union certification varied with the respective data set. Substantially, the same variables that evoked a response among nonmanagerial personnel caused a like effect on the managers. The study supports the previous research on attitudes toward unionization and extends it to the managerial group. The study concludes that the managerial group displayed an increasing propensity towards unionization over the period 1977 through 1988, and it identifies the attitudes affecting this propensity. These results suggest that follow-up studies with other special groups in the work force are warranted in order to examine their propensity towards unionization.
Bibliography Citation
Bartolich, Eugene. A Study of Managerial Employee Propensity Towards Unionization. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1990. DAI-A 52/02, p. 699, August 1991.
19. Beck, Scott Herman
Differences in Expected and Actual Retirement Age Among Older Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, 1981. DAI-A 43/01, p. 268, July 1982
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Behavior; Health Factors; Retirement

This thesis is a study of retirement that analyzes the discrepancy between the expected age and the actual age of retirement. The conceptual model used combines Atchley's (1979) general model of the retirement process with the approach of attitude-behavior theory. Three general factors are hypothesized to determine both the expected age and actual age. The factors are (1) constraint factors, (2) job-related factors, and (3) social and psychological factors. A secondary hypothesis concerns adjustment to retirement. It is hypothesized that discrepancies between the actual and expected age of retirement, especially earlier-than-expected retirement, will lead to less successful adjustment to retirement. Panel data collected between 1966 and 1976 on men aged 45-59 in 1966, were used to investigate these relationships. Because of the truncated age range of the respondents, the average age of retirement was 61 years, while the average expected age was about 65 years. A low correlation was found between expected and actual age. An analysis of change in expected age over the ten years of the survey, using panel members who had not retired, showed a large degree of instability in expected age. In a regression analysis of the expected age among men who had retired, predictors in all three of the general factors significantly affected the expected age. Mandatory retirement policies and pension eligibility reduced the expected age while commitment to work increased the expected age. Older workers expected to retire later, but this finding may be an artifact of the data. In the regression analysis of actual age only work-related health limitations, which reduce the age of retirement, were significant. In considering the discrepancy between the actual and expected age, mandatory retirement policies, eligibility for a pension and higher assets reduced the negative difference between the actual and expected age, while the existence of a work-related health limitation and high commitment to work increased the negative discrepancy. With respect to retirement satisfaction, earlier-than-expected retirement led to lower satisfaction with retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. Differences in Expected and Actual Retirement Age Among Older Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, 1981. DAI-A 43/01, p. 268, July 1982.
20. Bjornsdottir, Amalia
Gender Differences in Mathematics: Genetic and Environmental Influences With Special Emphasis on High and Low Ability
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Gender Differences; Genetics; Pairs (also see Siblings); Psychological Effects; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

The research literature does not agree whether there is a gender difference in mathematics. This study used a national dataset, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and found a gender difference favoring males on Arithmetic Reasoning, Mathematical Knowledge, and General Science scales. Females outperformed males on Numerical Operations. The gender difference seems to be driven by the difference in the upper tail of the ability distribution. A DeFries-Fulker (DF) Analysis was done to estimate heritability and shared environmental influences in the whole ability distribution, and in the upper and lower tails of the distribution. The analysis found small to moderate heritability estimates in the whole ability distribution, but small to zero estimates in the tails of the ability distribution, especially in the upper tail. The estimates of the shared environmental influence were high in the overall distribution, low in the top 25% and close to zero in the bottom 25% of the a bility distribution. Measures of gender patterns were also entered into the DF Analysis models, to account for gender differences in genetic and environmental influences. In addition, heritability and shared environmental influences were also estimated separately for female-female pairs, male-male pairs and mixed gender pairs. The heritability for the female-female pairs was higher than for the whole distribution. The h2 estimates for the male-male pairs were similar to those for the whole distribution. The mixed pairs patterns of h2 estimates were inconsistent with respect to those in the whole distribution. The shared environmental influences were similar between the whole ability distribution and the three gender categories. Results are discussed in terms of how genes and the environment interact for the two genders, with attention to specific sources of both shared and nonshared environmental influences.
Bibliography Citation
Bjornsdottir, Amalia. Gender Differences in Mathematics: Genetic and Environmental Influences With Special Emphasis on High and Low Ability. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 1996.
21. Blake, Pamela Jean
Measurement of Participation in Vocational Education: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1986. DAI-A 47/07, p. 2556, January 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; High School Curriculum; High School Transcripts; Racial Differences; Vocational Education

The purpose of this study was to develop, evaluate, and determine the generalizability of two measures of participation in vocational education. The measures apply the confirmatory factor analysis method and used data from The National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experiences, New Youth Cohort (NLS, Youth). Two questions answered in this study were: (1) Can an acceptable measure of participation in vocational education be created from Carnegie Units earned in vocational courses transcribed from students records? (2) Is the measure of participation in vocational education equally appropriate for sex and race groups? Two models of participation in vocational education were constructed in this study. The Full Model and the Restricted Model. Both models use sums of Carnegie Units earned in high school vocational education courses as observed measures of participation. The Full Model refers to courses that could be considered, in a very loose sense, as vocational education. The Full Model contains nine components representing the following subject matters: agriculture education; career planning and education; distributive education; health occupations education; home economics education; industrial arts education; office occupations; related academic education; and trade and industrial education. The Restricted Model summarizes participation in the nine vocational areas into a single index of participation Results of the analysis showed that specific measures of participation in components of vocational education are more reliable than a general measure of participation. Both measures of participation were generalizable over sex and race groups. However, the full Model again provided a much better fit to the data and was more reliable.
Bibliography Citation
Blake, Pamela Jean. Measurement of Participation in Vocational Education: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1986. DAI-A 47/07, p. 2556, January 1987.
22. Blue, Beth-Anne
Women in the Work Force: Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control from 1968-1991
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology, Palo Alto CA
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Racial Differences

Today, more than 50% of all women in America work. Psychological studies in the workplace, however, have traditionally focused on men (e.g., D'Arcy, Syrotnik & Kiddique, 1984; White & Spector, 1987). Among male workers, job satisfaction and life satisfaction are related (e.g., Hesketh & Shouksmith, 1986). Locus of control (Rotter, 1966) is a construct which has also been related to job satisfaction in men (Andrisani & Nestel, 1976). However, working women might conceivably have a more externalized locus of control due to issues of sexual harassment, discrimination, and lower pay for equal work (Unger & Crawford, 1992; Betz & Fitzgerald, 1987) which are often outside of a woman's control. To date, there are few studies which examine the relationships among job satisfaction, life satisfaction and locus of control among working women. Thus, the following study was conducted.The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which job satisfaction, life satisfaction and locus of control are related in a population of working women. Using a subject pool of over 5000 women who have been tracked since 1968 by the United States Department of Labor, the following was found. Job satisfaction was related to life satisfaction, in that those most satisfied with their jobs were most satisfied with their lives. Locus of control was related to both job and life satisfaction: (1) those who were most satisfied with their jobs were the most internally controlled; and (2) those who were most satisfied with life were also the most internally controlled. Using multivariate statistics, results indicate that ethnicity plays an important intermediary role in understanding the relationships between locus of control and job and life satisfaction, with African-American respondents being more externally controlled, more dissatisfied with their jobs and more dissatisfied with their lives than whites. Longitudinal data examined trends in job satisfaction, life satisfaction and locus of control over the years 1968-1991. The most significant trend revealed in longitudinal analyses was that job satisfaction significantly decreased for women between 1971-1978.
Bibliography Citation
Blue, Beth-Anne. Women in the Work Force: Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control from 1968-1991. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology, Palo Alto CA.
23. Borraz, Fernando Miguel
Essays on Inequality and Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgetown University, 2004. DAI-A 65/09, p. 3479, March 2005.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wages

This thesis consists of three chapters. In the first two chapters earnings inequality is analyzed. This is relevant because inequality increased in the last decades in developed and developing countries. Chapter 1 estimates returns to education in the US using information from two datasets, the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS and NLSY79) and the Public User Microdata Sample (PUMS). The high correlation between schooling and ability did not allow the separate identification of each effect. The PUMS dataset contains information on wages and education but not on ability and can therefore be exploited to improve the precision of the NLS and NLSY79 estimates. The results suggest a positive but not increasing over time wage gap for the most able during the 80's, and between 1980 and 2000. Chapter 2 studies the evolution of income distribution in Mexico over the last decade, a period of rapid integration to the global and North American economies. We measure differences in income inequality, over time and across Mexican states, and relate them to regional differences in the degree of globalization. We present compelling evidence showing that income distribution is more equitable in states that are more closely linked to the world economy. As a potential explanation of why globalization might improve the distribution of income among Mexican households, we show that states that are more integrated to the world economy offer better work opportunities for low-skilled women relative to more educated female workers. Chapter 3 analyzes the impact of remittances on child human capital in Mexico. During the 90's and in particular after the “tequila crisis” Mexican workers increased remittances sent to home from the United States. This chapter analyzes the effect of such increasing source of income on child human capital decisions. Results obtained from Census data indicate a positive and small effect of remittances on schooling only for girls living in cities with less than 2,500 inhabitants with mothers with a very low level of education. On the contrary, results from Household Survey data do not suggest any impact of remittances on schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Borraz, Fernando Miguel. Essays on Inequality and Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgetown University, 2004. DAI-A 65/09, p. 3479, March 2005..
24. Bowlus, Audra Jann
Essays on Labor Market Dynamics and the Existence of Political Equilibrium
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Job Patterns; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Modeling; Unemployment Rate; Wage Dynamics; Wage Levels

The first essay contains an empirical analysis of how job match quality varies over the business cycle. Using NLSY data I examine two match quality indicators: job tenure and starting wages. There are two main findings. First, match quality is adversely affected during recessions. Both tenure and starting wages are negatively related to the national unemployment rate at the start of the job. Thus during recessions individuals take lower paying jobs which dissolve quicker. Second, the labor market internalizes the mismatching though wages. The increased mismatching during recessions is captured by the labor market through lower wages with individuals moving out of jobs as soon as better times and matches arrive. The remaining two essays focus on cyclical and secular trends in aggregate labor market data using a general equilibrium search model and on factors influencing the existence of political equilibrium in growth models with heterogeneous agents.
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann. Essays on Labor Market Dynamics and the Existence of Political Equilibrium. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, 1993.
25. Buchele, Robert
Jobs and Workers: A Labor Market Segmentation Perspective on the Work Experience of Younger Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings; Job Analysis; Job Satisfaction; Schooling; Work Attitudes

This thesis utilizes a labor market segmentation framework to analyze the work experiences (attitudes, employment stability, earnings and occupational achievement) of a sample of young men from the National Longitudinal Surveys Career Thresholds data. Jobs are classified by detailed Census industry and occupation, and the outcomes experienced by individuals are analyzed to determine: (1) the separate contribution, apart form workers' personal (human capital) characteristics, of job class in accounting for differences among workers in earnings, job satisfaction and employment behavior; (2) how workers' personal attributes interact with job characteristics in generating these outcomes; and (3) how personal characteristics influence individuals' job (occupational class) location.
Bibliography Citation
Buchele, Robert. Jobs and Workers: A Labor Market Segmentation Perspective on the Work Experience of Younger Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1976.
26. Budig, Michelle Jean
Professionals, Carpenters, and Childcare Workers: Sex Differences in Self-Employment Participation and Earnings
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, 2001. DAI-A 62/08, p. 2885, Feb 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Supply; Occupational Status; Self-Employed Workers

Despite the revitalization of non-agricultural self-employment among men, and especially among women, since 1970, little research has examined sex differences in self-employment participation and outcomes using national longitudinal probability samples. In addition, even less research has examined how these sex differences vary by occupational status. Using data from each census between 1940 and 1990, along with data from the 1979-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this dissertation examines sex differences in the historical context of and trends in self-employment, factors that affect the likelihood of self-employment entrance, and earnings returns to self-employment. Analyses are run separately for non-professional and professional workers. Sex differences in the effects of human capital and labor supply, occupational and industrial sex segregation, job characteristics, family factors, and demographic characteristics on self-employment participation and earnings are explored. General theories of self-employment participation, based on the experiences of men, are tested to see if they can explain women's self-employment experiences as well. These theories include three versions of the disadvantaged worker theory--that workers with fewer employable skills, workers in bad jobs, and workers that face employer discrimination will turn to and benefit from self-employment. Two gendered theories that take women's structural position in the economy and the family are also examined. These theories argue that women whose family responsibilities conflict with work obligations and highly skilled women who are trying to circumvent employer discrimination will turn to and benefit from self-employment. Findings show support for the gender-neutral discouraged worker and the gendered work and family conflict theories. Workers in bad jobs are more likely to become self-employed, as are married women and mothers. Less support is found for the glass ceiling breaker theory. Female childless professionals are the only group of women who benefit equally from self-employment, compared with men. All other women face earnings penalties for being self-employed. However, the benefits of self-employment, such as lower child care costs, greater flexibility in work schedules, and control over the intensity of work may compensate for the self-employment penalty mothers incur.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean. Professionals, Carpenters, and Childcare Workers: Sex Differences in Self-Employment Participation and Earnings. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, 2001. DAI-A 62/08, p. 2885, Feb 2002.
27. Byun, Yongchan
Compositional and Processual Aspects of Living Arrangements Among Elderly Black Men and White Men with European Heritage Across Developmental Time
Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1991
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Assets; Education; Income; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Residence

This dissertation focused on the variations in elderly male living arrangements across race/ethnic subgroups, at large, and across developmental time. Of particular interest were the roles played by compositional and processual dynamics in race/ethnic variations in elderly living arrangements through the incorporation of a set of intervening determinants and interactions combining these determinants. Three mechanisms affecting the decision to live in a specific living arrangement, namely, preference, feasibility, and availability, were assessed. These three mechanisms were considered to be a function of social structural placement (race/ethnicity and a set of intervening determinants), the individual, and historical time both directly and indirectly. Six specific intervening determinants were examined in this study, namely, education, residential environment, net assets, disability, marital status, and number of surviving children. A pooled sample (N = 8,334) drawn from the 1971, 1976, and 1981 survey rounds of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) was utilized for this research. The general findings of this research suggest that there are variations in elderly living arrangements across race/ethnic subgroups. In other words, each of the three contrasting groups, namely, (1) Northwestern European origin White men (NW White men) versus native born and native parentage White men (U.S. White men), (2) Southern, Central, and Eastern European origin white men (SCE White men) versus U.S. White men, and (3) Black men versus U.S. White men, reveal separate patterns in the choice of elderly male living arrangements. The contrast between NW White men and U.S. White men reveals no differences in results of coresidence with adult relatives. In contrast, SCE White men have significantly higher levels of coresidence with adult relatives compared to U.S. White men, and this pattern does not diminish with the inclusion of the intervening determinants and their interactions. Among Black men significantly higher levels of coresidence are observed relative to U.S. White men. However, the differences disappear with the inclusion of the intervening determinants.
Bibliography Citation
Byun, Yongchan. Compositional and Processual Aspects of Living Arrangements Among Elderly Black Men and White Men with European Heritage Across Developmental Time. Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1991.
28. Cain, Virginia S.
Changing Fertility Expectations of American Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1986
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Family Formation; Fertility; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Racial Differences

Recent research indicates that the discrepancy between final fertility and earlier birth expectations results not only from people not achieving their original goal but also from the goal itself changing. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in fertility plans are related to other events occurring in the lives of the young adults. This research examined changes in fertility plans between 1979 and 1983 among the NLSY. The sample was divided on the basis of gender, racial/ethnic group, age, and parental status, first child born between 1979 and 1983, and first child born before the 1979 interview. Findings showed considerable change in fertility plans between 1979 and 1983. Almost 50 percent of the sample reported a change, with the majority of those reducing the number of children expected. Variables most important for explaining changes in birth expectations were those related to family formation. Generally, marriage was associated with a reduced likelihood of lowering birth expectations while divorce increased the likelihood of reducing the expected number of children. The results point to several areas that could benefit from further investigation. The models providing the best fit of the data were those for white women with children. This suggests the need for considering a different framework for explaining fertility among non-whites. The exploratory analyses of the data from the men and childless women show the importance of family formation issues for fertility plans but indicate the need for considering the multiplicity of family forms in which young adults live.
Bibliography Citation
Cain, Virginia S. Changing Fertility Expectations of American Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1986.
29. Calderon, Vivian
Maternal Employment and Career Orientation of Young Chicana, Black, and White Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Santa Cruz, 1984. DAI-B 45/09, p. 3112, March 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Occupational Aspirations; Racial Differences; Sex Roles

Data from the 1979 Youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Behavior provide support for a causal model of career orientation in which maternal employment plays a primary role. Career orientation measures (1) work commitment and (2) realism in planning educational, vocational and birth goals--significant work related issues for young women 16-22 years of age. Maternal employment operates via enrollment and family attitude variables to raise career orientation. Effect sizes and the pattern of relationship among the model variables differs for each ethnic/racial group when a causal structure is imposed on the data. For all groups, the more employment observed, the greater the positive effects. Largest significant direct effects for maternal employment are observed in the white sample, followed by blacks. But hierarchical causal analysis indicates the largest significant total effects for maternal employment occur in the Chicana sample, followed by blacks. This indicates the cumulative effect of maternal employment on enrollment status, marital timing and gender role attitudes raises career orientation scores were more in the minority samples. Particularly noteworthy is the way maternal employment vitiates traditional gender role attitudes among Chicanas. For young black women, the effects of maternal employment are more uniform across the intervening variables, with enrollment status playing a slightly larger role in raising career orientation scores. A review of the status attainment literature provides the background for the study. The review is organized by gender, race/ethnicity, and developmental stage.
Bibliography Citation
Calderon, Vivian. Maternal Employment and Career Orientation of Young Chicana, Black, and White Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Santa Cruz, 1984. DAI-B 45/09, p. 3112, March 1985.
30. Campbell, John M.
Household Demand: A Synthesis of Interdisciplinary Theory and Empiricism
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1975
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Resources; Fertility; Household Demand; Marriage; Simultaneity; Wages

Resurgence of social scientists' concern with household demand has created intradisciplinary disputes within economics over the exact interaction of the economic determinants of marriage, labor force participation, and fertility. To test the validity of opposing views, a theoretical model of household utility maximization is developed initially and then tested empirically using a novel data base and several estimation procedures. In general, the results make the following tentative observations: (1) average wage rates are an inadequate proxy for general time value; (2) racial differences in household demand cannot be accurately measured by analysis of covariance estimation procedures; (3) ordinary least squares are generally inferior to the Tobit and Twin Linear probability estimation procedures; (4) contrary to Willis' and the new household demand school of thoughts belief, individual family member utility functions are not independent; and most importantly, (5) competing views within economics and other social scientists contributions reinforce each other when all are included simultaneously as household demand determinants.
Bibliography Citation
Campbell, John M. Household Demand: A Synthesis of Interdisciplinary Theory and Empiricism. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1975.
31. Carneiro, Pedro M.
Heterogeneity in the Returns to Schooling: Implications for Policy Evaluation
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2003. DAI-A 64/07, p. 2602, Jan 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Heterogeneity; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Schooling; Tuition

In this paper I examine the empirical importance of accounting for heterogeneity (and selection) in the estimation of the returns to schooling and in the evaluation of education policy. I study white males and females in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and High School and Beyond, and white males in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. I find that, across datasets, heterogeneity (and selection) in returns is an empirically relevant phenomenon. The return to schooling for the average student in college is systematically above the return to schooling for the average individual indifferent between going to college or not (marginal individual). It is also generally above the return for individuals induced to go to college by different tuition subsidies.
Bibliography Citation
Carneiro, Pedro M. Heterogeneity in the Returns to Schooling: Implications for Policy Evaluation. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2003. DAI-A 64/07, p. 2602, Jan 2004.
32. Carr, Rhoda Viellion
Effects of Teenage Work Experience Over Ten Years: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Education, Secondary; Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Formation; Family Studies; Income; Labor Force Participation; Work Experience

This dissertation reports findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) concerning the effects of working during the teen years on educational attainment, labor force participation, income, family formation, and alcohol and drug use at age 22 and age 26. The sample includes all those in the 1962-1964 birth cohorts. Results from my analysis of long-term effects suggest moderately negative effects on educational attainment-- working youth are less likely to attend college or to complete four or more years of college. However, working during high school has a positive effect on a variety of labor force outcomes (labor force participation, employment status, and income) at age 22 and age 26, despite the small educational decrement that working youth suffer. Those with more work experience during their teens marry earlier, and are somewhat more likely to use alcohol and marijuana. The study concludes that, by the early to mid-twenties, the labor force and income gains somewhat offset the educational decrements that result from working while in high school.
Bibliography Citation
Carr, Rhoda Viellion. Effects of Teenage Work Experience Over Ten Years: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University, 1995.
33. Caspary, Gretchen Lynn
Effects of Parental AFDC Receipt on Children and Adolescents: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 2003. DAI-A 64/04, p. 1425, Oct 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Welfare

This study estimates the relationship between parental welfare receipt and several cognitive and behavioral outcomes in childhood and adolescence/young adulthood. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Ordinary least squares and fixed-effects regressions suggest an association between AFDC receipt and some outcomes. Welfare received in very early childhood appears to be negatively associated with reading scores and hyperactivity in childhood, but receipt in the preschool period (age 4-5) is linked to an improvement in incidences of peer conflict. Parental AFDC receipt during adolescence is associated with decreased years of completed education among the daughters of recipients. Possible pathways of these effects are discussed. Nevertheless, the conclusion of this study is that, overall, there does not appear to be a significant association between parental welfare receipt and most of the child and adolescent outcomes examined here. Suggestions are made for future research.
Bibliography Citation
Caspary, Gretchen Lynn. Effects of Parental AFDC Receipt on Children and Adolescents: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 2003. DAI-A 64/04, p. 1425, Oct 2003.
34. Casserly, Catherine Marie
Poverty and Education in the United States, 1969-1988: An Analysis of Women's Returns to Human Capital Investment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1996. DAI-A 57/08, p. 3438, Feb 1997
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Economics of Minorities; Educational Attainment; Human Capital; Poverty; Racial Differences

In the United States, public policies designed to reduce poverty are overwhelmingly influenced by human capital theory, since education is viewed as the powerful mechanism by which productivity will increase, incomes will be raised, and economic opportunity will be provided. Although African-American women followed the prescription set forth by human capital theory and increased their educational attainment by over 2 years from the late 1960s to the late 1980s, their incidence of poverty remained fairly stable. This study examines why educational investments by that population most susceptible to being poor, African-American females, have not reduced poverty as expected. Using National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience data, structural equation models of poverty are estimated and compared for 1969 and 1988 cohorts of women. The results are used to assess whether the poverty gaps between times and races are due to differences in resources, such as differing levels of education, or due to differing returns to characteristics. Finally, a time series analysis is conducted with aggregate-level data. The ability of human capital investment to alleviate poverty for African-American women differs depending on whether one estimates private or social returns. In the individual-level analysis, education is a strong negative determinant of poverty status and is found to be equally sensitive for each time period studied. Education is also found to be a critical mediating variable between family of origin, teen birth, and poverty, suggesting its important indirect effect on women's later economic prosperity. Results from the time series analysis, however, indicate that increased schooling did not exert any negative pressure on the aggregate poverty rate. Further, results suggest that African-American women's returns to educational investment are consistently lower than white women's, irrespective of overall level of education and resources. In sum, the results clearly demonstrate that education is only one of many determinants of poverty and, consequently, reducing poverty requires a more comprehensive strategy than one built around human capital theory alone. Although education is a critical determinant of poverty, educational investment should be only one of a host of related and integrated strategies used to reduce the level of economic hardship in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Casserly, Catherine Marie. Poverty and Education in the United States, 1969-1988: An Analysis of Women's Returns to Human Capital Investment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1996. DAI-A 57/08, p. 3438, Feb 1997.
35. Chan, Christopher Go
Socioeconomics, Culture, and Black-White Differences in Marriage
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1996. DAI-A 57/05, p. 2214, Nov 1996
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Marriage; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Socioeconomic Factors

This study draws on past research to formulate a socioeconomic and a cultural perspective on the race gap in marriage. I argue that black women are less likely to marry because they face poor marital prospects and because they are more likely to possess long-term work plans. Marriage market quality provides the theory with a socioeconomic flavor since this concept links marriage timing to the economic position of men. On the other hand, work plans are socioeconomic because they reflect job aspirations and cultural because they are stable and persistent. I test this theory using data from the 1968-1991 National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women. The analyses can be broadly divided into three sections. The first section examines race differences in marriage markets by ascertaining why there is a shortage of black men who can support and maintain a family. The second section then examines work plans--I evaluate the cultural underpinnings of work plans by analyzing the formation of initial work plans, the acquisition and abandonment of work plans, and the role of maternal socialization in generating these changes in work plans. Finally, the third section evaluates the effects of marriage markets and work plans on marriage. I use event-history models to examine the transition to marriage for black and white women and examine whether indicators of marriage market quality and long-term work plans can explain away race differences. There is considerable empirical support for the proposed theory. Accounting for marriage market quality and work plans reduces the race gap in marriage, although the efficacy of work plans depends on the measure used--a time varying-measure of work plans is more effective in explaining away the race gap than a measure of initial work plans. There is also preliminary evidence that a marriage market regulates the timing of marriage and that the negative effects of work plans reflect the difficulties of combining work and family responsibilities. Also, the analysis suggest that work plans are a reflection of an underlying work-oriented culture that is created through exposure to female role models.
Bibliography Citation
Chan, Christopher Go. Socioeconomics, Culture, and Black-White Differences in Marriage. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1996. DAI-A 57/05, p. 2214, Nov 1996.
36. Chapman, Bruce James
An Economic Analysis of Quit Behavior: A Case Study of Young U.S. Males
Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1982. DAI-A 43/12, p. 3996, June 1983
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Endogeneity; Job Turnover; Labor Turnover; Quits; Racial Differences; Wage Levels

This dissertation investigates theoretically and empirically the economic determinants of voluntary labor turnover. A model is developed that incorporates aspects of both search and human capital theory. The predictions of this framework are tested and confirmed in general with the use of the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men. The model assumes that workers attempt to improve lifetime earnings through job change, and will do so in response to stochastic changes in demand. These changes have implications for both wage levels and job opportunities. A major constraint to quitting is seen to be the existence of worker-financed firm specific human capital. These investments are not transferable and thus job change is more expensive the greater the opportunity cost of foregone returns. Perhaps the most important contribution of the thesis lies in the empirical analysis. Estimates of the worker's wage relative to the mean of his alternative distribution are derived through the use of residuals from an earnings function. It is demonstrated that this is a more appropriate test than the use of wage, the conventionally utilised variable. Further, approximations of worker-financed firm specific training outlays are computed through estimations of wage growth as a consequence of job specific tenure. A feature of this approach is the use of a two-stage least squares procedure treating tenure as an endogenous variable in the wage equation. The results suggest that ordinary least squares estimations misrepresent the relationship between tenure and wages. The quit estimations reveal that workers had higher probabilities of separation the lower was wage relative to the mean of the alternative wage distribution, the lower was age, the lower was firm specific tenure, the lower was specific training, if they did not belong to unions, if they were healthy and if they were white. This last finding is of interest given that it provides weak evidence for the existence of racial discrimination. This follows if blacks have higher expected durations of unemployment given a quit. Several issues remain unresolved from the exercise. First, local unemployment rates appear not to matter as quit determinants, a finding at variance with time series studies. Second, it is not possible to distinguish the major search hypothesis of the model from an identical prediction from job mismatch theory.
Bibliography Citation
Chapman, Bruce James. An Economic Analysis of Quit Behavior: A Case Study of Young U.S. Males. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1982. DAI-A 43/12, p. 3996, June 1983.
37. Cheong, Keywon
Poverty and Migration: Synthesis of Macrolevel and Microlevel Perspectives of Migration
Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1987. DAI-A 49/09, p. 2818, March 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Geographical Variation; Migration; Mobility; Poverty

This study assesses effects of contextual and personal characteristics on the migration propensities of individuals, with primary focus on several measurements of individual poverty status and the poverty level of the residential areas. The restricted opportunity perspective on poverty, the human capital perspective and the microeconomic perspective on migration, are the major frameworks guiding the study. Logistic regression analysis of data from the NLSY and from the 1983 County and City Data Book is employed to investigate differences in the migration behavior between the poor and nonpoor, and significant main and interactive effects of the macrolevel and microlevel factors on the migration behavior of American youth. The major findings are: (1) youth living in areas with less employment opportunities are more migratory; (2) poor youth are less migratory than the nonpoor; and (3) the poor living in areas with less employment opportunities are least migratory. These findings are consistent when migration is classified into primary and repeat migration, but are not consistent across the ethnic groups. Findings point to the importance of: (1) integrating macrolevel and microlevel perspectives for better understanding of migration behavior of individuals; (2) comparing the migration behavior of the poor with the nonpoor; and (3) controlling ethnic group status in the migration study. [UMI ADG88-23613]
Bibliography Citation
Cheong, Keywon. Poverty and Migration: Synthesis of Macrolevel and Microlevel Perspectives of Migration. Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1987. DAI-A 49/09, p. 2818, March 1989.
38. Cherlin, Andrew J.
Social and Economic Determinants of Marital Separation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1976. DAI-A 37/03, p. 1827, September 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children; Divorce; Earnings; Employment; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Unemployment; Wives

The social and economic determinants of separation and divorce were studied using a national sample of 5,000 women aged 30 to 44 who were interviewed annually from l967 to l97l. A subsample of about 3,500 nonfarm women who were married with their husbands present in l967 was extracted from the data. The characteristics of the women who remained married until l97l were compared statistically with the characteristics of the women who separated or divorced.
Bibliography Citation
Cherlin, Andrew J. Social and Economic Determinants of Marital Separation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1976. DAI-A 37/03, p. 1827, September 1976.
39. Cho, Pill Jay
Work and Welfare: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1981. DAI-A 42/12, p. 5268, June 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Employment; Government Regulation; Welfare

This dissertation is concerned with the relationship between work and welfare. A review of the literature indicates that there are two competing hypotheses. In general, sociologists argue that people are more likely to continue working even when it is not an economical necessity because of the "meaning of work." Economists, on the other hand, insist that, at the same level of income, people tend to choose leisure rather than work. We tested the null hypothesis of no effects of welfare on work against the alternative hypothesis of negative effects using data from the NLS, because it contains rich information on both work and welfare. Since AFDC is usually the focus of the work-welfare debate, the sample was chosen from the Mature Women subset of NLS whose marital status is similar to that of AFDC mothers, i.e., all women excluding those who are "married, spouse present." Because the feedback effects of work on welfare had to be taken into account, and because we wished to use multiple indicators of the theoretical concepts, we developed a model which manifests these two important points in addition to other features of causal relations involved. Thus, we used Joreskog's maximum likelihood method (LISREL) as well as ordinary least squares method (regression analysis) to test the hypotheses mentioned above. We found little significant effects of welfare on work, while work exerts significant impact on welfare. Thus, it seems more sensible to try to reduce the welfare burden by increasing work rather than to attempt to increase work by reducing welfare.
Bibliography Citation
Cho, Pill Jay. Work and Welfare: A Cross-Sectional Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1981. DAI-A 42/12, p. 5268, June 1982.
40. Cho, Woo Hyun
Promotion Prospects, Job Search and the Quit Behavior of Employed Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1983. DAI-A 44/01, p. 242, July 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Job Training; Mobility, Job; Quality of Employment Survey (QES); Unions

This dissertation investigates the determinants of on-the-job search behavior of employed young workers. The central hypothesis is that young workers who consider their jobs to have good promotion prospects are less likely to seek out alternative jobs than are other workers. Conversely, those workers who don't have good promotion prospects are more likely to seek out jobs elsewhere and quit when they find reasonable alternative positions. The analysis of interfirm mobility requires consideration of learning and promotion prospects within the firm. I assume that newly hired workers of a given class are indistinguishable to the firm and that they normally accumulate learning on the job. With the accumulation of job skills at the current job, they may vacate their current jobs, demand higher position at the next rank and move forward to another work activity with an enhanced stock of human capital, either within the firm or outside it. Quite naturally the junior worker's interest hinges upon the promotion probability to the next job. I frame the promotion process within the firm in terms of a cumulative advantage hypothesis, in which the initial success is assumed to be determined by a random process, but in which workers who experience success are more likely to be successful in the future. Within any time period the probability of promotion is dependent on the accumulated amount of learning and the type of job. I then estimate models of on-the-job search and quits, incorporating as an explanatory variable the young workers' promotion assessment variable. Two operational measures of promotion are used, an ex ante promotion assessment and an ex post measure of actual promotion. Tests of the model are performed, using two data sets, the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Behavior, Youth Survey, 1979, 1980 and 1981 and the 1973-1977 Quality of Employment Survey: PANEL. The evidence from both surveys indicates that actual quits as well as contemporaneous job search activity result from low promotion prospects. The second hypothesis I explore is that the level of learning opportunities in the current job itself strongly determines promotion prospects. The estimates confirm the hypothesis promotion prospects depend on the amount of on-the-job learning accumulation.
Bibliography Citation
Cho, Woo Hyun. Promotion Prospects, Job Search and the Quit Behavior of Employed Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1983. DAI-A 44/01, p. 242, July 1983.
41. Chuang, Hwei-Lin
An Estimable Dynamic Model of Schooling: An Application to High School Dropouts' Return to School
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1990. DAI-A 51/07, p. 2477, January 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; High School Dropouts; Teenagers; Wages; Wages, Reservation

This dissertation is an empirical study of high school dropouts' behavior, focusing on their decision on whether to return to school. High school dropouts are known to have poorer labor market prospects than high school graduates. However, being a dropout is not necessarily a permanent condition. The data used in this study indicated that about fifty percent of high school dropouts did return to school and more than seventy percent of these returners did complete high school education eventually. Our society could thus benefit from developing or improving policies or programs that encourage dropouts to return to school. This study can provide useful information to policy-makers toward this goal. A standard discrete-time search model developed in job search theory is modified to apply to youth's in-school/out-of-school decision behavior. This model is solved for the cases of normal and lognormal distributions of the error terms. The solutions suggest that there exists a 'reservation' wage rate such that if an in-school teenager observes a wage rate lower than his reservation wage rate then he will stay in school, otherwise he will choose to drop out of school. On the other hand, if an out-of-school teenager observes a wage rate lower than his reservation wage then he will return to school. Using the male sample drawn from the 1979 through 1986 annual waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth, the model is estimated within a maximum likelihood routine. The estimated mean wage is only a few cents per hour less than the mean of observed wages. The predicted hazard rates are decreasing with duration of staying out of school. That is, the general decline in the observed hazard rates is picked up by the model. However, the model is not acceptable according to the conventional test of goodness of fit. Estimating a structural model can provide means for evaluating the impact of potential policy instruments. For example, one of the simulation results indicates that increasing the employment probabilities reduces the reservation wage rates and therefore reduces the hazard of returning to school. Thus, a policy that successfully increases the employment probability for dropout teenagers might have the side effect of discouraging dropouts to return to school.
Bibliography Citation
Chuang, Hwei-Lin. An Estimable Dynamic Model of Schooling: An Application to High School Dropouts' Return to School. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1990. DAI-A 51/07, p. 2477, January 1991.
42. Chung, Seungwon
Linking Characteristics of the Adolescent Mothers to the Context in Which Parenting Occurs: A Study on Adolescent Mothers and their School-Aged Children of the
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Development; Education; Family Income; Family Studies; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Adolescent; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Self-Esteem

The primary purpose of the present study was to identify factors that may influence the quality of care adolescent mothers provide for their children. The factors related to the children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes were also examined. The analysis in this study was based on 566 children (341 African-American, 225 Caucasian), who were 10 to 17 years-old, from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) merged mother- child data set. Results showed that maternal characteristics at the beginning of the study influenced the life- course of the mother, and contexts in which the children were reared, namely, marital relationships, level of family income, and number of children in the household. Both maternal characteristics and contextual factors influenced the mothers' caregiving practices, and ultimately the developmental outcomes of their children. Based on regression analysis, mothers who had higher levels of intelligence and self-esteem provided better quality home environments. Children who had higher scores in two PIAT reading measures tended to come from more supportive home environments and had mothers who were more intelligent.
Bibliography Citation
Chung, Seungwon. Linking Characteristics of the Adolescent Mothers to the Context in Which Parenting Occurs: A Study on Adolescent Mothers and their School-Aged Children of the. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1995.
43. Clarke, George Ronald Gemuseus
Redistribution and Family Formation: Theory and Evidence on Individual and Collective Decision Making
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Rochester, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing, Adolescent; Endogeneity; Family Formation; Marriage; Simultaneity; Taxes; Transfers, Public

Government tax and transfer programs affect many aspects of individual behavior. However, the design of these programs is the result of a collective choice process and this, in turn, might be affected by trends in individual behavior. This thesis studies interactions between these two levels of decision-making. At the individual level, the effects that taxes and transfers have on marriage, fertility and program participation decisions are considered. At the collective level, the size and generosity of cash transfer programs to poor families (AFDC) and the poor aged and disabled (SSI) are considered as the consequence of a political system that responds to the number of recipients, interactions between cash and non-cash transfer programs, and interactions between different levels of government. The thesis begins by examining the effects of public transfers on the fertility of teenage girls. A utility-maximizing, poor, teenage girl is modeled to choose between having a child out-of-wedlock and gaining access to government transfers or not having a child, finishing her education, and then marrying or working. After controlling for the endogeneity of government benefits, statistical analysis shows a large, and robust, correlation between benefit levels and teenage illegitimacy. The next chapter presents a theoretical model where voters with altruistic preferences vote over welfare benefit levels for the poor aged and disabled. Statistical analysis of the theoretical model, allowing for the simultaneity between number of recipients and benefit levels, finds that increases in voter income increase the size of cash benefits. Further, increases in medical expenditures on this group (through Medicaid) decrease cash payments to this group. The final chapter studies whether the difference in the income tax paid by married and unmarried couples with the same incomes (the "marriage tax") affects couples' marriage, divorce, and timing of marriage decisions. Using aggregate data for the United States, statistical analysis finds that the marriage tax encourages divorce and possibly discourage marriage among women under 45. Individual level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) indicates couples strategically time weddings to avoid marriage taxes.
Bibliography Citation
Clarke, George Ronald Gemuseus. Redistribution and Family Formation: Theory and Evidence on Individual and Collective Decision Making. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Rochester, 1996.
44. Cochi, Carlena Kay
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Mandated Work/Training: Identifying the Exit and Birth Effects
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Birth Outcomes; Birth Rate; Event History; Fertility; Training, Occupational; Welfare

Virtually all attempts at U.S. welfare reform throughout the history of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program have relied upon three primary beliefs: (1) that welfare induces undesirable fertility patterns, (2) that welfare receipt creates dependence, and (3) that modifications to the existing AFDC incentive structure can mitigate these undesirable behaviors. A large body of empirical literature provides no consistent support of points (1) and (2) above. This dissertation addresses the third point by testing for unintended consequences of one major welfare reform component, "workfare," during the years 1980 to 1992. Assuming that mandatory work/training represents a net increase in the cost of welfare, conventional search theory predicts that as a marginal recipient's youngest child approaches the age at which work/training program participation becomes mandatory, the woman should exhibit a behavioral response. Specifically, we would expect to observe an increase in the birth rate among recipients (as women seek to re-establish their exempt status) and/or an increase in the welfare exit rate (as women find it more desirable to work or marry than remain on AFDC with work/training requirements). Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and state welfare policy data, I estimate the probability of birth and welfare exit as a function of the age of a recipient's youngest child using individual, joint and competing risk hazard techniques and event history analysis. Birth and exit patterns are depicted under various scenarios which separately control for recipient/non-recipient variation and variation in the age of the youngest child exemption. Estimation results provide evidence of a birth response to mandated work/training and a weak exit response which runs counter to theoretical predictions. Specifically, recipients under a six year exemption regime are between 1.6 and 3.5 times more likely to have a second birth when their first child is between five and six than are non-recipients. Furthermore, these recipients are between 1.8 and 2.8 times more likely to have a second birth in this region than are those under a three-year old exemption regime. A comparison of the exit hazards under various policy regimes provides some evidence that recipients are less likely to leave AFDC when work/training enrollment is compulsory than when it is not.
Bibliography Citation
Cochi, Carlena Kay. Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Mandated Work/Training: Identifying the Exit and Birth Effects. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1997.
45. Cooney, Teresa Marie
School and Work Transitions in Young Adulthood: The Influence of Prior and Concurrent Family Conditions
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1988. DAI-A 49/07, p. 1976, January 1989.
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Family Influences; Gender Differences; Transition, School to Work

This study used three data sets from the National Longitudinal Surveys to compare the relative influence of family conditions measured at two points in time--early adolescence (age 14) and young adulthood (age 18)--on the probability of young adults' making the transitions out of school and into work by age 18. It is argued that the timing of family influences on young adults' transitions is important since such influences as parents' occupation, income, marital status and family size are known to change over time. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare prior (age 14) and concurrent (age 18) family influences on the transition behavior of 740 white women and 633 men who were ages 14-24 in the mid 1960's. The analyses revealed that, in this sample, family conditions were extremely stable over the period from age 14 to 18. Thus, comparisons of prior and concurrent family predictors of school and work transitions were impossible to make. However, regarding more general family influences on transition behavior, significant gender differences were found, as well as differences in family influences on the school versus the work transition. Specifically, concurrent family income was negatively related to the likelihood of men, but not women leaving school. The opposite was true for the transition to work. Also, living in a single-parent family at 14 was related to a greater likelihood of men, but not women, entering work by age 18. Women living in one-parent families at age 18 were less likely than other women to leave school by age 18. Overall, family conditions were better predictors of men's than women's work transition. And, for the total sample, family conditions were much stronger predictors of the school than the work transition. Methodological problems encountered when trying to examine family instability and its consequences are addressed, along with alternative methods for studying the relative influence of prior and late family conditions, and the impact of family change. Reasons for the lack of predictive power in the tested models are explored, and recommendations for future research are made.
Bibliography Citation
Cooney, Teresa Marie. School and Work Transitions in Young Adulthood: The Influence of Prior and Concurrent Family Conditions. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1988. DAI-A 49/07, p. 1976, January 1989..
46. Coppock, David Steven
Empirical Tests of Job Search Theory Using the Duration of Unemployment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1980. DAI-A 41/12, p. 5195, June 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Heterogeneity; Job Search; Unemployment

This dissertation uses data on the duration of unemployment to test theories of job search. Two questions are emphasized. First, whether the probability that an unemployed individual accepts a job offer increases or stays constant over the spell of unemployment, as is predicted by job search models. Second, whether periods of high unemployment are characterized by a paucity of job offers or by misperceptions on the part of job searchers about the wage offer distribution. Estimating how the probability of accepting a job offer changes over the spell of unemployment (duration dependence) is difficult because negative duration dependence (i.e., a declining probability of accepting a job offer) has many of the same implications for the data as does heterogeneity in the acceptance probability across individuals. It is shown, in fact, that some past attempts to overcome this problem rely on arbitrary functional form assumptions which cannot be justified. However, it is shown that some inferences about heterogeneity and duration dependence can be made when data are available on more than one spell of unemployment for some individuals. These methods are implemented using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Men. The results are consistent with job search theory. Under various hypotheses about the nature of business cycles, a simple model of job search is used to make predictions about how the coefficients of an unemployment duration equation should change over the business cycle. Cyclical estimates are obtained using a sample of adult men from the Current Population Survey. The results support the hypothesis that recessions are characterized by a paucity of job offers.
Bibliography Citation
Coppock, David Steven. Empirical Tests of Job Search Theory Using the Duration of Unemployment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1980. DAI-A 41/12, p. 5195, June 1981.
47. Corwyn, Robert Flynn
Family Process Mediators of the Relation between Components of SES and Child Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Memphis, December 2004. DAI-B 65/11, p. 6068, May 2005.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Achievement; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the processes through which components of SES influence child outcomes and whether these processes differ with regard to ethnicity, child outcome and/or developmental period. The study examined two aspects of the home environment frequently included in SES/child development mediational models (learning stimulation, maternal responsiveness) from middle childhood to early adolescence using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. These relations were examined for two developmental outcomes (reading recognition and problem behaviors) in two ethnic groups (African American and European American). Results supported the practices of analyzing components of SES separately, investigating ethnic group interactions, and developmental trends in SES → child outcome relations. In agreement with the systems concept of multifinality, it was found that, in some instances, the same process influenced more than one child outcome. In agreement with the systems concept of equifinality, there was often more than one process operating to influence the same child outcome. Consistent with previous research, learning stimulation provided in the home was a more consistent mediator than was responsivity. Moreover an ethnic group interaction was found when reading recognition in middle childhood was the outcome and ethnic differences were noted in the pattern of relations across time for both child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Corwyn, Robert Flynn. Family Process Mediators of the Relation between Components of SES and Child Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Memphis, December 2004. DAI-B 65/11, p. 6068, May 2005..
48. Costello, Darce M.
Family Matters: The Developmental Course of Adolescents' Relationships with Their Parents
Ed.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Ethnic Differences; Gender; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Racial Differences

This thesis describes a longitudinal analysis of parent-adolescent relationship quality in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Using individual growth modeling and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY97) I explored the developmental course of parent-adolescent relationship quality, guided by these questions: (1) How does parent-adolescent relationship quality change between ages 12 to 18 years? (2) Does the developmental course of parent-adolescent relationship quality vary with respect to adolescent gender and race-ethnicity? (3) Are differences between adolescents in the level and rate of change in parent-adolescent relationship quality related to family processes, such as engagement in family activities and parental monitoring? When modeled only as a function of age, I found parent-adolescent relationship quality declines between ages 12 and 16, leveling off over the next two years for father-adolescent relationships, and improving slightly for mother-adolescent relationships. Across all ages, adolescents viewed their relationships with their mothers in more positive terms than with their fathers, but average assessments of relationship quality was fairly positive for both parents. When controlling for parent education and puberty status, I found the developmental course of mother-adolescent relationship quality did not vary with respect to adolescent gender and race-ethnicity, but father-adolescent relationship quality did. The cumulative effects of gender and race-ethnicity result in Black/Mixed Race daughters reporting the least positive and Latino and White sons reporting the most positive relationships with their fathers. Overall, I found that the level of parent-adolescent relationship quality is positively related to family processes and that this association manifests in complex ways. Parental monitoring moderates the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and family activities, gender, race-ethnicity, and puberty status. At high levels of monitoring, the positive association between family activities and the negative associations between gender, race-ethnicity, puberty, and level of parent-adolescent relationship quality are less pronounced than at low levels of monitoring. Building on research linking close, supportive parent-adolescent relationships to several positive psychosocial outcomes, these results provide information useful to practitioners interested in strengthening families through education and intervention programs designed to foster the healthy development of supportive relationships between parents and adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Costello, Darce M. Family Matters: The Developmental Course of Adolescents' Relationships with Their Parents. Ed.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2004.
49. Cox, Donald Francis
An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Initial Occupational Choice by Male High School Graduates
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1986. DAI-A 47/06, p. 2263, December 1986
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; High School Completion/Graduates; Household Income; Income; Military Enlistment; Occupational Choice; Simultaneity; Transition, School to Work

This dissertation consisted of empirical analysis of the determinants of initial occupational choice by male high school graduates. The approach used was based on the theory of random utility. According to this approach, the individual selects a particular outcome from a set of possible outcomes based on both observed and unobserved characteristics of the individual and the particular possible outcome. In this analysis, the occupational choice set contained three possible outcomes. These possibilities were civilian sector employment, military service and college enrollment. For the empirical analysis, a sample of 1,748 male high school graduates was drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (1979-1981). The empirical model consisted of a mixed discrete/continuous simultaneous 4 equation system. Three estimation strategies were used. The first was a simple two stage logit/ordinary least squares procedure. The second was a modified two stage logit/ordinary least squares procedure that corrected for self-selectivity bias. The third strategy consisted of a modified two stage logit/ordinary least squares procedure that corrected for both self-selectivity and choice-based sampling bias. The estimation results indicate that the decision to enlist is most sensitive to the net income of the individual's family and the predicted civilian sector wage. The military experience of the individual's father and the desire to acquire additional training are also important in this decision. In addition, the differences in the estimates across the three estimation procedures illustrate the importance of correcting for sample biases.
Bibliography Citation
Cox, Donald Francis. An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Initial Occupational Choice by Male High School Graduates. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1986. DAI-A 47/06, p. 2263, December 1986.
50. Cullinan, Meritta B.
Sex-type of Parental Occupations and Sex-Typed Occupational Aspirations: Factors Affecting the Sex-typed Occupational Attainments of Young White Women and Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University, 1989.DAI-A 49/12, p. 3888, June 1989
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Background; Fathers, Influence; Human Capital; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Attainment; Occupations, Non-Traditional; Parental Influences; Role Models; Sex Roles

This research focuses on the differing socialization experience of women and men as a factor in the occupational attainment process. Specifically, this study examines the role of socioeconomic family background characteristics, particularly parental role modeling as exemplified by the sex-type of parent's occupation, and atypicality of occupational aspirations, on atypicality of first job as well as that occupation held in the final survey year. Using data drawn from the surveys of Young Women and Young Men in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, a sample of white 14 to 18 year old women and men is followed from the initial survey year, when they were still enrolled full-time in school, to the last survey year--14 years later. During this time, the men and women left full-time education, began their first full-time civilian occupations, adopted marital/family roles and accumulated work experience. The study makes use of a theoretical model drawn from status attainment and human capital studies of occupational attainment. Given the findings generated by the above schools, this research incorporates measures of socioeconomic family background characteristics and aspirations, as well as measures of human capital qualifications and labor market commitment, as factors which impact on the occupational attainment process of men and women. Family background characteristics are found to influence atypical attainment. Father's atypicality directly influences son's entry-level atypical employment, whereas mother's atypicality has a direct influence on daughter's atypical current achievements. This offers confirmation of the importance of family background characteristics in atypical attainment and specifically offers evidence supporting a same-sex role model effect. Moreover, pre-employment aspirations play an important role in the atypical attainment process of women and men. Atypicality of occupational aspirations has significant direct effects on both entry-level and on current atypical occupational attainment for both sexes. The importance of nontraditional aspirations for atypicality of first job and for subsequent atypical attainment approximately 14 years later supports the contention that the sex-type of pre-employment aspirations does contribute significantly to the explanation of sex-typed occupational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Cullinan, Meritta B. Sex-type of Parental Occupations and Sex-Typed Occupational Aspirations: Factors Affecting the Sex-typed Occupational Attainments of Young White Women and Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University, 1989.DAI-A 49/12, p. 3888, June 1989.
51. Currimbhoy, Sadiq
Pricing Labor in an Uncertain World
Ph.D. Dissertation, University Of Pennsylvania, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education Indicators; Job Skills; Modeling; Self-Reporting; Skilled Workers; Wage Differentials; Wage Models; Wages, Reservation; Wealth

This dissertation is a study of asymmetric information in the labor market and decision making by firms faced with uncertainty about a job applicant's true ability or productivity. The models use the insight of Weiss' (1980) adverse selection efficiency wage model as the building blocks for empirical tests of whether firms have incomplete information about a worker's productivity and how this problem is solved by the firm. Chapter 2 tests the fundamental assumption of the Weiss model that reservation wages are positively correlated with ability. To test this, we use self-reported reservation wages of non-employed males and ability scores from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and find that this is indeed the case. The finding that reservation wages rise with ability provides the focus of chapter 3. Since reservation wages are positively correlated with accepted wages, then ability would be correlated with wages via the reservation wage even if firms did not observe the worker's ability. We specify a model where wage is a function of the reservation wage and the worker's observable characteristics, and use variables, such as worker wealth, which do not affect marginal product to identify the system. We find that firms typically observe academic but not technical ability and that instrumenting for education allows us to better account for the firm's information set. The final chapter assesses the evidence for reduced uncertainty during the 1980s. We find that in the early 1980s, firms would use information regarding the sorting behavior of cohorts to price the individual worker's ability, indicating that there is incomplete information about the worker. We also find that the reliance on this cohort effect falls over time. These findings suggest that the dramatic increase in wage inequality between and within education groups is consistent with a model where the greater demand for skills encouraged firms to find the best skilled workers.T he action by firms reduced uncertainty in the labor market increasing wage inequality within education groups and deterred marginal workers from gaining higher education increasing inequality between groups.
Bibliography Citation
Currimbhoy, Sadiq. Pricing Labor in an Uncertain World. Ph.D. Dissertation, University Of Pennsylvania, 1995.
52. Dahmann, Judith Soisson
Women's Intergenerational Occupational Mobility: The Effects of Mothers' Occupations on the Occupations of Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1984. DAI-A 44/11, p. 3508, May 1984
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Segregation

This dissertation examines the role of women in processes of intergenerational mobility; in particular, the effect of mothers' occupations on the occupations of children of both sexes. Most previous research on occupational mobility has focused on movement from fathers' to sons' occupations. Research on mobility patterns of women has followed in this tradition and, until recently, these mobility analyses have defined mobility for women in the same way as men (i.e., as movement from fathers' occupations). In this dissertation, it is argued that mothers' occupations like fathers' are a potential source of occupational influence on children's occupational choices and as such should be included as factors in mobility models of both men and women. Further, the dissertation suggests that known differences in work patterns of men and women--notably differences in the propensity to participate in the labor force and in sex differentiated patterns of occupational positions of labor force participants--have been neglected in past mobility research, and that to understand women's mobility, these factors need to be considered. A set of hypotheses about the nature of mothers' effects on her children is posited and using methods of loglinear model analysis, these hypotheses are tested using two data sets, the 'Explorations in Equality of Opportunity Survey' and the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. The hypothesis test results show that mothers' occupations affect the occupations of their children, even when the effects of fathers' occupations have been included in models of mobility and that these mother-child effects are not simply a product of the fact that a mother is in the labor force and not in the home. Further, the results indicate that the effects of a mother involve more than a simple reinforcement of the occupation of the father. In terms of mothers' effects on daughters, the results show that mothers affect daughters of all ages; and these effects are not restricted to occupations traditionally held by women. Finally, the research results indicate that the sex-typed nature of women's occupations is not transmitted intergenerationally; that is, whether or not a mother holds a female sex-typed occupation is unrelated to whether or not a daughter's occupation is female sex-typed.
Bibliography Citation
Dahmann, Judith Soisson. Women's Intergenerational Occupational Mobility: The Effects of Mothers' Occupations on the Occupations of Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1984. DAI-A 44/11, p. 3508, May 1984.
53. Daniewicz, Susan Carney
Changing Attitudes Toward Women's Employment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, 1987. DAI-A 48/07, p. 1897, January 1988
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Employment; Women; Women's Roles

The effects of membership and reference groups on attitudes toward women's employment were analyzed using four waves of the mature woman cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey. Attitudes, attitude change and change in employment and desire for employment were all considered. Evidence is presented for the influence of both membership and reference groups on attitudes and attitude change. Women who are employed and prefer to stay that way are more approving of women's employment at all points in time. In addition, employed women's rate of approval appears to be accelerating relative to the remainder of the sample. Attitude change toward increasing approval is divided into probability of adopting approval and the probability of maintaining that approval once it is adopted. The two rates are different and change differently over the period of the study. The probability of a woman maintaining approval of women's employment during the period from 1967 to 1972 is related to her own employment; women with some experience in the labor force are more likely to maintain approval than women outside the labor force. During the remainder of the study, however, the probability that women outside the labor force will maintain an approving attitude greatly increases relative to other women. It is suggested that the women's movement may have reinforced approving attitudes in women, regardless of their position in the labor force. Attitude change from disapproval to approval, on the other hand, is related to employment and this relationship remains constant throughout the study. Women in the labor force are more likely to change from disapproval to approval than are other women at all points in the study. Implications for the understanding of normative change are discussed. [UMI ADG87-21877]
Bibliography Citation
Daniewicz, Susan Carney. Changing Attitudes Toward Women's Employment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, 1987. DAI-A 48/07, p. 1897, January 1988.
54. Datta, Atreyee Rupa
Composition Effects in Labor Markets and Families: Two Essays
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 02A (2001): 784
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Educational Attainment; Family Studies; Fathers, Presence; High School Diploma; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Outcomes; Poverty; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing; Welfare

This dissertation comprises two essays. The first essay investigates the effects of improved local educational attainment on the labor market outcomes of less-educated workers. A simple model of a local labor market production function formalizes the hypothesis that more-educated workers improve the productivity of less-educated workers through on-the-job training and other informal interactions. Instrumental variables estimates using 1980 and 1990 U.S. Census data for 288 Metropolitan Statistical Areas indicate that adults without high school diplomas experience declines in labor market outcomes in response to an exogenous increase in the local supply of college-graduate labor. Male workers suffer both wage and hours deterioration, while women maintain earnings levels by compensating for lower wages through increased employment. The findings suggest that policies that target local educational attainment to achieve economic growth may hurt less-educated workers, increasing rather than abating poverty, welfare needs, and other related social phenomena.

The second essay asks whether the effect of father presence varies by maternal age in two adolescent outcomes, math achievement scores and early cigarette smoking. The increased incidence of first births among women age 30 or over suggests study of this population as researchers have investigated births to younger women. Positive effects of father presence are found for a range of child and adolescent outcomes among children at all birth timings, but theories of parenting and empirical differences in older and younger mothers suggest that the father presence effect may vary by maternal age. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort, I find that the effect of father presence increases with maternal age for both math achievement and deferred smoking. The change is attributable to observable parental characteristics that are correlated with maternal age rather than a pure effect of maternal age.

Bibliography Citation
Datta, Atreyee Rupa. Composition Effects in Labor Markets and Families: Two Essays. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 02A (2001): 784.
55. Davis, Tricia Marie
Repeating the Problem: An Examination of Unwed Adolescent Motherhood
Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Behavioral Problems; Event History; Family Structure; Family Studies; Mothers, Education; Parents, Single; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Drawing on problem behavior theory, this research examines the influence of a social psychological network of variables on the probability of a repeat pregnancy to an unwed adolescent mother. A sample of adolescents is drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and analyzed using logistic regression and event history analysis. The logistic regression analysis allowed for examination of a dichotomous dependent variable--that of having an unwed repeat pregnancy versus not having an unwed repeat pregnancy. A maximum likelihood estimation technique was used for estimating the parameter values with the highest probability of generating the event of interest--having an unwed repeat pregnancy. Quite consistently I found three predictor variables to have strong effects on having an unwed repeat pregnancy: the age of the adolescent mother at her first child's birth, the adolescent mother's education expectations, and having the adolescent's mother living in the household. The event history analysis used a continuous dependent variable to investigate changes over time. In this study the continuous variable was the time between having an unwed adolescent first birth to having an unwed repeat pregnancy. The results of the event history analysis were consistent with those found in the logistic regression analysis. These results have implications for social policy and the development of interventions for adolescent mothers at risk for a second unwed pregnancy.
Bibliography Citation
Davis, Tricia Marie. Repeating the Problem: An Examination of Unwed Adolescent Motherhood. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2000.
56. Delgado, Enilda Arbona
Racial, Ethnic, and Nativity Differences in Marriage and Premarital Pregnancy Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin -- Madison, 2000. DAI 61,11A (2000): 4560
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Demography; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Studies; Fertility; Marriage; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Studies

This dissertation explores racial, ethnic and nativity differences in marriage and premarital pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it explores other characteristics that significantly affect the hazard of experiencing a marriage prior to a conception or a premarital birth. I am particularly interested in the women who have premarital conception that results in a live birth and the attributes that distinguish the women who marry while pregnant from the women who have a premarital birth. I focus on some of the variables previous researchers have shown to impact marriage and fertility transitions, including race, ethnicity and nativity; family structure; parental education; religious attendance; and employment, enrollment and cohabitation histories. The results gathered from Cox proportional hazard analysis and logit statistical analysis on sixteen years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 cohort suggest that studies on the timing of fertility and marriage should avoid the treatment of Latinas as a homogeneous group. Focusing on the rate of marriage prior to conception, I find that controlling for social background characteristics, values and attitudes, and employment, enrollment and cohabitation; Mexican women born in the United States have significantly lower rates of marriage prior to conception relative to White women. This finding lends some support to the stronger cultural adherence to the marriage ideal among foreign-born Mexicans than among Mexicans born in the United States.

Previous research has shown the rate of premarital births to be higher among Latinas relative to White women. However, once distinctions are made by country of origin and nativity, I find that controlling for social background characteristics, second- or greater generation Latinas have increased hazards of premarital conception. Foreign-born Mexican women demonstrate a higher risk of first fertile premarital conception relative to white women after controlling for cohabitation. While previous research has found a lower likelihood of legitimation subsequent to a premarital pregnancy among Latinas, I find that only non-Mexican Latinas who are born in the United States (primarily Puerto Rican women) have significantly lower odds of legitimation relative to White women. All other Latinas have legitimation rates that are indistinguishable from those of White women.

Bibliography Citation
Delgado, Enilda Arbona. Racial, Ethnic, and Nativity Differences in Marriage and Premarital Pregnancy Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin -- Madison, 2000. DAI 61,11A (2000): 4560.
57. Delucca, Kenneth P.
An Analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort Data Related to Industrial Arts and Vocational Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Vocational Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of industrial arts, vocational or general education course exposure on high school graduates (with complete transcripts) in the NLSY. Four sets of thrusts (demographics, post high school work experience, post high school educational experience and work concepts) were used to investigate the effects of such exposure. It was found that industrial arts exposed respondents outnumber their vocational counterparts, hence the typical grouping together of industrial arts and vocational education data seems most inappropriate. Despite their typically lower academic records, industrial arts and vocational education respondents do go on for further education after high school, attending the first four years of college in larger percentages than do general education respondents. The study concludes that industrial arts and vocational education exposure seems to have a positive effect on post high school labor market experience. Industrial arts and vocational education respondents appeared to be unemployed for shorter amounts of time than do their general education counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Delucca, Kenneth P. An Analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort Data Related to Industrial Arts and Vocational Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia, 1985.
58. Demirtas, Hakan
Multiple Imputation for Nonignorable Dropout Using Bayesian Pattern-Mixture Models
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 2003. DAI-B 64/09, p. 4442, Mar 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Bayesian; Modeling, Mixed Effects

This dissertation examines conventional pattern-mixture models and a new Bayesian pattern-mixture model for nonignorable dropout. Many current procedures for incomplete data ignore the probabilistic mechanism producing the missing data, which is appropriate when the missing values are missing at random (MAR). However, in many longitudinal studies, subjects could be dropping out for reasons strongly related to unobserved data. Erroneous assumptions of MAR may lead to severe biases when the missingness mechanism is actually nonignorable. In this thesis, I review the present state of methods for nonignorable dropout, and examine the performance of one popular class of pattern-mixture models when the form of the population has been misspecified. Then I develop a new class of Bayesian random-coefficient pattern-mixture models that can be applied routinely to impute missing values when the ignorability assumption is doubtful. I develop procedures for model fitting and Bayesian multiple imputation under this linear mixed-effects model. I then apply this methodology to data from a randomized psychiatric trial and a national longitudinal survey (Bibliography editor: NLSY79). Evaluating the performance of this approach through simulations, I also make comparisons with selection models and semiparametric marginal models based on conventional and weighted estimating equations.
Bibliography Citation
Demirtas, Hakan. Multiple Imputation for Nonignorable Dropout Using Bayesian Pattern-Mixture Models. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 2003. DAI-B 64/09, p. 4442, Mar 2004.
59. Denton, Nancy Anne
Factors Influencing Young Women's Transitions among Multiple Role Combinations: U.S. 1968-73
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1984. DAI-A 45/05, p. 1537, November 1984
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Life Cycle Research; Sex Roles; Women's Roles

While interrupted marriage, labor force and education histories of young U.S. women have received much attention in the literature, little attempt has been made to analyze these roles as competing but not necessarily mutually exclusive options and to include all women. Using a pooled data set of 18,916 one-year transitions for women aged 14 to 30 from the National Longitudinal Surveys (Young Women, 1968-1973), this dissertation addresses two main issues: the frequency of and movement among various combinations of these three roles and the effect of background and current characteristics on the probability of making particular transitions. OLS is used to estimate the marginal change in the underlying transition probability associated with having a particular characteristic. Results show that role combination is a major feature in the lives of young women. At Time t, over one third are in two of the three roles, but only 1.2 percent are in all three simultaneously, with the combination of wife and student least prevalent. In the bivariate analysis, combining roles is strongly associated with being white and having at least some college education. While there is clear association between origin and destination role combinations, it is also clear that young women change role combinations often--over forty percent of the young women changed roles during the one year interval, a proportion which increased over time. Thus the normative serial ordering pattern of school, work, then marriage needs to be expanded to include combinations of adjacent roles and allow for back and forth movement among the combinations. The more proximate current characteristics of the women change their transition probabilities by greater absolute amounts than do the more remote background characteristics. More specifically, the birth of a new child, compared to not having one, and higher education, compared to women who have not finished high school, have the largest significant effects for the greatest number of transitions. Yet the strength of the background characteristics, even after controlling for the current characteristics, is impressive. Being black as opposed to white, higher parental education, and more encouragement to attend college remain important determinants of the transitions.
Bibliography Citation
Denton, Nancy Anne. Factors Influencing Young Women's Transitions among Multiple Role Combinations: U.S. 1968-73. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1984. DAI-A 45/05, p. 1537, November 1984.
60. Desmarais, Laura Burris
Investigating a Cognitive Complexity Hierarchy of Jobs
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Occupations

The present study investigated the construct validity of an occupational classification system based upon ability requirements. This was done by placing the positions held by a large, nationally representative sample of full-time, employed, young, civilian adults into the classification system (the Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map) and determining whether the patterns of characteristics exhibited by the groups of positions coincided with the patterns predicted by relevant theories on job ability requirements and job differentiation. The results largely supported the validity of the Occupational Aptitude Patterns Maps as an occupational classification system. The results indicated that the Map captures differences across positions in their requirements for cognitive ability, although the overlap across job clusters is enormous. The Map also differentiates jobs on the basis of their requirements for specific abilities (e.g., scientific/mechanical ability). The differences across clusters in cognitive ability shares overlap with differences in occupational prestige as well as differences in rated job characteristics. The extent of this overlap was smaller than expected. Ideas for future research and methodological caveats are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Desmarais, Laura Burris. Investigating a Cognitive Complexity Hierarchy of Jobs. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1990.
61. Director, Steven Marc
Underadjustment Bias in the Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Manpower Training
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1974. DAI-A 35/10, p. 6303, Apr 1975
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA); Cost-Benefit Studies; Earnings; Evaluations; Manpower Programs; Research Methodology; Vocational Training

This research deals with the methodology of evaluating manpower training programs. The emphasis is not upon the structuring of cost-benefit models but upon evaluation design. The common methods of evaluation produce biased results. This study recommends using true randomized experiments wherever possible. These experiments are far more feasible than is generally conceded.
Bibliography Citation
Director, Steven Marc. Underadjustment Bias in the Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Manpower Training. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1974. DAI-A 35/10, p. 6303, Apr 1975.
62. Divers, Paul Patrick
Continuity and Discontinuity in Schooling: the Socioeconomic Effects of Delayed Schooling in the Life Course
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Calgary (Canada), 1994. DAI-A 56/01, p. 362, Jul 1995
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Occupational Attainment; Transition, School to Work

Research on the linkages between education and occupational attainment has focused primarily on the early life course transition of young adults from school to work. Much of this work has emphasized the factors determining access to schooling and the outcomes of educational attainment. While the overall progression is linear from school to work, the pathways to permanent employment and careers in the work force are increasingly taking alternative directions for a growing number of persons in post-industrial societies. Participation in the educational system and the labour market are no longer necessarily sequential, non-reversible steps, but are increasingly parallel and reversible life course events. Utilizing the two younger age-sex cohorts from the U.S. National Longitudinal Surveys of Labour Market Experience (NLS), this study traces the occupational experiences of men and women following the completion of delayed schooling. Our models estimate the differential returns to schooling for older adults compared to younger adults who begin and complete post-secondary schooling 'on time,' showing that there are penalties in the form of reduced status, mobility, and earnings returns for women that violate age-implicit normative behaviour by completing a college degree or vocational certificate later in the life course. On the other hand, there are benefits in the form of increased status returns for men in the form of status, mobility, and earnings who acquire a degree later in life, but mixed returns for men following the completion of a vocational certificate. Since our findings generally support the advocates of the hypothesis that there are violations to age-implicit normative behaviour, we argue that it is imperative that sociologists further explore the effects of delayed education to determine if schooling later in the life course will be met with labour market opportunity.
Bibliography Citation
Divers, Paul Patrick. Continuity and Discontinuity in Schooling: the Socioeconomic Effects of Delayed Schooling in the Life Course. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Calgary (Canada), 1994. DAI-A 56/01, p. 362, Jul 1995.
63. Doescher, Tabitha Ann
Fertility and Female Occupational Choice
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1980. DAI-A 42/02, p. 804, August 1981
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Occupational Attainment; Sex Roles

Since World War II, American women with children have entered the labor force in increasing numbers. However, the dual roles of labor force participant and mother are competing roles since each activity requires a considerable commitment of time. Although existing research suggests that women can reconcile these two roles by decreasing family size and/or by curtailing labor force participation, there is a paucity of investigation into alternative strategies. One possible option is that women who want to work and who want to have children can select the occupation which allows the greatest degree of compatibility between market work and childbearing/childrearing. Despite the proliferation of studies on the relationship between female labor force participation and fertility, most researchers neglect the linkage between these two variables and occupation. This dissertation investigates the association both theoretically and empirically. The primary hypothesis of this study is that a working woman selects her occupation, defined as a vector of characteristics, in accordance with her desired life cycle fertility and labor force participation. The study focuses on two characteristics in particular: the occupational atrophy rate (the depreciation in human capital resulting from intermittent labor force participation) and the flexibility of hours within an occupation. The multiperiod theoretical model depicts a representative woman as selecting the occupational atrophy rate and the occupation-specific supply of labor which enables her to maximize her lifetime utility, given her lifetime labor force participation and fertility decisions. Through the use of comparative statics analysis, the model investigates the qualitative effect of an exogenous change in the number of children on the woman's choice of her occupational atrophy rate, her occupation-specific supply of labor in each period, and her occupation-specific flexibility of hours, where flexibility is measured as the difference in the optimal weekly labor supply. The analysis concludes that this effect is composed of two time effects and an earnings, or wage rate, effect. The latter effect can be further decomposed into an income and substitution effect. These theoretical hypotheses are tested with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. The first occupational characteristic, the atrophy rate, is estimated for twenty-one occupations using a wage growth function. The estimated atrophy rate is then the dependent variable in a weighted least squares regression analysis. Because an occupation in which hours are more variable allows more flexibility in scheduling work, the standard deviation of hours worked within an occupation is used as a proxy for the second characteristic, flexibility of hours. This variable is calculated for each of the three-digit Census occupations from the 1970 Current Population Survey--it is the dependent variable in an ordinary least squares regression. For both characteristics, the sign of the coefficient associated with the number of children is of particular interest. In general, the empirical analysis supports the theoretical hypotheses: as family size increases, women tend to select occupations with lower atrophy rates and more flexible hours.
Bibliography Citation
Doescher, Tabitha Ann. Fertility and Female Occupational Choice. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1980. DAI-A 42/02, p. 804, August 1981.
64. Dolinsky, Arthur Lewis
A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Consequences of Public Assistance
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1985. DAI-A 46/05, p. 1415, November 1985
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Education; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Welfare

The study investigates the determinants and consequences of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Micro data gathered by the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) for Mature and Young Women cohorts from the late 1960s through late 1970s are used to construct a model that examines welfare recipience, taking into account various influences both proximate and remote. Within this context the nature of intergenerational dependency is considered. Among the basic study results is that of the importance of education (opportunity) as both a determinant and consequence of recipience. Accordingly, its role as an intervening variable in transmitting dependency across generations appears to be most significant.
Bibliography Citation
Dolinsky, Arthur Lewis. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Consequences of Public Assistance. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1985. DAI-A 46/05, p. 1415, November 1985.
65. Douglas, Barbara Ellen
An Analysis of the Academic Composites of ASVAB and the PSAT, the SAT, and ACT: A Correlation Study
Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1986. DAI-A 47/07, p. 2554, January 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Education, Guidance and Counseling; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Rural/Urban Differences; Vocational Guidance

The primary purpose of the study was to determine the degree of correlation between the academic composites of the ASVAB and the math and verbal sections of the PSAT, SAT, and ACT. The study utilizes data taken from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). The sample of the study (N = 3,331) is identified as being extracted from the NLS national probability sample of the 1979 youth cohort. The sample is further identified according to the following subgroups: cohorts with ASVAB scores and PSAT scores (N = 1,332), cohorts with ASVAB scores and SAT scores (N = 920) and cohorts with ASVAB scores and ACT scores (N = 1079). Twenty-five hypotheses were tested using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. It was found that the relationship (r) between the ASVAB academic composites and the math and verbal sections of the PSAT ranges between the correlation coefficients of .70 and .79; the relationship between the ASVAB academic composites and the math and verbal sections of the SAT ranges between the correlation coefficients of .78 and .85; and the relationship between the academic composites of the ASVAB and the math and verbal sections of the ACT ranges between the correlation coefficients of .66 and .79. With reference to the subsamples of the study the correlation coefficients for the male/female subsample ranges between .65 and .85, for the total Hispanic subsample between .63 and .80, for the total Black subsample between .62 and .84, for the total White subsample between .59 and .80, for the rural subsample between .68 and .82, and for the urban subsample between .65 and .85. The study is significant in that due to the positive relationship existing between the ASVAB academic composites and the math and verbal sections of the PSAT, SAT and ACT, the use of the ASVAB could be increased so as to provide a counseling tool for the college bound student. The ASVAB could, therefore, furnish the college counselor with an additional source of information to be considered when making important selection and placement decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Douglas, Barbara Ellen. An Analysis of the Academic Composites of ASVAB and the PSAT, the SAT, and ACT: A Correlation Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1986. DAI-A 47/07, p. 2554, January 1987.
66. Downing, Douglas Allan
Teenage Employment: Personal Characteristics, Job Duration, and the Racial Unemployment Differential
Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1987. DAI-A 48/10, p. 2694, Apr 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Job Turnover; Racial Differences; Unemployment, Youth

The reasons for the high level of teenage unemployment, particularly for black teenagers, have been investigated using data from the 1980 census, the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience - Youth Cohort, the Current Population Survey, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics Gross Flow data. Most unemployed 16-17 year olds are found to be in school; most unemployed 18-19 year olds are out of school. Black teenagers are found to have shorter job durations when they are employed, but this is because they are much more likely than white teenagers to have their jobs come to an end, rather than that they are much more likely to quit or be fired. A model of frictional unemployment indicates that the high level of black unemployment cannot be accounted for by higher job turnover. Black teenagers are much more likely to have jobs with the government than are white teenagers, indicating that blacks lack informal connections that are one of the ways whites find out about job opportunities in the private sector. The labor market experience of several disadvantaged groups are investigated: central city residents, teenage women with children, teenagers from poor families, teenagers with low class standing in high school, and teenagers whose parents had low education. In each case blacks are more likely to be in the disadvantaged group, and members of the disadvantaged group are less likely to be employed, but there still is a degree of high black unemployment that cannot be explained because of membership in one of these disadvantaged groups. [UMI ADG87-29059]
Bibliography Citation
Downing, Douglas Allan. Teenage Employment: Personal Characteristics, Job Duration, and the Racial Unemployment Differential. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1987. DAI-A 48/10, p. 2694, Apr 1988.
67. Eamon, Mary Keegan
A Structural Model of the Effects of Poverty on the Socio-Emotional Development of Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling; Parental Influences; Poverty; Social Emotional Development

The mother-child data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to identify the parenting practices that mediate relations between three measures of family poverty--persistent, recent, and multiple transitions--and the socio-emotional development of children 4-5 and 6-9 years old. Poverty and other exogenous variables were hypothesized to influence children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors indirectly by increasing emotional unresponsiveness, physical discipline, fewer stimulating experiences, not encouraging maturity, and a lower quality physical environment. Although model fit comparisons supported a mediation model, the revised structural models provided better fit than the hypothesized and alternative theoretical specifications. Significant effects of poverty were supported in the cross-validation samples. For 4-5 year old children, the effects of persistent poverty on both outcomes were mediated by a lower quality physical environment. The effect of recent poverty on externalizing behaviors was mediated by a lower quality physical environment and by fewer stimulating experiences. In addition to these two constructs, emotional unresponsiveness mediated the effect of recent poverty on internalizing behaviors. Contrary to the hypothesized relations, the indirect and total effects of multiple poverty transitions on both outcomes were beneficial. Effects were mediated by a lower quality physical environment and fewer stimulating experiences. For 6-9 year old children, persistent poverty influenced externalizing behaviors indirectly, with a lower quality physical environment and fewer stimulating experiences significantly contributing to this effect. The effects of persistent and recent poverty on internalizing behaviors were direct. Recent poverty had no effect on externalizing behaviors, and multiple poverty transitions had no effect on either outcome. Theoretical, intervention, and social policy implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan. A Structural Model of the Effects of Poverty on the Socio-Emotional Development of Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1998.
68. Earle, Alison
Keeping the Job You Find: Understanding Job Turnover Among Welfare Recipients Who Obtain Work
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Child Health; Child Support; Children, Preschool; Family Characteristics; Human Capital; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Poverty; Welfare

This dissertation investigates the process of job loss among welfare recipients who become employed. I use quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to evaluate three questions: Do welfare recipients have a more difficult time keeping jobs than other workers? What factors explain the differences in job duration? What factors affect job turnover? Policymakers seeking to reduce welfare recidivism or reduce poverty should be informed by an understanding of whether and why job retention is a challenge for welfare recipients who obtain work. I find that while rapid job turnover is a problem to some degree for all employed women, welfare recipients have shorter job stays than other employed women. The average job duration for recipients is almost six months shorter than among non-recipients. I find that welfare recipients are 38 percent more likely to end a job in a given month than other employed women. Even when I compared the probability of turnover for recipients and other women within the same type of job, I found that welfare recipients were 28 percent more likely to end a job. In both cases, I was able to explain less than 30 percent of the gap in job turnover rates with human capital and family characteristics. The generosity of welfare benefits and the receipt of child support did not appear to explain much of the difference in job turnover rates. When I examine different subgroups of women, I find that on the whole the predictors for job turnover are remarkably similar. I find that family characteristics are strong predictors of job turnover. Having a new baby and having a child with a chronic health condition significantly increase the probability that a job ended. Models using interaction terms revealed that while having pre-school children significantly increased the likelihood of a job ending, the availability of employer-provided health insurance and paid leave may mitigate this effect. Copyright: Dissertation Abstracts
Bibliography Citation
Earle, Alison. Keeping the Job You Find: Understanding Job Turnover Among Welfare Recipients Who Obtain Work. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1998.
69. Egge, Karl Albert
Black-White Differences in Annual Hours of Work Supplied Among Males 45-59 Years of Age
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1973. DAI-A 34/05, p. 2116, Nov 1973
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Local Labor Market; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Wages

A number of factors are examined that are expected to be related to the amount of labor an individual supplies. The data indicate that for both blacks and whites the amount of labor supplied, generally speaking, is inversely related to: (1) hourly wage rate; (2) level of non-labor income; (3) age; (4) local area unemployment rate; and (5) the presence of recent unemployment experience. It is directly related, on the other hand, to: (6) being married (spouse present); (7) being healthy; and (8) being in white collar jobs. Moreover, the relationship between each of the eight "explanatory" factors and hours supplied is different for blacks than for whites. For example, the effect of hourly wage rate on hours is much larger for blacks, while the effect of personal unemployment experience is actually the opposite for blacks from what it is for whites. Combining the mean of each of these factors with their estimated effects on hours supplied, the author is able to shed some light on the sources of the gross white-black difference in hours supplied by ascertaining which factors tend to widen and which ones to lower the observed differences. Generally speaking, it was found that wages, age, and personal unemployment experience tend to widen the white-black difference in hours supplied, while local labor market unemployment, net income per dependent, and marital status tend to narrow the differences. On the basis of these findings, Egge suggests that as wages continue to rise over time, and as these men get older, the black-white difference in hours supplied will widen.
Bibliography Citation
Egge, Karl Albert. Black-White Differences in Annual Hours of Work Supplied Among Males 45-59 Years of Age. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1973. DAI-A 34/05, p. 2116, Nov 1973.
70. Ehrlich, Lisa Marie
Women's Career Orientation, Labor Supply and Fertility Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1984. DAI-A 45/07, p. 2212, Jan 1985
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Fertility; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Probit; Occupational Aspirations; Sex Roles; Simultaneity

The central issue in this thesis is whether 'career oriented' women respond differently from 'traditional' women in their childbearing and labor supply behavior to changes in exogenous variables such as wages and husband's income. To the extent that they do, and to the extent that more women are becoming career oriented, economic and demographic forecasts based on traditional models of women's labor supply and fertility behavior may be in error. This is an empirical dissertation with a two-stage model, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women. The first stage estimates a woman's degree of career orientation using data on early preferences and desired occupation. This stage of the model draws upon the Mincer and Polachek approach to women's occupational choice. In the second stage I estimate the reduced form of a simultaneous model of women's labor force participation and fertility, while controlling specifically for heterogeneity of preferences over family and career. Estimation is done separately for different groups of women separated by degree of career orientation, and also for the sample as a whole, using slope dummies on exogenous variables such as husband's income to test directly for differences in response. Hours of work are estimated using a Tobit model to correct for truncation at zero, while the fertility equation is estimated using ordered Probit on children ever born. Results are also reported for Ordinary Least Squares estimates. The results of this reseach are extremely robust in finding suprisingly little differences in fertility response among different types of women. The labor supply response of career women is found to be more elastic with respect to wage rates than that of traditional women. These findings suggest that standard economic models of fertility, so long as they incorporate socioeconomic status and race variables, are broadly applicable and not merely appropriate for modeling the behavior of traditional women. However, it is clear that career orientation plays an important role in the wage elasticity of women's labor supply behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Ehrlich, Lisa Marie. Women's Career Orientation, Labor Supply and Fertility Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1984. DAI-A 45/07, p. 2212, Jan 1985.
71. Eliason, Scott R.
Young Adult Labor Force Careers in the U.S., 1979-1985: An Analysis of the Initial Stratification and Attainment Process
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1989. DAI-A 50/10, p. 3374, Apr 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Industrial Sector; Job Patterns; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Local Labor Market; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Transition, School to Work; Wages

This thesis involves an analysis of initial labor force careers of young adults in the U.S. from 1979-1985. The conceptual model of the career process is informed by competing socioeconomic theories or research traditions, including the status attainment tradition, neoclassical economic theory, segmented labor market theory, and various other structural theories, with an emphasis on the career process as a life course phenomenon. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 14-22 are used to estimate (1) latent class models to determine the structure/form of initial labor market positions, (2) multinomial logit models for the initial labor market positions, (3) a Box-Cox specification of the conditional hazard model for transitions to a subsequent labor market position, and (4) sample selection type regression models for labor market wages after the initial and subsequent positions attained. Some important findings include (1) initial labor market positions can be adequately characterized by an industry measure which allows for error in the classification scheme, (2) homogeneous-market models of wage attainment, such as the human capital model, are found to be in most cases inadequate in describing the wage attainment process in the early labor force career, (3) the labor market behavior the year immediately following the completion of schooling in large part determines the initial and subsequent labor market positions attained during the initial labor force career, and (4) the level of education an individual attains is only weakly tied to the initial labor market attainment process. Differences between race/sex groups in the initial labor force career process are emphasized throughout the thesis.
Bibliography Citation
Eliason, Scott R. Young Adult Labor Force Careers in the U.S., 1979-1985: An Analysis of the Initial Stratification and Attainment Process. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1989. DAI-A 50/10, p. 3374, Apr 1990.
72. Elliot, John F.
Factors Related to the Decisions of Rural Public High School Students to Participate in Vocational Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Rural/Urban Differences; Schooling, Post-secondary; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Vocational Education; Vocational Preparation

The purpose of this study was to identify the factors related to the decisions of rural high school students to participate in vocational education. Two national longitudinal data bases, High School and Beyond (HS&B) and the NLSY, provided the bases for the regression analysis. In addition, a face-to-face interview and a questionnaire which replicated questions from the National Longitudinal Surveys were administered to a randomly selected sample of Ohio students who planned to enroll in vocational education courses in their junior year. Rural individuals who completed high proportions of vocational education were more likely to score lower on achievement tests and be from lower SES families than those graduates who completed lower proportions of vocational education. The rural sample in Ohio was white. Students enrolled in vocational education courses at home comprehensive schools felt a sense of belonging. Few people not associated with Joint (Area) Vocational Schools (JVS) spoke highly of them. In addition to the clustering of vocational students in lower SES and ability quartiles, further clustering occurred within vocational education. When compared to home school vocational students, students attending JVS's were significantly lower in ability and SES. Job preparation ranked as the number one reason (58%) why Ohio students enrolled in vocational education courses. Enjoyment of vocational subject matter and the environment in which the vocational education courses were taught ranked second (52%). Other reasons to enroll in vocational education courses are included and renked.
Bibliography Citation
Elliot, John F. Factors Related to the Decisions of Rural Public High School Students to Participate in Vocational Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1988.
73. Farkas, Janice I.
Emergent Careers: American Women's Pension Coverage at Midlife
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1994. DAI, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 56,2, (August 1995): 712-A
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Demography; Gerontology; Infants; Life Course; Marriage; Pensions; Retirement; Women

Current research has examined the retirement process and satisfaction of older women, but has not linked research with women's planning for their old age security while currently at midlife, ages 35 to 54. This research compared two ten-year birth cohorts of women at midlife using two data sets from the National Longitudinal Surveys to examine how past and current events and the decision that construct the life course trajectory of middle-aged women influence participation in employer sponsored pension plans at midlife. The study also considered which familial and demographic circumstances affected participation in pension plans. The research concludes that the majority of the 1928 to 1937 birth cohort of women followed a normative life course trajectory of ending school, starting first job, marriage, followed by first birth. Following a non-normative life course trajectory was negatively correlated with pension coverage for women in the 1928 to 1937 birth cohort. Women in the 1944 to 1954 birth cohort were less apt to follow the normative life course when compared to the prior cohorts. Following a non-normative life course trajectory did not have the negative consequences for pension coverage found for the 1928 to 1937 birth cohort. Time spent with a young child in the household impacted the two birth cohorts' pension coverage differentially. Duration with a toddler in the household negatively affected the 1944 to 1954 birth cohort women's pension coverage. The positive role of ERISA legislation is observed for the 1944 to 1954 birth cohort's pension coverage when examining firm size and current employment status, but the significance of continuous employment history has increased for the 1944 to 1954 birth cohort. The research concludes that the negative consequences of following a non-normative life course for women has decreased when considering pension coverage. UMI, Ann Arbor, MI. Order No. DA9518742
Bibliography Citation
Farkas, Janice I. Emergent Careers: American Women's Pension Coverage at Midlife. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1994. DAI, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 56,2, (August 1995): 712-A.
74. Farnworth, Margaret Ann
Meritocracy and Success: The Role of I.Q. in Processes of Achievement and Social Allocation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1981. DAI-A 42/05, p. 2303, Nov 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; I.Q.; Occupational Attainment

In the 'meritocratic' view of modern industrial society, differential merit and ability reflected in individual IQ scores are proposed to be important determinants of achievement and social allocation. The present analysis examines the relationship between IQ and each of the 'three major axes of social differentiation': education, occupation, and income. Social background influences on differential social placement are controlled in analyses of IQ effects on each of these outcomes. The relative importance of IQ and background are estimated in multivariate regression analyses of social allocation process. The 'meritocratic' interpretation of stratification processes is assessed on the basis of the significance of IQ differences for each outcome and the strength of the IQ effect evaluated relative to the effects of selected social background factors. Models in the analysis of educational processes include an array of five measures representing educational outcomes. Findings are found to vary considerably according to which measure of education is employed as the dependent variable. Failure to identify a predominant and consistent IQ effect throughout processes of educational allocation is nonsupportive of the meritocratic ideal of social equalization through education. Moreover, evidence for apparent social bias is identified at some points. For example, 'screening for ability' is found to be invoked selectively at certain stages according to social origin differences. Such screening effects are more pronounced for the sons of blue-collar workers than for white-collar offspring. In addition, it is found that 'IQ screening for ability' is not the sole or primary factor in track allocation. Social background is slightly more important than IQ for that early and influential educational allotment. This sort of evidence suggests that educational processes may not only fail to correct for social inequalities in the greater society, but may also operate to augment such inequalities. In the analysis of occupational processes, the most interesting outcomes involved the powerful direct effect of education. The meritocracy principle holds that ability combined with education results in 'developed ability' for job performance and level of occupation. Findings here indicate that a large portion of the education effect occurs apart from its joint effect with IQ. This is contrary to meritocracy predictions about the manner in which education operates to mediate IQ effects on occupation. The major value of the analysis of processes affecting the distribution of income may lie in the questions it raised rather than the answers it provided. Findings do not indicate support for the thesis of meritocracy in the determination of income. Neither do findings suggest support for the critical position which attributes significance in stratification processes to social background. This absence of substantive findings poses a major question for ongoing research, viz.: what factors are significant to explain income differentials in the early careers of young white males? The absence of evidence either for or against meritocracy in the determination of income is interpreted conservatively, however, since it appeared that sample and data limitations may have intruded at this point in the analysis to confound the identification of IQ, social background, education, or occupation effects. Conclusions suggest that the meritocracy thesis of educational processes fails to find support in the present study. Assessment of the meritocracy principle as it relates to occupational and economic outcomes is tentative pending further analysis which includes outcomes at later career stages. In the light of these findings, directions for further research are suggested.
Bibliography Citation
Farnworth, Margaret Ann. Meritocracy and Success: The Role of I.Q. in Processes of Achievement and Social Allocation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1981. DAI-A 42/05, p. 2303, Nov 1981.
75. Felmlee, Diane Helen
Women's Job Transitions: A Dynamic Analysis of Job Mobility and Job Leaving
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1980. DAI-A 41/10, p. 4500, Apr 1981
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Fertility; Job Patterns; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Mobility; Mobility, Job; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition Rates, Activity to Work; Transition, Job to Job; Women; Work Histories

The number of women in the labor force has increased dramatically in recent years. At the same time, numerous studies have been done on women's employment issues. However, research has generally been of a cross-sectional nature and has failed to focus on the dynamics of women's employment activities. This study is a longitudinal, in-depth analysis of two major processes involved in women's employment--job mobility and leaving employment. The Young Women sample of the National Longitudinal Survey (1968-1973) is used to develop an appropriate data set for this study. The panel and retrospective information is transformed into a set of employment transition histories for each person in the white women sub-sample. A multivariate, continuous-time, stochastic model is used to analyze individual level employment transition rates. In the first step of the analysis, basic factors in the process of women's job mobility are identified. Women's rates of job to job changes are negatively associated to job rewards and positively associated to individual resources. In addition, several family-related constraints have substantial negative effects on rates of job shifts. Being married, for instance, slows down rates of women's job changes. The process of changing jobs is not simply a function of employers' and employees' desires. Job changes are also a function of the structural access that individuals have to jobs. Additional analyses demonstrate the interaction of the mobility process with two access factors in a job change, the locus of control (voluntary/involuntary) and the type of employer transition (same employer/different employer). The process of voluntarily changing jobs differs substantially from that of changing jobs involuntarily. Furthermore, models for rates of voluntarily changing jobs with the same employer differ from models for rates of voluntarily changing jobs with different employers. Job shifts to a new employer rely on general, screening information such as wages, SES, IQ, and educational goal. Job shifts with the same employer (indicative of firm internal labor markets) depend heavily on age and length of time on a job, a result which implies that moves in firm internal labor markets are largely a function of seniority, firm-specific resources, and vacancies in a firm. Rather than being continuously employed, many women move out of employment for periods of time. Therefore, in the third part of the study transitions out of employment are modeled in a dynamic framework. Models for rates of leaving employment because of pregnancy are contrasted with models for rates of leaving employment due to reasons other than pregnancy. These models differ in ways that imply that fertility behavior influences employment decisions. However, the wage variable has a negative effect both on rates of leaving a job due to pregnancy and on rates not due to pregnancy. This suggests that high wages are a disincentive to leave a job for any reason, i.e., the wages of a job influence pregnancy decisions for employed women. In sum, results provide evidence that labor force activity influences fertility behavior as well as that fertility behavior influences labor force behavior. The final question addressed concerns the consequences of employment discontinuity for women's occupational attainment. Results show that women are more likely to make job changes that result in decreases, rather than increases, in SES or wages when their job changes are interrupted by nonemployment than when the changes are made without a break. Further research demonstrates that the negative consequences of discontinuity are not due simply to differences in the characteristics of the women or jobs involved in discontinuous job changes. Instead, costs are embedded in the process of job changing.
Bibliography Citation
Felmlee, Diane Helen. Women's Job Transitions: A Dynamic Analysis of Job Mobility and Job Leaving. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1980. DAI-A 41/10, p. 4500, Apr 1981.
76. Finken, Laura Lei
A Developmental Extension of the Propensity-Event Theory to Adolescents' Reckless Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Modeling; Parenthood; Time Use; Work Hours

The present study explored the relationship among adolescents' reckless behaviors (i.e., alcohol use and non-normative behaviors), parenting practices, adolescents' employment, and adolescents' opportunities for risk-taking (i.e., time-use and money). The study was designed to provide empirical evidence of the propensity-event theory. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the opportunity variables would mediate the effects of the other explanatory variables on adolescents' participation in the reckless behaviors. The data from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) respondents were utilized for this project. For the cross-sectional analyses, a series of path analytic models tested the relationships among the variables for each wave of data. As predicted by the propensity-event theory, the between-individual analyses revealed the existence of an indirect effect of age on adolescents' alcohol use through work and money. Specifically, older ado lescents reported working more hours per week than did younger adolescents. The adolescents who worked more reported having more money that, in turn, was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The longitudinal analyses used pooled time-series methods to measure the change in the variables over time. As hypothesized, the within-individual analysis demonstrated an indirect effect of age on the developmental changes in adolescents' drinking behavior over time through work and time-use. Older adolescents reported working more hours per week than did younger adolescents. Changes in adolescents' work hours predicted changes in their time-use. Specifically, as an adolescent's work hours increased over time, she reported spending more time in situations that were favorable to reckless behaviors and this time use was related to increased alcohol use over time. The implications of this study for the propensity-event theory are discussed along with its limitations. Finally, directions for further research in this area are presented.
Bibliography Citation
Finken, Laura Lei. A Developmental Extension of the Propensity-Event Theory to Adolescents' Reckless Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 1996.
77. Florence, Curtis Samuel, II
Three Essays on Job Search Methods and Search Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Job Search; Job Status; Job Tenure; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Wage Growth; Wages

This dissertation is comprised of three essays that examine the relationship between job search methods and job outcomes for unemployed workers. All three essays utilize data from a sample of unemployed young men in the 1986 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The first essay examines job search choices and outcomes over time. Forty-nine percent of searchers who are unemployed for more than one month change the job search methods they use during an unemployment spell. Estimates of the arrival rate of job offers suggest that searchers choose methods systematically by starting with the most productive methods and then adding less productive methods. However, searchers who use public employment agencies after trying other methods first have shorter jobless duration than other searchers. This suggests that public employment agencies may be a productive method for searchers if they are not initially successful in finding a job with other methods. In the second essay I estima te two models of job search outcomes that control for the endogeneity of search choices. The first model jointly estimates equations for search method use and the arrival of job offers. The second model jointly estimates equations for search method use, the receipt of unemployment insurance, and the hazard rate for exit from unemployment. The results show that private employment agencies, personal contacts, newspaper advertisements and direct applications increase the number of job offers. However, personal contacts and direct application are the only methods that decrease jobless duration. Receiving unemployment insurance increases jobless duration by almost three months. In the third essay, I estimate the effect of job search choices on subsequent job quality. The results reveal several interesting relationships between search methods and job quality. Using public employment agencies has a negative effect on the starting wage and wage growth, but a small positive effect on the duration of the job. Using personal contacts has a negative effect on starting wages and a small positive effect on wage growth and job duration. Direct application increases job duration by over one and a half months. Receiving unemployment insurance increases starting wages by about nine percent.
Bibliography Citation
Florence, Curtis Samuel, II. Three Essays on Job Search Methods and Search Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1997.
78. Fohl Bailey, Mary Elizabeth
Individual Differences in the Trajectories of Early Adolescent Development and in the Adjustment to the Transition of Adolescence
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Drug Use; Family Environment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Youth Problems

The purpose of the present study was to create trajectories of early adolescent development in the areas of self-esteem and problem behaviors and to assess the ability of several family environment factors and previous self-esteem/problem behaviors to discriminate between trajectories of early adolescent development. Information collected from 1986 to 1990 from 271 adolescents and their mothers were analyzed. The family environment factors measured included: family life events, maternal adjustment, and parent-child relationship. A 4-cluster solution of self-esteem trajectories and a 6-cluster solution of problem behavior trajectories were created using 1988 and 1990 data. Results indicated that previous self-esteem/problem behaviors and the parent-child relationship discriminated between self-esteem and problem behavior trajectories of development. Previous self-esteem and frequency of parent-child discussions were higher in the consistently high group than in the other three groups. Follow-forward analyses of problem behavior trajectories revealed that a higher, previous level of problem behaviors and more frequent parent-child arguments differentiated the consistently high, average to high increase, and consistently average-slight clusters from the consistently average-slight increase, average to low decrease, and consistently low clusters. Follow-back examination of trajectories demonstrated that both self-esteem and problem behavior trajectories were discriminated by 1990 report of parent-child discussions and arguments. Adolescents in the low to lower decrease self-esteem cluster had less frequent parent-child discussions and more frequent parent-child arguments than adolescents in the other three clusters. Less frequent parent-child discussions and more frequent parent-child arguments discriminated the consistently high, consistently average-slight decrease, and consistently low problem behavior trajectories from the consistently average-slight increase, average to low decrease, and average to high increase problem behavior trajectories. Results were discussed in terms of previous research findings. Finally, several suggestions were made about future studies of early adolescent development.
Bibliography Citation
Fohl Bailey, Mary Elizabeth. Individual Differences in the Trajectories of Early Adolescent Development and in the Adjustment to the Transition of Adolescence. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996.
79. Folks, Albert Luke
Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and Government Regulation: An Empirical Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1991. DAI-A 52/06, p. 2235, Dec 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Firms; Government Regulation; Wage Differentials

Conflicting theories have been developed and several empirical studies have been done that leave unresolved whether rate of return regulated firms pay higher wages than other firms after considering industry and individual characteristics. This analysis attempts to reconcile the results of the previous studies by estimating wage equations using the NLSY data sample to discover whether workers in industries that were regulated with the rate of return form of regulation controlling for individual background and industry characteristics had higher wages than their non-regulated counterparts. In addition, recent inter-industry wage differential studies have identified problems with using OLS estimation of individual wage equations, which was used in the previous studies, but have not looked at the impact of government regulation on wages. This paper will also apply the alternative estimation techniques from the inter-industry wage differential studies to the wage equations to discover whether the problems with OLS make a significant difference in the results. In conclusion, the OLS results while reconciling the previous studies indicate for a sample of workers for all industries and controlling for industry characteristics a positive impact on wages from employment in a rate of return regulated industry. Furthermore, after considering some problems with OLS estimates of individual wage equations with industry average characteristics that the recent inter-industry wage literature has discussed, the results of the analysis indicate that some of the inter-industry wage differentials can still be explained by the existence of the rate of return form of government regulation. This conclusion was made after a comparison of the results from the OLS and GLS estimates of individual wage equations to the estimates from a two step approach which had industry level data determined that the estimates from the two step methodology were inefficient since they provided similar point estimates of the impact of employment in rate of return regulated industries but larger standard errors. [UMI 91-32565]
Bibliography Citation
Folks, Albert Luke. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and Government Regulation: An Empirical Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1991. DAI-A 52/06, p. 2235, Dec 1991.
80. Fong, Christina Margareta
Essays on Endogenous Preferences and Public Generosity
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 2000. DAI, 61, no. 09A (2000): 3669
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Income; Income Distribution; Modeling

This dissertation is a collection of four essays that question the behavioral assumptions of economics and aim to provide a richer model of redistributive politics than that based on traditional assumptions of exogenous, self-regarding, and outcome-oriented preferences. I argue that an enriched model of redistribution is necessary, and attempt to provide empirical evidence of endogenous, other-regarding, and non-outcome-oriented preferences that might explain puzzles which the traditional model cannot.

The assumption of self-interest is particularly ill-suited for the study of redistributive politics. Preferences for redistribution may be influenced by values and beliefs about distributive justice as well as by self-interest. People may prefer more redistribution to the poor if they believe that poverty is caused by circumstances beyond individual control. Alternatively, the effect of these beliefs on redistributive preferences may be spurious if they are correlated with income, and self-interest is not properly controlled for. They may also measure incentive cost concerns. In Chapter 1, using survey data from the 1998 Gallup Poll Social Audit, I find that self-interest and incentive costs concerns cannot explain the effect of these beliefs on redistributive preferences.

I then report three studies designed to investigate the effects of economic experiences and institutions on preferences and behavior. In Chapter II I investigate how beliefs about the effects of effort, luck, and opportunity on income are updated. I model how people may update their beliefs based on comparisons of their actual earnings with expected income. I test the model using the National Longitudinal Surveys. In Chapter III I conduct an experimental test of the effect of minor differences in lottery procedures that which should have no effect according to expected utility theory on bidding behavior. In Chapter IV I investigate the effect of competition among players who bargain over the division of a sum of money on the inequality of the outcome. In these three chapters I find that beliefs about justice may be shaped by poor earnings relative to others, that procedural manipulations of the degree of involvement in income generating procedures may have significant effects on behavior, and that competition may undermine fair behavior.

Bibliography Citation
Fong, Christina Margareta. Essays on Endogenous Preferences and Public Generosity. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 2000. DAI, 61, no. 09A (2000): 3669.
81. Foster, Ann C.
Wife's Earnings as a Factor in Family Net Worth Accumulation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia,1979. DAI-B 40/08, p. 3683, Feb 1980
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Resources; Wives

Three areas are examined: (1) the relationship between the wife's employment and earnings and family net worth; (2) whether families of working and nonworking wives have comparable net worth or whether the wife's earnings alter the family's net worth position; and (3) the impact of the wife's earnings on changes in net worth while controlling for changes in income and number of family members.
Bibliography Citation
Foster, Ann C. Wife's Earnings as a Factor in Family Net Worth Accumulation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia,1979. DAI-B 40/08, p. 3683, Feb 1980.
82. Francesconi, Marco
A Dynamic Model of Female Labor Supply And Fertility: The Role of Part-Time Work
Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1995
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Fertility; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Modeling; Part-Time Work; Schooling; Women's Studies

This dissertation focuses on one aspect of the interaction between female labor supply and fertility: the role of part- time work for married women over the life cycle. Policy questions that are addressed by this research include: Is high persistence in employment a common feature to both part- timers and full-timers? How would the patterns of women's employment and fertility behavior vary with changes in exogenous variables, such as schooling level, or the shape of the earnings profiles; and Is part-time work a viable strategy for women to keep their "hands in" the labor market while raising children? The decisions to stay at home or work part time/full time and to have a child are modeled as the sequential choice of married women solving a stochastic dynamic programming problem. At each discrete period, the forward-looking individual chooses whether to be employed in a part- time/full-time job and whether to have a child based on expected utility maximization. Allowing for uncertainty, decisions made at each period depend on the random shocks to sector-specific (part- time and full-time) wages and the stochastic realization of individual taste for children. The discrete-choice optimization problem takes place over a finite horizon, defined by the length of the fertile cycle of a couple. The decision-making process continues, with the same alternatives, until the end of the fertile cycle. The model is estimated using data from the young women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for survey years 1968-1991. The estimation method involves solving a stochastic dynamic programming problem and embedding the solution in a maximum likelihood procedure. The structural parameters of the model that maximize the likelihood function can be found using a numerical optimization algorithm by simulation of thesolution of the dynamic program and of the underlying choice probabilities. Structural estimation permits to perform policy experiments relating to fertility and labor markets. The estimates allow for predictions of the change in number of years worked later on in life that would arise with exogenous changes in the wife's schooling level, age at marriage, earnings profiles and disutility of work. Effects of such policies on the number of children ever born over the fertile cycle of wives are also obtained. Finally, the quantitative effect of work interruption and opportunity cost of children in terms of lifetime earnings are evaluated.
Bibliography Citation
Francesconi, Marco. A Dynamic Model of Female Labor Supply And Fertility: The Role of Part-Time Work. Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1995.
83. Frantz, Roger Scott
Beyond Allocative Efficiency: The Role of Psychological Factors in Worker Motivation, Career Choice, and Industrial Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1978. DAI-A 39/08, p. 5074, Feb 1979
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Internal-External Attitude; Mobility; Transition, School to Work; Work Attitudes

This study focuses on some substantial and pervasive direct and indirect effects which an individual's attitudes are likely to produce on his labor market experiences. The Young Men's sample of the NLS is used to examine two issues: (1) how a belief in internal external control affects labor market experiences; and (2) how a belief in internal-external control is affected by the transition from school to work. In developing a conceptual framework for testing these issues, the author considers that labor market experiences (wages, occupational status, turnover) are affected by three major classes of variables: (1) psychological orientation, or attitudes in general; (2) human capital; and (3) market structure. In addition, one's labor market success or failure, his attempts at beginning his own family, world events, and his new status as one gaining financial and emotional independence are crucial in determining how his transition period affects his attitudes towards himself. The model is designed to deal with interactions between attitudes and human capital variables. This dissertation concludes that attitudes affect the economic benefits of human capital and earnings, and that attitudes are affected by the work and personal experiences during the transition period between school and work.
Bibliography Citation
Frantz, Roger Scott. Beyond Allocative Efficiency: The Role of Psychological Factors in Worker Motivation, Career Choice, and Industrial Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1978. DAI-A 39/08, p. 5074, Feb 1979.
84. Freiman, Marc Philip
Empirical Tests of Dual Labor Market Theory and Hedonic Measures of Occupational Attainment
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1976. DAI-A 38/01, p. 379, Jul 1977
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Industrial Relations; Labor Market, Secondary; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status; Schooling; Wages

Dual labor market theory was tested by examining the occupational mobility patterns (and their determinants) for whites, nonwhites, and nonwhites with fewer than twelve years of education. The primary data source was the NLS of Young Men, although the Survey of Economic Opportunity (l967), and job data from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles were also used in the analysis. Occupational status was defined by two measures: the hourly wage rate and a measure of occupational prestige derived from an estimated hedonic price index for occupational characteristics. The primary focus was on the effect of initial job quality on subsequent mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Freiman, Marc Philip. Empirical Tests of Dual Labor Market Theory and Hedonic Measures of Occupational Attainment. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1976. DAI-A 38/01, p. 379, Jul 1977.
85. Fu, Haishan
Health-Related Behavior and Marriage Selection: New Perspectives on an Old Question
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, January 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior; Drug Use; Event History; Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Disruption; Marriage; Modeling; Obesity; Physical Characteristics; Socioeconomic Factors

In this analysis, we focus on marriage selection on the basis of health as a logical starting point to identify the relative importance of marriage selection and marriage protection. Our goal is two-fold: first, we extend the conventional argument to recognize that marriage selection may operate on the basis of more broadly defined health-related characteristics and behaviors. rather than simply on severe physical and mental handicaps; and second, we broaden the existing marriage choice model by taking into account health components as either direct selection criteria or as mediating factors through which individual and family socioeconomic characteristics affect marriage behaviors. We address these two issues by examining the effects of health-related characteristics and behaviors on first marriage rates among young American adults based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-1991. Using event history analysis, we investigate the overall association between each of the health-related variables and marriage rates, and the effects of these health-related variables net of the influence of other health variables and of various socioeconomic factors. We also examine possible gender differentials and age effects of health-related characteristics and behaviors on marriage rates. The findings suggest that first marriage is selective on the basis of health among young adults. Specifically, marriage selection results in lower marriage rates for (1) persons with certain physical characteristics, namely obesity and short stature: and (2) for persons with unhealthy behaviors, such as heavy alcohol consumption and use of hard drugs. In contrast, the association between the presence of health limitations and first marriage rates is modest and statistically insignificant.
Bibliography Citation
Fu, Haishan. Health-Related Behavior and Marriage Selection: New Perspectives on an Old Question. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, January 1995.
86. Fuller, Sylvia
Broken Ladders or Boundaryless Careers? Job Instability and Worker Well Being
Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers: The State University Of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 2004. DAI-A 65/06, p. 2383, Dec 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Human Capital; Job Turnover; Layoffs; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Multilevel; Quits

Since the 1980s, job stability for American workers has been falling as employers pursue increased flexibility in employment systems. Traditionally vulnerable groups such as young workers and blacks have experienced the largest increase in instability, but even hitherto stable workers such as older managers and professionals have been affected. This dissertation investigates the economic consequences of employment instability for workers by analyzing longitudinal work history data from the 1979 to 2000 waves of the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with multi-level regression techniques. The study found that working for more employers for shorter periods was generally harmful. However, the penalties of job instability varied according to the pattern of job change, individual characteristics, social location, and work context. Different groups of workers varied both in their overall level of job mobility and in the relative proportion of job changes of different types (layoffs, discharges, quits for family reasons and quits for economic reasons) they tended to undergo, and this had clear economic consequences. However, analyses also revealed that these consequences were themselves mediated by social location and social context, albeit in ways that often differed significantly for men and women. The dissertation concludes that such variation challenges dominant approaches to studying workplace restructuring that focus on average effects. Instead, the dissertation argues for an approach that is sensitive to differences in how new patterns of employment are experienced. In so doing, it draws from and further develops insights from a variety of theoretical traditions including human capital and job mobility approaches from economics, sociological work on how social, economic, and cultural frameworks shape labor market processes, and feminist research on the links between changing employment relationships and sex/gender inequalities both inside and outside of the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Fuller, Sylvia. Broken Ladders or Boundaryless Careers? Job Instability and Worker Well Being. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers: The State University Of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 2004. DAI-A 65/06, p. 2383, Dec 2004.
87. Gagen, Mary G.
Job Displacement of Established Women Workers: Correlates and Employment Consequences
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1987. DAI-A 48/09, p. 2464, Mar 1988
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Educational Attainment; Firms; Industrial Sector; Women

The theories, correlates and consequences of permanent job loss were investigated, for the NLS Mature Women's cohort, using a subset of workers who were established in their jobs over the years 1969 to 1981. This approach focuses on the job loss event itself, in contrast to the prevailing practice of studying displaced workers from cases of plant shutdowns or from a population of unemployed workers. Theories which could explain labor force reductions were surveyed from across disciplines in order to derive a set of variables for use in a displacement model. The theories tend to focus on either characteristics of the firm or on characteristics of individual workers to explain the incidence of displacement across the workforce. It was shown that there was a fairly high degree of convergence among theories in terms of predictor variables. Displacement was found to be related more closely to structural features, associated with firms, than to characteristics of the individuals who lost their jobs. The industry of employment was the single largest predictor of displacement. Specifically, manufacturing, traditional services and wholesale/retail trade displaced workers at approximately equal rates. In contrast, professional and business services confer relative immunity to job loss, at least over the period studied. This finding offers a different profile of displaced workers from that described in the large body of plant shutdown literature, but supports findings from other national samples. Recent layoffs are also strong predictors of displacement. Education tended to prevent displacement. Consequences of displacement were similar to that described in the plant closing literature: unemployment, wage erosion and leaving the labor force were typical, and persistent. Multinomial logit of employment status was used to analyze displacement's effects on unemployment, labor force leaving and employment rates. The model explains more about labor force leaving than it does of unemployment, although displacement significantly affects both. Policy implications were discussed. [UMI ADG87- 26632]
Bibliography Citation
Gagen, Mary G. Job Displacement of Established Women Workers: Correlates and Employment Consequences. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1987. DAI-A 48/09, p. 2464, Mar 1988.
88. Garrett, Alma Bowen
Essays in the Economics of Child Mental Health
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Children, Health Care; Family Structure; Family Studies; Health, Mental; Household Composition; Household Models; Household Structure; Marital Status; Parental Influences; Social Security; Welfare

Chapter one introduces the dissertation, reviews the literature on the prevalence and economic consequences of mental disorders, and describes some policy issues in child mental health care. Empirical analyses in this study use the National Institute of Mental Health's Cooperative Agreement for Methodological Epidemiology for Multi-Site Surveys of Mental Disorders in Child and Adolescent (MECA) Study and the combined mother-child sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience (NLSY). Chapter two considers methodological issues in the use of measures of mental health status of children in service use regressions. An interviewer-rated measure of child mental health impairment, the Non-Clinician Parent Interviewer's Child Global Assessment Scale (PI-CGAS), is found to strongly predict child mental health service use and to suffer less from rater-bias than other measures considered. Additional analyses show that maternal education and past use of mental health services affect whether the mother attributes certain child behaviors to a mental disorder. Chapter three develops a household production model of child mental health. Parental characteristics, such as potential wages, are found to affect the use of mental health services for children in two-parent households more strongly than for children in single-parent households. Child behavioral problems are found to reduce the likelihood of employment for married mothers, with no effect for unmarried mothers. Chapter four examines the relationship between child emotional and behavioral problems and family structure. Children with emotional and behavioral disorders are more likely to live in households in which the parents argue, in households headed by a single parent, and in households with a step-father. Child behavioral disorders are found to increase the likelihood of divorce or separation and decrease the likelihood that single mothers will marry. Chapter five examines a rece nt expansion in child SSI participation resulting from U.S. Supreme Court decision Sullivan v. Zebley. Empirical analyses of state level data find that SSI grew more rapidly in states with low AFDC payments and that more than half of new SSI recipients were already eligible for AFDC payments. Chapter six concludes the dissertation with a discussion of the policy implications of the findings.
Bibliography Citation
Garrett, Alma Bowen. Essays in the Economics of Child Mental Health. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1996.
89. Garvey, Nancy
Job Investment, Actual and Expected Labor Supply, and the Earnings of Young Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Fertility; Human Capital Theory; Job Tenure; Schooling; Vocational Education; Wage Gap; Work Experience; Work History

Using human capital theory, this thesis investigates the relationship between patterns of work experience, actual and planned and the wages of young women. The results support the hypothesis that more attached workers invest more in general training and consequently earn more than less attached workers. The initial earnings capacity of more attached women is also found to be greater. Consequently, their wage profiles are not only steeper but also consistently above the wage profiles of less attached women. In addition, the labor force withdrawal associated with the birth of the first child is found to significantly decrease earnings; the size of this depreciation effect diminishes after women return to work and are able to restore their previous skills and make additional investment. Young men were found to invest more than young women in both general and specific training, but the relative magnitude of their investments is most similar to that of young women with stronger lifetime labor force attachment. Finally, very little of the wage gap between young women and men is explained by differences in work experience or investments.
Bibliography Citation
Garvey, Nancy. Job Investment, Actual and Expected Labor Supply, and the Earnings of Young Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1980.
90. Georgellis, John
Three Essays on Search Theory
Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1990
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Endogeneity; Heterogeneity; Job Search; Labor Supply; Modeling

The purpose of this study is to examine theoretical and empirical issues that arise when relaxing the Poisson assumption for the rate of arrival of job offers in sequential models of labor dynamics. When it is assumed that job offers are determined exogenously then aspects of market interaction, self-selection, and offer heterogeneity are suppressed. Theoretical models of search have recognized the major importance of these issues, but new econometric techniques have a major difficulty in addressing them, because relaxation of the Poisson assumption increases their computational requirements. The effort of this study has been made to overcome this difficulty by using a priori estimates of the probabilities that particular types of searchers will prefer particular types of occupations, so that the rate of arrival of offers is endogenized. Such a model depends on the assumption of correlation between employees' personal characteristics and their preferences for particular job attributes. Testing this hypothesis will be helpful before incorporating it into any theoretical model. Chapter 2 presents a non-parametric way for deriving such data by utilizing a unique piece of information provided by the NLS for Young Men. Chapter 3 presents the two-state model of sequential job search and focuses on the effects of relaxing the assumption of the Poisson distribution for the rate of arrival of job offers by introducing a behavioral model for the hiring activity of the employer. Chapter 4 presents a two-period model of labor supply, savings, and search which highlights the notion of search as an investment which has to be compared with alternative investments in an optimal portfolio framework.
Bibliography Citation
Georgellis, John. Three Essays on Search Theory. Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1990.
91. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Social Security and Life-Cycle Labor Supply
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1985. DAI-A 46/11, p. 3452, May 1986
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Social Security

This dissertation examines the labor supply consequences of the social security earnings test and benefit structure in a life-cycle setting. Specifically, the research addresses the contention that the implicit tax on earnings at the age of social security acceptance induces a substitution of market work to younger ages of the life-cycle by changing an individual's relative wage pattern. Using a sample of middle-aged men from the National Longitudinal Survey, this study will present new microeconomic evidence related to the full life-cycle adjustment to the social security system. A recently developed empirical model of labor supply that incorporates the life-cycle considerations mentioned is implemented. The empirical methodology includes the use of panel data to estimate marginal utility of wealth-constant demand functions. Estimation of the model provides parameter estimates needed to construct intertemporal substitution elasticities, as well as responses to parametric changes in wealth and wages over the life cycle.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew. Social Security and Life-Cycle Labor Supply. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1985. DAI-A 46/11, p. 3452, May 1986.
92. Gill, David Henry
Aspects of Vocational Development in Older Males: An Exploratory Study
Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A and M University, 1981. DAI-A 42/03, p. 1116, Sep 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Early Retirement; Mobility; Retirement

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance and descriptive applicability of vocational development theories for the later lifestages of maintenance and decline in older males. The following objectives guided the research: (1)To determine whether or not the maintenance period is characterized by limited occupational change. (2)To determine whether or not the decline stage is characterized by withdrawal from paid work, followed by continued lack of participation in work. (3)To develop a model that would predict the predisposition to withdraw from working life among older males. Procedure. Pertinent data were obtained or derived for 5020 older males from the Department of Labor's National Longitudinal Surveys data base. Data for the first two objectives were analyzed using descriptive statistics and cohort analysis. Objective three was accomplished through the use of multiple regression analysis and an extension of MRA, commonality analysis. Major Findings. (1)Occupational stability increases with age, the incidence of occupational changing dropping rapidly in the early sixties. (2)Even after the age of sixty, over 10% of the respondents reported a change in occupation over a two-year time period. (3)About 58% of the respondents changed occupations at least once during the ten-year time frame of the study. Over 10% of the respondents aged 64-68 reported having changed jobs at least three times during those ten years, while over 5% reported at least three changes of occupational fields. (4)The initial decision to retire attained a peak rate of incidence of 31% at age 66 but displayed an earlier sharp rise around the age of 62 (from 9% at age 61 to 20% at age 63). (5)About one-fourth of the respondents reported themselves as retired at some time during the period of study (men aged 45-68 during the period 1966-1975). About half of the men who retired later reported a return to work. (6)Whereas incidence of retirement increases with age, so also does post-retirement work involvement, particularly after age sixty. Thirty-six per cent of the men aged 62-66 who reported their first retirement in 1973 later reported being employed. (7)Factors that performed best as predictors of attitude toward retirement were: the effect of dependent others (including indicators for life status of parents and attitude toward leaving children an inheritance); occupational mobility (including indicators for occupational change, employer change, and job tenure); and socioeconomic status (including indicators for net family assets, educational level, and score on Duncan socioeconomic index). Findings of this study suggest that those men who did not feel financial obligations for dependent family, who were more occupationally mobile and had higher socioeconomic status were more positively disposed to retire.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, David Henry. Aspects of Vocational Development in Older Males: An Exploratory Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A and M University, 1981. DAI-A 42/03, p. 1116, Sep 1981.
93. Goetz, Kathryn W.
Women's Alcohol Consumption: Personal, Familial, and Geopolitical Dimensions
Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Education; Family Influences; Family Studies; Marriage; Mothers, Behavior; Parental Influences; Religion; Social Influences; Women's Studies

A sample of 1,003 women, age 22 in 1983-84 and age 27 in 1988-89, were selected from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Personal, familial, and geopolitical predictors of alcohol consumption were evaluated at each time period and longitudinally. The study integrated macro- and micro-level influences to determine their influence on individual alcohol consumption. Personal and familial were most influential. Availability of alcohol and political economy had little effect on consumption. Mother's history of alcohol abuse was more important than father's. At age 22 education, being married, and having children reduced consumption, as did a prior affiliation with a religion that proscribed the use of alcohol reduced consumption. At age 27 education, being married, and children decreased consumption, but religious affiliation and parent's consumption were not significant. While marital status at age 22 reduced drinking at that age, it led to greater consumption at age 27.
Bibliography Citation
Goetz, Kathryn W. Women's Alcohol Consumption: Personal, Familial, and Geopolitical Dimensions. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University, 1994.
94. Golumb, Susha
Changing Patterns of Employment in Agriculture in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Employment; Occupations; Rural Women; Women

This study examines the change in the distribution of agricultural employment over a ten-year period that has also been marked by significant changes in the structure of agriculture. The data that are used are from the NLS, Mature Women, in both the first year (1967) and the latest year (1977) for which data are available. A sample of 549 respondent households in agricultural employment has been created from an original 5,000 respondents in 1967. This study involves the development and use of a typology of agricultural employment that divides farming occupations into two broad groups, namely those with declared farm occupations and those without farm occupations but for whom there is evidence of farm income or assets. These two groups are called primary and secondary occupation farming, respectively. The third category of agricultural employment used in this study is paid farm labor. The general change in agricultural employment from 1967 to 1977 seen in the NLS shows a decrease in primary occupation farming and in paid farm labor that is comparable to the decline in small- to medium-sized farms and in the farm labor force seen in the Census of Agriculture. The data also show an increase in secondary occupation farming, and this adds a dimension to the increase in very small farms, under 50 acres, seen in the 1974 Census of Agriculture (vol. 1, part 51, pg. XIV). A dualism in the scale of agriculture to very large and very small farm size appears to be developing as primary occupation farming decreases and as secondary occupation farming increases.
Bibliography Citation
Golumb, Susha. Changing Patterns of Employment in Agriculture in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1981.
95. Gonul, Fusun Feride
Astructural and Structural Methods in the Estimation of Models of Labor Force Participation and Search Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1986. DAI-A 47/08, p. 3144, Feb 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Gender Differences; Job Tenure; Labor Force Participation; Layoffs; Mobility; Research Methodology; Unemployment

My dissertation consists of three essays. Two of the essays belong to the class of astructural models that specify waiting-time distributions with and without time-varying regressors to depict the gross features of dynamic labor force participation behavior. The third essay builds a wealth maximization model that solves for the individual's decision to work or not, and estimates the structural parameters of the model employing a dynamic programming algorithm within a maximum likelihood routine. The first essay is an attempt to determine whether or not unemployment and out of the labor force are distinct states following recent work in this area. Waiting-time distributions are estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience youth cohort, and the two states are tested for equivalence using a restricted sample where transitions between unemployment and out of the labor force are deleted due to insufficient information on beginning and ending dates of these passages. Then all the information in the data is included and the test is performed again with a special treatment of the missing dates using 'an exponential Bessel function' distribution that is developed by enumerating all possible transitions in the period with missing dates. Contrary to previous results, unemployment and out of the labor force are equivalent states for young men. However, they are not equivalent for young women. The second essay discusses the implications and various interpretations of a defective Gompertz-like hazard function widely employed by economists. A nondefective distribution is derived and the performance of both distributions is compared and the predictive power of each distribution is analyzed. If the behavioral model under investigation mostly displays stayer characteristics, then the defective distribution can explain the immobility more parsimoniously than a nondefective one, and if the model mostly displays mover characteristics, then a nondefective distribution has more explanatory power than the defective one. The third essay builds a wealth maximization model of labor force participation in a nonstationary environment with layoffs and uncertain job offers. Given the structural parameter estimates, experiments are performed to ascertain the impact of changes in forcing variables on unemployment and employment duration.
Bibliography Citation
Gonul, Fusun Feride. Astructural and Structural Methods in the Estimation of Models of Labor Force Participation and Search Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1986. DAI-A 47/08, p. 3144, Feb 1987.
96. Gormly, Sarah Anne
Essays in Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgetown University, 2002. DAI-A 63/11, p. 4036, May 2003
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children, School-Age; Gender Differences; Labor Economics; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Part-Time Work; Wage Equations; Work Hours; Work Reentry

The first part of this dissertation fits into the literature on women's labor market participation. Female workers are observed to interrupt their careers and use part-time hour employment; and these work patterns may impact wages. Workers are often penalized for interruptions in the form of lower re-entry wages, and part-time work is often less paid than full-time work. Past studies suggest that workers who interrupt work experience a period of elevated returns to experience, reducing the effect of non-work spells on earnings. My goal is to learn if this period occurs for workers who re-enter work at part-time hours and for those who re-enter work at full-time hours. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women and estimate a modified Mincer wage equation in which I control for all spells of full-time and part-time work, and non-work spells. I find a rebound period for workers who re-enter work at full-time hours and for those who re-enter at part-time hours, and for full-time re-entrants, some evidence that this is due to higher rates of return to general human capital in the post-interruption period. I compare estimation results for a related wage specification obtained for my dataset to those obtained for Leslie Stratton's 1995 dataset, which contains of more experienced workers than mine, and learn that the results for my sample are not likely to apply to female workers in general. I conclude that less experienced workers use employment and non-work differently than more experienced workers. The second topic is a collaboration with Kenneth Swinnerton. We consider the relationship between adult labor market conditions and the probability that school aged individuals are enrolled in school. We use data from the South Africa Integrated Household Survey to estimate the returns to schooling in each South African province, and include the estimated returns to schooling as an explanatory variable in a probit model for school enrollment. We find variation in local rates of return on schooling and a positive relationship between returns to schooling and the probability of enrollment.
Bibliography Citation
Gormly, Sarah Anne. Essays in Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgetown University, 2002. DAI-A 63/11, p. 4036, May 2003.
97. Gotbaum, Sarah C.
Gender and First Job: Ticket for a Life Journey
Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1989. DAI-A 50/11, p. 3767, May 1990
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Life Course; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Status

It has been argued that entry into the labor force reinforces the social stratification process for the entire society, thereby marking a critical point in the life course of women and men. This dissertation investigates one element in the causal chain of gender differences in labor market placements and rewards: the relationship of first job to the occupational destinations of women compared with men. The research literature has shown that career entry jobs are not as important as education in predicting the occupational attainment of men over the course of their working lives. For women, however, research has produced conflicting findings. This thesis argues that occupational entry early in the work history of women is a stronger determinant of their ultimate occupational status attainment than is that of men. Corrolary to this thesis, it is also argued that contrary to the research findings for men, the education and parental socio-economic status of women have weaker effects than occupational entry status on occupational destination. The data for this analysis are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (NLS) and the Occupational Changes in a Generation survey of men (OCG). The subsamples represent white women, aged 30-44 in the workforce in 1967, and white men, aged 30-44 in the workforce in 1962. This historical cohort, a generation in transition, represents women and men who spent their early childhood or schooling during the Great Depression of the 1930's and entered adulthood during or post World War II. The Blau-Duncan model of status attainment was replicated for both samples, using path analytic regression equations for the variables: paternal education and occupation, and respondent's education, first and current job occupational status. The findings reveal that for women born in the 1920's/1930's era, unlike their comparable cohort of men, career beginnings operate as the most important influence on their future occupational status. A woman's first job, more than her education, is the strongest predictor of her occupational destination. Conversely, for men of this era, unlike their comparable cohort of women, education operates as the most important influence on their future occupational status. A man's education, more than his first job, is the strongest predictor of his occupational destination. At entry, education operates as a stronger gatekeeping mechanism on the first job of women than of men. However, as women and men move through their working life course, women experience a decreased influence while men experience an increased influence of education on ultimate occupational status.
Bibliography Citation
Gotbaum, Sarah C. Gender and First Job: Ticket for a Life Journey. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1989. DAI-A 50/11, p. 3767, May 1990.
98. Green, Lisa H.
Socioeconomic Experience, Race/Ethnicity and Adult Health
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, October 2004. DAI-A 65/04, p. 1550, Oct 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; Family Income; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Distribution; Modeling; Morbidity; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Objective. This study examines the role of individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic characteristics over time in predicting adult health outcomes for individuals of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Data. The study population was drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) with respondents' census tract residence matched with 2000 Decennial Census data. The NLSY79 cohort is a nationally representative sample of the non-institutionalized, civilian population aged 14–21 in 1979, surveyed annually and now biennially from 1979 to the present. Those who had answered the age 40 health module were included in this study (n = 3,154). Methods. Sex and sex-race/ethnicity stratified multivariate linear regression models were used to examine the impact of education, occupational standing, income and neighborhood characteristics on five health outcomes (SF-12 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scores, depression, major morbidities and minor morbidities) measured at age 40. Census tract “neighborhoods” were characterized by racial/ethnic make-up, median family income, percent affluent, and percent of idle youth. Results. In sex stratified models, individual-level socioeconomic factors alone fully accounted for observed racial/ethnic disparities in overall physical health and depression symptom levels, and provided a protective effect for major and minor morbidities among black and Mexican respondents, compared to white counterparts. Income appeared to have a positive, but lagged effect among black men and women, and no effect on Mexican men and women. Education exhibited a positive gradient effect for most sex-race categories and occupational standing had minimal to no effect on health outcomes. Neighborhood factors did not explain racial/ethnic health differentials beyond individual level socioeconomic experience, though tract-level socioeconomic resources had a protective effect on health, while the proportion of idle youth had a decidedly negative effect, particularly for women. Conclusions. Results suggest that policies addressing socioeconomic inequities may reap significant health benefits, particularly with respect to addressing racial/ethnic health disparities. Programs aimed at improving education, income distribution and earnings should be considered in the health disparities discussion. Additional research on the pathways through which socioeconomic factors influence health are needed to better guide such program endeavors.
Bibliography Citation
Green, Lisa H. Socioeconomic Experience, Race/Ethnicity and Adult Health. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, October 2004. DAI-A 65/04, p. 1550, Oct 2004.
99. Griffith, Jeanne Elaine
Unemployment, Occupational Mobility, and Retirement: A Survey of Policies and Experiences
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1984. DAI-A 45/11, p. 3457, May 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Control; Income; Mobility; Occupational Status; Racial Differences; Retirement; Unemployment

This dissertation examines the relationships among late-life unemployment, occupational mobility, timing of retirement, and financial need following retirement. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Force Experience, Older Men's Cohort, the analysis employes ordinary least squares and logistic regression techniques. The major hypotheses tested were that: (1) late-life unemployment leads to a long term reduction in status and income, (2) late-life unemployment and declines in occupational status reduce the age of retirement, and (3) late-life unemployment and declines in occupational status increase income needs following retirement. The findings concerning the effects of unemployment were consistent and strong for the white men in the sample. Unemployment led to reduced occupational status and income even at the end of men's careers. For the most part, men with recent unemployment experiences had higher probabilities of retirement in their early 60's. In addition, following retirement, such men showed a substantially greater probability of receiving public assistance income. Contrary to the hypothesis, men with unemployment showed a much lower probability of working after they retired, probably as a result of negative labor force experiences preceding retirement. The hypothesized effects of changes in status were not supported by this analysis with the sole exception that men with pre-retirement increases in status were found much less likely to work following retirement and, conversely, those with decreases in status were more likely to work. Reasons suggested for the lack of support of this aspect of the hypotheses were methodological and substantive. None of the hypotheses were supported for the population of older black men. These men were starting out in much less advantageous positions with respect to income, status, and unemployment experiences, suggesting floor effects operating on the observed behaviors. The policy implications discussed in conclusion suggested the need for much greater attention to the interplay among manpower, income security, and retirement policies. In light of the aging of the population and rapidly changing employment conditions for older workers, attention must be paid to how these workers and their families are affected by conditions often beyond their control.
Bibliography Citation
Griffith, Jeanne Elaine. Unemployment, Occupational Mobility, and Retirement: A Survey of Policies and Experiences. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1984. DAI-A 45/11, p. 3457, May 1985.
100. Grubbs-Eller, Teresa Jo
Child Care Expenditure and Mothers' Labor Supply: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland - College Park, 1989. DAI-A 51/03, p. 953, Sep 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers; Simultaneity; Work Hours

The tremendous growth during the 1970's and 1980's in the labor force participation rates of mothers with young children has made child care an important policy issue. Ad hoc stories of mothers being 'priced out of the work force by child care expenses' are abundant. Using data from the 1982 and 1985 panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this dissertation clarifies the effect of child care expenditure on married mothers' labor supply. The first issue addressed is whether child care expenditure is a fixed cost of labor force participation or an hourly cost of work. A closely related issue considered is whether allowing for any fixed costs of work is necessary in modeling married mothers' labor supply decisions. If fixed costs of work are important, then the parameters of the labor force participation and hours supply decision are no longer jointly determined. The final issue considered is whether the child care expenditure and labor force participation decisions are simultaneous. If the unmeasured factors associated with child care expenditure are correlated with unmeasured factors associated with labor force participation, the ordinary least squares estimates of the parameters in the child care equation will be biased. The empirical evidence as to whether child care costs are fixed or variable is mixed. Three models of labor supply and child care expenditure are estimated. The first model assumes that child care is a variable cost and does not allow for any fixed costs of work. Here, the effect of child care expenditure was generally statistically significant. Child care expenditure acts much like a decrease in the wage. In the second and third models, which allow for fixed costs, child care expenditure significantly decreases the probability of labor force participation, but does not have a significant effect on hours supplied by workers, regardless of whether child care is assumed to be a fixed or a variable cost. The empirical results for models that allow for fixed costs suggest that fixed costs are important in determining labor supply. Working mothers appear to face higher costs per week than non-working mothers would face if they entered the labor force. My empirical results are used to evaluate the probable effects of proposed child care subsidies on married mothers' labor force participation. Simple exercises suggest that government subsidies for the cost of child care would generally have a substantial effect in increasing the probability of labor force participation if actual child care expenses were reimbursed through a voucher or refundable dependent car tax credit. General income subsidies to families with young children would not impact married mothers' labor force participation.
Bibliography Citation
Grubbs-Eller, Teresa Jo. Child Care Expenditure and Mothers' Labor Supply: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland - College Park, 1989. DAI-A 51/03, p. 953, Sep 1990.
101. Hao, Lingxin
Kin Support, Welfare, and Out-of-Wedlock Mothers
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior; Birth Outcomes; Control; Coresidence; Educational Attainment; Fertility; High School; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Marital Status; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Residence; Support Networks; Welfare; Women

Using person-year data from seven waves of the NLSY, this research focuses on the causes and consequences of kin support in conjunction with public support. The dissertation addresses three primary research questions: (1) What is the relationship between kin support and welfare assistance? (2) What determines kin support? and (3) What impacts do the two support systems have on life course behaviors such as fertility/marriage, high school outcomes, and labor force participation of young women? The author concludes that kin support can play an important role in an individual's life. Four findings are noted: (1) parents' control through support in the form of coresidence and income support reduces the likelihood of out-of-wedlock birth, dropping out of school, and non-participation in the labor force; (2) although kin support and public support are not generally substitutes, AFDC benefits do reduce the likelihood of coresidence for blacks; (3) parents do not compensate daughters who experienced an out-of-wedlock birth but control daughters' behaviors to prevent undesirable events; and (4) increases in AFDC benefits encourage women to choose an out-of-wedlock birth over marriage for both black and white women and encourage non-participation in the labor market for black women only.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. Kin Support, Welfare, and Out-of-Wedlock Mothers. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1990.
102. Harkness, S. Suzan Jane
Women and Work: Dynamics of the Glass Ceiling and Public Policy Perspectives
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii, 2000. DAI-A 61/10, p. 4158-A-4159-A, Apr 2001
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Job Satisfaction; Marital Status; Mobility, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Gap

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was enacted to provided legal entitlements for working women; however, women continue to confront glass ceilings. The findings of my analysis indicate that three complex principles impact women's career mobility: They consist of social factors, legal/policy factors, and corporate factors. The findings suggest that organizational discrimination was evident and that Title VII has done little to ensure equal opportunity within organizations. Gender was found to have a significant impact upon career opportunity and mobility. The data revealed that slightly more women moved into higher level occupations in 1978, but that there was still a disproportionate amount found within the lower-level administrative ranks. Furthermore, women's level of on-the-job training lagged behind men's such that women remain outside of the internal structures necessary for upward mobility. The data also revealed that marital status impacted career mobility. The purposes of this research were (1) to investigate whether men and women had equal opportunity in career advancement and (2) to determine to what degree equal employment laws impacted women's career opportunities between 1969 and 1978. The analysis focused upon organizational factors such as career advancement, salary levels, on-the-job training, and other human capital investments beneficial to career success in correlation to antidiscrimination legislation using National Longitudinal Survey data. The study found that some women did make headway. The analysis documented that the wage gap closed slightly, that women were more likely to work within the professional occupations by 1978, and that women were armed with strong human capital investments and aware of how important they were to career mobility. Furthermore, single women reported greater opportunities in earning potential and job satisfaction than married women. The analysis found that legislation enacted during the early 1960s and amended during the 1970s has had a very limited impact upon issues of equity within corporate environments, and that much of the inequity stems from discriminatory organizational factors and policies. Women's overall opportunities will continue to be limited as long as the opportunities within corporations remain hampered, unequal, and unaccommodating to the variety of women's growing presence.
Bibliography Citation
Harkness, S. Suzan Jane. Women and Work: Dynamics of the Glass Ceiling and Public Policy Perspectives. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii, 2000. DAI-A 61/10, p. 4158-A-4159-A, Apr 2001.
103. Harper, Cynthia Channing
From Playpen To Federal Pen: Family Instability and Youth Crime
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Demography; Disadvantaged, Economically; Event History; Family Formation; Family Influences; Family Studies; Fatherhood; Heterogeneity; Incarceration/Jail; Minorities; Parents, Single; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Transitional Programs; Youth Problems

This dissertation investigates the role of the family in the growth in youth crime in the United States, following a male cohort through the crime-prone years, from adolescence to early adulthood. Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a probability survey with oversampling of disadvantaged populations, provide individual-level information on youths, aged 14 to 22, from 1979 to the present. Methods from event history analysis are used to model these data in a longitudinal statistical study. This research covers the transition of adolescents from their former family life stage, childhood, to their future life stage, formation of own family, and measures the influence of family in these two stages on the likelihood of youth crime. For the first stage, family histories from birth are traced to determine the factors that have a visible impact on criminal behavior, including parents, other household members, and family resources. For the second stage, the research investigates whether family formation patterns have a positive or a negative effect on the youth's life prospects, given a certain family of origin. The effects of early fatherhood on future criminal behavior are measured. Young fathers are compared to their childless peers for criminal tendencies, and their decisions to marry or to cohabit are examined for any protective effects against crime. Results show that young men who have experienced family instability during childhood face an increased likelihood of criminal behavior. In particular, male adolescents in mother-stepfather households exhibit high levels of antisocial behavior. Youths in single mother households are also at increased risk, although not to the same degree. Childhood family instability is, in turn, associated with early fatherhood, particularly for minorities. Those who have children at a young age face much more difficult future prospects: The probability of crime and incarceration is extremely elevated for these youths, even after adjusting the estimates for unobserved heterogeneity in family background. Neither fatherhood, marriage nor cohabitation seem to pull young men through the transition to adulthood, a life stage in which criminal activities wane.
Bibliography Citation
Harper, Cynthia Channing. From Playpen To Federal Pen: Family Instability and Youth Crime. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1996.
104. Hausman, Patricia
On the Rarity of Mathematically and Mechanically Gifted Females: A Life History Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Fielding Institute, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Cognitive Ability; Fertility; Gender Differences; Intelligence; Physical Characteristics; Women; Women's Education

Engineering and certain physical sciences demand high levels of both mathematical and mechanical (HMHM) ability--a cognitive pattern found primarily among males. A small number of females also demonstrate this pattern. However, its correlates have not been examined longitudinally. This study compared life histories of females with the HMHM pattern to those of other college-capable women. Using a model adapted from Helmut Nyborg's theory of general trait co-variance, it predicted that HMHM females would have characteristics suggesting low lifetime exposure to estrogens--or to a high androgen/estrogen ratio. Subjects were 127 females from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Most somatic and reproductive predictions were supported. HMHM females matured more slowly than controls and were taller, thinner, and more physically active. Reproductive histories proved particularly noteworthy. HMHM females lost almost 25% of their pregnancies to miscarriage or stillbirth, and almost half were childless as of their early to late 30s. Controls had more pregnancies and births-and much lower rates of childlessness and pregnancy loss. Limited data on contraceptive use did not explain the fertility differential. HMHM females showed less religiosity than controls, but other psychological predictions were inconclusive or not supported. Follow-up analysis considered whether study variables co-varied with general ability. Both groups were compared to a third (HIIQ) group equal to HMHM females in general ability but lacking marked mechanical aptitude. Means for HIIQ females on somatic and reproductive traits were generally intermediate to those of HMHM and control groups. By contrast, HMHM males showed some reproductive advantage over HIIQ males. The results indicate that HMHM females differ biologically from controls and are consistent with reports that sex hormones influence cognitive architecture. The findings further suggest that the rarity of the HMHM pattern in females is best explained by the Darwinian principle of sexual selection. Evolutionary pressures select against characteristics that inhibit reproductive success. In females, factors associated with the HMHM pattern appear to fall into this category. The limitations of the study, recommendations for further research, and suggested modifications to the study model are discussed. The need to replicate the findings in larger populations is stressed.
Bibliography Citation
Hausman, Patricia. On the Rarity of Mathematically and Mechanically Gifted Females: A Life History Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Fielding Institute, 1999.
105. Hayes, Jill Rader
Men in Female- and Male-Concentrated Occupations: A Comparative Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Occupations, Non-Traditional

The study sought to determine what, if any, differentiating characteristics exist between men who enter atypical occupations compared with men who are employed in traditionally, male-concentrated occupations. The objectives were to examine whether the two groups differed in regard to: selected background characteristics, educational variables, current demographic variables, employment characteristics, job satisfaction/job attitudes, sex-role attitudes, and contribution to household work. Data from the NLS of Young Men were chosen for analysis. Female- and male-concentrated occupations were defined and resulted in a sample of 48 female-concentrated occupations with 171 respondents and 63 male-concentrated occupations with 181 respondents. Univariate methods of analysis were used to compare and contrast the groups with respect to 70 variables. Discriminant analysis was used on a selected group of 12 variables of the respondents' current characteristics. The results indicate that although there were differences between these samples, the groups were more alike than different. However, some of the lack of differences were helpful in providing empirical evidence which, for this sample, dispels some of the myths of anecdotal speculations and refutes some of the limited-sample findings of previous literature in the area. The males employed in female-concentrated occupations were not more likely than the males employed in male- concentrated occupations to have experienced "male-absence" or to have experienced "father loss." Valuable outputs of the study lie in its review of the literature, discussion of reasons males would want to enter or would not want to enter female-concentrated occupations, exploration of the measurement problems in the area, and its isolation of potentially significant variables for further study. The study concludes that the most important issue on pursuing investigations of occupational gender concentrations and individuals who enter cross-sex typed occupations is the development of methods to define and measure atypical or "nontraditional" occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Hayes, Jill Rader. Men in Female- and Male-Concentrated Occupations: A Comparative Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1984.
106. Heler, Edward
A Socioeconomic Model of Disability: The Interaction of Occupation and Health on Disability
Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Occupations; Research Methodology

This research develops a model of employment behavior to explain the labor supply disability responses of impaired persons from the multidimensional perspective of health condition-role performance interaction. The model for this behavior draws from the economic psychological theories of role response, and is based on the human performance paradigm. Labor supply disability is theorized to occur when functional abilities for job task performance cannot fulfill the functional requirements for performance. Proxies for occupation, health, and the occupation-health interaction are entered into the conventional labor supply model of economics. The model is specified using data from the Older Men cohort of the NLS, and from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The quasi-experimental multiple Time-Series Design is employed to isolate the occupation-health interaction effects on a control (nonimpaired) group and an experimental (impaired) group. The cross-sectional time-series equation is estimated by generalized least squares regression. The model is a valid predictor of labor supply behavior. Explanatory power is increased over the conventional labor supply model by 5.7 to 10.1 percent, and over the conventional health model by 2.0 to 7.8 percent. The occupation-health interaction effect which is observed reduces the labor supply of impaired men by an average 60 percent. The results also indicate that labor supply models which do not include occupation and occupation-health interaction variables may be misspecified. [UMI ADG86-06146]
Bibliography Citation
Heler, Edward. A Socioeconomic Model of Disability: The Interaction of Occupation and Health on Disability. Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1985.
107. Hewes, Gina Marie
Black-White Differences in the Gender Wage Ratio
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2003. DAI-A 64/05, p. 1863, Nov 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Labor Economics; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wages, Women; Work Experience

Gender wage inequality among African-Americans is an under-researched area. What is especially interesting about the black gender wage ratio is that it shows more gender equality than does the white gender wage ratio. A theory of black women's labor force commitment is developed to frame an exploration of the race difference in gender wage inequality. It is hypothesized that the cultural context and economic necessity in which many black women grow up produce a strong commitment to the labor force; this commitment in turn results in educational attainment and work experience. These two factors, in their turn, are related to wages and thus the gender wage ratio. This theory is investigated using the 1996 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. Findings indicate that the race difference in the gender wage ratio is robust, and not an artifact of race-sex group differential selection into wage-earning. Under many different conditions of sample inclusion and at all wage levels, black women do better relative to black men than white women do relative to white men. Black women are especially doing better, relative to black men, than white women relative to white men, at the highest wage levels. Furthermore, black women do have higher levels of work commitment than white women; in fact, their commitment level is similar to men's. Work commitment, however, has no direct effect in explaining the race difference in the gender wage ratio. Black women were found to have higher levels of education and work experience, relative to black men, than white women have relative to white men, and both of these factors were important in explaining race differences in the gender wage ratio. Especially important for understanding race-sex group differences in wage were family status variables. In particular, being married and having fewer children are associated with higher wages, but black women are the least likely to be married and have the most children, on average, of the four race-sex groups. These factors penalize black women in the labor market, producing wages much lower than might be expected based on their educational level and work experience. The findings are discussed in regard to policy implications and implications for future research.
Bibliography Citation
Hewes, Gina Marie. Black-White Differences in the Gender Wage Ratio. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2003. DAI-A 64/05, p. 1863, Nov 2003.
108. Hill, Cynthia Diane
Start-of-Job Training and the Gender Wage Gap
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University. 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Continuing Education; Education, Adult; Gender Differences; Training; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Gap; Wages, Men; Wages, Women

Using unique training data from the 1993 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we investigate differences by gender in start-of-job training receipt and in the labor market payoffs to training. Few differences by gender exist regarding start-of-job training incidence. On the other hand, males are seen to have substantially larger investments in training measured in hours, both in total and when training is broken down by type. Controlling for employer characteristics, we find that total training and supervisor training hours are positively associated with wages for men, but neither has a significant affect on wages for women. Conversely, we find that women receive significant returns to class and seminar training hours in certain specifications. Only slight differences exist between men and women in terms of training incidence with regard to wages. We find total training incidence is inversely related to wages, while participation in classes or seminars yield positive returns, for both men and women. The NLSY is restricted to individuals aged 28 to 36 in 1993. Consequently, our sample has a much smaller gender wage gap (women earn 84 percent of that of men) than is observed for nationally representative samples of full-time workers. Although start-of-job duration differences by gender are large for those individuals who report receiving training, fully two-thirds of our sample receive no training at all. Hence, our gender wage gap analysis shows that these training duration differences only account for 1 to 2 percent of the explained proportion of the gap.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Cynthia Diane. Start-of-Job Training and the Gender Wage Gap. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University. 1997.
109. Hill, John J.
An Estimation of the Effect of Union Status on Wage Growth
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1988
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Unions; Wage Growth; Wage Levels

The ability of a union to alter the structure of labor earnings has generated considerable interest among labor economists. Traditionally, research has focused on the effect of union status on wage levels, while substantially less interest has been devoted to the question of the effect of union status on wage growth. This study estimates the effect of union status on wage growth, controlling for certain empirical problems not completely addressed in earlier studies. Data were taken from the NLS of Young Men for three separate time periods. Wage growth equations were estimated for each time period first in a form which utilized a union status dummy variable and then separately for union and nonunion workers. These estimations were repeated with a control for sample selection bias. Additionally, models were estimated which allow one to estimate the magnitude of the tradeoff between starting wages and future wage growth for union and nonunion workers. Generally, the results indicate faster wage growth associated with union status. Also, the results indicate that, in general, greater wage growth is associated with lower initial wages for union workers but higher initial wages for nonunion workers. [UMI ADG89-13791]
Bibliography Citation
Hill, John J. An Estimation of the Effect of Union Status on Wage Growth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1988.
110. Hills, Stephen M.
Unemployment Insurance, Job Search, and the Duration of Unemployment
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; High School; Job Search; Schooling; Teenagers; Unemployment; Unions; Vocational Education

Two hypotheses are advanced by the study: (1) that a measure of the amount of unemployment insurance an individual is eligible to receive and/or a measure of the potential duration for which the same individual is eligible to receive UI should be related positively to the actual duration of unemployment which he or she experiences over any given period of time; and (2) that the same two measures for unemployment insurance should also be related positively to the change in the stream of earnings in periods before and after a period of receipt of UI.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M. Unemployment Insurance, Job Search, and the Duration of Unemployment. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1975.
111. Hockaday, Catheryn Michele
A Prospective Study of Teen Pregnancy
Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at Menarche; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Ethnic Studies; Family Studies; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Menarche; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Racial Studies; Self-Esteem; Sexual Activity; Women's Studies

The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the characteristics that may contribute to a teen becoming pregnant. The variables included self-esteem, locus of control, age-related risks, delinquency history, aspirations and expectations, family and school attitudes. Subjects, divided into a pregnant teen and comparison group, were 15-18 year-old females in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results indicated that pregnant teens were more apt to have lower educational expectations and self-esteem, and more traditional family attitudes than the comparison group. Moreover, pregnant teens engaged in sexual intercourse, reached menarche, and drank alcohol at a younger age than the comparison group, as well as participated in delinquent activity more than the comparison group. There were many significant differences between black and white teens when the comparison group and pregnant teens were examined together. Black teens were more likely than white teens to expect marriage at an older age and have aspirations of working when they were 35 years old. Blacks were more apt than whites to have high educational wishes and expectations, high self-esteem, and more external locus of control. Black teens also participated in delinquent activities less often, and had sex at younger ages than white teens. Lastly, black teens began to drink, smoke cigarettes, and smoke marijuana at an older age than white teens. Regression analyses indicated that teen pregnancy in blacks was predicted by approval of the idea to delay a family and pursue a career, aspirations of working, and lower educational expectations. Regression analyses of the white teens suggested that teen pregnancy was associated with higher educational wishes, lower educational expectations, desiring more children, and having sex at a younger age. Recommendations for future researchers are to study these races separately when investigating the antecedents of teen pregnancy because there appear to be major differences between the groups. Moreover, practitioners may need to approach prevention with each race differently for preventative efforts to be effective. Additionally, educational expectations appear to be extremely important in the prediction of pregnancy. Thus, the roles of educators and counselors become even more important than before in teens' lives and decision-making.
Bibliography Citation
Hockaday, Catheryn Michele. A Prospective Study of Teen Pregnancy. Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, 1998.
112. Hogarth, Jeanne Martha
Retirement Behaviors of Low-Income and Nonlow-Income Males
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Household Income; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Retirement

Standard labor economics theory and segmented labor market theory were used to develop regression models to explain differences in age of retirement and in number of weeks worked after retirement between low-income and nonlow-income men. It was hypothesized that available financial resources, ability to work, and adequacy of financial resources were determinants of retirement and postretirement work. It was further hypothesized that age of retirement and number of weeks worked after retirement would not differ between the two groups and that variables studied would not have differential effects on retirement behaviors of the two groups. Data were drawn from the NLS Older Men cohort. Low-income men in this sample retired at an earlier age than nonlow-income men (61.2 versus 61.7 years). Available financial resources, ability to work, and adequacy of financial resources were confirmed as determinants of retirement. Available financial resources (wife's earnings and anticipated Social Security benefits) and adequacy of financial resources (marital status, change in marital status, and family size) had differential effects on age of retirement for low income and nonlow-income men. Low-income men in this sample worked a greater number of weeks after retirement than did nonlow-income men (8.14 versus 4.44 weeks). Available financial resources and ability to work were confirmed as determinants of postretirement work; adequacy of financial resources appeared not to affect postretirement work. Available financial resources (wife's earnings, Social Security and pension benefits) and ability to work (level of education) had differential effects on the number of weeks worked after retirement for low-income and nonlow-income men.
Bibliography Citation
Hogarth, Jeanne Martha. Retirement Behaviors of Low-Income and Nonlow-Income Males. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1981.
113. Holleman, Julie D.
Nonpecuniary Job Characteristics: The Impact on Women's Wages
Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A and M University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Rewards; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Wage Gap

This dissertation examines whether the inclusion of nonpecuniary job characteristics can help explain why a male/female wage gap persists. Two samples of workers are drawn from the NLSY 1979-1985. The mean values of nonpecuniary job characteristics of the jobs typically held by the NLS women are compared with the mean values of these characteristics for the NLS men. Hazard model analysis is used to calculate the female workers' marginal willingness to pay for these specific nonwage job characteristics. This estimation of women's marginal willingness to pay is used to analyze if women prefer their jobs to a typical male job by calculating a nonwage compensation differential. Four of the six empirical tests result in a negative nonwage compensation differential, suggesting that women prefer the nonwage job characteristics associated with their jobs to those which are generally associated with the jobs the men hold; however, the remaining two estimations result in a positive nonwage compensation differential. Thus, while differences are found in the nonwage job characteristics that are associated with the jobs that the NLS males and females hold, the results from the 1979 and 1982 samples find no clear pattern of preference for those characteristics which are associated with the jobs which the females typically hold. [UMI ADG90-15515]
Bibliography Citation
Holleman, Julie D. Nonpecuniary Job Characteristics: The Impact on Women's Wages. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A and M University, 1989.
114. Houser, Daniel Edward
Bayesian Analysis of a Dynamic, Stochastic Model of Labor Supply and Saving
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Bayesian; Capital Sector; Human Capital; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Wage Dynamics; Wage Models

This thesis specifies and estimates a dynamic, stochastic model of life cycle labor supply. All of the past empirical work in this area has made one of the following assumptions: (a) there is no human capital accumulation, so that the wage stream is exogenous to the individual; or (b) capital markets are perfectly imperfect; or (c) that agents have rational expectations, or use some other rigid, expectations formation mechanism. While each of these restrictions may have justification within a particular application, it can be shown that imposing any of them may lead to biased and inconsistent parameter estimates. Accordingly, policy recommendations based on past empirical findings are open to question. The model that I specify and estimate allows for human and physical capital accumulation, and does not impose strong assumptions about the way individuals form expectations. I accomplish this level of generality by extending and employing an estimation methodology originally advanced by Geweke and Keane (1997). They were the first to point out that micro-level data on payoffs and choices could be used to estimate the parameters that determine preferences, as well as those that characterize expectations. All that one needs to assume is that expectations lie along some polynomial in the model's state variables. The coefficients of the expectations polynomial are estimated jointly with the model's structural parameters. That I do not need to impose the restrictions that are typically required in this literature allows me to take a first step towards assessing the effect they may have had on the estimates of policy-relevant parameters. I take my model to data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. I use a Bayesian approach to inference, and approximate the marginal posterior distributions of my model's parameters with a Gibbs sampling algorithm. I find that the uncompensated wage-elasticity of labor supply is very small, that wealth effects are very small, and that omitting savings decisions from life cycle models may have little effect on inference about labor supply decisions. Finally, I find that individuals are not myopic. Work experience and age play a significant role in expectations formation.
Bibliography Citation
Houser, Daniel Edward. Bayesian Analysis of a Dynamic, Stochastic Model of Labor Supply and Saving. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1998.
115. Hsueh, James Cherng-Tay
Sibling Resemblance in Educational Attainment: An Investigation of the Effects of Family Background
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Background; Mothers, Education; Siblings

This research examines the effects of family background on schooling for a sample of youth from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Three questions are addressed: 1. How strong is the influence of family background on children's schooling between and within families in different living environments. 2. How do these effects of family background vary by different schooling outcomes. 3. How does family disruption affect sibling differences in schooling. This research considers the importance of family structure, family differential effects of family background between siblings, and unobserved family factors in explaining schooling. By examining sibling resemblance in different schooling outcomes, the research supports the argument that between- and within-family effects vary by schooling outcome and family structure. Between-family effects are similar for siblings of different family types, while within-family differential effects of family background on completed grade are found only for siblings living with both parents. These differential effects of family background do not change when siblings of high school graduates are selected for the analyses, but decrease slightly when ability is controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Hsueh, James Cherng-Tay. Sibling Resemblance in Educational Attainment: An Investigation of the Effects of Family Background. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1992.
116. Hu, Mei-Chen
Maternal Employment: Family Structure, and Preschooler's Well-being
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin -- Madison, 2002. DAI-A 63/11, p. 4092, May 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Body Mass Index (BMI); Cognitive Development; Families, Two-Parent; Family Income; Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Preschool Children; Siblings; Social Emotional Development; Temperament

This dissertation uses the mother-child data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to explore the impacts on preschooler's cognitive, socioemotional, and physical development of maternal work, family structure, and family income. In this dissertation, I employ sibling models to control for unobserved mother characteristics. It is found that family income is an important factor for children's cognitive development, while mother's work and family structure affect on children's socioemotional and overweight problems. The negative effects of maternal full-time work on children's cognitive well-being became statistically insignificant, once the mother's unobserved characteristics have been controlled in the sibling models. Part-time mothers are more likely to have children with negative emotions than are full-time mothers, while maternal full-time work associates with child overweight problems. Children who live with a divorced mother are more likely to feel more negative emotions than are children living with married-two-parent families. However, impacts of maternal work and income do not have interaction effects by family structures.
Bibliography Citation
Hu, Mei-Chen. Maternal Employment: Family Structure, and Preschooler's Well-being. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin -- Madison, 2002. DAI-A 63/11, p. 4092, May 2003.
117. Huebner, Beth Marie
Incarceration, Social Bonds, and the Lifecourse
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 2003. DAI-A 64/08, p. 3078, Feb 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Crime; Family Studies; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Social Roles

In the current study, the lifecourse perspective, as posited by Sampson and Laub (1993), was used to examine the relative effect of incarceration on social bond attainment. It was hypothesized that individuals who have been incarcerated would be less likely to attain bonds to marriage and work and the nature of bonds attained would be further diminished by the event. The hypotheses were tested using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results from regression and growth curve models confirm the lifecourse perspective. Across all models estimated, incarceration was negatively associated with both the likelihood of attainment and the nature of the social bond. A number of significant relationships were found between static-individual predictors and social bond attainment; however, individual demographic factors were found only to be moderately related to the initial status of the individual and had little effect on the nature of change over time. The findings from this study reinforce the importance of adult social bonds in determining life trajectories. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the study of prisoner reentry.
Bibliography Citation
Huebner, Beth Marie. Incarceration, Social Bonds, and the Lifecourse. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 2003. DAI-A 64/08, p. 3078, Feb 2004.
118. Hulick, Patricia Ann
Modeling the Effects of the Early Home Environment on Cognitive Abilities in Children and Adolescents
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intelligence; Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span

Although human developmental research emphasizes the many changes that take place from birth through adolescence, the focus of intellectual ability research has continued to center on changes in adulthood. While these studies recognize the importance of infancy, childhood, and adolescence as the building blocks of adult development, life-span research typically aggregates these individuals into a single group. By combining young individuals in this way, important differences may be overlooked. The present study examined the influence of the home environment on cognitive abilities in children and adolescents. Participants were subsets selected from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS); the sixth cohort of the survey, the children of the fifth cohort, was the focus of the present study. The analysis was divided into five sections. The first set of analyses involved a rescaling of the HOME-SF instrument as well as an investigation of its factor structure. The second set of analyses represented here examined the relationship between a composite measure of the home environment and a composite measure of ability for N = 408 children/adolescents who ranged in age from 5-11 years in 1990 and from 8.5-14.5 years in 1994. Concurrent and subsequent effects were examined. Three additional analytic models were used to examine these relationships by concentrating on one aspect of the model at a time. The additional models refined the measurement of ability, home environment, and age. Results showed a small, but consistent effect of the early home environment on later cognitive ability. This finding was upheld across abilities and measures of the home environment. However, these results also suggested that the early-late relationships might not be invariant across age. Additional considerations and suggestions for further analysis are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hulick, Patricia Ann. Modeling the Effects of the Early Home Environment on Cognitive Abilities in Children and Adolescents. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 1999.
119. Hunt, Sally North
Women's Labor Force Participation and Family Financial Resources
Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Women's University, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mobility, Social

This study was designed to investigate the association between selected socioeconomic and labor force variables and family financial resource variables. Objectives were to: (1) categorize career patterns of a representative sample of mature women in the U.S.; and (2) determine effects of career patterns and selected socioeconomic characteristics of women on family financial resources. Data for this investigation were derived from the NLS. Responses from 3,942 Mature Women (ages 30-44) who participated in the surveys from 1967 to 1977 were used. Chi-square analysis was performed to determine relationships between the components of family financial resources and labor force attachment, race, highest grade completed, total family income, respondent's income, health, age, number of dependents, marital status, and residence of the mature women. Using the .05 level of significance, labor force attachment did not have a significant relationship with the financial resource variables. However, significant relationships were found between: (1) net worth and the variables of race, highest grade completed, total family income, health, number of dependents, marital status, and residence; (2) dollar amount in savings/checking accounts and the variables of race, highest grade completed, total family income, respondent's income, health, age, number of dependents, marital status, and residence; (3) dollar amount of U.S. Savings Bonds and residence; and (4) market value of stocks, bonds, or mutual funds and total family income. Multiple regression procedures revealed that race, total family income, age, number of dependents, and residence were significant predictor variables for net worth, using the .05 level of significance. The combination of race, total family income, number of dependents, marital status, and highest grade completed accounted for twenty-two percent of the variance in savings/ checking accounts. Total family income, number of dependents, and residence accounted for six percent of the variance in U.S. Savings Bonds. Twelve percent of the variance in stocks, bonds, or mutual funds was explained by race, total family income, age, and number of dependents. Labor force attachment was not found to contribute significantly to the explanation of variance in the family financial resource variables.
Bibliography Citation
Hunt, Sally North. Women's Labor Force Participation and Family Financial Resources. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Women's University, 1982.
120. Hussain, Mofakhar
Role of Time Preference in the Correlation Between Health and Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Schooling; Time Preference

In this paper I investigate the role of time preference in the correlation between schooling and health status. For the purpose data from the Panel Study Of Income Dynamics (PSID) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) is used. By use of the residual from the schooling equations and proxies of rate of time preference, I analyze the nature and extent of causality between individual discount rate, schooling and health. The result of a positive correlation between schooling and good health status supports previous findings. The role of the unobservables in the form of a residual from the schooling equation is also analyzed. The significant and positive impact of schooling on time preference proxies implies that schooling causes increased levels of future orientation. Analysis of the role of time preference in the health-schooling correlation implies a stronger correlation between individual discount rate and schooling. I offer possible ways of improving the analysis.
Bibliography Citation
Hussain, Mofakhar. Role of Time Preference in the Correlation Between Health and Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 1997.
121. Hwang, Hye Won
Factors Related to Individual Differences in the Academic and Behavioral Adjustment of Young Children from Low-income Families
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 12A (2001): 4348
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Academic Development; Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Family Income; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); I.Q.; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Modeling; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty

The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict individual differences in the academic and behavioral adjustment of children from low-income families. This study also examined the parenting process of low-income families, predictors of maternal behavior, and the effects of maternal parenting behavior on the developmental outcomes of children from low-income families. Specifically, this study investigated the relationships among child characteristics, maternal characteristics, maternal psychological well-being, contextual factors, maternal behavior, and children's academic achievement and behavioral problems.

Using data from the 1994 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the study focused on 291 mothers and their 5 to 8 year-old children. Descriptive analysis, zero-order correlations, multiple regression analyses, t-tests, and chi-square analyses were used for data description and analysis. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the conceptual model for this study.

Consistent with Bronfenbrenner's ecological model, the study shows that the children develop in the relationships within various kinds of environments such as the child's family, neighborhood, and child care setting. Maternal psychological well-being was affected by the mother's residence with both parents until her 18th birthday and her perception of neighborhood problems. The results of this study were also consistent with Belsky's model of the determinants of parenting. The quality of the home environment that mothers provided for their children was influenced by multiple factors, such as child characteristics, maternal characteristics, and contextual factors. Academically successful children from low-income families had grandmothers who were more educated and mothers with higher intelligence scores. Their mothers provided a more supportive home environment. Successful children in terms of behavioral adjustment tended to have heavier birth weights, mothers with higher level of psychological well-being, and better quality home environments.

Bibliography Citation
Hwang, Hye Won. Factors Related to Individual Differences in the Academic and Behavioral Adjustment of Young Children from Low-income Families. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 12A (2001): 4348.
122. Hwang, Kyudae
A Structural Approach to Estimating Sex-Based Wage Discrimination: Causal and Indicator Models
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1987
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Sex; Wages

This study compares a causal model, suggested by human capital theory with an indicator model, suggested by the theory of statistical discrimination. The models are investigated by: (1) developing a framework for estimating wage discrimination, (2) estimating/comparing the structural coefficients among productivity proxies, productivity, and wages, (3) employing two techniques to obtain productivity scores (i.e., least squares and weighted least squares) in the indicator model, and (4) comparing estimates of wage discrimination across the models. In addition, reverse regression analyses are performed in order to compare the indicator model with reverse regression. The data for empirical analyses are taken from the Young Men and Women cohorts of the NLS. In this study estimates of wage discrimination differ depending on the assumption about the relationships between productivity proxies and productivity and the method used to obtain productivity scores within the indicator model. Reverse regression, however, leads to the same estimates of wage discrimination as does direct regression when weights for productivity scores are created either by direct regression coefficients or the least-squares method. Implications of this work for future theoretical and empirical development are suggested. [UMI ADG87- 23335]
Bibliography Citation
Hwang, Kyudae. A Structural Approach to Estimating Sex-Based Wage Discrimination: Causal and Indicator Models. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1987.
123. Imai, Kumiko
Evaluating Early Childhood Interventions: Lessons from Head Start
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3416, Mar 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childhood Education, Early; Cognitive Development; Family Characteristics; Head Start; Medicaid/Medicare; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Socioeconomic Factors

Despite renewed interest in early childhood interventions in recent years, there have been only a handful of evaluations that use large-scale, nationally representative data. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the NLSY79 Child File, I present evidence from Head Start, the main federal preschool program that provides education, health, and social services to low-income children and their families. Unlike previous evidence that relies on family fixed effects models, my findings come from difference-in-differences estimators that use paired matching for control selection. Specifically, I match each Head Start child with a comparison child who is similar in terms of demographic and socioeconomic variables, and compare pre- and post-Head Start outcomes with comparable outcomes for comparison children. In the NLSY79 Child File, a battery of child cognitive and behavioral assessments is administered biennially to all age eligible children or a subset of all age eligible children. This allows me to assess Head Start children and comparison children at baseline and at follow-up, which ranges from two to ten years after baseline. In addition, I track health insurance and Medicaid coverage, and preventive care utilization separately for Head Start children and comparison children from preschool age into the early teen years. Estimates from matched-pairs difference-in-differences estimators suggest that contrary to previous findings Head Start has little impact on children's cognitive outcomes, even in the short-run. Moreover, there is little evidence that Head Start improves children's health insurance coverage or Medicaid take-up. Evidence also suggests that children are more likely to receive dental care while they attend Head Start but not after they graduate from Head Start. On a positive note, there is some evidence suggesting that Head Start may enhance children's home environment. Also, contrary to the recent controversial study that suggested that daycare makes children aggressive, I find little impact on children's problem behavior. All in all, this study demonstrates the importance of selecting adequate controls as well as controlling for unobserved child- and family-specific characteristics in evaluating early childhood interventions.
Bibliography Citation
Imai, Kumiko. Evaluating Early Childhood Interventions: Lessons from Head Start. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3416, Mar 2004.
124. Ingram, Donna M.
Learning About Yourself: Occupation Choice with Unknown Own-Preference
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Bayesian; Job Knowledge; Job Tenure; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Choice; Work Experience

In the years 1965 through 1970, thirty-nine percent of the adult males living in the United States changed their occupation at least once. Previous microeconomic research has attempted to explain these occupational changes by assuming that one or both of the following are true: workers enter occupations without knowing all of the characteristics of the occupations, or employers hire workers without knowing all the characteristics of the worker. This research is an analysis of an alternative source of the uncertainty: unknown own-preferences. In this case, even if a worker knows the characteristics of all occupations and the worker's productivity is known, the worker may change occupations as he learns about his preferences. Unobservable welfare effects are studied in a simple model with two occupations and a sole worker. Each occupation is described as a combination of leisure and income, where the worker's preferences are unknown and stochastic. It is found that a worker's expected lifetime utility increases as he becomes more certain of his preferences. It is also shown that the expected lifetime utility is convex in the worker's prior distribution of his preferences, continuous in it, and differentiable with respect to it. The NLSY provides job and occupation history data for individual workers. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) provides descriptions of occupations. Results describe the way in which workers learn and suggest that workers are not pure bayesians.
Bibliography Citation
Ingram, Donna M. Learning About Yourself: Occupation Choice with Unknown Own-Preference. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1990.
125. Irvin, Carol V.
Determinants of Timely Preventative Care and Immunizations
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Deviance; Health Care; Household Composition; Modeling, Probit; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Regions

The failure of the United States health system's to adequately care for all children is revealed in lower than desired immunization rates among preschoolers. In 1985 only 49 percent of nonwhite preschoolers were fully immunized against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT); DPT immunization coverage among white preschoolers was 64 percent. This study first develops a simple two-period model of the household's demand for infant preventive care. The model demonstrates that the household bases its decision to purchase well-baby care on the impact that the child's health has on future family income and the trade-offs between current and future consumption. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study initially uses a binary probit model, and simulated probabilities based on the model, to analyze the timing of the child's first well-baby care visit. Surprising results include the marginal importance of family income and the insignificance of the type of insurance covering the infant. While economic barriers do not appear to exist, other barriers closely associated with the household's economic status, such as race and ethnicity, do influence which children will receive timely care. One predictor of delayed infant preventive care not typically analyzed in the economic literature is the presence of the infant's maternal grandparents. Low health endowment and illness are also significant barriers. This result supports the theoretical interpretation that the child's health endowment influences the efficiency of preventive care in producing health. Immunizations are commonly administered during well-baby care visits. When visits are delayed, immunization is delayed. An ordered probit model, a bivariate probit model, and simulated probabilities from the bivariate model all indicate that the child's DPT immunization status is not determined by household income or insurance coverage. These results contradict the descript ive work of child advocates and clinicians. The results of this study suggest that the current administration's vaccine proposal is misguided in its belief that poverty alone leads to inadequately immunized children. Barriers to immunization are low health endowments, rural residence, and mothers who are single, young, and care for a number of children. Dissertation Abstracts International, VOL. 54-10A, Page 3818.
Bibliography Citation
Irvin, Carol V. Determinants of Timely Preventative Care and Immunizations. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994.
126. Jackson, Aurora P.
Preferences for Employment and Perceived Well-Being Among Black Single Employed Mothers of Preschool-Aged Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Preschool Children; Well-Being

This study examined the relationship of employment preferences to role strain, emotional well-being , and mothers' perceptions of their children in a sample of 111 employed black single mothers, each with a 3- or 4-year-old child. The mothers, former recipients of AFDC, completed a self-administered questionnaire.
Bibliography Citation
Jackson, Aurora P. Preferences for Employment and Perceived Well-Being Among Black Single Employed Mothers of Preschool-Aged Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1990.
127. Jarjoura, G. Roger
School Status, Employment Status, and Criminal Activity in a Large-Scale National Probability Sample
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Employment; Employment, Youth; High School Dropouts; Illegal Activities; Labor Force Participation; Self-Reporting

Using a major longitudinal survey, the analysis examines the association between dropping out of high school and later involvement in crime while controlling for preceding factors as well as postschool experiences. The primary contribution of the study is the degree of specificity with which it examines the dropout-delinquency relationship. There are several ways in which this study achieves greater specificity over previous research. First, the population of dropouts is divided into subgroups based on self-reported reasons for leaving school. This should provide information about the characteristics of dropping out which may lead to delinquent involvement. Little is known about these characteristics from previous research in this area. Second, rather than a general measure of delinquent participation, the dependent variable in this study will consist of three measures which indicate participation in specific categories of offending: violence, theft, and selling drugs. Finally, the analysis controls for potential alternative explanations of the dropout-delinquency relationship. This includes experiences prior to as well as after dropping out. Special attention is paid to the role of postschool labor market experiences. The data used in the study comprise the first two waves of the NLSY. Cases were left out of the analysis if the youth was in the military or still in high school. Overall, the results support the position that dropping out of high school does not increase the likelihood of criminality, although for a few groups of dropouts, this conclusion may be premature. Most importantly, the study provides evidence to support the position that the observed dropout-delinquency relationship is largely due to other factors which have been neglected as control variables in previous studies. Primarily, these other factors include measures of prior misconduct and demographic characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Jarjoura, G. Roger. School Status, Employment Status, and Criminal Activity in a Large-Scale National Probability Sample. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1990.
128. Jianakoplos, Nancy Ammon
Household Wealth Accumulation during Periods of Inflation: Some Evidence from Longitudinal Data
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Behavior; Family Resources; Household Income; Inflation; Life Cycle Research; Wealth

This study focuses on the effect of anticipated and unanticipated, inflation-related and real capital gains and losses on the accumulation of wealth by individual households. The ex post change in individual-household wealth, or saving, is hypothesized to be positively related to the quantity of unanticipated, inflation-related, real capital gains accruing to households. Similarly, individual-household saving is predicted to vary inversely with the quantity of anticipated, inflation-related, real capital gains which households experience. Measures of anticipated and unanticipated, inflation-related, real capital gains are incorporated into a life-cycle model of individual-household saving behavior. An individual-household saving function is estimated empirically using panel data from the NLS of Older Men. The parameters of the saving function, over the intervals 1966-1971 and 1971-1976, are estimated separately and in a pooled cross-section and time-series model. The preponderance of the empirical estimates support the hypothesized relationships. The greater-than-predicted magnitudes of the coefficient estimates associated with the unanticipated capital gains variable suggest that changes in wealth resulting from capital gains are not quickly recognized and are not easily rechannelled into consumption spending. The greater-than-predicted wealth accumulation out of capital gains can be interpreted as partially offsetting the less-than-predicted saving out of expected earnings and net worth estimated in the regressions. The results indicate that households respond to inflation-induced wealth changes by substituting saving from the appreciation of existing assets for the acquisition of new assets. The measures of real capital gains capture the influence of the composition, as well as the magnitude, of individual-household wealth. Including measures of real capital gains in a life-cycle model of individual household wealth a ccumulation improves the explanatory power of the model. The significance of both of the capital gains variables emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between anticipated and unanticipated real capital gains when examining the determinants of individual-household saving behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Jianakoplos, Nancy Ammon. Household Wealth Accumulation during Periods of Inflation: Some Evidence from Longitudinal Data. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1983.
129. Jo, Changik
Marital Status and Obesity: Cause and Effect
Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, October 2004. DAI-A 65/04, p. 1464, Oct 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Gender Differences; Marital Status; Modeling, Multilevel; Modeling, Probit; Morbidity; Mortality; Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Obesity is an increasingly prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents as well as adults and has now become a very important public health issue in most developed countries. The prevalence of obesity varies with socioeconomic and marital status. Marital status is related to morbidity and mortality, with married people, especially married men, healthier and at lower risk of death than unmarried men. The relationship between marital status and obesity, however, is not well established. To explore the origin of these associations, I study the effects of marital status and several socioeconomic variables on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and obesity. At the same time, I allow for reverse causality from obesity to marital status. To obtain consistent estimates of these effects, I apply ordinary least squares models and bivariate probit models with correlated errors to data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY 79). This survey is designed to represent the entire population of American youth in 1979. My results reveal that married men have significantly larger values of BMI and are more likely to be obese than men who never married or divorced, even when demographic and socioeconomic variables are held constant. By contrast, marital status is not significantly associated with obesity of BMI among women. These findings, which take account of reverse causality from weight to marital status, suggests that marital status appears to influence obesity among men, but not among women.
Bibliography Citation
Jo, Changik. Marital Status and Obesity: Cause and Effect. Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, October 2004. DAI-A 65/04, p. 1464, Oct 2004.
130. Johnson, Kecia Renee
Prison, Race and Space: The Impact of Incarceration on Career Trajectories and Labor Market Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2003. DAI-A 64/02, p. 666, Aug 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Crime; Ethnic Differences; Human Capital; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Mobility, Labor Market; Mobility, Occupational; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Unemployment Rate

There are a number of reasons to expect that incarceration will have long-term, negative consequences for economic/labor market success, and that the consequences may be especially acute for minority ex-offenders. This study replicates and extends Bruce Western's research on the impact of incarceration for wage mobility. I integrate Western's life course approach to examining the impact of incarceration with a discussion of stratification processes that produce inequality in employment and earnings outcomes. I hypothesize that incarceration results in career earnings penalties over and above those associated with foregone human capital accumulation. I suspect that incarceration contributes to a decline in earnings for minority ex-offenders. At the individual level, I replicate Western's research by estimating fixed-effects models to examine wages across the career trajectories of white, Latino and African American men from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for 1979-1998. When estimating these models, I test whether human capital accumulation that occurs inside or outside the labor market mediates the incarceration-earnings relationship. Furthermore, I examine how local labor market characteristics influence ex-offender career trajectories. I propose that prison records, race/ethnicity and spatial characteristics such as, violent crime rates, unemployment rates, minority concentration, and residential segregation influence the job prospects of workers within metropolitan areas. At the spatial level, I estimate random effects models to examine how local labor market characteristics shape the earnings trajectories of white, Latino and African American male ex-offenders. The individual level results supported the hypotheses that incarceration has a negative effect on earnings and that ex-offenders have lower earnings trajectories than nonoffenders. This study did not replicate Western's finding that the earnings penalty experienced by those who had been incarcerated varies by race/ethnicity. The spatial analysis results suggest that the prison effect on wages is not influenced by the spatial characteristics associated with the local labor market. However, the results indicate that the spatial characteristics of the labor market influence race/ethnicity wage disparities across the career.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Kecia Renee. Prison, Race and Space: The Impact of Incarceration on Career Trajectories and Labor Market Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2003. DAI-A 64/02, p. 666, Aug 2003.
131. Johnson, Richard W.
Wages and Pension Benefits Among Older Workers: Theory and Evidence
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania 1993
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits; Human Capital Theory; Job Training; Pensions; Private Sector; Social Security; Taxes; Training; Wage Dynamics; Wage Growth

The three essays in this dissertation analyze wages and pension benefits among older workers. The first chapter suggests that the role of pensions in the labor market is to provide an optimal means of deferring compensation once workers invest in specific human capital. The second chapter analyzes differences in pension coverage in the public and private sectors and finds evidence that the relative generosity of pensions among government workers can be explained by the ability of taxpayers to underfund government retirement plans. The third chapter re-examines the evidence on whether real wages decline with age among older men.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Richard W. Wages and Pension Benefits Among Older Workers: Theory and Evidence. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania 1993.
132. Joshi, Pamela Kumari
Flexibility for Whom? The Effects of Nontraditional Work Arrangements on Parental Involvement with Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, The Florence Heller Graduate School for Advanced Studies in Social Welfare, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 05A
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Family Studies; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Modeling, Multilevel; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Part-Time Work; Shift Workers; Welfare; Work Hours

Working families lead incredibly complex lives with few options that allow parents to feel successful in their careers and at home. One proposed solution is nontraditional work, which includes part-time, part-year, flextime, flexplace, irregular shifts, temporary assignments and independent contracting. These work arrangements can introduce flexibility in hours, schedules, locations or work assignments that may increase parental time with children, or synchronize parents' work schedules with children's schedules. While many scholars advocate these work arrangements as beneficial, others raise questions about their flexibility, job quality, and accessibility for single parents.

This dissertation investigates the economic benefits and costs of available nontraditional work options and their effects on parental involvement with children. Using a sample of mothers and children between the ages of 10 and 14 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel study for the years 1994 and 1996, this study tests cross-sectional and lagged models of the determinants of parenting.

The resulting descriptive analyses show that, with the exception of flextime, nontraditional work arrangements carry serious economic consequences. Multivariate models demonstrate that the only work arrangement that consistently increases parental involvement is mothers' part-time work, though positive effects partly depend on the presence of a spouse. On the other hand, fathers' part-time work has both positive and negative effects. "Family friendly" policies, such as flextime, do not significantly impact parenting, while flexplace produces mixed effects. Shift work, despite being a reasonable child care strategy, negatively affects parent-child relationships. Mothers' temporary work, if hired by a company directly, negatively influences time and activities with children, while temporary agency work and contracting have mixed effects.

Given the economic costs and the mixed effects on parenting, nontraditional work, in its current form, is a risky solution for parents. Reducing work time is a strategy that helps some parents who can afford the economic tradeoffs. Developing an effective solution for all workers will require workplaces and government policies to go beyond "family friendly" and rethink the organization of work and how working time can be altered to incorporate the dual needs of business and families.

Bibliography Citation
Joshi, Pamela Kumari. Flexibility for Whom? The Effects of Nontraditional Work Arrangements on Parental Involvement with Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, The Florence Heller Graduate School for Advanced Studies in Social Welfare, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 05A.
133. Kamara, Duewa A.
Housing Decisions of Female-Headed Households
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1990
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Discrimination, Sex; Home Ownership; Income; Marital Status; Parents, Single; Racial Differences; Simultaneity; Wealth; Women

The purpose of this study is to determine whether the standard model of housing consumption (including tenure choice) used to determine the behavior of married couples is appropriate for female-headed households (FHHs). Modeled is a simultaneous system of three equations to determine housing demand. The system of equations include housing demand, the probability of owning and the probability of marriage. This study develops a theoretical model of female head's behavior. It describes the housing choices of these women compared to married couples, and conducts an empirical test of the theoretical model using data from the NLS Young Women's cohort and Mature Women's cohort. Particular attention is focused on marital anticipation by single women, the derivation of permanent income, and the lack of wealth to purchase a home. It is shown that the pooling of married couples and female householders' data for the purpose of modeling female behavior could be misleading. A better technique to predict the behavior of FHHs with respect to their housing decisions is to separate FHHs from married couples and estimate their housing decision equations separately. The results imply that increases in the wealth among low wealth households influences the probability of buying a home more than increasing wealth among high wealth households.
Bibliography Citation
Kamara, Duewa A. Housing Decisions of Female-Headed Households. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1990.
134. Karmas, Constantine
Progress through College: Determinants of Successful Completion of Each Undergraduate Year
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1974
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; College Graduates; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; High School Curriculum; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The stability of various proposed determinants of success in (or of dropping out of) college is investigated, with focuses on whether a set of factors determines success in college and whether there is a set of such determinants which is common to all four stages.
Bibliography Citation
Karmas, Constantine. Progress through College: Determinants of Successful Completion of Each Undergraduate Year. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1974.
135. Kasten, Richard A.
Studies of Occupation Mobility for Black and White Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Mobility; Mobility, Job; Racial Differences

This thesis consists of two studies of the occupational distributions of black and white males. In the first part the occupational success of older men was studied to determine if the civil rights movement and the low unemployment at the end of the 1960s had any effect on the relative occupational success of older black males. It was found that there was little improvement in the treatment of these men and that blacks did not fare as well in the labor market as whites with identical characteristics. Only a small part of the differential between the occupation distributions of blacks and whites would be eliminated if the mobility probabilities estimated for 1969 were maintained indefinitely. About 40 percent of the gap which would remain cannot be explained by blacks' poor educations and unstable marriages. The second part of the thesis is a discussion of how rapidly the occupation gap between black and white men would narrow if blacks and whites with the same characteristics had identical distributions of occupations. A model of education, occupations, and demography was estimated and used to project the 1970 population and its descendants to the year 2000. It was found that nearly half of the gap will be closed by 1990, but, since blacks, especially blacks from broken families, are predicted to get less education than whites from similar backgrounds, the occupation distributions of blacks will remain below the white distribution as long as black educational and demographic probabilities remain at their 1969 levels.
Bibliography Citation
Kasten, Richard A. Studies of Occupation Mobility for Black and White Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1975.
136. Katayama, Hajime
Three Essays on Applied Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3416, Mar 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Crime; Heterogeneity; Labor Economics; Modeling, Multilevel; Modeling, Probit

This thesis consists of three essays. The first essay is joint work with Kala Krisha and Susumu Imai. Using data from the National Youth Survey, we examine the relationship of current criminal activity with past criminal activity, past arrests, and other variables. We estimate an ordered probit model, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that criminal types and non-criminal types behave very differently. An increase in arrests raises current criminal activity only for non-criminal types, while an increase in criminal experience raises current criminal activity for both types. For both types, arrests rise and then fall with age with a peak around age 18. The age crime profile also has this shape for non-criminal types, but for criminal types, it rises with age, suggesting lower apprehension rates for criminal types. The second essay looks at the pattern of young males' criminal activity, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97. A multivariate Tobit model with random effects is estimated to investigate whether current criminal acts of one type affect future criminal activity in the same or other categories. The results indicate such relationships indeed exist. In particular, I find evidence that minor crimes such as vandalism and minor theft are a stepping stone to more serious crimes. This suggests discouraging these will reduce future crime. The third essay is joint work with Shihua Lu and James Tybout. We develop an approach to measuring firms' performances. We assume firms' costs and revenues reflect a Bertrand-Nash equilibrium in a differentiated product industry. Given the demand system parameters, this allows us to impute each firm's unobserved marginal costs and product quality from its observed revenues and costs. Assuming that marginal costs and product quality indices follow vector autoregressive (VAR) processes, we jointly estimate the demand system parameters and VAR parameters using Bayesian techniques. Applying our methodology to panel data on Colombian pulp and paper plants, we find that conventional productivity measures are not closely related to quality measures and are nearly orthogonal to consumer surplus measures, suggesting that they may be poor characterizations of producer performance from a social welfare standpoint.
Bibliography Citation
Katayama, Hajime. Three Essays on Applied Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3416, Mar 2004.
137. Kawaguchi, Daiji
Earnings of Self-Employed Workers and Peer Effects Among Teenagers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 2002. DAI-A 63/09, p. 3293, Mar 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Endogeneity; Human Capital; Job Satisfaction; Labor Economics; Life Cycle Research; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Self-Employed Workers

This dissertation contains three essays in applied microeconomics. Chapter 1 revisits the empirical results of Lazear and Moore [Edward Lazear and John Moore (1984) "Incentive, Productivity, and Contract" Quarterly Journal of Economics. That paper found that empirical experience-earnings profiles were flatter for self-employed workers and argued that this supported the Lazear contract theory that claim firms use life-cycle backloaded payment systems to work around principal-agent problems between firms and workers. This chapter reproduces the Lazear and Moore result on more modern data, but argues for an alternative interpretation. In particular, this chapter argues that self-employed workers face more wage variation but enjoy a higher return for human capital. A model based on these assumptions can produce flatter experience-earnings profile since self-employed workers start their career with more human capital and due to opportunity cost, they invest less in human capital on the job. The chapter develops implications of the model not found in the Lazear contract model and concludes by developing support for these implications. Chapter 2 attempts to explain the lower earnings among self-employed workers found by Hamilton [Barton Hamilton (2000) "Does entrepreneurship pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Return of Self-Employment" Journal of Political Economy. That paper found 20% lower earnings of self-employed workers with 10 years of business tenure than comparable salaried workers with 10 years of job tenure. This difference in earnings can in principal be explained by the compensating wage differential theory when self-employed jobs have attractive non-monetary aspects. Using the National Longitudinal Survey Youth 79 (NLSY79), this chapter tests whether self-employment is associated with higher global job satisfaction. By looking at changes in job satisfaction for individuals over time, I overcome the difficulty of interpreting differences in subjective job satisfaction scores across individuals that cross-sectional analysis would require. Using my estimates, I calculate the monetary value of the non-monetary aspects of self-employment and find that one dollar earned while a self-employed worker is equivalent to as much as three to four dollars earned as a salary or wage worker. Although the valuation is surprisingly high, the direction of the estimate is consistent with the compensating wage differential hypothesis. Although job satisfaction is a partial component of workers' total utility, the value of self-employment in terms of job satisfaction is sufficiently high to support the compensating differential hypothesis as an explanation for lower earnings among self-employed workers. I also evaluate several other explanations for the surprisingly high valuation of self-employment. Chapter 3 attempts to estimate peer effects on substance usage among teenagers. This chapter first summarizes the problems in the identification of peer effects. The existence of unobserved characteristics of individuals and endogenous sorting into reference groups based on unobserved characteristics causes problems in the identification of peer effects. The solutions for this problem are: (1) To control 'unobservable' through including plenty of explanatory variables using rich data set or using sibling method to difference out unobservable. (2) To use natural experimental situation in which reference group is assigned randomly. (3) To use economic theory to get a prediction that arises only from peer effect but not from contextual or correlated effect. In this chapter, the method 1 was taken. Significant peer effects were found on substance usage among teenagers.
Bibliography Citation
Kawaguchi, Daiji. Earnings of Self-Employed Workers and Peer Effects Among Teenagers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 2002. DAI-A 63/09, p. 3293, Mar 2003.
138. Keane, Michael P.
Four Essays in Empirical Macro and Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 1990
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Industrial Sector; Inflation; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wages

This thesis is composed of four essays examining the effects of real and nominal shocks on the economy, in particular the oil price shocks of the 1970s. Microdata from the NLS Young Men were used to analyze the impact of these shocks and of the business cycle on real offer wages, sectoral location probabilities, employment probabilities, and the interindustry wage differentials. The first essay develops a practical extension of McFadden's Method of Simulated Moments estimator to the panel data case and to selectivity models. A selectivity model is estimated to determine the true effect of the business cycle on real offer wages. After correcting for selection bias and a complex pattern of serial correlation, real wages are found to be weakly procyclical. The second essay uncovers substantial effects of real oil price shocks on aggregate and sectoral real offer wages. The results are inconsistent with the predictions of equilibrium sectoral models, because the price shocks reduced respondents' location probability in sectors where relative wages increased. Nominal contract based theories of unemployment predicting inflation surprises should be negatively correlated with real offer wages. The third essay finds a positive correlation which is robust to controls for real shocks. Analysis shows substantial bias stemming from the shock's effect on labor force composition; low-wage workers tend to become employed following positive inflation shocks, masking the positive correlation between real offer wages and inflation. Using a fixed effects estimator on a long panel, the final essay obtains more efficient estimates of interindustry wage differentials than those contained in the existing literature. Individual fixed effects account for eighty-four percent of the variance of log wages across industries. Since unobserved job characteristics may account for the remaining sixteen percent, these results are consistent with competitive theories of w age determination. The interindustry wage structure is found to be highly responsive to real shocks, suggesting that relative wage movements may be important for our understanding of business cycle phenomena. [UMI ADG91-01788]
Bibliography Citation
Keane, Michael P. Four Essays in Empirical Macro and Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 1990.
139. Keener, Gary Wayne
Government Regulation of the Household Production Function: A Study of Prenatal Health Care
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Government Regulation; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care

This dissertation is based on the practical application of the fundamental concepts of utility maximization: people are assumed to maximize their utility by consuming the goods that give them the most satisfaction. People's utility will be reduced if for some reason they are forced to consume any amount of a good different than their utility maximizing amount. Such a situation could arise when the government passes laws forcing people to consume a certain amount of a good, for example, pregnant women should be forced to consume the amount of prenatal health care necessary to insure their baby is born healthy. This dissertation examines the conditions that are necessary in order for society to increase its welfare through mandatory consumption of prenatal health care. It will also look at whether certain members of society would use such a law to increase their welfare at the expense of other members of society. Two empirical studies are presented. The first study will use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's merged child-mother data file to estimate the demand for prenatal health care. Particular interest will be paid to how the demand for prenatal health care responds to changes in certain economic variables such as income and education. The second empirical study will use survey data to examine how people react to a proposed law requiring pregnant women to receive prenatal health care and to examine the interdependencies between individuals regarding prenatal health care.
Bibliography Citation
Keener, Gary Wayne. Government Regulation of the Household Production Function: A Study of Prenatal Health Care. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1993.
140. Kerttula, Anne Kaarina
A Dynamic Model of Welfare Participation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Economics of Gender; Modeling; Schooling; Welfare; Women's Studies

This dissertation analyses whether a five-year time limit on welfare participation encourages behaviors that lead to less reliance on public assistance. Using a dynamic discrete choice model, it describes young women's decisions about childbearing, schooling, working and welfare participation over time. The parameters underlying these decisions are estimated by fitting the model to data on observed choices obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Estimation is done using a simulated maximum likelihood procedure. Parameter estimates are used to simulate choices under current policy and under a policy of a five-year time limit on welfare participation. This provides a way of assessing effects of the time limit. The results suggest that a time limit has a significant impact on the behavior of those at highest risk for welfare participation. When faced with a time limit, they have fewer children, work and attend school more and rely on less welfare. In fact, a time limit leads to shorter-term welfare participation, apart from the purely "mechanical" effect of making long-term recipients categorically ineligible. Thus a time limit does encourage self-sufficiency in the sense that individuals rely more on other sources of support. At the same time, it appears that the shift occurs towards sources of support other than full-time work to a greater extent than towards full-time school attendance or full-time work.
Bibliography Citation
Kerttula, Anne Kaarina. A Dynamic Model of Welfare Participation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1996.
141. Key, Jennifer Anne
An Empirical Study of Gender and Racial Differences in Quits and Layoffs of Young Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Ethnic Studies; Gender Differences; Job Turnover; Layoffs; Modeling, Multilevel; Quits; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Wage Gap

That female and nonwhite workers are less attached to the labor market has been frequently offered as an explanation for the observed gender and racial wage gaps in the United States. Yet, empirically little is known about the propensities of females and nonwhite workers to leave their jobs. This dissertation examines the factors that influence the separation, quit and layoff rates of young workers: male, female, white and nonwhite. McLaughlin's (1991) model of quits and layoffs in an efficient turnover framework is extended to include the effects of job tenure and a stochastic value of nonmarket work. The framework allows for the decision to separate to nonemployment and the decision to separate to alternative employment to be motivated by different factors. Specifically, the empirical analysis in this thesis uses Nested Multinomial Logits (NMNL) to examine the probability of separating to nonemployment, the probability of separating to alternative employment, and the conditional Probability of a quit given a separation to either nonemployment or alternative employment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, NMNLs are performed on four subgroups of workers: white males, white females, nonwhite males, and nonwhite females. The results indicate that the job turnover behavior of white female workers is quite different from that of the three other groups of workers. White females have the lowest probability of staying at a job and are twice as likely to separate to alternative employment. Also, white female workers are much more likely to separate to alternative employment following the birth of a child. Nonwhite male workers are much more likely to be laid off to alternative employment than the other groups of workers. This may be due to discrimination in the labor market. Contrary to other studies, these results indicate that, controlling for other factors that influence wage rates, job tenure has a positive effect on job separations. This result is consistent with the conceptual framework. Finally, divorce is found to have a large positive effect on the likelihood of separating to nonemployment and alternative employment. This is the first study to include the effects of divorce on job turnover.
Bibliography Citation
Key, Jennifer Anne. An Empirical Study of Gender and Racial Differences in Quits and Layoffs of Young Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1999.
142. Khosroshahin, Mehdi
Migration Streams Among White Middle-Aged and Elderly American Men in the Context of Migration Turnaround
Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Geographical Variation; Migration

This research has focused on four major comparisons of socio-demographic characteristics of metropolitan turnaround migration among white middle-aged and elderly American men between 1967-1975. Included are outmigrants versus nonmigrants at origin, inmigrants versus nonmigrants at destination, migration streams, and migration direction and distance. The characteristics for which comparisons were conducted were: age, marital status, number of school age children in the household, employment status, education and yearly total net family income. The data set employed was the Older Men cohort of the NLS. Multivariate findings of outmigrants versus nonmigrants at origin indicates that outmigrants from metropolitan origins tended to be older and not employed relative to their nonmigrant counterparts, whereas outmigrants from nonmetropolitan origin tended to have higher education than their nonmigrant counterparts. Comparison of inmigrants versus nonmigrants at destination showed nonmetropolitan migrants tended to be older and have more yearly total net family income than migrants in the opposite stream. Concerning migration distance comparison within streams, metropolitan to nonmetropolitan long distance migrants were younger, less likely to be employed, and to have higher yearly total net family income than metropolitan to nonmetropolitan short distance migrants. Long distance migrants within the nonmetropolitan to metropolitan stream had higher levels of educational attainment than short distance migrants. Regarding migration stream comparison within distance categories, revealed metropolitan to nonmetropolitan migrants tended to be older and had higher yearly total net family income than nonmetroploitan to metropolitan migrants regardless of distance. Long distance metropolitan to nonmetropolitan migrants had lower levels of educationalattainment than migrants in the opposite stream.
Bibliography Citation
Khosroshahin, Mehdi. Migration Streams Among White Middle-Aged and Elderly American Men in the Context of Migration Turnaround. Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1984.
143. Kim, Hyun Jae
Three Essays on Economics of Immigration
Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1995. DAI-A 57/02, p. 800, Aug 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Fertility; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

This dissertation is a collection of papers examining the performance and economic behavior of immigrants in the U.S. Each of the chapters is self-contained. Chapter one investigates the determinants of English language proficiency and compares immigrants in the 1980 and 1990 Censuses. It also studies the effect of English ability on the human capital earnings function in order to determine the performance and quality of recent immigrant cohorts in the U.S. labor market. In addition, this study examines whether English proficiency is a good measure of assimilation of immigrants into the U.S. labor market. This study shows that English proficiency is positively related to earnings of immigrants. Educational attainment, citizenship, and age at arrival are major determinants of English proficiency. In particular, education attained in the U.S. is more relevant to improving English proficiency. According to the regression results, the assimilation process is a significant phenomenon among recent immigrants. Also, the similar patterns of growth rates between earnings and English proficiency suggest that English proficiency can be used as a measure of economic adjustment of immigrants in the U.S. labor market. Chapter two examines fertility differences between native-born and immigrant women in the 1980 and 1990 U.S. Censuses, focusing on how fertility differences are related to female labor supply. Immigrant women with children might have a different pattern of labor supply relative to their native-born counterparts. In order to investigate this relationship, a simultaneous equations model of fertility and labor supply is applied to study the fertility and labor supply behavior of immigrant women. The main findings in this study are summarized by the following. First, recent immigrant cohorts have more children than native-born women. However, it is not evident that the immigrant fertility pattern shows an increasing relative fertility over time. Second, immigrant women and native-born women differ in their fertility and labor supply behavior. Immigrant women's labor supply is negatively related to their number of children, but this significant negative correlation is not found for native-born women. Chapter three attempts to compare the fertility patterns across immigrant generations from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, 1979-1991. The results provide some evidence of immigrants' convergence to the fertility rate of natives across generations. One of the major findings of this chapter is that grandchildren of immigrants have fewer children than the reference group (the fourth or later generations). Second, the correlation of the number of siblings with the number of children is quite low. This implies that the correlation across generations is weaker the longer immigrant families are in the U.S.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Hyun Jae. Three Essays on Economics of Immigration. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1995. DAI-A 57/02, p. 800, Aug 1996.
144. Kim, Jong In
Job Search Methods: Use and Effectiveness
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Search; Occupational Prestige; Occupational Status; Support Networks; Unemployment

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort (NLSY), this study advances information richness embedded in occupations as an important component in explaining variation in the choice of job search methods by young unemployed job seekers. The study supports the importance of interpersonal relationships (or networkings) in obtaining job information, as pointed out by Granovetter. Employed job seekers engage in job search activities at a less extensive and intensive margin than unemployed job seekers. For the unemployed searchers, their occupational personal contacts are viewed as a valuable source of job information, and they rely on the informal networkings for a potential job search. This study also suggests that job search extensity by employed and unemployed job seekers has significant effects on job search methods, they experience a higher rate of job offers to be received because extensive job search broadens information about job openings. Quality of search is sacrificed by extensity, at least as measured by satisfaction with the job received. This study focuses on young job seekers who are likely to involve different occupations and search behavior from older job seekers. An extension of this study would be to use data that includes older job seekers and to control more accurately for possible unobserved differences between employed and unemployed searchers.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Jong In. Job Search Methods: Use and Effectiveness. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1994.
145. Kim, Muncho
Levels and Determinants of Female Job Satisfaction for a National Sample of Females
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Job Satisfaction; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Occupational Status; Sex Roles

Women participating in the labor force are frequently confronted by special problems such as sex discrimination in the work place and conflicting responsibilities at home and at work. These and other problematic conditions would lead to the expectation that female workers would be less satisfied with their jobs than their male counterparts. However, recent research findings from numerous national surveys have constantly indicated that women tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than males. The present study aims to clarify this irony by comparing the major determinants of job satisfaction between the sexes. The analysis was based on the data from the NLS of Mature Women who were in the labor force in 1972. Three hypothetical models are used for explaining the relatively high level of job satisfaction among female workers: the dispositional model, the situational model, the lack-of-awareness model. Using multiple regression analysis and chi-square analysis, major determinants of job satisfaction were identified for both sexes. Work progress, occupational status, locus of control, work value, and job stressors were found to be uniformly important to job satisfaction for both females and males. In addition, work commitment was identified as one of the major determinants of job satisfaction for females. Based on these findings and the results of other supplementary analyses, propositions suggested by three hypothetical models were tested.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Muncho. Levels and Determinants of Female Job Satisfaction for a National Sample of Females. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1982.
146. Kim, Stacy S.
Gradual Return To Work: The Antecedents and Consequences of Switching to Part-Time Work After First Childbirth
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Development; Childbearing; Employment, Part-Time; Family Studies; Job Satisfaction; Mothers, Education; Women's Studies; Work Reentry

For many workers, the birth of a child marks the beginning of their work-family concerns. Part-time work is often believed to be a solution to these concerns by child development experts, policy-makers, those in the media, and by parents. Yet, little is known whether switching from full-time to part-time work after the birth of a first child actually helps a first-time mother better manage her work and family life. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth was analyzed to uncover the conditions that allow a woman to return gradually to work. Additional survey and interview data were collected in the Chicago metropolitan area to see if a gradual return to work would decrease work-family conflict and/or increase work-family satisfaction compared to mothers who continued to work full-time. Results show that mothers who worked full-time before childbirth were more likely to switch to part-time work if they did not work in goods producing industries, were well-educated, were living with their spouse during the year of childbirth, and held traditional attitudes about women's roles at work and at home. While a gradual return did appear to help mothers to some degree, it did not appear to be a major factor in determining work-family conflict and work-family satisfaction. What appeared to matter was whether mothers were working hours that were close to what they perceived as ideal, were working a schedule they felt was accommodating to their families, and were satisfied with their jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Stacy S. Gradual Return To Work: The Antecedents and Consequences of Switching to Part-Time Work After First Childbirth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
147. Kim, Young-Taek
A Longitudinal Analysis of Socioeconomic Difference in Obesity and Weight Change during the Early Adult Years
Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 2004. DAI-A 65/08, p. 3168, February 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Life Course; Obesity

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in American society. However, not enough attention has been given to weight change by temporal and dynamic detailed social characteristics, controlled for unobserved heterogeneities nested in county and state. Using the National Longitudinal Survey Youth (NLSY79), this study examined weight change and its development into unhealthy conditions like being overweight or obese, in relation to change in social characteristics including life course events. This study also examined the social characteristics of remaining at a normal weight through all time intervals over a 19-year period. Using hierarchical linear multilevel analysis, this study found that changes in social characteristics over time could be linked to weight status for both males and females. Young males with normal weight are more vulnerable to changes in life events than females. This study's identification of risky life events among young adults could lead to prevention strategies for the obesity epidemic.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Young-Taek. A Longitudinal Analysis of Socioeconomic Difference in Obesity and Weight Change during the Early Adult Years. Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 2004. DAI-A 65/08, p. 3168, February 2005.
148. Kingson, Eric R.
Men Who Leave Work Before Age 62: A Study of Advantaged and Disadvantaged Very Early Labor Force Withdrawal
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1979
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Pensions; Retirement; Social Security

The study is focused on men who leave work before age 62--very early withdrawees. At the time of labor force departure, these men are not eligible to receive Social Security retirement benefits (Old Age Insurance)--the age of earliest eligibility being 62. The qualitative aspect of the study examines the role played by historical factors in shaping the early retirement phenomenon. The empirical analysis uses data collected as part of the NLS of Older Men.
Bibliography Citation
Kingson, Eric R. Men Who Leave Work Before Age 62: A Study of Advantaged and Disadvantaged Very Early Labor Force Withdrawal. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1979.
149. Kittivibul, Tippawan
Downward Mobility Aspirations among Adolescents
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Family Background; Gender Differences; Internal-External Attitude; Mobility; Occupational Aspirations; Parental Influences

Little attention has been paid to the non-normative situation, downward educational aspirations, whereby adolescents desire a lower level of education than that attained by their fathers. Downward educational aspirations can be perceived as an early sign of a voluntary downward mobility tendency. The social psychological perspective that is employed in this study considers three levels of influence, social structure, interpersonal relations, and personality, and their effects on downward versus non-downward educational aspirations and the extent of downward educational aspirations. The sample consists of male and female adolescents aged 15-19 who participated in the 1979 NLSY. Multivariate analyses reveal that all three levels are relevant to adolescents' downward educational aspirations, social structure (father's occupation) is the strongest, followed by interpersonal relation (significant others' influence) and personality (occupational aspirations) variables. Specifying the social psychological process by which downward educational aspirations develop is an important goal of this research. Furthermore, to integrate the micro- and macro-levels of sociological analysis, social changes that have set the stage for downward educational aspirations and the voluntary downward mobility phenomenon are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Kittivibul, Tippawan. Downward Mobility Aspirations among Adolescents. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1988.
150. Klepinger, Daniel H.
A Life Cycle Model of Fertility and Female Labor Supply with Stochastic Births
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1988
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children; Endogeneity; Fertility; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Wages; Women

In this paper a lifecycle model of female labor supply and fertility is developed and empirically tested. Both fertility and labor supply are treated as fully endogenous, a factor that distinguishes it from most previous work. Births are treated as stochastic, allowing for unexpected supply shocks and heterogeneity in fecundity. Child quality and care constraints are also included in the model. The formal model is solved using the methods of optimal control. Fewer restrictions are placed on the mother's time allocation in this model. The data used to test the theory presented here were obtained from the Young Women file of the NLS. The empirical results generally provide strong support for the theory that labor supply rises with the wage and declines with the number of children already born. Young children have a larger negative impact on labor supply than older children. Births are negatively related to the wage, number and age of existing children and positively related to the number of months since last birth. Finally, the empirical results provide support for the hypothesis of economies of scale in home care.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H. A Life Cycle Model of Fertility and Female Labor Supply with Stochastic Births. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1988.
151. Kniesner, Thomas J.
Recent Behavior of the 'Full-Time' Workweek in the U.S.
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1974
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings, Wives; Household Models; Job Search; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Schooling; Transfers, Wealth; Work Hours

Regression estimates of the postwar secular labor supply function for full-time workers produce a coefficient for the real wage rate variable that is not statistically different from zero. Past explanations for this phenomenon are shown to be unsupported empirically, including the recently developed life-cycle labor supply model. This dissertation is an attempt to uncover the basic economic structure which is responsible, in part, for the time-series/cross-section conflict. A two-person model of the household is considered. If the nonmarket time of the husband and the nonmarket time of the wife are gross complements, then recent relative increases in the female wage rate have worked against a decline in male hours of work. Considered also is the effect of past investment in schooling. In so much as greater schooling represents a transfer of wealth from nonhuman to human wealth, postwar relative increases in male years of schooling should also have a positive effect on the full-time workweek. The female wage rate has a small positive effect on male hours of work with an elasticity to the range of .02 to .12. Schooling has a much more substantial effect; an additional year of schooling is associated with a workweek longer by approximately one-half to three-fourths of an hour. When the female wage rate and male years of schooling are included as explanatory variables in an analysis of labor supply, the predicted postwar secular movement in full-time hours of work is positive and approximately 75 per cent of the actual increase. When these two factors are held constant, the effect of secular changes in the male wage rate on full-time hours of work is statistically less than zero and approximately equal in both the prewar and postwar periods.
Bibliography Citation
Kniesner, Thomas J. Recent Behavior of the 'Full-Time' Workweek in the U.S. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1974.
152. Knox, Virginia Williams
Child Support Payments: Effects on the Educational Achievement of Children in Single Parent Families
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Support; Children, Behavioral Development; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Welfare

This dissertation evaluates the effects of child support payments from absent fathers on the educational achievement of children in single parent families. Local state and federal efforts to reform child support enforcement systems should be informed by an understanding of whether and how payments affect children's outcomes. Two longitudinal data sets the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) are used to evaluate these effects. The main hypotheses tested are whether child support payments affect children's grades completed at age 21, their achievement test scores in elementary school, and their level of behavior problems in elementary school.
Bibliography Citation
Knox, Virginia Williams. Child Support Payments: Effects on the Educational Achievement of Children in Single Parent Families. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1993.
153. Konang, Christel
Middle-Aged Men in the Labor Force: A Graphical and Empirical Exploration of Health Capital, Disability Insurance and Time Allocated to Work
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1978
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Benefits, Insurance; Control; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Taxes

The major conclusion from the theoretical section of this study is that a national health insurance system can help maintain the health status of middle-aged workers--thereby helping to maintain their productivity and work effort--provided that benefits are quite comprehensive and medical care is readily available, while the tax burden for that group of workers is kept close to present levels, so that the use of medical care is encouraged. The model also suggests that more medical care will be utilized when the opportunity cost of the individual's time is relatively low. The opportunity cost is affected by many variables under the control of decision makers, as, for example, zoning for the location of medical facilities, stimulating the economy to provide employment opportunities, changing the procedures which determine eligibility for insurance benefits, and many more.
Bibliography Citation
Konang, Christel. Middle-Aged Men in the Labor Force: A Graphical and Empirical Exploration of Health Capital, Disability Insurance and Time Allocated to Work. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1978.
154. Korenman, Sanders D.
Empirical Explorations in the Economics of the Family
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1988
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Discrimination; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Marriage; Wages

This thesis explores the association between marriage and the wages of men and women, and the association between gender and consumption. Marriage is associated with higher wages for men. Three broad classes of hypotheses that are consistent with the marriage wage differential are explored: productivity, selectivity, and discrimination. Marriage wage premiums persist when detailed controls for worker and job characteristics are entered in wage equations. Wages rise with years married and fall with years divorced or separated. The differentials are also found within families (across brothers). The wages of single women do not exceed those of married women. Women with children earn less that those without children, but controlling for measures of labor force attachment and human capital lowers these differentials substantially. Although they are a select group, women who bear children and return quickly to employment suffer no loss of wages compared to childless women. Therefore, wage differentials between men and women having identical measured human capital should not be attributed to differences in labor market productivity that result from the greater household responsibilities of employed married women or women with children.
Bibliography Citation
Korenman, Sanders D. Empirical Explorations in the Economics of the Family. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1988.
155. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Staying Out of Trouble: Neighborhood Influences on Adolescent Problem Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Census of Population; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Demography; Deviance; Family Environment; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Residence; Risk-Taking

In this research, I consider how objective and perceived neighborhood quality affect adolescent problem behavior. I focus on four main questions: (1) Are stressful neighborhoods a cause of a family environment characterized by less maternal warmth, cognitive stimulation, and parental investment? (2) Does living in stressful neighborhoods cause adolescents to be more likely to take risks? (3) Do some neighborhoods contribute to adolescent problem behaviors by exacerbating the effects of family level stressors and inadequate maternal resources? (4) How does the adolescent's attitudinal orientation in turn influence their likelihood of engaging in problem behavior? To address these questions, I merge data from the 1990 Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) Merged Mother-Child files to form a sample of 860 adolescents aged 14 to 18 in 1994. Overall, neighborhood characteristics have a limited impact on measures of family interaction. The effects where they a re present are often reduced when the adolescent's family resources are considered, and some neighborhood effects operate interactively with the adolescent's family resources. However, some neighborhood attributes have strong effects on adolescent outcomes. In particular, a clear factor that helps adolescents to stay out of trouble is living in more residentially stable communities. Residential stability decreases both adolescent risk taking attitudes and aggressive behavior. One of the more compelling findings of this research is that the protective effect of residential stability persists regardless of the level of disadvantage present within the community. The quality of schools that adolescents attend also has strong protective effects. Higher quality schools are environments in which adolescents are less likely to get into trouble, even controlling for attributes of the adolescent's family situation. From a policy perspective, this is a particularly important finding as it counters the argument that schools cannot effectively help adolescents without substantial family support.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. Staying Out of Trouble: Neighborhood Influences on Adolescent Problem Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996.
156. Kraft, Joan Marie
Work and Fertility: An Exploration of the Relationship Between Labor Force Participation and Premarital Fertility
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Abortion; Behavior; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Contraception; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Sexual Behavior; Wages; Women

This dissertation attempts to add to our knowledge of the causes of premarital fertility behavior--sexual activity, use of birth control, pregnancy, abortion, and marital status at time of birth. Current research pays attention to the roles played by aspirations, social-psychological variables, and community norms in fertility behavior. The approach of this paper differs in its emphasis upon labor force participation and the quality of worklife. The argument is implicit in the literature's concern with why young women "risk the future" by engaging in premarital intercourse that may result in conception. Premarital motherhood can disrupt a woman's life, making it difficult to maintain a current standard of living or attain future goals. The central hypothesis of the dissertation is that young women who work, especially those working in full-time jobs with high wages and high occupational status, will be less likely than other women to engage in potentially risky premarital fertility behaviors. Monthly data on fertility behavior and labor force participation are drawn from the NLSY and cover a span of seven years (1978 through 1984). Event history and logistic regression models suggest that workers are more likely than non-workers to be sexually active, to use birth control, to get abortions, and to marry prior to birth. Workers are less likely than non-workers to become premaritally pregnant. A comparison of workers and non-workers thus supports the opportunity cost argument. Models that include occupational status, wages, and hours worked indicate that the opportunity cost argument has some merit in the prediction of pregnancy and the use of birth control.
Bibliography Citation
Kraft, Joan Marie. Work and Fertility: An Exploration of the Relationship Between Labor Force Participation and Premarital Fertility. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1989.
157. Krein, Sheila Fitzgerald
Effects of Living in a Single-Parent Family on Educational Attainment of Young Men and Women and on Earnings of Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1984
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parents, Single

Whether long-term consequences of living in a single-parent family exist is a growing public concern. This study examines the effect of living in a single-parent family headed by a female on two long-run measures of achievement: educational attainment and earnings. The effect is examined within a household production framework, where achievement is a function of the time and money inputs of the parents and their ability to combine these resources. The study is based upon matched mother/son and mother/daughter samples constructed from the NLS. These samples consist of 1,098 young men ages 28 to 38 and 1,448 young women ages 26 to 36, about one fourth of whom spent some time in a single-parent family. Four measures of life in a single-parent family are constructed: ever lived in a single-parent family, length of time, period of childhood, and length of time in each period. The first two measures, ever lived and length of time lived in a single-parent family, had a significant negative effect on years of school completed for young men. The impact on educational attainment of young women was negative, but the effect was not significant when family income was included in the equation. The magnitude of the effect was nearly three times as large for young men as for young women. The preschool period of childhood, but not the elementary or high school years, had a negative effect for both young men and women. The length of time in the preschool years also had a significant negative impact for both genders. Living in a single-parent family had no significant direct effect on the earnings of young men, using a human capital model of earnings. Any impact appeared to be indirect through lowering the education of the young men.
Bibliography Citation
Krein, Sheila Fitzgerald. Effects of Living in a Single-Parent Family on Educational Attainment of Young Men and Women and on Earnings of Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1984.
158. Krishnan, Jayanthi
Labor Quality Upgrading and Restrictive Hiring Practices in Union Workplaces
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Control; Firms; Job Turnover; Labor Supply; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Unions

This dissertation is concerned with the issue of rationing of scarce union jobs. A number of alternative rationing devices are possible: a simple lottery, job queues and positive selection. The conjecture that unionized employers upgrade the quality of labor they hire (positive selection) appears frequently in the literature. This dissertation addresses two questions: (1) What is the impact of the locus of hiring control (employer or union) on quality upgrading in unionized jobs. (2) What determines the locus of union control. A model of hiring by unions is used to show that incumbent workers in a unionized firm would upgrade quality of new hires as long as they attach more value to their own rents than to the rents of newcomers. The hypothesis suggested by this analysis, that upgrading in union-controlled-hiring situations if less than or equal to that in employer-controlled-hiring situations, is tested using data from the NLSY. The results indicate that upgrading of labor quality does not differ across union-controlled and employer-controlled sectors. The effect of union power is ambiguous. These hypotheses are tested with interindustry data on the prevalence of the closed shop in 1946, the year before it was made illegal (Taft-Hartley Act) in 1979. The results strongly support the hypothesis that unions tend to control hiring in situations of high job turnover.
Bibliography Citation
Krishnan, Jayanthi. Labor Quality Upgrading and Restrictive Hiring Practices in Union Workplaces. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1990.
159. Kum, Jae Ho
Dynamic Search of Non-employed Individuals
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Underemployment; Wages, Reservation

In this dissertation the factors causing individuals to choose among non-employment states that is among different methods of search including being out-of-the labor force are addressed. And the effects of these choices on the search outcomes of non-employed individuals are analyzed. For these purposes an estimable discrete-time dynamic stochastic model of search method choice is developed. The model is estimated using data from the 1986 and 1987 panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Cohorts (NLSY). Estimation is carried out separately by race. The estimates reveal that search costs are decreasing as job seekers accumulate search experience. Also it is found that blacks have higher search costs than do whites and that formal search methods are most costly. Simulation results are in agreement with the predictions of standard search theory: lowering search costs increases the reservation wage and extends the anticipated period of search. Tests of whether or not search and out-of-the labor force are distinct states lead to ambiguous results. While job offer probabilities and accepted wages appear to be the same, exit rates into employment differ between them.
Bibliography Citation
Kum, Jae Ho. Dynamic Search of Non-employed Individuals. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1992.
160. Kunz, James Peter
Welfare and Poverty: Pathways to Adult Economic Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Michigan, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Educational Attainment; Fatherhood; Labor Market Outcomes; Mothers, Adolescent; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parenthood; Parents, Single; Poverty; Self-Esteem; Welfare

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience youth cohort, the educational and labor market outcomes of young men in the United States were examined, with emphasis on adolescent fathers. Adolescent fathers complete fewer years of education and are less likely to finish high school compared to adult fathers. As a result of federal welfare reform legislation passed in 1996, states are required to impose lifetime limits on federal welfare benefits to low-income families and are allowed to prohibit benefits to unmarried teenagers. Both provisions have been justified as being in the long-run economic interest of children and teenagers. Proponents of lifetime limits argue that children from welfare families become caught up in a "cycle of dependency" and, as a result, work less, earn less, and become more likely to be on welfare themselves when they become adults. Those who would prohibit assistance to unmarried teenagers argue that these women also compare unfavorably as adults to women who wait until they are married or in their twenties to have children. While it may well be true that both children from welfare families and unmarried teenagers fare more poorly as adults, the pathways by which these results obtain are much less understood. This dissertation explores some of the path ways from poverty, welfare, and single teen motherhood to poor adult outcomes. First, an overview of the theoretical perspectives that have been brought to bear on the intergenerational effects of the Aid to Dependent Families with Children (AFDC) is presented and recent studies of these effects are critiqued. This review finds scant theoretical justification, in either the economic, sociological, or psychological literature, for the belief that welfare, in and of itself, causes poor adult outcomes and concludes that it is difficult to separate the effects of welfare from the effects of poverty. Following this review, two empirical studies examine commonly cited pathways to poor adult outcomes. The first study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and finds that family welfare receipt during childhood has little effect on measured self-esteem during early adolescence. The second study uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to look at the impact of single teen motherhood on later economic outcomes and finds that controlling for unmeasured family background reduces, but does not eliminate, these negative effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that the long-run benefits of placing time limits on welfare and prohibiting aid to teenagers are likely to be overstated.
Bibliography Citation
Kunz, James Peter. Welfare and Poverty: Pathways to Adult Economic Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Michigan, 1997.
161. Kurahashi, Michiko
Internal Labor Markets and Occupational Sex Segregation: An Event History Analysis of Gender Differences in Job and Upward Wage Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Wages; Work Histories

This study investigates the effects of internal labor markets and occupational sex segregation on gender differences in the rates of job and upward wage mobility. Past research has identified two types of mobility barriers--one between internal and external labor markets and the other between male-typed and female-typed occupations--as key elements contributing to the persistence of gender gaps in job rewards. Past discussion has focused on the independent effects of these mobility barriers on job outcomes and failed to examine the ways in which they overlap and form boundaries that disadvantage women in the workplace. The author conceptualizes labor market boundaries based on the assumption that there is additional occupational segregation by gender within internal and external labor markets. Informed by the concepts of internal labor markets and occupational sex segregation, the author examines several hypotheses concerning gender and labor market differences in the rates of job and upward wage mobility. Using job history data and event history analytic techniques, the author specifies and estimates a series of models. The data are drawn from the NLSY 1979-85, a large survey of young men and women 14 to 28 years old. The results indicate that: (1) labor market arrangements and occupational sex segregation function as barriers that restrict mobility among different sets of positions in the labor market; and (2) gender differences in the labor market positions young women and men occupy explain some differences in job and upward wage mobility. However, the findings show that individuals who move between female-typed occupations within the internal labor market have higher rates of upward shifts in wages than those who change jobs between male-dominated occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Kurahashi, Michiko. Internal Labor Markets and Occupational Sex Segregation: An Event History Analysis of Gender Differences in Job and Upward Wage Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1990.
162. Lan, Ke-Jeng
Inflation Effects on the Labor Market: A Transition Rate Model
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Inflation; Job Search; Labor Turnover; Transition Rates, Activity to Work; Wages, Reservation

The impact of inflation, particularly unexpected inflation, on the operation of the labor market remains an important and empirically unresolved issue. Earlier work, largely based on time series analysis of industry aggregate quit data, found little impact of inflation on that critical labor market mechanism. This earlier work has been criticized for not adequately distinguishing between expected and unexpected inflation. At the same time, longitudinal micro data sets of high quality have become available, permitting the estimation of more complete transition models that incorporate job acceptance by workers who are not employed as well as job termination by employed workers. This dissertation analyzes empirically the impact of unexpected and expected inflation of these labor market transitions. In a two-state (employment, unemployment) search model, the reservation approach is utilized in analyzing the male sub-sample of the 1979 NLSY over the period 1980 to 1983. The wage information is corrected for selectivity bias by a two-stage estimation method, and reservation wages are then derived. A maximum-likelihood technique is used with the structural transition model to estimate the parameters of the true wage offer distribution. Implied transition rates are then calculated. The impact of unexpected inflation on transition rates appears through its influence on the real reservation wage. Confirming the results of earlier works, the empirical results indicate that the impact of "unexpected" inflation on transition rates is insignificant because the impact of unexpected inflation on the intervening reservation wage is not significant. Hence, trying to "fool" youths by unexpected inflationary policies in order to reduce their unemployment rate is unlikely to be successful.
Bibliography Citation
Lan, Ke-Jeng. Inflation Effects on the Labor Market: A Transition Rate Model. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989.
163. Lang, Sylvia W.
Occupational Mobility and the Dual Economy: The Impact of Industrial Sectors and Three Human Capital Variables on the Movement of Young Women and Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University, 1983
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Gender Differences; Human Capital Theory; Industrial Sector; Mobility; Mobility, Occupational; Racial Differences

This project examines the occupational mobility of young women and men in the United States. Past research in this area deals with how individual characteristics that workers bring to the marketplace affect this process. Recent empirical work shows the importance of economic structure in explaining the socioeconomic process individuals experience. This dissertation examines the effects of dual economy industrial sectors as well as human capital variables including social class background, educational attainment, and job training on occupational movement. Ten years of panel data from the NLS are used. Differences in the labor force compositions of core and periphery sectors are examined by performing two discriminant analyses. Log linear analysis is used to analyze mobility tables which show occupational and sectoral movement by sex. The human capital data are then added to the mobility tables and log linear analysis is used to examine the resulting mobility patterns. Expected sex differences in sectoral mobility only hold for workers in particular occupational categories. Predicted sex differences in occupational mobility and differences in occupational movement by sectoral mobility appear. Interactions between sex, sectoral mobility, and occupational mobility do not occur. Job training does not interact with occupational mobility. Hypothesized occupational moves only occur for those with a particular class background or educational attainment. Interactions between sectoral mobility and occupational mobility for each human capital analysis are similar to the initial analysis. Of the human capital variables, only education interacts jointly with occupational mobility and sectoral movement.
Bibliography Citation
Lang, Sylvia W. Occupational Mobility and the Dual Economy: The Impact of Industrial Sectors and Three Human Capital Variables on the Movement of Young Women and Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University, 1983.
164. Lanigan, John Joseph, Jr.
An Evaluation of the Opportunity Cost and Inservice Training and Earnings of the Modern Military on Young Male Enlistees
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Earnings; Military Enlistment; Military Service; Military Training; Racial Differences; Residence; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Underemployment; Veterans

Youth often perceive enlistment in the armed forces as an opportunity to learn something useful while in the service and improve their lives when they leave the service. The attraction of these economic opportunities is the central theme the All Volunteer Force. The aim of this study has been to ascertain the opportunity cost of choosing military experience and to describe training, employment and earnings during the in-service period. The study examines the question of investment in human capital using data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) 1979 youth sample. Results show minorities disproportionately choose to enter the Army where shorter training in soft occupational areas predominate. Analysis of annual earnings explains 64% of the variation between youth in the military and their civilian counterparts. Youth in the military experience a positive current earnings difference compared to their civilian counterparts. Unlike the civilian earnings distribution, youth in the military showed no significant difference in earnings by race/ethnicity. Contrary to prior studies that viewed military service as an economic handicap, the results of this study provide evidence that military service appears to be a good economic investment in human capital.
Bibliography Citation
Lanigan, John Joseph, Jr. An Evaluation of the Opportunity Cost and Inservice Training and Earnings of the Modern Military on Young Male Enlistees. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1988.
165. Latimer, Sharon Melissa
Multi-Level Analyses of Work and Welfare
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1994. DAI-A 56/01, p. 372, Jul 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Industrial Relations; Mobility; Occupational Segregation; Wages; Welfare

Feminist researchers have broadened our understanding of inequality by documenting the connection between domestic labor, institutionalized male dominance, occupational segregation, and the welfare system. Diana Pearce and others have found that workers who are in a precarious position in terms of wages, mobility, job security, and benefits (i.e., they are employed in the secondary sector of the labor market) are at an even greater disadvantage when they become unemployed. More specifically, Pearce found that women were significantly less likely than men to receive unemployment insurance when they became unemployed. One problem with Pearce's work is that she ignores the impact of race/ethnicity on men and thus fails to examine the extent to which men of color are likewise disadvantaged in their claims to unemployment insurance. In addition, Pearce fails to incorporate the importance of geography in her analysis of the welfare system. Unlike most of the feminist research, multi-level labor market analyses recognize the influence of geography (i.e., the characteristics of a place) on inequality. One main problem with this research is that researchers have sporadically included gender, race, and ethnicity in their analyses. My research overcomes the limitations of past research by combining insights from a feminist analysis of the welfare system with insights from spatial analysis of inequality. Using the 1987 National Longitudinal Surveys for Youth, this multilevel research examines how human capital variables, household variables, and labor market variables intersect with gender, race, and ethnicity to influence an individual's position within the occupational structure (as measured by primary or secondary sector employment and income) and the welfare system (as measured by receipt of unemployment insurance). By analyzing the relationships between geography, race, ethnicity, gender, human capital, household variables, occupational segregation, and the welfare system, this research provides a more accurate depiction of the relationship between and the consequences of the social construction of reproduction, economic production, and state policies toward disadvantaged workers.
Bibliography Citation
Latimer, Sharon Melissa. Multi-Level Analyses of Work and Welfare. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1994. DAI-A 56/01, p. 372, Jul 1995.
166. Lee, Bum-Yoal
Worker Sorting in Different-Sized Employers: Selection and Placement Effects by Observed and Unobserved Heterogeneity
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1997
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Britain, British; British Household Panel Survey (BHPS); Cross-national Analysis; Income; Job Rewards; Job Skills; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Surveys; Transfers, Skill; Wage Differentials

This study extends the self-selection framework developed by Roy to analyze the match of workers between small and large employers by their characteristics. In particular, the theoretical analysis shows how differences in the skill- price distribution between small and large employers yield systematic worker sorting by both observed and unobserved characteristics. The possible sorting of workers by unobserved attributes provides an explanation for prior findings that workers with comparable observed attributes earn more in large employers, which is tested using data from both the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men and the British Household Panel Survey. The empirical results confirm theoretical expectations that large employers pay a higher return to both observed and unobserved skill and that worker movement between different-sized employers reinforces the self-selection of better workers into large employers. Moreover, empirical comparisons of the wage changes for movers between different-sized employers show that an improved skill-price job match accounts for a significant portion of the wage gains of movers. Cross-country comparisons between the U.S. and the U.K. indicate a similar employer-size sorting process between the two countries, but also support prior evidence of greater labor-market responsiveness in the U.S. relative to Europe.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Bum-Yoal. Worker Sorting in Different-Sized Employers: Selection and Placement Effects by Observed and Unobserved Heterogeneity. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1997.
167. Lee, Hyunkee
Early Work Exit Patterns of Older Men: The Influence of the Work Sphere
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, 1995
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Economics of Gender; Firms; Gerontology; Industrial Relations; Labor Market Demographics; Life Course; Retirement; Unions; Work Reentry

This study identifies and examines the early work exit behaviors that have occurred in great number during the last two decades, focusing on the influence of labor markets and occupational structures. Although previous research primarily examined the impacts of pecuniary variables and individual characteristics variables on early retirement, this research approaches early work exit behaviors with a labor market perspective which emphasizes actors in labor markets, firms, labor unions, and governments. This study argues that increasing diversity in early withdrawal patterns is driven by an evolution of labor markets and an occupational structure which is dependent on labor market conditions. The study estimates effects of occupational characteristics and labor market conditions on early work exit patterns. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, 2784 of older workers, who turned age 55 after the survey began, are followed from age 55 through age 61. In six years of observation, five types of work exit patterns are identified: still working at age 55 job, exit and reenter (job change), out of the labor force to in the labor force, sporadic work, and retired. Here, a job change is defined by an occupational movement, using three digit occupation codes, and so a job change in this study does not necessarily mean an employer change. Results of the study show the complex work exit behaviors of the elderly are very different from the traditional one-step retirement from a life time job to permanent exit and indicate that the massive early work exit is strongly driven by firms, labor unions, and governments as well as older workers themselves. Thus, these results suggest that a work domain is an important aspect in explaining early retirement. The final chapter discusses implications of these results for life course perspective and sociology of age.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Hyunkee. Early Work Exit Patterns of Older Men: The Influence of the Work Sphere. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, 1995.
168. Lee, Hyunsook Chang
Home Environments and Developmental Outcomes of Children Born to Teenage Mothers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Family Income; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Adolescent; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Self-Esteem

This study examined the role of home environments in the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of children born to teenage mothers. The sample consisted of 1,011 firstborn children aged 6 to 18 and their mothers selected from the 1990 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that the quality of home environments mediated the effects of father presence on the behavioral adjustment of children, even taking other socio-demographic and maternal characteristics into account. Moreover, the results showed that the home environment was the best predictor for both the academic achievement and the behavioral problems of children even after controlling for such background factors as family income, number of children, maternal education, and self-esteem. Also, when other variables in the model were statistically accounted for, the mothers' age at first birth was unrelated to the quality of home environments, and with controlling for the home environment, it was not a significant predictor of either the cognitive attainment or the behavioral adjustment of children. The findings evidence the importance of home environments for the optimal development of children, and suggest that strong home environments contribute to prevent potential negative outcomes and promote positive developmental outcomes of children born to teenage mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Hyunsook Chang. Home Environments and Developmental Outcomes of Children Born to Teenage Mothers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1996.
169. Lee, Seung Myung
A Study of Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Savings: Micro Evidence for the Young
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Household Income; Mothers, Behavior; Savings

Inspired by the works of Dynan (JPE, 1993) and Hayashi (QJE, 1985), this dissertation tests for precautionary savings and liquidity constraints for young households using data from the 1985-88 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It tests for precautionary savings associated with the variance of consumption growth spanning several years and provides an explicit measure of the strength of precautionary saving motives, the coefficient of relative prudence. Two-stage least squares estimation yields a significantly positive, but small, estimate of relative prudence, indicating a small precautionary saving motive for young households. The presence of liquidity constraints does not appear to explain the failure to estimate a substantial precautionary saving effect for young households. A reduced-form equation for consumption is estimated on high saving households by the Tobit procedure to get predicted desired consumption without liquidity constraints. The gap between predicted desired consumption and measured consumption is not evident for young households, reflecting the insignificance of liquidity constraints.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Seung Myung. A Study of Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Savings: Micro Evidence for the Young. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1995.
170. Lee, Tae Heon
Distinct Voluntary Turnover Paths and Determinants: A Survival Analysis with a Competing Risks Approach
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2004. DAI-A 65/08, p. 3060, Feb 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Labor Economics; Modeling; Quits

Employees voluntarily leave their current jobs for a variety of reasons. The failure to explicitly distinguish different turnover processes or paths may produce misleading empirical results, which may have greatly contributed to the prevalence of multiple competing turnover models and equivocal empirical results in the previous literature. This study attempted to address this lack of comprehensive conceptual and empirical research on distinct turnover processes by empirically examining whether different types of voluntary turnover indeed represented statistically distinct processes. Using a sample from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, voluntary leavers were classified into the five different groups according to their specific reasons for turnover (i.e., quit to take another job; quit to look for a job; quit to take an unsolicited job offer; quit for family-related reasons; quit for other reasons). This study employed a survival analysis with a competing risks approach to compare these five groups of voluntary leavers in terms of the differential effects of diverse explanatory variables on voluntary turnover. The results showed that the effects of the explanatory variables on voluntary turnover varied across the five different groups of voluntary leavers. In addition, the results of the formal statistical tests of the equality of the parameters or coefficients across various comparison groups further confirmed that the five different types of voluntary turnover were statistically distinguishable. The results of this study provided strong evidence against the previous research practice of applying a particular turnover model (e.g., a deliberate turnover process based on an economically rational decision rule) indiscriminately to all voluntary leavers. The results of this study also call for future research to further identify and define distinct voluntary turnover processes. In sum, this study demonstrated that the integration of recent conceptual and methodological developments (i.e., the unfolding model and survival analysis) can open up a new promising avenue to the future turnover research.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Tae Heon. Distinct Voluntary Turnover Paths and Determinants: A Survival Analysis with a Competing Risks Approach. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2004. DAI-A 65/08, p. 3060, Feb 2005.
171. Leighton, Linda S.
Unemployment over the Work History: Structure, Determinants, and Consequences
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1978
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Unemployment; Unemployment Compensation; Unemployment Duration

This dissertation investigates differential patterns of unemployment over the work history. Particular attention is paid to the role of traditional human capital variables in reducing employment instability. Comparisons are made for four race age groups among male labor force participants. This research extends previous studies of differential unemployment in four important ways: (1) the unemployment rate is segmented into its underlying components: incidence, average duration per spell, and number of spells; (2) unemployment is studied over progressively wider time spans, thus reducing the selectivity bias inherent in short period analyses; (3) the relationship between turnover and unemployment is examined; (4) detailed information on the reason for unemployment is utilized. The unemployment rate for job holders is separated first into a quit and a layoff related unemployment rate, and then each is segmented further into a turnover rate, a conditional probability of unemployment, and an associated duration of unemployment. Estimates of these basic measures are calculated for each demographic group and examined by skill levels for at least two periods. Three general observations emerged for all groups: (1) a high proportion of quitters became unemployed; (2) layoff did not necessarily imply unemployment; (3) job change did not mean unemployment nor was unemployment synonymous with job change. For white youths, the immediate effect of an incidence of unemployment was to reduce wage growth. In contrast, unemployment had no adverse consequences on the wage gains of black youth, suggesting little on the job investment. For workers approaching retirement, unemployment also had minimal impact on relative wage growth.
Bibliography Citation
Leighton, Linda S. Unemployment over the Work History: Structure, Determinants, and Consequences. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1978.
172. Lewis, Ethan Gatewood
Essays in Labor and Trade
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3417, Mar 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Census of Population; Labor Market Surveys; Modeling; Schooling; Skills; Tests and Testing

This volume contains two essays. The first evaluates models of the labor market consistent with the fact that relative wages and employment rates are unresponsive to local factor supplies in comparisons across US local labor markets. Whether relative supply changes are exported from local markets embodied in goods or adapted to through changes in production technology is evaluated by estimating the effect of the growth of different types of labor on the growth of different industries, and on the relative utilization of the types within industries. Exogenous changes in worker mix are identified from the historical regional settlement patterns of immigrants from different countries, and from the Mariel boatlift. Using output data from Annual Surveys of Manufacturers, augmented with employment and labor force data from Censuses of Population, changes in local labor mix during the 1980s are shown to have had little influence on local industry mix. Instead, consistent with models of directed technical change (Acemoglu (1998)) increases in the local relative supply of a skill group leads to an increase in its employment intensity within industries, with little or no effect on its relative wages. The second essay investigates the extent schooling enhances labor market skills. Controlling for performance on the Armed Forces Qualifying Test (AFQT)--available for most respondents to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)--reduces estimates of the return to schooling in wage regressions, leading some to argue it measures a fixed e age and arguably innate ability. The discontinuity of grade level in birthday is used to show that a year of schooling improves AFQT performance of the youngest NLSY respondents by 0.1 standard deviations.
Bibliography Citation
Lewis, Ethan Gatewood. Essays in Labor and Trade. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3417, Mar 2004.
173. Lewis, Susan Kay
Sorting and Timing: Search, Population Structure, and Marriage Markets
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California -- Los Angeles, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Demography; Educational Status; Family Studies; Marriage; Simultaneity

This dissertation documents the impact of marriage market composition on marriage timing and educational assortative mating. Whether local population constraints shape individual action is a central issue in social demography. But most research on marriage market composition examines only the effect of competition on either marriage timing or marital sorting alone. The search theoretic model on which this dissertation is based highlights the importance of considering both timing and sorting simultaneously, since individuals can adapt to shortages of available mates by adjusting either or both. Furthermore, it emphasizes the importance of local educational composition as well as competition. I ask three questions: Does educational sorting vary with age? Does it depend on the educational composition of local marriage markets? And does the connection between marriage timing and educational sorting depend on the marriage market's educational composition? To answer these questions I estimate a discrete-time competing risks model of the likelihoods of sorting successfully and unsuccessfully by education, using individual data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and community descriptors from aggregated U.S. Census microdata. Results support the idea that sorting varies with age: educationally good matches and bad matches occur in different age patterns. Furthermore, marital sorting outcomes depend on local educational composition. And the age pattern of educational sorting shifts with changes in local marriage markets' educational composition. In sum, the evidence suggests that timing and sorting are jointly shaped by individuals' adaptations to marriage market conditions.
Bibliography Citation
Lewis, Susan Kay. Sorting and Timing: Search, Population Structure, and Marriage Markets. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California -- Los Angeles, 1997.
174. Li, Jieyu Phyllis
Intended Retirement and Wealth Adequacy
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits; Family Studies; Household Income; Life Cycle Research; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Pensions; Retirees; Retirement; Savings; Social Security; Wealth

This study explores the extent of personal financial planning for retirement. A review of the economic consumption and savings theories indicates the Life Cycle Model provides a useful conceptual framework for this study. The model assumes that individuals smooth out their lifetime consumption patterns. Based on that premise, the study establishes three instruments. They are the actual wealth, expected wealth and the difference between the two measures. Actual wealth is the present values of the sum of the household wealth, Social Security wealth and pension wealth at the expected retirement date. Expected wealth is the present value of total wealth needed to replace the consumption level before retirement projected over an individual's life expectancy. The difference between actual wealth and expected wealth, as established in this study, measures an individual's financial adequacy for retirement. If actual wealth is greater than expected wealth, the individual is termed to have adequate retirement wealth, otherwise, inadequate. Data used for the analysis was the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men's Cohorts. Missing data for Social Security and pension income were imputed using OLS and Tobit regression based on all observations. A total of 972 individuals were used for the final empirical analysis and Probit model was used. Based on the above construct, the study found that more than half of the individuals (54%) had inadequate retirement wealth. The extent of inadequacy is more severe for retirees than non-retirees. Individuals who had adequate retirement wealth were more likely to expect to retire around the age of 65 when full Social Security benefits are available, have more other wealth and are in good wealth. Pension was found to have the biggest positive effect on the probability of adequate retirement wealth, followed by stock ownership. Households with income less than or equal to $70,360 were more likely to have inadequate wealth than households with income more than $70,360.
Bibliography Citation
Li, Jieyu Phyllis. Intended Retirement and Wealth Adequacy. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996.
175. Li, Wenqing
Mobility, Human Capital Accumulation, And Wage Growth
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Labor Economics; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Occupational; Wage Growth; Wage Levels

This thesis studies the relationship between job mobility and wage growth. Previous research on job mobility has focused on the wage level effects of job mobility. This study makes contributions to the literature by examining how job mobility affects wage growth. Job mobility can be classified into two types, occupational mobility and simple job mobility. In occupational mobility, when workers change jobs, they also switch occupations. In simple job mobility, when workers change jobs, they stay in the same occupation. The theoretical work focus on occupational mobility. In the empirical work, the wage growth effects of occupational mobility and simple job mobility are both analyzed. The thesis develops a model in which a worker's productivity in accumulating occupation specific human capital is determined by the match quality between the worker and her occupation. The change of occupations is a device for a worker to improve the quality of occupational matching. As the quality of the match improves, the model predicts more investment in human capital and hence there is greater wage growth in subsequent occupations. This effect comes from two channels: directly from the fact that workers sort into occupations where they can accumulate human capital more efficiently and indirectly through the fact that subsequent occupations have longer expected durations and hence greater returns to investment in specific human capital. The predictions of the model are tested using the data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth together with 1970, 1980, and 1990 Census data. Empirical results are consistent with the theory. Wages grow faster following occupational changes. Both the direct and indirect effects are present. On the other hand, simple job changes have little effect on wage growth. Other competing hypotheses, including the accumulation of job specific human capital, the reallocation of labor from low wage growth industries to high wage growth industries, and stepping stone mobility, are all rejected by the data.
Bibliography Citation
Li, Wenqing. Mobility, Human Capital Accumulation, And Wage Growth. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1997.
176. Liao, Huei-Chu
Wage Premium and High Layoff Probability Jobs
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Layoffs; Wages

This paper investigates the wage-layoff relationship. First, the wage compensation requested by workers is discovered. Then, similar to the hedonic model derived by Rosen and Thalers, a positive nonlinear wage-layoff relationship is found. In order to estimate this nonlinear equilibrium, a two stage least square method is used. The results show that the request of wage premium is only observed in the industry category layoff rates but not in the firm specific or occupation category layoff rates. This empirical evidence is due to some unobservable characteristics in this data set. Workers receiving higher wage rates usually endow some superior characteristics such as more honest or aggressive behavior which will increase higher productivity and drop the layoff probability for them. However, these unobservable characteristics happen more in comparing the individual in the occupation but not in the industry. White collar employees always receive high wage but low layoff rates, while the workers in the high layoff probability industry do receive wage compensation.
Bibliography Citation
Liao, Huei-Chu. Wage Premium and High Layoff Probability Jobs. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989.
177. Lichter, Daniel T.
Household Migration and the Labor Market Experience of Married Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1981
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings, Wives; Migration; Mobility; Regions; Retirement

This study attempted to assess the appropriateness of economic models of migration decision-making in explaining the geographic mobility of married women. Two general objectives were pursued: (1) to examine the contribution of the wife's employment-related experiences to the subsequent geographic mobility of their families; and (2) to examine the effect of household migration on the wife's position in the labor market, particularly with respect to her job continuity, earnings, occupational mobility, and job satisfaction. The NLS of Mature Women provided a unique source of data in which to address these issues. Although employment by the wife reduced the probability of family geographic migration, and this relationship generally persisted across various female subgroups, specific characteristics of the wife's job were of little utility in explaining the migration of their families. At least for this age cohort, the wife's earnings, occupation, and job attitudes were not found to be systematically related to family migration, thus suggesting that migration may be largely exogenous to the employment experiences of many women. This general conclusion provided a vivid contrast with patterns of association observed between husbands' job characteristics and family migration.
Bibliography Citation
Lichter, Daniel T. Household Migration and the Labor Market Experience of Married Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1981.
178. Light, Audrey L.
Job Shopping and the Wage Growth of Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1987
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Search; Job Tenure; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Occupational; Wage Growth; Wage Levels; Wages, Young Men

This study examines job mobility and wage growth in a sample drawn from the NLS of Young Men. The early career is highlighted because most young workers undergo rapid turnover and enjoy substantial wage growth as they shop for a good match. The objectives are: (1) to describe the labor force activities of young men; (2) to determine whether job-specific investments are undertaken during the early career and, if so, whether they increase in match quality; and (3) to compare within-job and between-job wage growth. Recognition that match quality depends on both wage levels and wage growth distinguishes this study from previous work. A job shopping model incorporates this broad view of match quality and yields the implication that within-job wage growth--to the extent that it reflects investment in job-specific human capital--is an outcome of job shopping. The model justifies the fact that job changers may accept a wage cut in exchange for increased wage growth. Apparently, jobs become more valuable as tenure increases because specific investments are undertaken. The hazard also decreases in the current wage, but increases in wage growth. This suggests that workers with high wage growth receive extremely attractive job offers.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. Job Shopping and the Wage Growth of Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1987.
179. Lochner, Lance John
A Life-Cycle Model of Human Capital and Crime: Estimating Deterrent Effects of Wage and Education Subsidies
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Chicago, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): High School Completion/Graduates; Human Capital; Life Cycle Research; Modeling

This study develops a dynamic model of an individual's decision to work, to invest in human capital, or to commit crime. The model explains declining criminal participation with age and duration dependence of criminal activity. The effects of high school graduation and ability on crime are estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Both significantly reduce criminal participation among young men. High school graduation also reduces the probability that a young man will become incarcerated. The model developed in this study is used to explore the impacts of wage and education subsidies and of wage taxes on crime, work, and investment in skills. Parameters of the model are estimated for men, and those estimates are used to show that skill investment subsidies substantially lower aggregate crime and raise earnings from work. Permanent wage subsidies have similar impacts, although their effects are much smaller. For individuals who only participate in crime for afew years, short-term wage subsidies in early periods of a worker's career are effective criminal deterrents; however, these subsidies lower skill investment and may increase crime rates for long-term criminals after they are discontinued. In aggregate, a uniform short-term wage subsidy can lower labor earnings and raise crime. Finally, we show that a program which corrects for deficient families can substantially raise legitimate earnings and lower crime.
Bibliography Citation
Lochner, Lance John. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Capital and Crime: Estimating Deterrent Effects of Wage and Education Subsidies. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Chicago, 1998.
180. Lucas, Michael Dale
Family Background, Home Environment and the Rate of Child Cognitive Development
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas At Dallas, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Elementary School Students; Family Characteristics; Family Studies; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Household Structure; Minority Groups; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Poverty; Racial Differences

Arguments continue concerning the effect of various social factors upon children's academic performance, especially during the elementary school years. This dissertation examines the effects of family and home characteristics upon minority and majority children's performance from the first through sixth grades. First, I ask if minority children enter first grade with performance levels in reading and math comparable to those of white children. Second, I ask how much of the variance in children's performance over time can be attributed to social factors associated with race/ethnicity and how much is explained by social factors such as poverty status, household configuration, the quality of the home environment and maternal cognitive skills. I also measure the relative strength of these factors in predicting children's beginning performance levels and subsequent rates of growth. These questions are addressed by applying Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) Linked Mother-Child dataset. HLM facilitates fitting a growth curve model to over-time data for each child. That is, family and child characteristics are permitted to have separate effects on the child's beginning cognitive performance level and also on the child's rate of cognitive growth. I find that black and white children do, indeed, enter first grade performing differently in reading and mathematics, without further controls. I find that race/ethnicity, family configuration and sibling group size have no significant effect on either beginning levels of performance or on growth rates for either math or reading skills when the effects of maternal cognitive performance and the home environment are controlled. Poverty remains a predictor of reading comprehension growth rate scores, but not for math beginning levels of performance or rates of growth, when maternal cognitive performance is controlled. Gender proves to be a predictor of math rates of growth at the 0.1 level of significance. Overall, maternal cognitive performance is the most powerful predictor of children's reading and math capabilities. The child's home environment, over and above the mother's cognitive skill, exerts a secondary effect on child cognitive performance.
Bibliography Citation
Lucas, Michael Dale. Family Background, Home Environment and the Rate of Child Cognitive Development. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas At Dallas, 1998.
181. Mach, Traci Lynn
Three Essays on Welfare Reform
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior; Benefits; Childbearing; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Fertility; Migration Patterns; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

In August 1996, Congress passed the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act. This act eliminated Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), the largest source of cash assistance available to needy families, and replaced it with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), a time-limited program with stringent work requirements. This dissertation utilizes interstate variation in pre-reform passage of waivers to examine the impact of the new system on individual behavior. The first essay investigates the impact of family cap policies on women's childbearing decisions. Such policies eliminate the increase in AFDC benefits to families who bear children while receiving benefits. Using matched data from the March Current Population Survey, I estimate the probability of observing a birth in the second year given the state's family cap status. Estimates indicate living in a state that passes a family cap provision does not affect childbearing decisions. However, living in a state that passes a family cap provision and receiving welfare benefits reduces fertility among the welfare population by 19.5 percent. The second essay readdresses the welfare magnet hypothesis in the context of a time-limited welfare system. According to the original hypothesis, individuals migrate to states with more generous benefit structures. Under TANF, there are more interstate differences than previously, including differential time limits. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I model migration as a function of the current location's relative characteristics. Estimates show that while being subject to a time limit is positively associated with cross-county migration, this impact becomes smaller as the distance to avoid being subject to a time limit increases. The final essay examines AFDC participation and exit decisions. I identify different reform policies separately and allow them to have different impacts on current and potential recipients. Making use of the extended panel provided by the NLSY79, I estimate a monthly competing risks hazard model of eligibility and participation. Results show that while recipients are responsive to some provisions, the provisions retard rather than hasten exit. However, potential recipients are deterred from taking up benefits by the presence of time limits.
Bibliography Citation
Mach, Traci Lynn. Three Essays on Welfare Reform. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 2000.
182. Mack, Karin Ann
Women and Retirement: Life Course and Temporally Proximate Determinants of Early Retirement of White and African American Women in the NLS Mature Women Cohort
Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 1995
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Divorce; Event History; Family Income; Family Influences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Marital Stability; Marital Status; Modeling; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Racial Differences; Retirement; Women

One flaw with much of previous work on retirement has been the static nature of conceptual and methodological frameworks. Here, a more dynamic approach is taken through an integration of life course theory and event history analysis. A feminist life course model is used to examine the retirement process and commitment to work and family roles over the life course. Further, racial differences in life course processes force a consideration of the lives of African American and white women independently. Previous research has frequently been fooled by what Finley (1995) describes as a 'social parallax' (a social parallax exists when there is a misperception of sameness). Results of this research show, that although white and African American women retire at the same rate, their paths to retirement are very different and thus models which are not separated by race ignore the complexity of this role. Data are from the NLS Labor Market Experience Mature Women Cohort. Discrete- time logistic regression hazard rate models show that life course factors, in work, individual, and family domains, do have significant effects on the timing of retirement. Thus experiences over the life course are crucial to a complete understanding of transitions in later life. Retirement timing for both white and African American women is significantly affected by promotions to more challenging work, durations in jobs, income, percentage of weeks worked, location in a pension-favorable industry, assets, and pension and Social Security receipt. In addition, retirement timing of white women is significantly affected by whether the respondent values extrinsic factors of work, recent promotions, marriage durations, spouse's retirement status, divorce, health, age differences between spouses, family income, and marital status. The retirement timing of African American women is affected by Duncan Index scores, whether the respondent dislikes her job, and education. The author concludes that: 1.) work commitment factors are the major determinant of retirement timing for both groups of women although white women also strongly influenced by family-related events; and 2.) life course measures provide insights into the retirement process which are not possible with temporal measures.
Bibliography Citation
Mack, Karin Ann. Women and Retirement: Life Course and Temporally Proximate Determinants of Early Retirement of White and African American Women in the NLS Mature Women Cohort. Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 1995.
183. Madans, Jennifer H.
Occupational Segregation by Sex: An Analysis of the Determinants of Occupational Sex Composition Among Female Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1978
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Detroit Area Study; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Employment; Occupations, Female; Sex Roles; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work History

This thesis tests whether the commonly held explanations of occupational segregation by sex can also be used to explain the distribution of female workers across occupational categories scaled by sex composition (percent female). The theoretical framework derived from the occupational segregation by sex literature focuses on the process of integrating the working woman's worker and traditional female sex role. Two data sets--the l973 Detroit Area Study and the Mature Women cohort of the NLS are used in the analysis. Parallel analyses of each respondent's first and current jobs were done within subgroups defined by race and socioeconomic status. With few exceptions the empirical results fail to support the theoretical model. However, the analysis did suggest relationships which should be looked at further. The findings for high status whites suggest that atypicality is associated with a market orientation characterized by a commitment to atypical work. This commitment is made during late adolescence or early adulthood and is associated with active preparation for this career. Atypical occupational patterns for low status nonwhites, on the other hand, are related to employment as farm laborers and no evidence of planning or preparation for this type of employment was found.
Bibliography Citation
Madans, Jennifer H. Occupational Segregation by Sex: An Analysis of the Determinants of Occupational Sex Composition Among Female Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1978.
184. Majumdar, Sumon
Three Essays on Frictional Labor Markets
Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University, 2001. DAI, 61, no. 04A (2001): p. 1542
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Segmentation; Labor Market, Secondary; Modeling; Training, On-the-Job; Unemployment; Wage Differentials; Welfare

Labor markets are rarely perfect. Most markets for labor are characterized by frictions and imperfect information so that firms must search for workers and workers must search for firms. This dissertation addresses the effects of specific market frictions on welfare, productivity and unemployment. The first essay uses a nonsequential search model to examine the consequences of labor market frictions for the theory of hedonic wages. Once markets are not perfect, it is shown that wage differentials between jobs with disparate characteristics need not be compensating. Nevertheless, if all workers have identical preferences over these characteristics, the unregulated equilibrium is efficient. When workers differ in their relative preferences for job-characteristics, the labor market may get segmented into good and bad jobs. Further, in this case, certain regulatory constraints on offers made by firms have the potential to benefit all groups. The second essay analyzes the impact of local labor market conditions on firms' incentives to impart costly training to their workers. The formal model demonstrates that the incidence of training should decrease when the market for labor becomes less competitive. However, not all workers are equally likely to be affected. It is shown that during a downturn, firms will be more inclined to train workers coming from their own sector rather than those from other sectors. Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth confirms both predictions of the theoretical model. The pressure of a deadline is encountered in many situations. The third essay sets up a model of multi-dimensional search with a deadline. It examines the sensitivity of behavior to changes in the deadline. In the two-dimensional case, a simple characterization of the optimal search policy is possible, and a wide variety of behaviors can be rationalized as the length of the deadline increases. This characterization is shown to be behaviorally distinct from the traditional case of geometric discounting under an infinite horizon.
Bibliography Citation
Majumdar, Sumon. Three Essays on Frictional Labor Markets. Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University, 2001. DAI, 61, no. 04A (2001): p. 1542.
185. Malone, Sarah Q.
Aging Industries and Individuals: Retirement Decisions in the Context of Structural Economic Change
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1991
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Industrial Classification; Industrial Sector; Local Labor Market; Occupations; Retirement; Unions

Using a sample of private wage and salary workers between 1975 and 1983 who were between 55 and 64 years old, this study found that declining total employment within the three digit industries in the respondents' local labor market increased the hazard of leaving the labor force (retiring) before age 65. No effect upon the hazard of retiring early was found from decline in total payroll or number of establishments. The retirement decisions of men 65 and over were unaffected by decline in any of these indicators. The effect of declining employment upon early retirement decisions was mediated by occupation and union membership: Unionized non-blue collar workers were the most likely to retire early from local industries declining in employment, followed by nonunionized non-blue collar workers and unionized blue collar workers, while nonunionized blue collar workers were more likely to retire from industries growing in employment.
Bibliography Citation
Malone, Sarah Q. Aging Industries and Individuals: Retirement Decisions in the Context of Structural Economic Change. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1991.
186. Marcus, Richard D.
Interruptions in Schooling of Young Women and Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1983
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Schooling; Work History

Students interrupt their education even though it is not in their economic interest to break up the normal timing of educational investments. A substantial cost of about 50 percent of annual income is the estimated present value of lifetime lost income for a year of interruption found for men in the NLS of Young Men. For women, however, the present value of lost income was far less substantial; the cost of a year of interruption estimated from the NLS of Young Women was less than 10 percent of their average annual earnings. Significant determinants of the decision to return to school include Veterans Educational Assistance, pregnancy, living in the central city, and earnings on the first job below expected earnings. An economic model of schooling interruptions is used to explain the influence of earnings on the first job and the probability of interrupting. In this model, discontinuous schooling comes from a process of sampling the job market. The individual leaves school to work. If the match of his skills and personal characteristics match the needs of his employer, this appears as higher than expected earnings on the first job. Mismatches sometimes occur inducing a decision to return to school. Implications of an economic model of schooling interruptions are applied to the Young Women and Young Men samples. This model resolves the finding that the probability of an interruption increases the older the student is at the point he or she first leaves school. It is demonstrated that a return to school is based on a downward revision in the cost of schooling rather than an upward revision in the value of further schooling for young men. Earning information on the first job after schooling has no significant effect on young women's decision to return to school, due in part to the much lower lifetime cost of schooling interruptions suffered by young women.
Bibliography Citation
Marcus, Richard D. Interruptions in Schooling of Young Women and Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1983.
187. Martell, Dennis Patrick
Home Environments of Physically Handicapped Children: An Analysis of NLSY Data
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childhood Education, Early; Children; Children, Home Environment; Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Family Studies; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Physical Characteristics; Poverty

More and more children with varying degrees of physical handicaps are entering the family ecosystem where they must rely on the parental subsystem for the quality of their home environment. It seems apparent that the effect the presence of a physically handicapped child has on the family would best be measured by assessing the effect this child has on the construction of his/her own home environment. A family ecosystems model is utilized to examine the quality of the home environment of the handicapped child. The family is examined in this context by controlling and assessing variations (predictive variables) in family structure as well as maternal and child characteristics. Data for this study were drawn from a larger on-going study, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1990 Data Set. The measured home environments of 1323 children aged 3 to 6 years were assessed using an adapted form of the HOME Scale. The research samples were composed of 58 physically handicapped child ren and 1265 nonhandicapped children. The central focus of this study was the family's provision of a home environment including cognitive, physical, and emotional aspects of the child's environment. T-tests, Chi-square analyses, and regression were utilized to analyze data. No statistically significant differences were found between the measured home environments provided for the physically handicapped and nonhandicapped children in this study. Additionally no statistically significant differences were found between selected groups of physically handicapped children and the control sample. The quality of the home environment provided for the physically handicapped child was found to be significantly positively correlated with the measured intelligence of the mother and significantly negatively correlated with family poverty status. The most significant finding is the strength of the relationship between the sex of the physically handicapped child and the quality of the home environment. Female physically handicapped children are provided a better home environment. The findings suggest that on the variables measured, families with physically handicapped children are very similar to families with nonhandicapped children in their provision of home environments.
Bibliography Citation
Martell, Dennis Patrick. Home Environments of Physically Handicapped Children: An Analysis of NLSY Data. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1994.
188. Martin, Nina Chambers
Growing Up and Acting Out: Developmental Trajectories Of Externalizing and Delinquent Behaviors in Adolescence
ED. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavioral Problems; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Influences; Gender Differences

Externalizing behaviors (e.g., vandalism, stealing) represent a serious threat to the health and welfare of adolescents in this country. In order to design interventions aimed at discouraging these behaviors, psychologists and educators need information about how these behaviors change over time as well as what factors may encourage their cessation. I addressed these questions in my dissertation by analyzing six years of longitudinal data, for a sample of 854 males and 853 females, collected as part of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Previous studies of externalizing behaviors have been limited in that they have typically investigated only linear associations between family-related predictors and externalizing behaviors, they have most often focussed exclusively on boys, and they have failed to use statistical approaches needed to be able to study individual change over time. I overcame these limitations in my dissertation by using individual growth modeling to study the potential curvilinear effects of family variables on the development of externalizing behaviors in a geographically diverse, mix-gendered sample of adolescents. I found that the shape of the growth trajectory of externalizing behaviors for children in the sample was, on average, nonlinear, beginning at a low level at age 10, curving upward at age 13 and increasing steadily until age 18, and then leveling off. Controlling for race, socioeconomic status, and gender, the level of family cohesion and family rules were linearly associated with the growth of externalizing behaviors such that higher levels of both were associated with lower levels of problem behaviors. The only nonlinear effect of either predictor was that of cohesion on the level of externalizing behaviors, but this effect occurred only in a model without control variables. Neither the effect of cohesion nor rules differed by gender. Gender did have a strong effect on the level and growth rate of externalizing behavioral however. At younger ages girls scored significantly lower than boys on their level of externalizing behavior. Over time, this gender differential decreased, as the level of girls' externalizing behaviors grew at a faster rate than boys' during adolescence, eventually equaling boys' level in late adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Martin, Nina Chambers. Growing Up and Acting Out: Developmental Trajectories Of Externalizing and Delinquent Behaviors in Adolescence. ED. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1998.
189. Mason, Andrew W.
An Empirical Analysis of Life-Cycle Saving, Income, and Household Size
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1975
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children; Family Resources; Fathers, Influence; Household Income; Life Cycle Research

The effect of children on the distribution of household consumption is estimated by examining the relationship between the number of children and the predicted proportion of lifetime resources consumed over the entire child- rearing interval. Although households which raised more children consume a higher proportion of their lifetime resources during the child-rearing years than households which raised fewer children, the effect of children on the allocation of consumption is considerably less than is generally assumed. When both of these influences of children on savings are considered, the household savings rate during the child-rearing years is considerably less sensitive to the number of children than was previously thought to be the case. For low-income households the household savings rate during the child rearing interval may be positively associated with the number of children being reared.
Bibliography Citation
Mason, Andrew W. An Empirical Analysis of Life-Cycle Saving, Income, and Household Size. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1975.
190. Mason, Nancy A.
Subjective Perceptions of Career Movement in the Mid/Late Career Stage: Objective Correlates, Antecedents, and Consequences of Various Patterns
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Retirement

The NLS of Older Men was used to explore the relationships between an individual's subjective perception of his career progress and a number of antecedent, consequent, and concurrent variables. Individuals reporting three different career patterns (progress, maintenance, and decline) in the mid/late career stage were identified. Literature on careers has tended to depict the mid/late career stage as being one of decline. Results indicated that many more men reported continued progress or maintenance over the decade than would be expected from the literature. Objective measures of career progress (such as change in income) had a weak, although statistically significant, influence on perceived progress. This result would indicate that subjectively defined career progress may need to be included along with objective measures of progress in career research. The relationships between career progress and attitudes toward various aspects of the nonwork domain tended to support the "spillover" hypothesis (i.e., a positive attitude in one domain is associated with a positive attitude in the other). The strongest positive relationship was between attitudes toward aspects of the nonwork domain that appeared to be more proximate to the work domain. Demographic variables found to be associated with reported career progress were educational level and occupation of the respondent. Respondents of higher educational levels and those employed within professional, technical, and managerial occupations were more likely to report career progress. The impact of perceived career progress on subsequent attitudes toward retirement was also studied. Results indicated that for respondents in managerial, professional, and technical as well as those in skilled trades, those respondents who reported continued progress had the most positive attitude toward retirement. Inwhite collar and blue collar occupations the most positive attitude toward retirement was reported by those who had stayed about the same in their career over the decade even when controlling for financial condition. This may indicate that a different standard for career progress was being used in the different occupational groupings.
Bibliography Citation
Mason, Nancy A. Subjective Perceptions of Career Movement in the Mid/Late Career Stage: Objective Correlates, Antecedents, and Consequences of Various Patterns. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1983.
191. Maxwell, Suzanne Lasche
Occupational Sex Segregation and Mobility: An Analysis of the Career Experiences of Mature Women, 1967-1977
Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A and M University, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Mobility; Occupational Investment; Occupational Segregation

The major goal of this research is to analyze the labor experiences of mature women through the empirical examination of their mobility between occupational sectors defined on the basis of sex composition. The basis of this conceptualization is the theoretical intersection of three substantive traditions of literature and empirical research: occupational sex segregation, labor market segmentation, and occupational mobility. Five general multivariate propositions are derived from this theoretical intersection and are representative of a multi-theoretical approach to the analysis of mobility. More specifically, the influences of early formative influences, human capital investments, familial investments, market conditions, and job conditions are assessed on two types of mobility patterns: mobility from the typical occupational sector and mobility from the atypical occupational sector. Based on data from the NLS, the empirical analysis intends to accomplish two interrelated goals: 1. The fact of mobility, extent and the direction of movement, between sex-typed occupational sectors is established. 2. Explanatory models of the two types of inter-sectorial mobility are assessed. Even though little change in the overall occupational opportunities available to labor force participants is detected, an important amount of individual movement is observed between the atypical, balanced, and typical occupational sectors. Analysis of the determinants of mobility between sex-typed occupational sectors are presented according to three explanatory models. For Model I, indicators of early formative influences and job conditions are significantly associated with mobility from the typical occupational sector. For Model II, indicators of early formative influences, human capital investments, and job conditions are significantly associated with mobility from theatypical occupational sector. For Model III, indicators of human capital investments, familial investments, market conditions, and job conditions are significantly associated with both types of mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Maxwell, Suzanne Lasche. Occupational Sex Segregation and Mobility: An Analysis of the Career Experiences of Mature Women, 1967-1977. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A and M University, 1983.
192. McCall, Brian P.
Studies of Sequential Choice in Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Job Search; Job Turnover; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Choice

This dissertation investigates problems of sequential job choice when jobs are characterized by significant uncertainty, the importance of which may differ from job to job, and where information revealed at one job may be useful for predicting the outcomes at other jobs. Recent results in the statistical theory of multi-armed bandits are used to determine the optimal sampling strategies for workers in this environment. Chapter 1 develops a model of job search where jobs are not identical and where not all information of value is revealed before a job is accepted. In this case, the optimal sampling strategy implies that jobs with more residual uncertainty are, ceteris paribus, ranked higher and associated with a lower reservation wage, which governs job acceptance. This gives a very simple explanation of why reservation wages might increase over an unemployment spell. Chapter 2 of this dissertation tries to determine whether matching occurs at an occupational level. A dynamic model of job choice is developed where matching information is comprised of job-specific and occupation-specific components. One empirical prediction derived from the theory is that, if occupation matching is significant, those working their second job in an occupation would be less likely to quit than those working their first job. This prediction is tested using weekly employment data from the NLSY and semi-parametric hazard estimation techniques which control for unobserved heterogeneity. The predictions of the model are confirmed but only for those working their second job in a occupation who, in addition, had tenure in their first job exceeding one year. Finally, Chapter 3 develops a model of occupational choice where matching information is partly occupation-specific, workers risk being fired, and interoccupational job switches may be significantly more costly, due to training, thenintraoccupational job switches. It is shown that, when job switching costs are low and training costs negligible, workers find occupations with larger match uncertainty and where information tends to be occupation-specific more attractive. If it is more costly to move between occupations than within an occupation, then a worker likes occupations where information is relatively job-specific. [UMI ADG89-04319]
Bibliography Citation
McCall, Brian P. Studies of Sequential Choice in Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1988.
193. McClure, Gregory Todd
Variables Impacting the Supply of Majority Female and Male Scientists and Engineers
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Arizona, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Returns; Industrial Relations; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Choice; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Women's Education; Women's Studies

The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of the reasons women are less likely than men to choose to study collegiate-level physical science and engineering and why women have lower rates than men of working in the physical science and engineering occupations. The theoretical frameworks used to examine these questions are self- efficacy, as formulated by the psychologist Albert Bandura, and peer influence, as suggested by the anthropologists Holland and Eisenhart: It is important to note that self- efficacy and peer influences evolve throughout the lifetime, and differences in genders began to diverge dramatically at adolescence. This study, however, is primarily concerned with post-secondary outcomes and recommendations. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-1993 (NLSY) with an N = 12686 was utilized to create the database for this study. The analysis used an econometric method, multinomial logit analysis, to infer which of 30 some independent factors af fect the mutually exclusive outcomes of majoring or working in other than the sciences and engineering, majoring or working in the biological sciences, and majoring or working in the physical sciences or engineering. The independent factors were those suggested by previous readings of the literature, e.g., demographics and high school attainment variables, as well as those additional independent factors available through the NLSY that pertain to self-efficacy and peer influence. The findings indicate that strong evidence exists to support both self-efficacy and peer influence. The results suggest convincing linkages between self-efficacy and the eventual major and occupation in the physical science and engineering. This study also reveals that peer influences are especially important in developing college major and career aspirations of girls and women.
Bibliography Citation
McClure, Gregory Todd. Variables Impacting the Supply of Majority Female and Male Scientists and Engineers. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Arizona, 1997.
194. McEntarfer, Erika Lee
Three Essays on Social Networks in Labor Markets
Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, June, 2002. DAI-A 63/10, p. 3662, Apr 2003.
Also: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-11112002-150452/unrestricted/finaldiss_fin_fin.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Search; Labor Market Demographics; Migration Patterns; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Wage Growth; Wage Models

This dissertation consists of three essays examining the important role of job connections, references, and word of mouth information in labor markets. The first essay examines the importance of job connections for internal migrants. In this chapter, I develop a theoretical model where labor market networks provide labor market information with less noise than information obtained in the formal market. This model predicts lower initial wages and greater wage growth after migration for migrants without contacts. I then use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth/1979 Cohort (1992 NLSY data) to examine whether migrants who used social connections when finding their first job assimilate faster in the new region. Consistent with the theoretical model, I find that migrants who did not use social connections take longer to assimilate in the new region.

The second essay models how screening workers through social networks impacts labor mobility in markets with adverse selection. When there is asymmetric information in labor markets, worker mobility is constrained by adverse election in the market for experienced workers. However, if workers can acquire references through their social networks then they can move more easily between jobs. In this chapter I develop a simple labor market model in which workers can learn the productivity of other workers through social interaction. I show that networks increase wages and mobility of high-productivity experienced workers; however, networks discourage workers from accepting jobs outside their job-contact network, because of adverse selection.

The third essay in this dissertation examines the importance of social networks in labor markets when work is produced jointly. Most employers cite engage in work together. In this essay, I explain why it might be rational for firms to hire through social networks even when worker skill is observed perfectly, if these workers are better able to do joint work with the firm

Bibliography Citation
McEntarfer, Erika Lee. Three Essays on Social Networks in Labor Markets. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, June, 2002. DAI-A 63/10, p. 3662, Apr 2003..
195. McLaughlin, Steven D.
Occupational Characteristics and the Male-Female Income Differential
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1975
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Family Background; Husbands; Occupational Attainment; Schooling; Wives

The major findings of this research are that: (1) the extent to which married women participate in the labor force is a function of family composition; (2) the labor force participation of married men is independent of the family; (3) the nature of the occupations within which married men and women work is independent of family composition; (4) males earn more than females via their participation in the labor force controlling for the nature of the occupation within which they work, their education, and their experience; (5) the intellectual skill dimension of occupations is the most important determinant of income for both sexes; (6) within categories of education and experience men earn over twice as much as women for the intellectual skill dimension of their occupation; (7) every year of formal education yields an average yearly income gain for men which is almost twice as large as the corresponding income gain for women; and (8) labor force experience has an approximately equal net effect on the incomes of men and women. The implications of these findings for the "equal pay for equal work" issue and for change directed social-economic policy are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Steven D. Occupational Characteristics and the Male-Female Income Differential. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1975.
196. McNally, Kathleen V.
Estimation of Academic Attrition Behavior: An Analysis of Predictors of High School Dropout Behavior in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Dropouts; Family Influences; Fathers, Influence; High School; High School Dropouts; Job Search; Work Knowledge

In general, the results indicate that differentials in dropout rates are considerable by race for each sex, but are not significantly different by sex within race groups. Although the magnitude of the black dropout rate exceeds that for whites, the timing pattern of dropout behavior in the high school years is remarkably similar for blacks and whites. Young women are slightly less likely to drop out of school than are young men, yet they are also less likely to attend college, hence there is less variation in ultimate educational attainment among young women than among young men. Furthermore, for blacks and whites, males are more likely to have had no high school experience than are females.
Bibliography Citation
McNally, Kathleen V. Estimation of Academic Attrition Behavior: An Analysis of Predictors of High School Dropout Behavior in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1979.
197. McNamara, Justine M.
Long-Term Poverty Among Older Women: The Effects of Work in Midlife
Ph.D. Dissertation, Bryn Mawr College, September 2004. DAI-A 65/03, p. 1120, Sep 2004
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Economic Well-Being; Economics of Gender; Income; Income Level; Poverty; Work History

Existing research on links between lifecourse events and later life economic well-being does not tend to emphasize the continuity of poverty and disadvantage among older adults. This study focuses on long-term economic hardship among older women, examining the effects of work history and other factors on the later life economic well-being of women who had low income in midlife. Data for this study came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (NLSMW), and spanned the years 1967–1999. A sample of 2915 women was drawn from the NLSMW, with just over one third of this sample having had income below 200% of the poverty line in midlife. When controlling for other factors which affect later life income, I found that the amount of work low income women did in midlife had little effect on their later life economic outcomes, although job characteristics such as unionization and the availability of fringe benefits, did have a positive effect on later life economic well-being. For women who had higher income at midlife, however, hours worked in midlife, irrespective of job characteristics, often had a positive impact on later life economic well-being.
Bibliography Citation
McNamara, Justine M. Long-Term Poverty Among Older Women: The Effects of Work in Midlife. Ph.D. Dissertation, Bryn Mawr College, September 2004. DAI-A 65/03, p. 1120, Sep 2004.
198. Mehrzad, Nasser
Pensions and Implicit Contracts: A Labor Market Test
Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1987
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Layoffs; Pensions

This dissertation tests the strength of implicit pension contracts. Defined benefit pensions base retirement annuities upon final salary with the firm weighted by years of service. Given positive nominal wage growth, vested benefits accrue disproportionately late in the career. This deferral may present the possibility for opportunistic behavior by employers. If workers and firms agree to an implicit contract under which workers assume long tenure with the firm, they will forego current wages at a rate exceeding the actual accumulation of legal pension benefits. The employer may realize a clear short-term benefit by violating this contract. The employer is able to impose pension losses by laying off or by lowering the wage of pension covered workers as they near retirement age. This implication, however, ignores the long-run consequences of such behavior to the firm. Thus whether workers are "cheated" is an empirical question. Are pre-retirement pension covered workers more likely to experience layoffs? The results, using both the Bureau of Labor Statistics' layoff data and the NLS Older Men data, indicate that pensions appear to reduce the likelihood of discharges among pension-covered workers. This finding suggests that firms honor the implicit pension contract. No evidence was found that ERISA has reduced firms' permanent layoffs of pension-covered workers. Thus, firms appear to have honored the contract even prior to the enactment of ERISA. The empirical findings of additional tests using the NLS provide no evidence that firms "cheat" pension-covered workers by delivering lower wages than promised at later stages of worker's career.
Bibliography Citation
Mehrzad, Nasser. Pensions and Implicit Contracts: A Labor Market Test. Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1987.
199. Mellow, Wesley
Market Differentials and Labor Force Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University (St. Louis), 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Industrial Relations; Mobility, Job; Quits; Unemployment; Wage Differentials; Work History

This study exploits the concept of the market differential in an investigation of labor market dynamics. The market differential is the deviation of the worker's actual wage from his human capital or potential wage. Using the NLS of Older Men as a data base, the market differential concept is operationalized and regression models of its impact on quits, search unemployment and wage change are estimated. In each instance results are consistent with predictions of the competitive theory. The market differential has a direct impact on search unemployment. Market wage offers are consistent with the potential wage while initial wage demands are determined by the prior wage. Finally, the change in the worker's real wage rate is inversely related to his market differential. Dynamic liquidation of existing market differentials is discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Mellow, Wesley. Market Differentials and Labor Force Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University (St. Louis), 1975.
200. Mikow, Victoria Ann
Midlife Marital Disruption: a Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Economic Status and Employment
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1992
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Income; Labor Force Participation; Marital Disruption; Wages, Women

The impact of marital disruption for a sample of 512 midlife women was investigated using a longitudinal research design that utilized data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women 1967-1984. Two analysis procedures were employed with pooled cohort data in order to examine change over time: ordinary least squares regression with lagged dependent variables and time series of cross-sections regression using the Fuller-Battese specification. Results indicate that marital disruption imposes substantial family economic consequences that are generally negative. The end of a marital relationship for the majority of individuals in the sample resulted in worsened economic outcomes for a period of up to five years post-disruption. The results from both the OLS and the TSCSREG procedures indicate that increased labor force participation and increased earnings from wages are associated with marital disruption. Continuous marital disruption predicted a significantly worse outcome in the post-disruption period. Remarriage resulted in a substantial average increase in total family income in the post-disruption period. the hypothesis that welfare experience significantly affects self-efficacy. The measure of performance attainment in addition to race and educational attainment of the respondent had the only significant direct effects on the dependent variable. Indirect effects of vicarious experiences race educational attainment and performance attainment on self-efficacy were also uncovered. The dissertation concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for the liberal and conservative debate and identifies areas for further research.
Bibliography Citation
Mikow, Victoria Ann. Midlife Marital Disruption: a Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Economic Status and Employment. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1992.
201. Moore, David Eugene
Socially Structured Survival: the Effects of Occupational Mobility and Occupational Context on Older Men's Mortality
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1992
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Income; Marital Status; Mobility, Occupational; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Occupational Status

This dissertation investigates the implications of socially structured lifestyles for older men's survival. Different specifications of occupational effects on mortality are used to examine mobility and contextual influences. Occupational mobility is important because it changes the social structural bases for lifestyle differences in mortality. Changes in occupational status alter not only the risk factors associated with specific occupations but they also change the conditions that give rise to lifestyle differences. Occupational context is important because it affects individuals' use of personal resources. The analyses use data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Mature Men. The contextual analyses show that white collar, blue collar, and farm distinctions are relevant to the effects of income and marital status on men's survival. Typically married men outlive unmarried men and income increases survival. However the marital status of white collar workers does not appear to significantly affect their survival. In contrast the positive effect of income on survival does not seem to hold for men in blue collar or farm occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, David Eugene. Socially Structured Survival: the Effects of Occupational Mobility and Occupational Context on Older Men's Mortality. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1992.
202. Morris, Michael David Sheffield
Choices of Savings, Having Children and Spending on College Education in a Life-Cycle Model
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2003. DAI-A 64/04, p. 1344, Oct 2003
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Educational Costs; Endogeneity; Household Income; Household Models; Life Cycle Research; Modeling; Savings; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Parental

This dissertation presents a multi-period, dynamic programming model of household choices on savings, consumption, having children and helping to fund children's education. The interrelations among these decisions have implications for both household savings levels, the relationship between income and consumption, and the amount parents spend on education, which in turn can impact the amount of education children receive. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey young women cohort are used to estimate the parameters of the model. The full structural model is estimated using a simulated maximum likelihood procedure utilizing the model solution to create simulated data samples from which nonparametric kernel estimators are used to construct the densities in the likelihood. The estimated model is able to match the general trends in the NLS data, particularly as related to the interaction between children, savings and spending on education. The life-cycle paths of these choices suggest that parents do save to help make sizeable transfers to their children, and that making such choices endogenous is important. The parameter estimates indicate that the amount that parents choose to contribute to a child's education has a strong impact on the probability that a child attains a college degree, as does the level of education of the parents. Using the estimated model, policy experiments are also performed to look at the impact of additional government grants for college education, tax credits for college spending and the creation of tax-free education savings accounts on parental savings, contributions toward education, and the education attainment of children. While all of the policies increase net contributions to children and increase the probability that a child attains a college degree, the grants and education savings accounts are found to be the most effective. In addition, both policies are actually found to have a greater impact on children of less educated parents.
Bibliography Citation
Morris, Michael David Sheffield. Choices of Savings, Having Children and Spending on College Education in a Life-Cycle Model. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2003. DAI-A 64/04, p. 1344, Oct 2003.
203. Mosley, Jane Marie
When Is a Dollar Not a Dollar? Income Sources and Child Well-Being
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Ability; Family Income; Family Studies; Income Level; Welfare

Since there is a well documented relationship between income level and child well-being, my goal in this dissertation was to more thoroughly examine how family income might affect children. To do that, I investigated the relationship between income sources, income stability and child well-being. It could be that where income comes from, or how stable it is, may have different effects on children than income level. Additionally, these two factors, source and stability, may be more amenable to social policy. In the current political climate, increasing family incomes may not be a realistic option. However, it might be possible to offer more institutional supports for certain sources, if they were shown to be more beneficial for children. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Mother Child Supplement, I examined six different dimensions of child well-being: (1) aggressive behavior, (2) anxious behavior, (3) cognitive ability, reading (4) cognitive ability, math (5) global self-es teem and (6) academic self-esteem. It is important to note that the relationship between both source and stability often differed depending on which dependent variable I examined. I find that any effects of source of income are primarily due to unobserved differences between families who receive certain sources and families who do not. It is these differences that result in different levels of well-being among children, not the source of family income. Thus, all else equal, changing where families receive income will not have an effect on how children fare.
Bibliography Citation
Mosley, Jane Marie. When Is a Dollar Not a Dollar? Income Sources and Child Well-Being. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1997.
204. Mulvey, Cecilia F.
Divorce and Disability: The Experience of the Younger Cohorts in the National Longitudinal Survey
Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1989
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Disability; Divorce; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Racial Differences

This dissertation explores the consequences of the process of divorce in terms of disability. From a longitudinal prospective design, these data made it possible to answer three questions. First, how does the health status of divorced persons compare with those who remain married. Second, what are the correlates of disability in each race-sex cohort, and third, when in relation to the divorce process is the onset of disability most frequently reported in each race-sex cohort. The data come from the Young Women and the Young Men cohorts of the NLS from 1966 through 1980. The indicator of health alteration that is available in the NLS data set is the question: "Does your health limit the kind or amount of work you can do?" This indicator of health alteration is particularly important to understanding many of the social/psychological consequences of divorce. The ability to work in American society is closely tied to status and social role achievement. The onset of a health condition that limits the individual's ability to work, at the same time that he/she has an increased need for more income and is undergoing multiple role changes associated with divorce, has important implications for social policy and for understanding fully the consequences of divorce. The descriptive data examine age, age at marriage, age at divorce, duration of marriage, number of children and other dependents, labor force history, income, education, as well as incidence of disability and timing of the disability in relation to the divorce. The main finding of the study is that women are at an increased risk of disability associated with the divorce process than men. Women are disadvantaged financially through the divorce process--a disadvantage that may result from or contribute to their higher rate of disability. The findings indicate that women, especially black women are an appropriate target forpreventive strategies.
Bibliography Citation
Mulvey, Cecilia F. Divorce and Disability: The Experience of the Younger Cohorts in the National Longitudinal Survey. Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1989.
205. Munasinghe, Lalith Roshan
Studies in the Dynamics of Labor Turnover
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1995. DAI-A 56/03, p. 1068, Sep 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Labor Economics

Workers with longer tenure are less likely to turn over. This is a well known fact. The best known explanations for why individual turnover propensities decline with work experience at a firm, are derived from human capital theory and job matching theory. These explanations, however, assume that workers have uniform assessments of their future job prospects. Therefore, such assessments are excluded from consideration as possible determinants of turnover behavior. The inclusion of workers' prior assessments enables us to better explain mobility patterns. Differences in assessments of future job prospects, such as training opportunities or match quality, can explain observed differences in the time distribution of labor turnover across many worker and job characteristics. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth are used to test implications of the differing prior information hypothesis on labor mobility. The empirical findings are largely consistent with this hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Munasinghe, Lalith Roshan. Studies in the Dynamics of Labor Turnover. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1995. DAI-A 56/03, p. 1068, Sep 1995.
206. Myadze, Theresa I.
Inactivity and Activity Among Young Black and White Non-Hispanic Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Education; Health Care; Labor Force Participation; Local Area Unemployment; Local Labor Market; Racial Differences; Residence; Unemployment

The prevalence of nonemployment, among young black men has been increasingly attributed to supply-side explanations. This thesis uses NLS data in examining how a variety of supply, demand, and control variables influence chronic nonemployment among both young black and white men. Because poor performance in the labor market could lead to voluntary nonemployment, an assessment is also made of how selected variables affect what may be regarded as an ideal activity--full-time, year-round, nonpoverty wage work. The results indicate that such demand side factors as central-city status and the local unemployment rate had no significant impact on chronic nonemployment. However, proximity to jobs i.e., local employment rate, did affect the likelihood of full-time, year-round, nonpoverty wage work. As such, facilitating local economic growth remains in stabilizing demand for black labor and in improving the quality of jobs available. The results indicate that the incidence of full-time work among both races may also improve with the accessibility to vocational-technical training, health care, union jobs, and higher education, among others. Chronic nonemployment among both races seems to be heavily determined by education. Nonemployment among blacks is also determined by such supply variables as government training, household composition at age fourteen, presently residing with one's parent(s), and recent union status. It is likely that accessibility to stable, quality jobs, not just jobs per se, should reduce chronic nonemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Myadze, Theresa I. Inactivity and Activity Among Young Black and White Non-Hispanic Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1990.
207. Myers, Steven C.
Working in College: Risk or Return?
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Education; Employment; Part-Time Work; Transition, School to Work

This study examines the educational and labor market experience of male college students and their subsequent position in the labor market. The work experience of college youth gives rise to the exploration of two primary research questions. First, does working while enrolled in college interfere with completing the college year? Second, does market work while in college have benefits for early post-school labor market experience? In addition, the study examines the factors associated with who works while in college. An analysis of the types of jobs that students hold is also included. Much of this study is derived from the theory of optimal human capital accumulation. The theory explains at what point in time a person will end specialization in schooling and begin supplying labor to the market. This labor market participation may begin during or after the ultimate separation date from school. Human capital theory treats the choice between market work and investment in human capital. On the other hand, labor supply theory deals with the choice between work and leisure. The present study represents a marriage of these two theoretical systems, providing an analysis of the choice between work and investment and allowing for changes in leisure time as well. Using data from the NLS of Young Men, 1966-1976, this study has found that working in college has both risk and return. The risks are non-completion, a delay, or a lower quality of education. The returns include the income gained while working, possible higher subsequent earnings, an expanded knowledge of the labor market, the acquisition of employability skills, good references, and the like. Work in the freshman year is least desirable, involving high risk and no return, while work in the senior year is the most desirable, involving minimum risk and maximum returns.
Bibliography Citation
Myers, Steven C. Working in College: Risk or Return? Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1980.
208. Nam, Hee Yong
Retirement Condition and Migration: Determinants of Migration Decision and Destination Selection Among American Men, 1973-1983
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 1988
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Migration; Mobility; Modeling, Probit; Retirees; Retirement; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study examines the relationship between the transition to retirement and migration. Three questions are addressed: (1) holding age, health, socioeconomic status, and other variables constant, does the event of retirement increase migration?; (2) what factors predict which retirees will move?; and (3) what factors predict migrating retirees' choice of destination? These questions are addressed using the 1973-1983 waves of the NLS of Older Men. The sample for this study is 5,149 event histories observed over five 3-survey cycles. A probit model is used because of its utility in dealing with dichotomous variables. Findings suggest a strong and significant impact of retirement on migration. All other variables equal, the probability of migration is three times higher for those just retiring than for these who are still working. Retiree migration is affected significantly by socioeconomic status and health condition. Destination selection is affected by place of residence prior to retirement and socioeconomic status. Long distance, and especially sunbelt, migrants are strongly predicted by socioeconomic status. [UMI ADG89-04502]
Bibliography Citation
Nam, Hee Yong. Retirement Condition and Migration: Determinants of Migration Decision and Destination Selection Among American Men, 1973-1983. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 1988.
209. Nayak, Veena
Wage Differentials Based on Marital Status of Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1997
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Women's Roles; Women's Studies

The dissertation is an investigation of the wage differentials between married and single women with special emphasis on the interdependence between labour market and marital choice decisions. A wage model with endogenous marital status selection and endogenous hours is used to specify this interrelation. We find a significant wage premium favouring married women in all specifications of the wage equation considered in this work. Moreover, the size of the premium increases when marital status is treated as an endogenous variable. It is also shown that the wage returns to labour market investment variables such as education, experience and tenure are underestimated when their influence on marital status choice is ignored. The study also yields some insights on the economic determinants of marriage. The probability of marriage is shown to be negatively related to labour market investment and positively related to direct indicators of productivity such as previous period wages and training. Our findings with respect to the wage and marital status choice equations have implications for the gender role specialization theory of marraige and its validity in explaining a portion of the gender wage gap. Data for the study have been extracted from the Young Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey. The Survey contains information on key labour market variables and marital status histories of women aged 14 to 24 years in 1968 and hence, suits our investigation. Our sample of 730 women is drawn from the latest fours years of the Survey: 1985, 1987, 1988 and 1991.
Bibliography Citation
Nayak, Veena. Wage Differentials Based on Marital Status of Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1997.
210. Neal, Derek A.
Interindustry Variation in Wages and Turnover
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Industrial Training; Mobility; Skilled Workers; Skills; Transfers, Skill; Wage Models

In the 1960's, human capital theorists explained inter-industry variation in wages and turnover by arguing that firms in high-wage industries invest heavily in firm-specific training. However, recent papers by efficiency wage theorists offer a different interpretation. Efficiency wage models illustrate circumstances that might induce firms to ration jobs and provide wage rents for their workers. Therefore, advocates of efficiency wage models view the negative correlation between wages and turnover across industries as evidence of job rationing in high-wage industries. This thesis develops a model of training choice that offers an alternative explanation for the negative correlation between wages and turnover across industries. The insight of the model is that, among trained workers who switch industries, the most able workers must forfeit compensation for the largest stocks of industry-specific skills. Since costs of industry switching rise with worker ability, the probability of industry switching declines with ability.
Bibliography Citation
Neal, Derek A. Interindustry Variation in Wages and Turnover. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 1992.
211. Neelakantan, Pattabiraman
Union Wage Distortions and Investment in Schooling: Evidence from Continuing Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1992
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Education, Adult; Educational Costs; Educational Returns; Schooling; Unions; Wage Effects

Labor unions. as socio-political institutions, are believed to follow an egalitarian wage policy and distribute rent so as to equalize earnings; i.e., workers with lower wages get a larger share of the rent, and vice versa. Since human capital and wages are positively related, union workers with a lower human capital, measured by schooling, experience etc., receive larger wage gains and vice versa. The above relation is consistent with the empirical observation that wages are higher, but wage inequality is lower in unionized firms compared to nonunion firms. Higher wages, and lower wage inequality means that wage profiles in relation to any measure of human capital are higher and flatter in union jobs relative to nonunion jobs. In this study, I do not try to explain this egalitarian tendency of unions, but instead follow a "positive economics" approach. If the egalitarian argument is factual, then certain behavioral predictions follow, and these are the focus of my research. The basic thesis is that labor unions' seemingly egalitarian wage policies discourage worker investment in general human capital e.g., continuing education. The above result follows from the higher and flatter wage-schooling profile in union jobs, which on the one hand raises the opportunity cost of time for union workers, and on the other hand lowers the return to schooling. Hence, "union effect on continuing education" is to discourage worker enrollment in continuing education relative to nonunion sector. However, workers may take into account the union effect on continuing education while choosing union or nonunion sector. For example, at least two types of self-selection are possible: (i) workers with a lower innate demand for education may choose the union sector, and (ii) some workers may join the union sector initially, and later quit their union jobs to enroll in continuing education, using their union premium i.e., changes in union status may be negatively correlated with the changes in workers' schooling enrollment behavior. The above arguments imply that the net effect of unions on enroll Dent in continuing education may be smaller due to self-selection by workers.
Bibliography Citation
Neelakantan, Pattabiraman. Union Wage Distortions and Investment in Schooling: Evidence from Continuing Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1992.
212. Nickinovich, David George
Male and Female Differences in the Pattern of Occupational Persistence
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1996. DAI-A 57/12, p. 5316, Jun 1997
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Human Capital Theory; Occupations; Vocational Training

Data obtained from the Young Men and Young Women modules of National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience were used in this study of occupational persistence. The orientations of human capital theory, structural/institutional theory, and work adjustment theory provided the basis for the generation of occupational persistence-related hypotheses. The hypotheses derived from the human capital orientation highlighted the potential pertinence of general education and vocational training as essentially negative influences. The hypotheses were supported by the findings with the exception of the hypothesis concerning recently-obtained vocational training among the male workers. Structural/institutional theories provided the basis for an additional set hypotheses related to the negative association between marital status change and occupational persistence, the positive implication of remaining married throughout the five year time period, the positive influence of spousal income, and the negative association between the number of dependents and occupational persistence. Support for the marital status change and number of dependents hypotheses were evident while support was forthcoming only from female findings concerning the continuous marriage and spousal income hypotheses. Based on work adjustment theory, it was anticipated that systematic differences in the indicated preferences of male and female workers would be evident and that these differences would, in turn, be related to differences in the likelihood of workers remaining in their respective occupations. Support for male/female preference differences was evident in the findings while no support was found for the association between stated preferences and occupational persistence.
Bibliography Citation
Nickinovich, David George. Male and Female Differences in the Pattern of Occupational Persistence. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1996. DAI-A 57/12, p. 5316, Jun 1997.
213. Nitungkorn, Sukanya
An Economic Analysis of Internal Migration
Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Methodist University, 1975
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Migration; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wages

In this study, an individual is postulated to maximize his lifetime utility level in making the decision to migrate. In the theoretical part, the conditions in which maximization or wealth imply maximization of utility are established, and the relationship between the wage differential and the individual's decision to migrate is found to be as follows: (1) If the time paths of working time of an individual are the same in both locations, the greater the wage differential, the more likely it is that he will migrate. (2) If his time path of working time at the destination is less than that at the origin, then the effect of the wage differential will be the same as above. (3) If his time path of working time at the destination is greater than that at the origin, no conclusion on the effect of the wage differential can be drawn without further restrictions. Empirical testings of the model are based on a 1966 and 1967 NLS sample of young men, 14 to 24 years of age. The observations are classified by race, marital status and educational attainment. Within each category, they are further classified into three working time groups in accordance with the theoretical framework. Some of the main findings are: (1) The coefficients of the wage differential are positive in all cases. However, for the youth in the first group (those with equal working time in both locations) and the second group (those with less working time, but higher earnings at the destination than at the origin), the magnitude and significance level of the coefficients of the wage differential are much greater than those for the youth in the third group (those with greater working time at the destination than at the origin). (2) The response to the wage differential of black youth in the first two groups is higher than those of white youth, but the opposite is found for youth in the third group. The single youth are slightly more responsive to the wage differential than the married youth. The high education youth are more responsive to the wage differential than the low education ones in all groups.
Bibliography Citation
Nitungkorn, Sukanya. An Economic Analysis of Internal Migration. Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Methodist University, 1975.
214. Odita, Florence C. U.
Difference in Pay, Promotion, Job Title, and Other Related Factors between Employed Male and Female College Graduates as Indicators of Sex Discrimination
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1972
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Job Satisfaction; Job Training; Scholarships

Results from a study to determine the differences, if any, between men and women, in pay, promotion, working conditions and training in their jobs, shed some doubts on the claim of discrimination between the sexes. The claim is legitimate but the magnitude is exaggerated.
Bibliography Citation
Odita, Florence C. U. Difference in Pay, Promotion, Job Title, and Other Related Factors between Employed Male and Female College Graduates as Indicators of Sex Discrimination. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1972.
215. Oettinger, Gerald S.
Learning in Labor Markets: Models of Discrimination and School Enrollment and Empirical Tests
Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Continuing Education; Employment, In-School; Learning Hypothesis; Life Cycle Research; Transition, School to Work; Wage Differentials

This thesis develops and tests a variety of models of symmetric learning in the labor market. Each model is motivated by a different empirical regularity in labor market data--the wage gap between observationally equivalent blacks and whites re-enrollment in school after extended interruption in attendance and transitions from part-time to full-time enrollment in college--for which existing theory offers no accepted explanation. Auxiliary predictions are derived for each of the learning models and are tested using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The first essay develops and tests a simple dynamic model of statistical discrimination in the labor market. The present model has a number of empirical implications. The second essay presents evidence from the NLSY that contrary to the prediction of a basic life cycle model of earnings the transition from school to work is frequently characterized by extended interruptions in attendance and subsequent re-enrollment. The third essay presents evidence from the NLSY that part-time enrollment in college and simultaneous enrollment and employment among college students are quite common. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries Rm. 14-0551 Cambridge MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
Bibliography Citation
Oettinger, Gerald S. Learning in Labor Markets: Models of Discrimination and School Enrollment and Empirical Tests. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1993.
216. Olsen, Norma K.
Labor Supply of Young GED Recipients
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Labor Supply

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between holding a GED credential and the labor supply by 1985 of young married people in the United States. The relationship was examined through the application of an explicit theory of labor supply derived from labor economic theory and practice. This theory provided a model of how individuals make choices between work and leisure and about the number of hours they will devote to each. The responses of 9,136 married members of the NLSY, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized youths in the United States, were used to examine the relationship and to permit the generalization of results to the population of married United States young adults. It was uncertain whether a relationship exists between holding a GED credential and labor supply. However, other factors besides holding a GED credential were found to influence labor supply. Nonlabor income was found to be negatively correlated with the number of hours a person contributes to work, while the market wage correlated positively with hours worked. This study documents the existence of factors, other than schooling, which influence labor supply. The recommendations from these findings suggest that planners and policy makers of education for work realize that these other factors must be considered in their evaluation of educational programs. It is imperative that career counselors as well as potential GED test examinees be aware that obtaining a GED credential may not lead directly to employment outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Olsen, Norma K. Labor Supply of Young GED Recipients. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1989.
217. Omori, Yoshiaki
Work History and Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Earnings; Job Tenure; Mobility; Work Experience; Work Histories

Young workers are an unknown entity when they enter the job market. Information on the quality of workers gets revealed in an asymmetric fashion between the current employer and the prospective employer. Higher quality workers would gain if they could offer reliable information to employers, but they often fail because they cannot provide any evidence of their higher quality until they establish their work history. This study introduces a strategic model that focuses on this asymmetric information and the role played by the work history in information spill-over. The model offers the following set of implementations: (1) The expected hazard rate is nonincreasing in both tenure and experience. (2) Among workers who are seemingly identical to employers at the time of their market entry, the less productive ones are more likely to move. (3) Tenure and expected productivity are positively correlated among workers who are seemingly identical at the time of their market entry, holding experience constant--i.e., the oldest workers in a firm are the most productive among those who were indistinguishable at the time of their market entry. (4) The wage increases in tenure, holding experience constant. (5) Current earnings and future earnings are positively correlated across a group of individuals who are seemingly identical at the time of their market entry. (6) The variance of the earnings distribution for seemingly identical workers grows in experience first and then becomes constant with or without holding tenure constant. (7) The variance of the earnings distribution of equally productive workers who are also seemingly identical will first increase in experience and decrease later with or without holding tenure constant. Due to data constraints, the empirical study focuses on implications (5) and (6). Using data from NLSY and NLS of YoungMen, evidence consistent with these implications is found among college graduates in professional and managerial occupations. [UMI ADG90-33570]
Bibliography Citation
Omori, Yoshiaki. Work History and Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1990.
218. Oostendorp, Remigius Henricus
Adam Smith, Social Norms, and Economic Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1995. DAI-A 56/12, p. 4871, Jun 1996
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Economics; Labor Force Participation; Women

The dissertation Adam Smith, Social Norms, and Economic Behavior (advisors: Professor Amartya Sen (chair) and Professor Claudia Goldin) focuses on the question how moral reasoning and social norms can be incorporated within models of rational behavior. The three chapters discuss several of the conceptual, theoretical, and empirical issues involved. The first chapter discusses the social philosophy of Adam Smith from the theoretical point of view. The main focus is on his The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759). It is shown that his principle of sympathy, or the capacity to put oneself in the position of another person, forms the core of his social theory, and that this principle is much more complex than most discussions of Smith's social philosophy suggest. In particular, Smith's principle of sympathy is a principle of moral judgment. It is also discussed how this moral principle functions within Smith's economic analysis. The second chapter discusses the recent alternative approaches to economic rationality, particularly those that are concerned with the role of perceptions, social learning, emotions, norms, moral reasoning, and evolution in economic decision making. It is shown that many of these alternative approaches are based on inventive reinterpretations of the standard model of economic rationality. It is also discussed why the recent challenges to the standard concept of economic rationality can be viewed as challenges to the scope of economics. In the final chapter a game theoretic model is developed to describe and explain the change and impact of social attitudes to women working on their labor force participation. The model integrates two insights that have been developed by Akerlof and others, namely that the utility of agents can be affected by social norms (Akerlof 1982), and that cognitive dissonance may have important economic consequences (Akerlof and Dickens 1982). The empirical evidence on the change in social attitudes to women working is discussed for the United States for the period 1936-1994, and the implications of the model are tested with panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience.
Bibliography Citation
Oostendorp, Remigius Henricus. Adam Smith, Social Norms, and Economic Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1995. DAI-A 56/12, p. 4871, Jun 1996.
219. Osuagwu, Stella C.
Parental Generation Effects on the Marital Fertility of Offspring
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Family Size; Fertility; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers and Daughters; Parental Influences

Previous studies lend some support to the theorized intergenerational association of family sizes. This research sets out to explore factors in the background of the respondents that can help explain the association. The underlying assumption is that parents through socialization and the family by its demographic structure can influence the fertility norms and values of their daughters thereby conditioning them to reproduce the demographic set of their family of orientation. The information for the analyses is obtained from both the 1965 National Fertility Study and the 1967, 1968 and 1973 National Longitudinal Surveys. Three major hypotheses are examined, viz: (1) mother's and daughter's family sizes are positively correlated; (2) the association is stronger with no intergenerational change in life-style; and (3) daughters from affluent homes tend to have fewer children than those from non-affluent homes. The analysis shows that generally there has been an intergenerational decline in completed fertility with daughters achieving smaller family sizes than their mothers. With regards to the hypotheses tested, it is noted that: (1) there is a confirmation of the hypothesized correlation between mother's and daughter's ultimate family sizes; (2) the association is stronger if there has been no intergenerational change in life-style as defined in terms of educational attainment and of religion; (3) parents' socioeconomic status per se does not show any independent effects on daughter's expected completed fertility. Finally, it is observed that daughters tend to reproduce the size of their family of orientation. This observation may be of some use to policy formulators in reaching decisions on how best to intervene in or modify some social services that are provided by the state.
Bibliography Citation
Osuagwu, Stella C. Parental Generation Effects on the Marital Fertility of Offspring. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1981.
220. Palmer, Kyle W.
Participation in Secondary Vocational Education and its Relationship to Training-Related Placement and Unemployment Rates
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education, Secondary; Educational Returns; Employment; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education

This study examined data from the NLSY and the Bureau of Labor Statistics' State unemployment rates for the years 1979 through 1986. These data were used to establish the following variables: level of participation in secondary vocational education, degree of training-related placement and unemployment rates. A General Linear Model ANOVA followed by Least Squares Means post-hoc analyses were used to test the relationship between a student's level of participation in secondary vocational education and the degree of training-related placement. Analysis of covariance was used to re-test this relationship while controlling for unemployment rates. Findings showed that about 23.5% of the graduates, who were available for work prior to pursuing further training, held jobs related to their training but only 2.5% of these graduates were considered to be in jobs directly related to their training. In contrast, of the graduates available for work prior to pursuing further training, 93% were working. Overall, this study found significant (at the 0.05 level) systematic relationships between the graduates' level of participation in secondary vocational education and their degree of training-related placement. In general, graduates who had a higher level of participation tended to have a higher degree of training-related placement. Finally, this study also found significant systematic relationships between level of participation and degree of training-related placement after controlling for unemployment rates.
Bibliography Citation
Palmer, Kyle W. Participation in Secondary Vocational Education and its Relationship to Training-Related Placement and Unemployment Rates. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia, 1989.
221. Palmer, Steven K.
An Empirical Investigation of the Determinants of the Length of Full Time Schooling
Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, 1975
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Background; I.Q.; Life Cycle Research; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

The objective of this research is an empirical investigation of the length of full-time formal schooling completed by individuals. The theoretical basis for the research is a life cycle model of human capital accumulation. The estimated "schooling function" provides an empirical test of the implications of the life cycle model and provides quantitative estimates of the partial effects of the exogenous variables employed in the analysis. The solution of a life cycle model is presented. The solution is in the form of an implicit function relating the length of specialization in human capital production to the exogenous variables facing the individual. Regression results indicate that the index of family background and the individual's IQ test score are positive and significant determinants of schooling level. This result is predicted by the life cycle model on which the study is based. In terms of elasticities, schooling decisions are about 10 times as responsive to changes in IQ as to changes in the index of family background. Calculated at the mean values of the respective variables, a one percent increase in IQ leads to a two percent increase in educational level while a one percent increase in the index of family background leads to a two tenths of one percent increase in educational level. A tentative implication of this result is that social policies that alter the price of educational inputs through the entire life cycle will not result in large changes in individual schooling decisions. However, it should be recognized that social policies that lead to lower prices of educational inputs early in the life cycle may have somewhat different effects.
Bibliography Citation
Palmer, Steven K. An Empirical Investigation of the Determinants of the Length of Full Time Schooling. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, 1975.
222. Palmieri, James Lee
Extended Family Living Arrangements and Their Effects on Young Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Breastfeeding; Child Care; Child Health; Cognitive Development; Endogeneity; Family Structure; Family, Extended; Health Care; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Modeling; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pre/post Natal Health Care; Teenagers; Welfare

Current welfare reform proposals frequently require single teenage mothers to live with family members in order to receive benefits. Nevertheless, the economic effects family members have on teenage mothers are not well known. The first essay assesses the effects of postnatal living arrangements of teenage mothers on their future wages, annual hours of work and welfare recipiency. I use a polytomous choice selection rule to control for the possible endogeneity of the postnatal living arrangement. While living with family members has little effect on future wages or hours of work, family members reduce the frequency of welfare recipiency. To what extent do family members affect child development? The second essay of my dissertation examines the effects that postnatal living arrangements have on the children of teenage mothers. Specifically, I examine the influences of postnatal living arrangements on cognitive development and preventive infant care. Overall, living with family members has small, negative effects on cognitive development. Moreover, sharing a home with family members negatively influences the probability that a child will receive basic preventive health care. I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for my dissertation, with supplemental housing cost data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Bibliography Citation
Palmieri, James Lee. Extended Family Living Arrangements and Their Effects on Young Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1995.
223. Parsons, George E.
An Application of John Holland's Vocational Theory to an Empirical Study of Occupational Mobility of Men Age 45 to 59
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1971
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Duncan Index; Educational Attainment; Holland's Typology; Job Satisfaction; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Retirement; Vocational Guidance; Work Attitudes

This investigation of the occupational movement and reasons for movement of men age 45 to 59, between their first and current jobs, specifically examines: (1) change and stability of various occupational personality types; (2) the effect of selected variables on change and stability or personality types; and (3) the relationship between job and personality types. The most significant implication of this study for career development research was that Holland's theory of vocational selection proved relevant to older men presently working in the labor force and to the study of occupational mobility. The theory also has strong implications for vocational retraining and counseling of men.
Bibliography Citation
Parsons, George E. An Application of John Holland's Vocational Theory to an Empirical Study of Occupational Mobility of Men Age 45 to 59. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1971.
224. Perry, Janet E.
Returns to Labor from Farm and Non-farm Employment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University, 1990
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Human Capital; Labor Market, Secondary; Modeling, Probit; Occupations; Rural Areas

Choice of occupation is based, in part, on economic considerations such as opportunity costs and comparative advantage. The NLS of Young Men are used to estimate returns to ability for six employment categories including farm workers and operators. Using a human capital model, the log of real annual earnings from the primary employment is regressed on factors hypothesized to affect earnings. An alternative specification of the dependent variable includes the present value of a stream of earnings. Opportunity costs are estimated for the six employment categories. Probit analysis is used to evaluate comparative advantage of workers in agriculture versus other sectors. Results from a 1987 Oklahoma survey of farmers who had ceased farming due to financial reasons are presented. Strategies for improving the economic efficiency of the labor market are proposed. It was found that young men with ties to farming had consistently lower measures of productivity characteristics and lower earnings than the total sample. Investments in human capital yield a positive return to earnings. Probit analysis reveals that workers respond to an expected wage differential between farm and non-farm employment, implying that a worker specializes in the type of work in which he has the comparative advantage. The Oklahoma survey supports earlier findings that farmers experience symptoms of stress when facing farm economic pressures. Respondents were better off for making farm adjustments including finding alternative work. If returns to labor are low in farming and labor can make the transition out of farming, interference in the market creates inefficiencies. Strategies to improve earnings of workers in all employment categories include making investments in human capital and providing information about employment opportunities and wages.
Bibliography Citation
Perry, Janet E. Returns to Labor from Farm and Non-farm Employment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University, 1990.
225. Perticara, Marcela Cecilia
Wage Mobility Through Job Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University, 2002. DAI-A 63/08, p. 2966, February 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Patterns; Job Turnover; Labor Economics; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Wage Determination; Wage Growth; Wage Rates; Wage Theory

The purpose of my dissertation is to study the relationship between job mobility and wage mobility. One of the main points of this dissertation is that job mobility is not necessarily bad. Job mobility might be the quickest way in which workers can advance in their careers and move up in the wage structure. Specifically I am going to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary job changes in both the modeling of job mobility behavior and the determination of the wage gains associated with job changing activities. The distinction should prove to be relevant. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I find that workers voluntarily leave their jobs whenever they find themselves being paid below the customary wage rate. In particular, a worker that earns 30% less than the average wage for a worker with his characteristics and labor market experience is more than one and a half times as likely to initiate a separation than a worker just earning the average wage rate. Conversely, a worker earning 30% more than the average wage for a worker with his qualifications and labor market experience faces almost a 50% higher risk of being laid-off. This result is consistent across models. Workers' post-separation wage gains also depend on this distinction. Voluntary job changes lead, on average, to gains on the order of 7% while layoffs imply losses of 5%. That is, voluntary separations on average allow workers to improve their relative position in the wage structure. Laid-off workers, however, tend to perform poorly after experiencing a separation. Fifty-percent of the laid-off workers experience wage losses, while 70% of the voluntary job changes end in wage gains. While at early stages of the career workers experience large wage gains from quitting, these gains seem to disappear as their careers extend. Laid-off losses increase as the career extends, particularly for high-skilled workers.
Bibliography Citation
Perticara, Marcela Cecilia. Wage Mobility Through Job Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University, 2002. DAI-A 63/08, p. 2966, February 2003.
226. Petracchi, Helen E.
Educational Implications of Adolescent Fathering
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Education Indicators; Educational Attainment; Nestleaving; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study addresses the question, "What is the impact of the age at which a male first becomes a father on his subsequent educational attainment?" Data were drawn from the 1979 and 1985 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The NLSY provides information on childbearing, household composition, schooling, employment, and family background. The male youth sample (N = 6402) have been re-interviewed annually since 1979 with approximately 84 percent completing surveys in 1985. Hence, this sample of fathers are representative of all United States men (aged 20 to 27 in 1985) who reported becoming first-time fathers between 1979 and 1985. Theoretically based on the larger status attainment tradition, the study examines the relationship between educational attainment and socioeconomic background variables, academic ability, aspirations for education and work and age at first fatherhood. Educational attainment was variously measured as "years of completed schoo ling" or "high school completion by 1985." Accordingly, multivariate analyses utilized both OLS and logistic regression techniques.
Bibliography Citation
Petracchi, Helen E. Educational Implications of Adolescent Fathering. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1992.
227. Petterson, Stephen Mark
Black-White Differences in Joblessness Among Young Men: The Limits of Cultural Explanations
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Discrimination, Job; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Employment, Youth; Ethnic Studies; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Studies; Wages, Reservation; Work Attitudes

This dissertation considers the merits and limits of the claim that "attitudes contrary to work" account for the employment difficulties of young black men. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the determinants of race differences in measures of several work related attitudes, including fatalism, self- reliance, and willingness to work are examined. The effects of these measures on subsequent joblessness experienced by white and black men throughout their twenties is then assessed. The evidence and arguments advanced in this dissertation offer little support for the claim that high rates of joblessness among young black men are due to attitudinal differences across race. In addition, there are no meaningful disparities in self- reported reservation wages. Joblessness among young black men is mainly involuntary. The results of this dissertation support the counter argument that labor market discrimination remains crucial for understanding the employment gap. White and black men with similar attitudes and similar work histories experience different labor market outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Petterson, Stephen Mark. Black-White Differences in Joblessness Among Young Men: The Limits of Cultural Explanations. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994.
228. Pewewardy, Garner
Relationships Among Labor Force Status, Wages, and Participation in Vocational Education Among Young American Indians
D.Ed. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1992. DAI-A 53/05, p. 1496, Nov 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education, Secondary; Ethnic Groups; Labor Force Participation; Racial Studies; Vocational Education

There is no evidence that participation in vocational education improves the employment or earnings of American Indians. To help fill this information gap, this study examines relationships between participation in vocational education during secondary school and the labor force status and wages during 1987 of young American Indians. Data to examine these relationships are drawn from the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS-Y). The degree of participation in vocational education during secondary school was calculated from the high school transcripts of NLS-Y cohort members. Almost 4 of every 10 young American Indian respondents to the NLS-Y concentrated in vocational education during secondary school. Almost 8 of every 10 young American Indians completed at least one course in vocational education. These vocational education participation rates are similar to those observed for non-Indians. This study, using commonly accepted labor force and income definitions, reveals much more positive economic and employment circumstances for young American Indians than previously shown. The employment-population ratio and labor force participation rate for young American Indians were slightly lower, and the unemployment rate was slightly higher, than for non-Indians. However, the labor force attachment of young American Indians examined in this study was remarkably strong: Between 8 and 9 of every young American Indian surveyed in 1987 through the NLS-Y were working or looking for work. Median hours worked during 1987 were the same for Indians and non-Indians. On the other hand, the average hourly wages of young American Indians were lower than for other young people. A full-time, full-year young American Indian made about $1,500 less than a non-Indian counterpart. Participation in vocational education was not related to the employment-population ratio, labor force participation rate, unemployment rate, annual hours worked, or hourly wages of either American Indians or non-Indians who responded to the NLS-Y.
Bibliography Citation
Pewewardy, Garner. Relationships Among Labor Force Status, Wages, and Participation in Vocational Education Among Young American Indians. D.Ed. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1992. DAI-A 53/05, p. 1496, Nov 1992.
229. Pezzin, Liliana E.
When Crime No Longer Pays: A Dynamic Economic Analysis of Crime Desistance Decisions
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Crime; Illegal Activities; Income; Life Cycle Research; Modeling, Logit; Modeling, Probit; Punishment, Criminal

This paper presents a dynamic stochastic model of sequential search and match evaluation used to explain the reasons for and timing of the decision to terminate a criminal career. It emphasizes that the life-cycle of criminal involvement is generated in an uncertain environment and departs from the existing literature by positing that career profile choices and desistance decisions depend critically on general and match-specific factors affecting the life-cycle pattern of net legal and illegal rewards. The study conceptually solves the implied optimal desistance strategy problem for the individual criminal, derives the behavioral implications of this solution for the empirical work and estimates the parameters of the model using individual National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data. To consistently implement the model, selectivity-corrected imputations of criminal and legal market earnings are first obtained, via a multinomial logit-OLS and a probit-OLS two-stage estimation method, respectively, and then substituted in the structural desistance probability logit equation. Estimation results strongly support the theoretical prediction of a negative relation between the option value of retaining a criminal career and desistance decisions. More specifically, the effects of current and future expected criminal earnings are shown to be negative, substantial and statistically significant in determining desistance probabilities. Retiring behavior is also significantly responsive to variables measuring personal costs of punishment and the availability and attractiveness of a legal income-generating activity in ways consistent with theoretical expectations.
Bibliography Citation
Pezzin, Liliana E. When Crime No Longer Pays: A Dynamic Economic Analysis of Crime Desistance Decisions. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1992.
230. Phang, Hanam S.
A Dynamic Study of Young Women's Labor Market Transitions over the Early Life Course: Cohort Trends, Racial Differentials, and Determinants
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Characteristics; Family Constraints; Family Models; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Life Cycle Research; Racial Differences; Transition, Job to Job; Unions; Work Experience; Work History

Using detailed panel data (NLSY and NLSYW) on school, work, and family formation history, this study examines the longitudinal patterns of labor market transitions for young women in their 20's and 30's. The primary focus in this study is on transitions between employment and nonemployment status over the early life course after completion of school. Through the dynamic analyses of young women's labor market transitions this study (1) examines cohort changes in labor market participation and attachment over the last two decades; (2) examines the age pattern life-stage variation, and racial differences in labor market transitions; and (3) identifies the individual and structural determinants of the rate of transitions between employment and nonemployment among individuals. Multistate life tables are used to estimate cohort changes and racial differentials in women's labor market transitions at the population level; event history models are used to estimate the effects of individual and structural factors on the rate of transitions. This study shows, through cohort analyses, that there has been little change over cohorts in the depressing effect of women's family obligations on their employment stability and documents the "continuing interaction between women's family and work careers." With regard to racial differences in labor market transitions, this study shows that the racial differentials largely depend on women's family status and educational level and that the major component of the racial differential in employment chances is in the process of entering employment rather than in the process of leaving employment. Through multivariate analyses, this study documents that not only individual characteristics but also the structural factors of the labor market (i.e., the occupational category, sector, and union status of the job) significantly affect the rate and pattern of young women's transitions into and out of employment over the e arly life course. This study also finds that the rates of transitions between employment and nonemployment are significantly affected by individual's past work history and experiences. The hazard rate of transition is dependent not only on the duration of the current spell but also on the number and the duration of past spells of employment or nonemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Phang, Hanam S. A Dynamic Study of Young Women's Labor Market Transitions over the Early Life Course: Cohort Trends, Racial Differentials, and Determinants. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1995.
231. Piehl, Anne Morrison
Economic Issues in Crime Policy
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Demography; Economics, Demographic; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Economics; Residence; Simultaneity

From 1980 to 1993, the number of inmates in state and federal prisons rose 200%. Throughout this expansion, the poorly-educated continued to be overrepresented among the nation's prisoners. At the same time, public concern about crime has also increased. Perhaps because immigrants share many demographic characteristics with criminals, public concern about immigration is often coupled with concern about crime. This dissertation empirically examines these issues central to sensible policy debate. Chapter one uses a unique micro-level data set of Wisconsin inmates to show that the completion of adult basic and high school education programs while in prison is significantly associated with lower recidivism. To correct for possible positive selection bias in these estimates, a variety of specifications are proposed and estimated. The results give no indication of significant selection bias. Chapter two looks directly at schooling and criminal justice outcomes by decomposing the relationship between education and incarceration into two subsidiary relationships: education and committing crime and education and conviction (conditional upon committing crime). Using Boston Youth Survey data on young males from low income neighborhoods, I find that additional years of schooling are associated with lower probabilities of both committing crime and of conviction. In a simultaneous model, the negative relationship between education and criminality remains statistically significant. Chapter three, written jointly with Kristin Butcher, investigates the relationship between immigration into a metropolitan area and that area's crime rate over the 1980's. Using data from the Uniform Crime Reports and the Current Population Surveys, we find, in the cross-section, that cities with high crime rates tend to have large numbers of immigrants. However, controlling for the demographic characteristics of the cities, recent immigrants appear to have no effect on crime rates. When we try to explain changes in the crime rate in a city over time, recent immigration again has no effect. In a secondary analysis of individual data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that youth born abroad are statistically significantly less likely to be criminally active, based on a variety of measures. Implications of the empirical results for public policy are discussed throughout the dissertation.
Bibliography Citation
Piehl, Anne Morrison. Economic Issues in Crime Policy. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1994.
232. Potter, Laura E.
Women's Labor Force Experiences: The First Decade
Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 1983
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Mobility; Racial Differences

This study concentrated on several aspects of women's labor force experience. Separate chapters examined labor force participation, occupational atypicality, income attainment, and professional status. First job experiences and later occupational mobility were also examined. Emphasis was put on determining the relative importance of factors influencing the quality of the jobs held in the early years of labor force experience and the role these play in the stratification process. Throughout the analysis the experiences of black and white women were examined separately in order to detect the differences in career development. The data used was the NLS of Young Women. The longitudinal and cross-sectional characteristics of the NLS permitted a clearer establishment of directions of causation than would have been possible with cross-sectional data alone. One of the major findings in this study was the difference in the labor force experiences of black and white women. Although black women were more likely to be in the labor force than white women, they are less likely to be in high income, professional positions. However, education is important in explaining this difference. Once the respondent has obtained a college degree or better, there is little difference in the occupational status of black and white women. The number of children a woman has also strongly influences her labor force experiences. The more children a woman has, the less likely she was to hold a high income, professional job. This was true for both black and white women at all educational levels.
Bibliography Citation
Potter, Laura E. Women's Labor Force Experiences: The First Decade. Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 1983.
233. Poulton-Callahan, Charles
An Analysis of the Labor Market Experience of Young Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Marriage; Occupational Segregation; Wage Gap; Wages

This study examines causes of disparities in wages between young female and male workers (those workers aged 19- 27) in the United States in 1971: i.e., the role of sex and race in the creation of wage differentials, the effect of work experience, occupational segregation and other factors on the hourly wages of young workers in the low-skill category. Finally, the study analyzed the manner in which children may affect hourly wages of young working women. Sex discrimination was an important force in the creation of wage differentials. In addition, occupational segregation contributed to the worsening of the young male-female wage gap.
Bibliography Citation
Poulton-Callahan, Charles. An Analysis of the Labor Market Experience of Young Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois, 1979.
234. Powers, Daniel A.
Inactivity: Transitions into and out of Idleness
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Endogeneity; Exits; Geographical Variation; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences; Poverty; Schooling; Unemployment, Youth

This dissertation argues that traditional approaches to youth joblessness are less appropriate for younger age groups whose normative activity is attending school. The usual approach of examining joblessness among out-of-school youth is also problematic since enrollment decisions depend to some extent on labor market conditions. This dissertation treats enrollment and employment as endogenous by examining the determinants of inactivity defined as not-working, not-enrolled, and not serving in the armed forces. This concept of inactivity is linked with status attainment, human capital theory, and recent research on poverty. Using data from the NLSY, the determinants of persistent idleness, of entry into first and second episodes of idleness, and of exits from first episodes of idleness for 1,731 initially active young men, aged 14-17, and living at home in 1979 are examined. Measurable ability and adjusted family income in 1978 are the strongest determinants of all the outcomes--lending support for the human capital perspective. From status attainment and poverty research perspectives, the most important background factors are parent's employment status in 1978, whether or not a family received public assistance in the previous year, living in a step-parent family in 1979, and experiencing a change in family structure between the ages of 14-18. The results suggest several possible ag
Bibliography Citation
Powers, Daniel A. Inactivity: Transitions into and out of Idleness. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1991.
235. Powers, Elizabeth T.
Essays on the Incentive Effects of United States Welfare Policy
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1994
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Assets; Childbearing; Life Cycle Research; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Savings; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Wealth; Welfare

This dissertation consists of three essays about how people respond to welfare policy. The first two essays examine the potential effects of the asset limit in welfare programs on saving. Theory predicts that among some groups, the prospect of facing an asset test discourages wealth accumulation. In the first essay, wealth holdings of female-headed households are examined in an era of significant interstate variation in asset limits. Based on theory and simulation results for two period models, a positive relationship between wealth holdings and asset limits supports the hypothesis. The paper also includes an examination of the asset data in the National Longitudinal Survey of Women. The second essay examines the saving response to prospective welfare participation spells using data from the 1984 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Estimates of an augmented life cycle saving equation indicate that those about to participate in welfare programs save significantly less than their peers and that expectations of future welfare participation also lead to reduced saving. In the third and final essay estimate the effect of the benefit schedule, which is nondecreasing in the number of children, on childbearing decisions of female heads of household, treating the childbirth and participation decisions in a sequential framework. Finding indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of benefit policy on births, but that elimination of the differentials would not lead to substantial reductions in the cost of the AFDC program. Findings also indicate that welfare mothers are no more likely to give birth to more children than female heads who are not participating.
Bibliography Citation
Powers, Elizabeth T. Essays on the Incentive Effects of United States Welfare Policy. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1994.
236. Quane, James Michael
Self-Efficacy and Welfare: an Evaluation of Causal Effects
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Akron, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Socioeconomic Background; Welfare

Liberals and conservatives strongly disagree on the effects of welfare experiences on the lives of the poor. The experiences obtained while involved in the welfare system they argue may lead to a significant decrease in feelings of self-efficacy. Conservatives on the other hand would contend that the welfare system is in no way responsible for a decrease in feelings of self-efficacy among the group. The welfare poor they argue for the most part have no desire to work and the existence of welfare benefits simply encourages this anti-social behavior. Guided by self-efficacy theory this research seeks to determine the extent to which the welfare experience contributes to a decline in self-efficacy specifically occupational self-efficacy. The theory suggests that while people's feelings of occupational self-efficacy are affected by how society views them other factors namely vicarious experiences emotional arousal and performance attainment also play a significant role. In order to test the associations of these variables with occupational self-efficacy a sample of poor youth aged 18 years or older in 1980 was extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Occupational self-efficacy measured in 1983 served as the outcome variable. No support was found for the hypothesis that welfare experience significantly affects self-efficacy. The measure of performance attainment in addition to race and educational attainment of the respondent had the only significant direct effects on the dependent variable. Indirect effects of vicarious experiences race educational attainment and performance attainment on self-efficacy were also uncovered. The dissertation concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for the liberal and conservative debate and identifies areas for further research.
Bibliography Citation
Quane, James Michael. Self-Efficacy and Welfare: an Evaluation of Causal Effects. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Akron, 1992.
237. Rafi, Mohammad
A Longitudinal Study of the Link Between Labor Force Participation and Reproduction/Child-Care Behavior of United States Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Emory University, 1992
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Employment; Family Size; Labor Force Participation; Marriage; Mothers, Behavior; Simultaneity; Women

The role compatibility theory suggests that the labor force participation and the family size/child-care roles of women have a constraining effect on each other. Therefore these roles are incompatible, and there lies an inverse relation between them. Most of the past studies on the relationship between these two variables were conducted in the sixties and early seventies. These studies failed to come up with an unanimous conclusion. Some of these studies showed that the family size only affects employment, whereas, other studies came up with just the opposite conclusion. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between these two variables in seventies and eighties. In this time period manyfold increase in the child care institutions (e.g., day-care center) can be expected to have resolved or diminished the problem related to simultaneous pursuance of these two roles by the mother. In this investigation of the relationship between these two variables the roles of several demographic, economic, and attitudinal variables have also been taken into account. Most of these variables were never considered before as possible determinants of these two behaviors. The data used for this research come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Young Women. They are collected from a representative sample of noninstitutionalized American women who were 14 to 24 years of age in 1968. The longitudinal survey contains data on socioeconomic, demographic and many other variables about the sample women for the years 1972, 1978, and 1983, known as the observation years. With few exceptions, only the respondents who were married once and were living with their husband throughout the observation period have been included in this study. Four models have been developed to assess the patterns of relationship among these variables, namely number of hours wife worked per week, number of years wife is married, financial solvency of the family, etc. The hypotheses related to the models have been tested with the help of least square and two-stage least squares multiple regression techniques. The relation between the employment and the family size/child-care behavior turns out to be nonsignificant in the major part of the observation period. However, the economic variables appear to be the best predictors of the labor force participation of the wives. Similarly, the demographic and attitudinal variables have shown significant influence on the family size/child-care behavior. The strength of these relationships has of course changed over time in both directions. In conclusion, the models better explained employment rather than reproductive or child-care behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Rafi, Mohammad. A Longitudinal Study of the Link Between Labor Force Participation and Reproduction/Child-Care Behavior of United States Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Emory University, 1992.
238. Ranlin, Carol Harris
Essays on the Labor Market Supply Behavior of Young Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Houston, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Marital Status; Racial Differences

This thesis consists of three essays on interrelated topics concerning the labor force activity of young women. Data used throughout the study is drawn from the NLS of Young Women. The first essay posits a theoretical model of labor supply and attempts an estimation of the labor supply function of young women aged 14-24. The second essay, using an altered version of the first essay's theoretical model, analyzes the labor supply function of young, married women aged 21-31. Finally, the third essay seeks to determine the factors which influence educational and occupational status aspirations and attainment and to determine the variables which translate these status goals into reality using the longitudinal data available. Throughout the essays, special attention is given to response differences of white and black women and the impact of children and family status on the labor force variables estimated.
Bibliography Citation
Ranlin, Carol Harris. Essays on the Labor Market Supply Behavior of Young Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Houston, 1980.
239. Reed, W. Robert
An Analysis of Nonpecuniary Job Attributes as Determinants of Workers' Quit Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Search; Job Turnover; Quits; Well-Being; Working Conditions

Organizational and industrial psychologists stress the role of nonpecuniary job attributes as determinants of workers' well-being. This research examines this postulate in the context of workers' quit behavior. Recent job search theory is joined with survival analysis techniques to estimate determinants of workers' quit behavior. Two questions are addressed. Which job attributes appear to be most significant? How much income on average would workers be willing to forego in order to obtain marginal increases in selected nonpecuniary job attributes? A model of search on the job is developed which relates job attributes to voluntary job tenure. Cox's proportional hazards model is proposed as an appropriate estimation technique. Estimation is performed using data from the NLSY 1979-1982. A number of nonpecuniary job attributes are found to be statistically significant determinants of workers' quit behavior. Estimates of marginal rates of substitution of income for nonpecuniary job attributes are quite large for some of the variables. Using an alternative model of worker quit behavior, a worker acquires information about the job's attributes during the course of employment. The relationship between job attributes and voluntary job tenure is demonstrated for this case. This learning on the job model requires different estimation techniques and more detailed data than does the search on the job model. Data constraints are unfortunately binding and estimation of this structural model is not performed.
Bibliography Citation
Reed, W. Robert. An Analysis of Nonpecuniary Job Attributes as Determinants of Workers' Quit Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1985.
240. Reid, Lori Lynn
Race, Gender, and the Labor Market: Black and White Women's Employment
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Arizona, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Employment, Part-Time; Employment, Youth; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Welfare

Historically, black women's employment levels have exceeded those for white women. However, looking only at young cohorts of women, the employment levels of black and white women were equal by 1969, and by 1991 white women's employment greatly exceeded black women's employment. If this continues to be true for successive new cohorts, it suggests that, overall, white women will soon be working at significantly higher rates than black women for the first time in history. Identifying the determinants of women's employment today becomes an important issue not only for explaining the factors that affect labor market outcomes but also for explaining the prospects for black and white women in the labor market. Utilizing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I use event history methods to analyze the determinants of black and white women's employment in the contemporary U.S., and explain any race gaps in employment that emerge. My findings suggest that a race gap in the hazard of part-time employment exists among women in which the rate of part-time employment is lower for black than white women. This gap is explained by race differences in human capital and past welfare receipt. A race gap in the hazard of full-time employment exists among unmarried women in which the rate of full-time employment is lower for black than white women. This gap is explained by race differences in age, human capital, and past welfare receipt. I find that opportunities and constraints provided by the local economic environment, human capital, family structure, and past welfare receipt are an important influence on black and white women's employment.
Bibliography Citation
Reid, Lori Lynn. Race, Gender, and the Labor Market: Black and White Women's Employment. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Arizona, 1997.
241. Reyes Hartley, Gonzalo Javier
Essays on the Economics of the Family
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Welfare

This thesis consists of three chapters that focus on the economic analysis of families and the effects of public policies. The first chapter presents an empirical analysis of the effects of unilateral divorce laws on measures of family structure and youth welfare. Exploiting interstate variation in the timing of implementation of these laws during the 1970s, I find that this legislation caused not only a rise in divorce rates, but also an increase in remarriages. I find a robust positive and significant effect on suicide rates in the 15-19 age group. I do not find a robust impact of the law on milder measures of youth well-being. Overall, these results suggest that although unilateral divorce laws allow adults to re-optimize more easily, they impose external costs on children.

The second chapter analyzes the effects of welfare reform on maternal monitoring and children outcomes in households headed by low educated single mothers. Using data from NLSY79, I find that welfare waivers significantly increased the labor force participation of this group. However, this did not translate into decreased activities shared with children. Additionally, mothers whose employment decisions are affected by welfare reform are both more likely to use certain disciplinary measures and to praise their kids. There are no general harmful effects of welfare reform on children's cognitive ability, while there is a marked decrease in behavioral problems, especially for girls and children older than 6.

The third chapter proposes that education acquired by children may augment the human capital of their parents, particularly for immigrants. I present a model where, upon migration, individuals lose part of their human capital and need to acquire country specific human capital. Children present a natural advantage in obtaining this kind of human capital and transmit it to their parents. Empirical evidence using the Latino sub-sample of the PSID shows that the years of education attained by children in the United States have a positive effect on their parents' wages. This effect is significant for kids living within the household and decreasing in the amount of education obtained by the child in her country of origin.
Bibliography Citation
Reyes Hartley, Gonzalo Javier. Essays on the Economics of the Family. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2004.
242. Risher, George A.
Labor Force Changes and Participation in Secondary Vocational Education in the United States from 1979-1985
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education, Secondary; Employment, Youth; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Unemployment, Youth; Vocational Education

Data from the NLSY 1979-1985 were used to estimate changes in probabilities, for out-of-school youth, of labor force changes (from not employed to employed and from employed to not employed) associated with four measures of participation in high school vocational education. The first measure compared probabilities of labor force changes of 5,748 youth who had vocational credits with 2,403 students who had no vocational credits. The second measure compared probabilities of labor force changes with participation in agriculture education, distributive education, health education, home economics education, office education, and trade and industrial education. The third and fourth measures compared probabilities of labor force changes associated with number of credits in vocational education and number of credits in each vocational program. Probabilities of labor force changes were identified as a logistic function of the four measures by race and sex. Changes in probabilities were either insignificant at the .1 level or too small to indicate practical differences in probability of labor force change between participation in high school vocational education and any other curriculum. [UMI ADG89-10049]
Bibliography Citation
Risher, George A. Labor Force Changes and Participation in Secondary Vocational Education in the United States from 1979-1985. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1988.
243. Robertson, John George
Are Young Noncustodial Fathers Left Behind in the Labor Market?
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Drug Use; Education; Employment; Fatherhood; Fathers; Health Factors; Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; Labor Supply; Marital Status; Parents, Non-Custodial; Parents, Single; Wage Rates

Are Young Noncustodial Fathers Left Behind in the Labor Market? The Study uses the 1990 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) for employment and earnings history and the NLSY for years 1982 to 1990 to establish father and marital status. The NLSY, a random sample of the U.S. population in 1979, has 5112 male respondents in 1990 between the ages of 25 to 32 years. First earnings are decomposed into the effects of working at all, hours worked, and the wage rate. Labor supply and human capital theory are used to understand the factors that account for differences in earnings between noncustodial fathers, custodial fathers and men without children. Custodial fathers earn 65% more and men without children earn 36% more than noncustodial fathers. Noncustodial fathers' lower wages are accounted for by lower levels of education and accumulated experience as well as lower scores on the Armed Service Qualification (AFQT) test. Noncustodial fathers are less likely to work and, when they worked, worked fewer hours in the year than custodial fathers. While the wage, unearned income, marriage premium, health problems, and use of drugs and alcohol account for some of the difference in hours worked, some difference in work effort remains to be explained. Dissertation Aabstracts International, VOL. 56-11A, Page 4557
Bibliography Citation
Robertson, John George. Are Young Noncustodial Fathers Left Behind in the Labor Market? Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1995.
244. Robst, John Michael
Overeducation in the United States: An Evaluation of Its Economic Impact and Its Relationship to College Quality, Individual Ability, and Job Duration
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton, 1994
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Colleges; Job Requirements; Job Tenure; Labor Economics; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Overeducation; Training; Wage Effects; Work Experience

Studies have found that overeducated workers--those who have more education than their jobs require--earn less than comparably educated workers just meeting their job requirements. Sicherman (1991) proposed several reasons for the existence of overeducation. First, overeducated workers have less experience, tenure, and training than adequately educated workers. Second, overeducation may be part of the career mobility process, where workers temporarily accept jobs for which they are overeducated to receive additional training. I use the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men and find: (1) significant biases in previous studies of the wage effects of overeducation due to unobserved heterogeneity; (2) significant ability and quality of schooling differences for overeducated workers; (3) overeducated workers may have greater mobility than adequately educated workers in similar jobs. The first issue addressed is the impact of potential heterogeneity biases on the wage effects of overeducation. If workers with low ability or quality of education are overeducated and receive lower wages, estimates of the wage effects may capture the earnings loss due to ability. Fixed effects models indicate no significant wage differential for overeducated workers. Thus, differences in typically unobserved characteristics may be responsible for the observed wage gap. The next chapter uses proxies for ability and college quality to examine the potential trade-off between the quantity and quality of schooling. Overeducated workers who attended lower quality schools or have less ability may need more schooling to be qualified for a job than the typical worker. Results indicate workers who attended lower quality colleges or have lower ability are more likely to be overeducated. The last chapter tests the mobility hypothesis described above. Sicherman found the average overeducated worker was more likely to change jobs than the average adequately educated worker. This could indicate they are more often employed in occupations which have shorter job durations. Thus I analyze the relationship between overeducation and job duration within occupations. I found overeducated workers may have shorter job durations even when in the same occupation.
Bibliography Citation
Robst, John Michael. Overeducation in the United States: An Evaluation of Its Economic Impact and Its Relationship to College Quality, Individual Ability, and Job Duration. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton, 1994.
245. Rogers, Karen Coulter
Mother's Delinquency, Family Economic Status, Divorce, Children's Externalizing Problems
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Divorce; Family Resources; Income Level; Marital Status; Parents, Behavior; Racial Differences

Family economic status, marital status, and antisocial behavior have all been implicated in the development of children's antisocial behavior. Research to date has focused either on the implications of one of these variables (e.g., divorce) for children's adjustment, or investigated which variables best predict the development of externalizing problems in children. The intercorrelations between these predictors have seldom been taken into account. The purpose of the current study is to integrate these two lines of previous research, and investigate the relative importance of divorce, low income, and parental antisocial behavior in view of their high correlations. Four theoretical frameworks that offer explanations for these associations (economic deprivation, divorce, parental antisocial behavior, and multiple stressors) are described, and the hypotheses generated by each are tested. Analyses were conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which includes information on all children of the women in the sample. Roughly 800 children of continuously married or separated or divorced families were included in the current study. Results indicate that maternal delinquency, divorce, and low income relative to family needs each contributes unique and independent variance to the prediction of children's externalizing disorders. Results found in the total sample held for white children and for boys, but for black children and girls, the prediction of externalizing may differ in important ways.
Bibliography Citation
Rogers, Karen Coulter. Mother's Delinquency, Family Economic Status, Divorce, Children's Externalizing Problems. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 1994.
246. Rosenfeld, Rachel A.
Women's Employment Patterns and Occupational Achievements
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1976.
Also: Social Science Research 7 (March 1978): 61-80
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Attainment; Vocational Education; Work Experience

The author investigates the relationship between employment patterns and occupational advancement. Because women have less extensive and continuous employment, they invest less in human capital, have fewer opportunities for job mobility and gain fewer occupational rewards over their work lives. A small but statistically significant effect of employment experience on occupational status was found for white women, but not for non-whites.
Bibliography Citation
Rosenfeld, Rachel A. Women's Employment Patterns and Occupational Achievements. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1976..
247. Rosenman, Linda S.
Marital Status Change and Labor Force Readjustments: An Analysis of Female Heads of Families
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University (St. Louis), 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Employment; Leisure; Marital Disruption; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Vocational Education

A sample of 275 female heads of families was drawn from the NLS of Mature Women. Functions for the values of home, market, and leisure time were estimated and dollar values for each of the three uses of time were calculated for each woman in the sample. These three values were used as a basis for an investigation of the factors affecting labor supply of women before and after their marriage ended, and changes in labor supply and labor force participation over the time period in which marital status changed from married spouse present to unmarried. The results suggest that the labor force behavior of these women is strongly influenced by changes in the relative values of home, market, and leisure time, as well as by the typically sharp drop in family income that occurs with loss of a husband. A model predicting the probability that a woman will invest in training when her marriage ends is also estimated.
Bibliography Citation
Rosenman, Linda S. Marital Status Change and Labor Force Readjustments: An Analysis of Female Heads of Families. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University (St. Louis), 1977.
248. Rosenthal, Evelyn R.
Structural Patterns of Women's Occupational Choice
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1974
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Mobility; Occupational Attainment; Occupations, Female; Sex Roles; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The sex structure of occupations cannot be predicted on the basis of job relevant traits of women. The view that occupations chosen by women are a response to special traits of women that make them more suitable for traditionally female jobs receives no support from an analysis of the work experience and job relevant traits of a national sample of working women (the NLS of Mature Women (N = 5083) who were 30-44 years old in 1966). The work relevant characteristics examined are: low financial motivation to work, low geographical mobility potential, lack of interest in job advancement, and low labor force commitment. A mature women's occupational choices are less dependent on her early socialization than on aspects of her current environment as determined by the structure of her family of procreation and the opportunities presented by employers and other occupational gatekeepers. This hypothesis is examined using Census reports, published case studies of specific occupations, and interview data from the NLS. Three sets of variables are explored as influential in women's occupational decisions. Social origins, potential occupational attainment, and family life decisions are viewed in a path analytic framework as determinants of women's occupational choices. Examination of the direct and indirect effects of these three sets of variables shows that the work activity of mature women can be viewed as a response to the need to balance non economic family needs with economic rationality. Social origins predict women's occupational choices by socioeconomic level in a manner similar to that of men, but have no effect on women's job choices on the dimension of the degree of male dominance in the occupation. Women's family life decisions, such as the timing of marriage and family building, and choice of spouse also influence women's job choices. Potentialoccupational attainment, measured by education and experience, affect the job choices of mature working women, mediated by the effects of economic need and family constraints.
Bibliography Citation
Rosenthal, Evelyn R. Structural Patterns of Women's Occupational Choice. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1974.
249. Salvo, Joseph John
Work-Related Attitudes and the Earnings Attainment Process of Women and Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Occupational Investment; Sex Roles; Work Attitudes

Although sociological research on the status attainment process has traditionally stressed the relevance of attitudes, such variables have been neglected in recent studies aimed at comparing the earnings attainment process of men and women. Social scientists suggest that the substantial shifts which occurred over the past few decades in sex-role norms have made earnings attainment, on an individual level, more sensitive to differences in attitudes related to work. This hypothesis is reinforced by economists who have for many years portrayed earnings attainment as a function of human capital investment, which is at least in part determined by preferences and expectations related to work. The present study examines the relationship between work-related attitudes, investments in human capital, occupational achievement and earnings attainment among comparable samples of white men and women. Panel data from the NLS are used to construct and test a revised model of earnings attainment which includes two attitudinal variables, namely attitudes toward the employment of women and occupational aspirations, along with multiple measures of human capital investment. The results of this study clearly indicate that attitudes have significant effects on earnings attainment, both indirectly via investment for both sexes, and directly on earnings for women. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to attitudinal factors in earnings models. This is especially true given the fact that attitudes display effects which are significantly different by sex, and in some instances inject the only shades of difference in an otherwise similar picture.
Bibliography Citation
Salvo, Joseph John. Work-Related Attitudes and the Earnings Attainment Process of Women and Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University, 1982.
250. Sandver, Jean Hart
Retired Men's Evaluation of the Timing of their Retirement
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Resources; Health Factors; Labor Force Participation; Retirees; Retirement

The purpose of this research was to determine how retired men evaluate the timing of their retirement. Years after retiring people may reassess their original decision in light of their current economic or health position and decide their initial decision was incorrect. The objective of this study was to determine what characteristics are related to a retiree's change in preference regarding the timing of the decision. To test this change in preference a new model was developed which incorporates the notion that the investment in human capital results in an individual valuing how his time is allocated. The data for this study were the NLS of Older Men. The sample consisted of men who retired between 1967 and 1979 (1460 men). A logit analysis was performed on the data for men who preferred to retire at a later age compared to men who would not have changed the time they retired. The results indicated that the probability of a retiree preferring to have remained in the labor force increased when income was perceived as inadequate and when health was limited at the initial retirement. If the retiree was a homeowner the probability of wanting to remain in the labor force declined. Men whose level of education attained was higher and men who were married when they retired but unmarried in 1981 were also more likely in retrospect to be dissatisfied with the time they retired. This study was able to demonstrate that the probability of retirees preferring they had delayed their retirement increased when health or financial resources were limited.
Bibliography Citation
Sandver, Jean Hart. Retired Men's Evaluation of the Timing of their Retirement. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1985.
251. Schochet, Peter Zygmunt
Alternatives to College Education: Incidence and Returns for Young Males
Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Education; Education, Secondary; Educational Returns; Family Background; Job Training; Military Training; Modeling, Probit; Training, Post-School; Vocational Training

This thesis explores the incidence of and returns to alternatives to college programs for young males using data from the random sample of the 1979-1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Econometric methods are used to study government, vocational and commercial, military, company, and two and four year college programs in a unified choice framework. The economic model is based on the notion that individuals choose the program(s) that maximize their expected net present value of lifetime income streams. Family background, demand condition, and ability variables are used to proxy for the individuals' 'costs' of participation in the particular program. The results show that the vast majority of males invested in at most one type of training program, and that most programs were taken within the first four years after secondary school. The multinomial probit model estimates suggest that there exist some significant correlations among the normalized unobservables in the choice equations. The estimates from the earnings equations show that the training variables are almost orthogonal to one another. Therefore, results from previous human capital studies which mostly treat alternative forms of investment programs in isolation are not seriously biased. The returns to the training programs are generally positive and significant. More importantly, it is the amount of time spent in the programs which yields positive effects and not program participation per se. Results suggest that the studied noncollegiate training programs can be productive alternatives to college for those with access to limited resources.
Bibliography Citation
Schochet, Peter Zygmunt. Alternatives to College Education: Incidence and Returns for Young Males. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1991.
252. Schumann, Paul Louis
Investment in Human Capital: Work, Military Service, and College
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Human Capital Theory; Labor Supply; Military Service; Modeling, Probit

Since policymakers are concerned with the decisions made by youth with respect to their development and training, how these decisions affect potential earnings, and how these effects on potential earnings affect the relative attractiveness of alternative human capital investments, a good understanding of the demand for such investments is important. Previous studies of the demand for human capital investments, however, tended to focus on specific investments. This study presents a choice model in which the individual is faced with an array of discrete investment alternatives. The theoretical model allows for an arbitrary number of alternatives; the empirical implementation examines a limited set of alternatives for male high school graduates: civilian employment, military service, and college. The theoretical model was based on the assumption that individuals choose the human capital investment alternative that maximizes their utility. This assumption generated a general multiple outcome discrete choice model; other assumptions allowed the general model to be written as specific, estimable models, such as the multiple outcome probit model or the multiple outcome logit model. The study also generalizes corrections for sample selection bias to the multiple outcome case. The data set used to estimate the model was the NLSY 1979. Variables used in the analyses included experience, ability, race, marital status, health limitations, possession of a GED certificate, earnings, parents' education, number of siblings, parents' work status, and the unemployment rate. A general finding of the study was that individuals seem to respond to economic incentives in ways that one would expect. In particular, it was found that increases in costs tend to discourage investment and increases in benefits tend to encourage investment. For example, it was found that military enlistments were very elastic with respect to military pay. The results also provide support for the hypothesis that family background can play a significant role in the investment choice process.
Bibliography Citation
Schumann, Paul Louis. Investment in Human Capital: Work, Military Service, and College. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1983.
253. Scott, Marc A.
Statistical Models for Heterogeneity in the Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, Graduate School of Business Administration, 1998
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Longitudinal Data Sets; Modeling, Mixed Effects

We develop a latent curve model for longitudinal data which captures underlying stochastic variation in an interpretable manner. The approach decomposes the variation into data-adaptive components, which we call proto-splines. These components are linear combinations of basis functions chosen to reflect important features of the process under investigation. Our approach can be viewed as a hybrid of principal components analysis and the usual basis function approach to functional data analysis. The resulting components should be more interpretable than principal components and are more flexible than those employed in the basis function approach. In the course of the development we synthesize many diverse approaches to longitudinal data analysis, and propose a framework for determining which technique is appropriate in a given situation. Our proto-spline model class extends the scope of traditional mixed effects models, but still retains their emphasis on the estimation of components of variance, which often have substantive meaning. We demonstrate the consistency, asymptotic efficiency, and normality of the parameter estimates. An application to the analysis of wage inequality based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men is presented in detail, and various diagnostic techniques for longitudinal data are introduced in this context.
Bibliography Citation
Scott, Marc A. Statistical Models for Heterogeneity in the Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, Graduate School of Business Administration, 1998.
254. Seitz, Patricia Ann
Occupational Segregation and Earnings: Gender, Race and Ethnicity in the Youth Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Ethnic Studies; Industrial Relations; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Occupational Segregation; Racial Studies; Skills; Wage Effects

The link between occupational segregation and wages is investigated for a cohort of youth in the 1980s. The analysis contrasts individual-level and structural-level theories of occupational segregation and earnings inequality in an examination of occupational gender and race/ethnic segregation, occupational labor market location and wage processes for youth at two points in the school-to-work transition period. Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Youth Cohort, for six groups of youth workers: Mexican-American women and men, African-American women and men, and anglo women and men. The study finds that occupational segregation by sex and by race/ethnicity is as extensive in the youth labor market as in the adult labor market. As workers move out of the youth labor market sex segregation decreases slightly and race/ethnic segregation increases. Occupational segregation measures are combined with occupational skill, supply/demand, and social organization characteristics to develop a classification scheme that categorizes occupations into ten distinctive occupational labor markets. Gender has the largest effect on workers' occupational labor market location in the youth labor market period; race/ethnic effects emerge as workers progress into the adult labor market. Occupational labor market location exhibits large wage effects once workers enter the adult labor market. Moreover, these effects vary by gender, and to a lesser extent by race/ethnicity, such that occupational labor market location is more important to understanding the wage process for women than for men. Wage effects for occupational gender and race/ethnic composition are discovered for both the youth and adult labor market periods, but these effects diminish when occupational skills, supply/demand and social organization dimensions are heldconstant. The analyses suggest that it is problematic to analyze the effects associated with employment in "women's jobs" without taking into account the accompanying occupational characteristics that influence wages.
Bibliography Citation
Seitz, Patricia Ann. Occupational Segregation and Earnings: Gender, Race and Ethnicity in the Youth Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1995.
255. Sensbach, C. L.
Retirement Timing: Factors Influencing Expectations for Early, Timely, and Late Retirement
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1979
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Attitudes; Early Retirement; Health Factors; Retirement

This study sought to identify factors differentiating persons who expect to retire early from those who expect to retire at age 65 or later and to assess the extent to which actual retirement was consistent with expectations. The conceptual framework of the study stressed the family's interaction with economic, political, and social systems. Data were taken from a subsample of 2,212 respondents that included the Older Men cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys for the years 1966 to 1975. Data were examined in regard to expected retirement age (as of 1971), age, employment status, marital status, number of dependents, parents living, educational level, health limits, health decline, family health, job attitude, assets, savings, home ownership, time unemployed, Duncan Index of occupational status, Social Security, other pension, wage, recent change in wage, and other income. Results show that almost all men who had expected in 1971 to retire early and were old enough to do so in 1975 had retired and remained retired. Factors associated with early retirement expectations were lack of eligibility for Social Security or Railroad Retirement but eligibility for other pensions, higher wages but without as much recent increase in wages, more dislike for jobs, and lower socioeconomic status. Literature on retirement is reviewed, and recommendations for future research are presented. [AgeLine]
Bibliography Citation
Sensbach, C. L. Retirement Timing: Factors Influencing Expectations for Early, Timely, and Late Retirement. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1979.
256. Sharp, Bobby H.
Perception of Financial Progress and Family Saving, Debt, and Labor Force Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Family Income; Labor Force Participation

This study was designed to investigate the association between an attitudinal variable, perceived financial progress, and subsequent family saving, debt, and labor force behavior. Objectives were to compare saving, debt, and labor force behavior during 1969-1971 for families expressing different feelings of financial progress prior to 1969, and to assess the contribution of the attitudinal variable along with economic and demographic variables in explaining subsequent saving, debt, and labor force behavior. Data for this investigation were derived from the NLS Older Men cohort. Consistent with prior research and objectives of this study, five multiple regression models were hypothesized, with liquid saving during 1969-1971, short term debt incurrence during 1969-1971, total debt incurrence during 1969-1971, hours worked overtime or at other jobs by respondents in 1971, and hours worked by respondents' wives in 1971 representing criterion variables. Predictor variables for the models included economic and demographic variables as well as perceived financial progress as an attitudinal variable. Effects of predictors on criterion variables were determined through ordinary least squares regression analysis. Including the attitudinal variable in the regression models along with economic or demographic variables was not found to contribute significantly (alpha) = .05) to the explanation of variance in any of the criterion variables. This occurred whether the dummy variables representing perceived financial progress were entered separately or together. Almost all of the explained variance in saving and debt behavior was due to economic variables (e.g., income level, net family assets, or the behavior lagged one period). Variance in labor force behavior was explained predominantly by variables representing monetary incentives, human capital, and enduring behavior overtime. Evidence from this investigation did not support the theoretical model that economic behavior can best be understood by relating it to the way in which families subjectively view their objective economic environments (e.g., income and asset levels). Instead, the results of this study indicate that objective economic environments and their changes, along with enduring family economic behavior, also have direct effects on the economic behavior of families.
Bibliography Citation
Sharp, Bobby H. Perception of Financial Progress and Family Saving, Debt, and Labor Force Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1980.
257. Siman, Alan Eric
Putting Process into Policy Development: A Case Study in Manpower Policy for Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Bryn Mawr College, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Research Methodology

A policy development model is created to improve the input of social scientists in social policy decisions. The study clearly shows the potentially important contributions of social scientists into policy decisions when theory and research are combined in a process model of policy development.
Bibliography Citation
Siman, Alan Eric. Putting Process into Policy Development: A Case Study in Manpower Policy for Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Bryn Mawr College, 1976.
258. Simmons, Michael Eugene
An Inquiry into the Labor Market Behavior of Black Youth : a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey Data for 1968 and 1971
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Black Youth; Economics of Minorities; Employment; Inner-City; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Supply; Migration Patterns; Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA); Unemployment Rate

Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s there has been a continued worsening in the labor market participation of black male youth. Their unemployment rates are examined in this study. Four possible explanations were examined in attempting to determine factors relating to the causes of the continued labor market withdrawal of black youth. The movement of firms from the central city to suburban areas or the "suburbanization of jobs" is viewed as a prime cause of decreased black participation. Attitudinal variables about work and school are tested to determine if their impact on the labor market performance of racial cohorts differs. Increases in school enrollment and the sensitivity of youth to changes in unemployment rates are also viewed as factors affecting the labor market behavior of youth. These four hypotheses were tested using 1970 census data for Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas and National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) data for 1968 and 1971. Findings suggest that the labor market performance of black youth is hindered by residence in the central city. The types of jobs available to inner city blacks appear to be different than those for white youth. Findings indicate that the pathologies associated with black youth participation will continue unless the pervasive pattern of urban residential segregation is eliminated.
Bibliography Citation
Simmons, Michael Eugene. An Inquiry into the Labor Market Behavior of Black Youth : a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey Data for 1968 and 1971. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1979.
259. Slade, Eric Phillip
An Economic Analysis of Employer Related Health Insurance Coverage and Job Mobility in The United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Health Care; Health Reform; Industrial Relations; Labor Economics; Mobility, Job

This dissertation investigates the relationship between access to employer related health insurance coverage and transitions out of existing jobs or into new jobs. That relationship has recently become an important topic for investigation as policy makers consider major reforms to the current system of health insurance coverage distribution in the U.S. Previous authors have pointed to the deterrent to job mobility created by preexisting conditions exclusions in health insurance policies as an important reason for reform, but give no guidance as to whether nationalized insurance would be more or less preferable to alternative piecemeal reforms to the current system, such as a prohibition on preexisting condition exclusions. This dissertation advances previous research in this area by formalizing a model which illustrates the interdependencies between job changes and access to health insurance coverage. Within this framework I examine the implications of alternative reforms for access to health insurance coverage and job mobility. In the analysis the decision to leave a current job depends on one's ability to obtain a new job which offers health insurance coverage. Also, individuals with a high propensity for job changes are less likely to be hired by employers who offer coverage than are low mobility individuals. Models of job mobility and health insurance acquisition are estimated using longitudinal data on 21-35 year olds from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The estimates of health insurance coverage show that employed individuals who have a history of severe illness or who live in states with high average health care costs are substantially less likely to be in jobs which offer coverage than are individuals who do not have a previous history of serious illness or who live in low cost states. For example, the model predicts that employees with three or more prior illness spells lasting longer than a week are 22 percent less likely to be in jobs that offer coverage than are individuals with no such prior spells. The job mobility estimates show that the existence of health insurance coverage at a current job has no negative effect on job mobility once an individual's propensity to change jobs is added as a control in the job mobility equation. This result together with the health insurance estimates strongly suggest that legislation which guarantees health insurance portability, such as the Kennedy-Kassebaum bill now in Congress, is unlikely to have a significant positive effect on job mobility; it may actually make health insurance coverage less available by increasing the burden on employers who offer health insurance as a fringe benefit, thus decreasing their willingness to do so.
Bibliography Citation
Slade, Eric Phillip. An Economic Analysis of Employer Related Health Insurance Coverage and Job Mobility in The United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 1997.
260. Smith-Donals, Louise
Life Goals and Occupational Plans: A Comparison of Young American Men and Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Family Influences; Occupational Aspirations; Sex Roles

This study analyzed the effects of occupational, marital, and parental life goals on contemporary youths' occupational plans. Its basic thesis was that both sexes' plans for employment in their early 20's are influenced by their midlife career goals but that anticipated family roles affect the occupational planning process of young women only. Regression analysis was used to estimate models of occupational plans and to test whether sex interacted with life goals and other determinants of occupational plans. Nearly all youths studied had formulated occupational and family life goals for age 35, but nearly one- fifth of them did not know what job they could expect to have 5 years after the survey. Unexpectedly, boys were far more likely than girls to lack occupational plans. The former group also was surprisingly heterogeneous with respect to academic ability and socioeconomic status. Educational opportunities appeared to distinguish youthful drifters from those whose plans for early employment are likely to be unrelated to their occupational goals. Youths plans were highly sex- stereotyped and strongly influenced by the prestige and sex-typicality (i.e., proportion of female incumbents) of their occupational goals. Sex interacted with significant others' encouragement to enter high-status occupations, those determining youths' occupational goals, educational plans, and the sex-typicality of early work plans. Desired family size and marriage age were unrelated to the prestige of youths' plans, but the latter produced more sex- stereotyped early work plans. Mothers' occupations influenced both plans process of the boys' and girls' at various points, but maternal employment did not affect youths' plans directly. In sum, the results indicate that socially directed "self- selection," as opposed to overt structural constraints or parental influence, constitutesthe dominant mechanism in youths' occupational planning process.
Bibliography Citation
Smith-Donals, Louise. Life Goals and Occupational Plans: A Comparison of Young American Men and Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1983.
261. Smith, Claudette Lendora
Factors Affecting the Economic Status of Early Childbearers
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Economic Changes/Recession; Family Background; Mothers, Adolescent; Mothers, Behavior; Poverty; Pregnancy, Adolescent

The purpose of this study was to investigate and identify factors that affect the economic status of early childbearers at several points subsequent to the first birth. Both background factors and decisions and experiences of the women after their first birth were studied. The sample consisted of 162 women all of whom gave birth to their first child prior to age eighteen in the year 1979 or later. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were analyzed at three points in time--the year after the first birth, five years later and in 1989. Both descriptive and multiple regression procedures were used to analyze the data. The results showed that both background factors and decisions made by early childbearers, as their lives unfolded, can either help or hinder them economically. Living arrangements and race proved to be important to affecting early childbearers' later economic status. In general being married, living independent of persons other than spouse (if any) and children and being white were associated with positive economic outcomes. Having additional births and having come from a poor family were associated with negative economic outcomes. The effect of education was somewhat ambiguous.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Claudette Lendora. Factors Affecting the Economic Status of Early Childbearers. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1994.
262. Smith, Dionne F.
A Multi-Level Longitudinal Analysis of Racial Convergence and Segmentation between African-American and White Women in the Professions: 1967-1993
Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 2002. DAI-A 63/08, p. 3015, February 2003
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Occupational Segregation; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Women

In the late 1970s some theorists and policy makers asserted that equal opportunity policies had contributed to substantial racial convergence in employment in professional occupations. Segmentation theorists argued that these policies had forced racial minorities, African-Americans in particular, into a subordinate segment of the professional middle class. This study examines the racial convergence versus racial segmentation debate as it relates to the occupational distributions of African-American and White women in professional occupations from the 1960s to the 1990s. Previous studies devoted to the analysis of the employment patterns of African-American and White women in the professions have primarily employed census and other cross-sectional data to determine trends in women's occupational distributions over time. These studies have yielded aggregate-level statistics that are useful for the observation of overall trends; however, this level of analysis does not capture individual-level responses to changes in the social, economic, and political conditions at particular historical moments. Therefore, this study expands previous research with the use of individual-level panel data from the National Longitudinal Study of Labor Market Experience (NLS) for three age cohorts (Mature Women 1967, Young Women 1968, and Youth 1979). A longitudinal investigation of the intragenerational and intergenerational occupational distributions of African-American and White women was conducted in order to assess women's occupational behavior in response to the changing context in which they were making employment decisions from the 1960s to the 1990s. This study also expands results from previous research in that I (1)plify the interaction of race, gender, and class as it relates to the occupational distributions of African-American and White women in the professions within and across cohorts. Overall, the results support both the racial convergence and racial segmentation views. However, the extent of racial convergence and/or segmentation between African-American and White women in the professions is dependent upon the social construction and intersection of race, gender, and class at particular historical moments.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Dionne F. A Multi-Level Longitudinal Analysis of Racial Convergence and Segmentation between African-American and White Women in the Professions: 1967-1993. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 2002. DAI-A 63/08, p. 3015, February 2003.
263. Smith, Judith R.
Maternal Employment and the Young Child
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Census of Population; Child Care; Childbearing; Children, Behavioral Development; High School Completion/Graduates; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty

The dramatic increase in the labor force participation rates of women with young children has become a new social reality impacting on childrearing and parenting arrangements. This study investigates the crossover effects of a mother's employment situation on her young child during the first, second and third year of the child's life. This study not only investigates maternal employment from the traditional perspective of the potential negative effects on the child as a result of coping with a separation from mother, but includes a broader investigation of how the various aspects of a working mother's employment situation affect subsequent development, measured when the child is four to six years old.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Judith R. Maternal Employment and the Young Child. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1994.
264. Snipes, Jason Christopher
Skill Mismatch, Turnover, and the Development of Young Workers' Careers: The Role of Information in the Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Industrial Relations; Job Turnover; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Racial Differences; Skilled Workers; Skills; Wage Differentials

This study explores the relationship between information about young workers' reading and math skills and the development of their careers. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, it exploits the availability of measures of cognitive skills that are not directly observed by employers in order to ascertain whether time spent in the labor market results in a stronger relationship between workers' skills and the skill requirements in their current occupations. The results indicate that the distance between an individual's reading and math skills and the average level of those skills among workers in his occupation captures an important dimension of skill mismatch, and that labor market experience is associated with reductions in skill mismatch. The analysis also reveals a positive association between match quality and years of schooling beyond high school. Importantly, while labor market experience is significantly associated with reductions in skill mismatch among white workers,this is not the case for their black counterparts. In particular, while "over-qualified" white workers move into "higher skill" occupations during their first few years in the labor market, "over-qualified" black workers with the same measured level of reading and math skills do not. The analysis also reveals a significant relationship between skill mismatch and probability of job turnover in any given month. In particular, the farther a worker is above the average level of unobserved reading and math skills in his current occupation, the more likely the worker is to leave his job. However, the farther below the average level of skill a worker is, the less likely he is to leave his current job. Surprisingly, while the analysis reveals only weak support for the hypothesis that the relationship between skills and turnover differs by race among "over-qualified" workers, significant racial differences in the relationship between skill mismatch and turnover do seem to exist among "under-qualified" workers. Overall, the results reported here provide support for theories of statistical discrimination (such as that put forth by Oettinger, 1996) which argue that the black-white wage differential develops over time as a result of the difficulty black workers face moving into better jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Snipes, Jason Christopher. Skill Mismatch, Turnover, and the Development of Young Workers' Careers: The Role of Information in the Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1998.
265. Snow, Carole Lee
Marital Homogamy: Conditions, Contingencies and Consequences
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1984
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Education; Marital Disruption; Marriage; Occupations; Simultaneity

This dissertation reviews the extent of assortative mating with respect to a number of social characteristics that have been studied by other investigators: age, race, nativity, education, occupation, earnings, and socioeconomic status. Researchers have speculated that these traits are organized in a hierarchical fashion, where selectivity on one implies selectivity on another. That hypothesis was explored and refuted. There are, however, statistical contingencies and these traits are ordered according to the extent to which assortative mating occurs with respect to them. This work examined assortative mating as it may be operating through three different characteristics of spouses: education, occupation and earnings. By considering these variables simultaneously, education is seen as the major characteristic by which mate selection takes place. Assortative mating with respect to education accounted for a significant fraction of assortative mating with regards to occupation and earning. Using a large national sample (NLS data), the conditions under which the contingencies of assortative mating operate were explored for first, second and third or higher parity marriages. Gary Becker's hypothesis of increased marital homogamy with increased marital parity was tested, and the results were ambiguous, lending only minimal support. Finally, a comparison of homogamy in stable and unstable marriages reveals that the latter are characterized by a considerable degree of occupational competition between spouses.
Bibliography Citation
Snow, Carole Lee. Marital Homogamy: Conditions, Contingencies and Consequences. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1984.
266. Srisuwan, Poonsin
An Empirical Analysis of Women's Earnings
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1987
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Human Capital Theory; Women; Work Attachment

The participation of women in the labor force in the United States has increased sharply since 1890. This is especially true of married women where participation grew from 5 percent in 1890 to about 50 percent in 1980. A significant gap between wages earned by women and those received by men has narrowed somewhat but still persists. This study seeks to help us understand more fully the determinants of women's earnings and thus throw light on the problem. The data base for this study is the NLS of Mature Women. This survey was conducted between 1967 and 1971 and involved a sample of over 5000 women between the ages of 30 and 44 years. Two models are used, a general model where human capital and family status variables such as number of dependents, marital status and husband's income play a leading role. In the other discontinuous work experience replaces the family status variables. Our main purpose is to improve the reliability of women's earnings functions through the inclusion of more appropriate variables. Two hypotheses are tested. The first is that the human capital model has equal ability to explain the earnings of workers regardless of gender. The second is that the influence of human capital variables is the same for all sectors of the population. The changes in the earnings model which are suggested here do enhance its explanatory power. The first hypothesis is rejected. Many family variables work in opposite directions for the two sexes. The second hypothesis is also rejected since some sectors of the population benefit very little from human capital investment while others realize substantial gains. [UMI ADG87-22102]
Bibliography Citation
Srisuwan, Poonsin. An Empirical Analysis of Women's Earnings. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1987.
267. Stevens, Karen A.
Resources and Stress: The Experiences of Middle-Aged Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Catholic University of America, 1990
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Simultaneity

Investigation of the resources which might promote the adjustment of middle-aged women to potentially stressful events has received little research attention. This study investigates resources affecting the adjustment of middle-aged women to three events which are often accompanied by stress: decrease in income, change in marital status, and change in labor force participation. Incorporation of concepts from stress research into a resource/adjustment model allows for creation of a research framework for predicting stress. The research model consists of: baseline measures of adjustment (measured before the event, Time One), exposure to the identified stressor event, resources that may modify the effects of stress (measured at a time approximate to the stressor, Time Two), as well as outcome measures of adjustment (measured approximately two years after the event, Time Three). Resource measures include social (age, race, education, occupational status/income, socialization, and social contact), psychological (locus of control, gender attitude, and emotional affect), and health (physical status) variables. Simultaneous responsibilities as well as exposure to concurrent stressors are taken into account since these, as well as resources, influence adjustment. Adjustment outcome measures include social, psychological, and physical health variables. Data come from the NLS of Mature Women, a national representative probability sample of middle-aged women from which three separate samples of women, each of which is exposed to one of the stressor events, is drawn. Structural equation models (path analysis) allows for determination of direct and indirect pathways between baseline adjustment, resources, and outcome measures. In general, distinct, different resources are important for each type of adjustment (social, psychological, and health adjustment). Particularly important for overall adjustment to all three events, is education. Also important are social contact, positive emotional affect, liberal gender attitudes, internal locus of control, as well as good physical health. Of the stressor events studied, change in marital status appeared to be the most difficult, whereas change in labor force participation the easiest. It is evident that resources, in general, play a crucial role in aiding adjustment to events involving considerable stress for a good number of middle-aged women experiencing them. [UMI ADG90-27655]
Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Karen A. Resources and Stress: The Experiences of Middle-Aged Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Catholic University of America, 1990.
268. Strocchia-Rivera, Lenore
Self-Esteem and Educational Aspirations as Antecedents of Adolescent Unmarried Motherhood
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Fertility; Mothers, Adolescent; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem; Teenagers

Unlike previous research which relies upon data collected during or after an unmarried teen's pregnancy to inappropriately draw conclusions about antecedent conditions of the pregnancy, this study utilized prospective, longitudinal data from an existing database to determine the roles of self-esteem and educational aspirations in the onset of unmarried teen motherhood, abortion, and pregnancy prevention. Subjects included 390 females from the NLSY who were between the ages of 14 and 19 in 1979, 180 of whom carried their first pregnancy to term and kept the baby, 180 of whom did not incur a first pregnancy either before or during the study, and 30 of whom aborted their first pregnancy. During the 1979 survey, subjects were asked about their educational aspirations, and in the 1980 survey, were assessed using the Rosenberg Scale of Self-Esteem. Extensive fertility information obtained in 1982 allowed for childbearing classification. Stepwise the hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted for the entire sample and for three racial-ethnic groups: Blacks, Non-Latino Whites, and Mexican-Americans. Results yielded important implications for improving social policy and pregnancy prevention programs.
Bibliography Citation
Strocchia-Rivera, Lenore. Self-Esteem and Educational Aspirations as Antecedents of Adolescent Unmarried Motherhood. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1988.
269. Strommer, Bernice H.
Status Attainment Processes in the United States: Analysis by Gender, Race, and Public/Private Employment
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1988
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Occupational Status; Private Sector; Public Sector; Racial Differences

This study examined gender and race differences as well as gender and public/private sector differences in the process of status change among adults over a ten year period using a comparative analysis that distinguished between factors predictive of occupational status at the beginning of the period and those occurring over the period. The effects of four clusters of intervening events and experiences on changing status were examined: (1) educational attainment; (2) labor force participation; (3) marriage and parenthood; and (4) rural/urban residential location. Using data from the NLS of Young Men and Young Women, certain of the hypotheses advanced were confirmed. Namely, public sector employment does exert a greater impact on status attainment for women and black men than for white men over a ten year period. Background events and experiences are more important than those intervening for white men but intervening events and experiences are more important for women and black men. When status attainment is measured in terms of wage, intervening events and experiences are more important than background for women only. Efficacy of resources rather than levels is proportionately more important in determining gender and racial differential gain in occupational prestige. Levels of resources rather than efficacy are, however, proportionately more important in determining differential gain in wage between white men and women. Other differences due to levels of resources are discussed. Because intervening events and experiences, especially education and parenthood, are more important for the disadvantaged, the structure of work in the United States needs to be analyzed and assessed to formulate policies for promotion of further opportunities to achieve equitable advancement.
Bibliography Citation
Strommer, Bernice H. Status Attainment Processes in the United States: Analysis by Gender, Race, and Public/Private Employment. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1988.
270. Studer, Marlena M.
Effects of Parental Resources and Child Care Arrangements on Preschoolers' Cognitive Skills
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1989
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children; Family Income; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Tests and Testing

This study investigates the role of parental resources, maternal work patterns, and the type and quality of child care arrangements in accounting for variation in preschoolers' cognitive abilities. A subset of children from the 1986 Maternal-Child Supplement to the NLSY are used for this research specifically including those three- to four-year-old children whose mothers were married and reported to use non-parental child care arrangements (n = 274). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised served as the indicator of receptive language skills. After holding parental resources and maternal work patterns constant, family home care was found to be related to more favorable cognitive outcomes while in-home care was associated with less favorable cognitive outcomes as compared to center care. Of the parental resources and patterns of maternal work examined, present and past family income and 1 to 39 hours of maternal work (as compared to no work or 40 to 60 hours/week), were posi tively associated with preschoolers' language skills, above and beyond the other variables in the model. Continuity of type of care since the age of two was also associated with more favorable cognitive outcomes for all but those in center care. Minority status was negatively associated with cognitive skills, and no interaction was found between type of care and race. Among children in center care, cognitive skills did not vary by quality even after holding parental resources and maternal work constant. Though a small number of cases limits the generalization of these findings, there was a suggestion of differences by family income groups in the relationship between quality and cognitive skills. Children from families earning less than $18,000 annually have cognitive outcomes which are positively associated with quality of care, as compared to non-linear patterns of association among those in higher income groups.
Bibliography Citation
Studer, Marlena M. Effects of Parental Resources and Child Care Arrangements on Preschoolers' Cognitive Skills. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1989.
271. Sue, Della Lee
Unemployment of Women: A Human Capital Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1996
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Unemployment; Unemployment Rate; Wage Growth; Women

Using the theory of human capital as a framework, this investigation provides a comprehensive analysis of unemployment experiences among women. Central to the analysis is the observation that female labor force participation is generally discontinuous and their transitions include both intra- and inter-labor force movements. The unemployment rate, when viewed as time in the labor force that is lost to unemployment, can be decomposed into its components, incidence and duration. Incidence of unemployment can be further decomposed into its components, the probability of making a labor force transition and the probability of experiencing unemployment, given that a labor force transition has been made. In this analysis, we look at the effect of human capital on each of these components of unemployment. This study also considers other aspects of the unemployment experience. This includes the effect of experiencing unemployment on wage growth, the long run effect of unemployment, and changes over time in the relationship between human capital investments and unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Sue, Della Lee. Unemployment of Women: A Human Capital Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1996.
272. Sugland, Barbara W.
Disparity Between Educational Aspirations and Expectations and the Impact on Adolescent Childbearing
Sc.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Fertility; Teenagers

This dissertation is a prospective panel design that investigates: (1) the disparity between educational aspirations and expectations of a recent cohort of American Youth; and (2) the impact of that disparity on the likelihood of an early first birth. Data are drawn from the first five waves of the NLSY (1979-1983). A cohort of 3,635 males and females, 14 to 16 years of age at first interview, who have not experienced a birth or fatherhood prior to first interview or within 7 months of first interview comprise the study sample. Respondents are followed until first birth/fatherhood, or until the end of the period of observation. It is hypothesized that the disparity between educational aspirations and expectations reflects the difference between an adolescent's educational desires and perceptions of life options. The wider the disparity the more limited life options relative to educational desires, and the greater the likelihood of an early first birth. Statistical models controlling for background characteristics and educational progress are developed using logistic regression and proportional hazard techniques.
Bibliography Citation
Sugland, Barbara W. Disparity Between Educational Aspirations and Expectations and the Impact on Adolescent Childbearing. Sc.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1991.
273. Sullivan, Timothy Sean
Ex Ante Divorce Probability and Marital-Specific Investment: Three Applications
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Divorce; Economics of Gender; Family Studies; Home Ownership; Household Models; Household Structure; Migration Patterns; Mobility; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

The recent increase in the United States divorce rate has coincided with many other fundamental changes in the behavior of married households, including decreases in home ownership and geographic mobility and changes in the labor market decisions made by spouses. This study uses the theory of match-specific investment to argue that the increasing divorce rate may be partly responsible for these changes. A theoretical model is developed which illustrates the role divorce probability plays in the marital-specific investment decision. Couples with higher divorce probabilities are predicted to make fewer specific investments. Empirical tests of this hypothesis, using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics in a simultaneous equations framework, find that couples with higher divorce probabilities are less likely to own and purchase homes, and are less likely to migrate. No significant relationship is found, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, between divorce probability and market- training decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Sullivan, Timothy Sean. Ex Ante Divorce Probability and Marital-Specific Investment: Three Applications. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1995.
274. Sweeney, Megan Mcdonnell
Gender, Race, and Changing Families: the Shifting Economic Foundations of Marriage
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin – Madison, 1998. DAI-A 59/09, p. 3663, Mar 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Gender Differences; Marriage; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences; Women's Roles; Women's Studies

Given dramatic changes in the labor market positions of women and men, gender role attitudes, and consumption patterns that have occurred during the past thirty years, it is expected that the relationship between economic prospects and entry into first marriage will have shifted both for women and for men. In general, we would expect some increase over time in the importance of female economic prospects for marriage and some decline in the importance of male economic prospects resulting from these trends. Yet many important theories of marriage in the social sciences--particularly the work of Gary Becker--assume marriage is based on the economic specialization of spouses and suggest that women's improving economic prospects will make marriage less desirable. This perspective on marriage has influenced a large and diverse group of social scientists who attribute recent declines in marriage to improvements in women's labor market position. This dissertation questions the appropriateness of the assumptions underlying this view for contemporary patterns of marriage. Through an investigation of the changing relationship between economic prospects and entry into first marriage for two recent cohorts of young adults in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience, this research investigates the possibility that the influence of economic factors on marriage has shifted in recent decades. This project further improves upon the conceptualizations of economic prospects used in previous studies of marriage by investigating the impact of future earnings expectations and uncertainty on the marriage process. Because the effects of economic prospects on marriage may change with age, special attention is also focused on how the effects of economic prospects on marriage change both over historical time and over the life course of individuals. Racial and gender differences in the association between economic prospects and marriage are also investigated.
Bibliography Citation
Sweeney, Megan Mcdonnell. Gender, Race, and Changing Families: the Shifting Economic Foundations of Marriage. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin – Madison, 1998. DAI-A 59/09, p. 3663, Mar 1999.
275. Taber, Christopher Robert
Three Essays on Semiparametric Models of Dynamic Discrete Choice, Program Evaluation, and the College Premium in the Eighties
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Education; Earnings; Endogeneity; Heterogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Modeling; Schooling; Skills; Wage Gap

The first chapter takes the first step towards semiparametric estimation of discrete choice dynamic programming models by establishing sufficient conditions for their identification. I develop a specification in which the distribution of the error terms is unrestricted. In addition I allow the agents' information sets to be heterogeneous where this private information may covary with the error terms in a very general way. I treat both a discrete choice version of the model and a semiparametric tobit version in which there exist endogenous random variables which are only observed conditional on the choices made. I show that the parameters in my model are identified with essentially no restrictions on the distribution of the error terms and on the information structure except that they are independent of the regressors. I also show that additional restrictions are necessary to assure identification of the full model and I provide two sets of conditions that suffice. The second chapter applies this model to schooling decision. Its goal is to distinguish whether the rising wage gap between college educated workers and other high school graduates during the nineteen eighties results primarily from an increase in the value of skills learned in college or from an increase in the value of skills typically possessed by college students prior to entering college (i.e. ability). I attempt to make this distinction in two ways. As a preliminary exercise, I use Armed Forces Qualifying Test (AFQT) scores in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to proxy for ability and examine how controlling for observed ability influences the trend in the college premium. Secondly, I control for unobserved ability by specifying a structural discrete choice dynamic programming model in which a student who is deciding whether to drop out of high school takes into account both the direct value of graduating high school and the value of the option to att end college. I estimate the model both fully parametrically and semiparametrically using nonparametric maximum likelihood. The econometric specification provides an interpretable framework for distinguishing between the two alternative hypotheses. The methodology uses only one step which improves efficiency by incorporating all of the information available from the longitudinal data. I summarize these results by documenting the change in the expected gain in earnings from attending college for those individuals who are indifferent about attending college. I find that including AFQT scores in the regressions has no influence on the rise in the college premium. However, controlling for unobserved ability eliminates it. The third chapter is written jointly with James Heckman and Jeffery Smith. It considers the evaluation of social programs using experimental data in the presence of dropouts. We begin with a popular estimator that produces estimates of the mean impact of treatment on the treated in experiments with dropouts. In experiments in which the dropouts receive none of the treatment prior to dropping out, this estimator should work very well. However, in cases where the dropouts may have received some of the treatment prior to leaving the experiment, the estimator may not work well. This paper addresses this concern and the issues it raises. We motivate the discussion with the recent experimental evaluation of the JTPA program which used this estimator even though most of the dropouts received some training prior to dropping out. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Bibliography Citation
Taber, Christopher Robert. Three Essays on Semiparametric Models of Dynamic Discrete Choice, Program Evaluation, and the College Premium in the Eighties. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1995.
276. Taniguchi, Hiromi
United States Men's and Women's Wage Attainment, 1968-1988
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1997
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO); Ethnic Studies; Gender Differences; Industrial Relations; Racial Studies; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap

Using the National Longitudinal Survey, 1968-1988, this study examines the effects of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)law on the hourly wages of workers in one of the earliest generations exposed as young adults to the law. While the opponents of EEO argue that employers adopted these programs as a result of federal pressure, recent studies in organizational sociology have shown the more voluntary aspect of employers' compliance with the law. In light of the retreat of the federal government from EEO in recent years, it is timely to examine the effects of EEO law on workers while considering their variation across political regimes. I draw on the administrative policy perspective and institutional theory in order to specify the ways in which EEO law affects the life chances of minority and female workers. The administrative policy perspective suggests that the intensity of federal regulation has a positive impact on minority and female workers' wage attainment. By contrast, institutional theory suggests that while federal pressure is critical in shaping normative environments stressing social equity, in which employers create gender and race neutral personnel practices, these practices, once implemented, will benefit women and minorities regardless of political regime. This study shows that, controlling for average firm size, black workers, and black women in particular, significantly benefited from EEO law, which I measure by the proportion of employees in each 2 digit industry working in firms covered by the EEO Commission's reporting requirements (i.e., EEO coverage). Moreover, these workers continued to benefit from the law in the late eighties that witnessed a significant setback of EEO law, thus lending support to institutional theory. In general, my results are consistent with institutional arguments that minority workers benefit from the type of bureaucratic procedures that are likely found in "covered" sectors (e.g., job ladders and grievance procedures). In the meantime, my study also confirms the wage depressing effect of occupational segregation particularly for black women. EEO enforcement may be less likely to affect workers in segregated occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Taniguchi, Hiromi. United States Men's and Women's Wage Attainment, 1968-1988. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1997.
277. Taylor, Norma Jean
Occupational Choices of Black Women: A Longitudinal Study of Two Cohorts
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences

Black women, historically, have had a strong labor force attachment, even though they continue to be overrepresented in low-status and low-paying jobs. Because of their membership in two minorities, female and black, they are doubly victimized by sexual and racial discriminatory employment practices. Increased educational attainment, an expanding economy, and passage of antidiscrimination legislation, enabled blacks in general, and black women in particular, to improve their occupational status during the 60s and into the decade of the 1970s. The purpose of this study was to investigate the labor market experiences of two cohorts of black women with regard to their choice of occupation. The two groups, age 20-24 years in 1968, and age 30-34 years in 1967, were participants in the NLS and were followed over a ten-year period. In addition to the longitudinal aspect of the study, which identified "maturational" factors in the sample, the cross-sectional comparison of the two cohorts of the same age at two points in time permitted an assessment of the "secular" changes that have occurred between 1967 and 1978. By the conclusion of the study in 1977-78, both cohorts, in the areas of educational attainment, labor force participation, and occupational status displayed a bimodal pattern. About a quarter to forty percent of each group had achieved some college, showed strong labor force attachment, and improved occupational ranking. Another quartile or so had less than high school education, tended to be out of the labor force or remained in the lower ranked occupations. Despite these gains, the penetration of black women into the high-paying and high- status occupations, in significant proportions, continues to be an elusive dream.
Bibliography Citation
Taylor, Norma Jean. Occupational Choices of Black Women: A Longitudinal Study of Two Cohorts. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1983.
278. Taylor, Patricia A.
Women's Labor Force Participation and Marital Stability in the United States: A Panel Study
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings, Wives; Marital Disruption; Marital Stability; Sex Roles; Wives, Work

Recent investigations into the patterns of women's labor force participation have given us a better appreciation of the complex and varied nature of women's work. Not only does the timing of women's labor force participation differ from men's, but equally different are the kinds of jobs at which women work. Not only does the timing of women's labor force participation differ from men's, but equally different are the kinds of jobs at which women work, remuneration received, and effects on the quality of home life. Few studies to date, however, have examined the relationship between women's work and marital disruption. This study attempts to assess the impact of women's work in the paid labor force on the chance of marital instability. Specifically, role theory is employed as a theoretical mechanism for analyzing various statistical findings of women's labor force participation and marital disruption. Three hypotheses are derived from the role theory: (1) the greater the wife's labor force participation, the less the marital stability; (2) the more the demands of a woman's occupation, the less the marital stability; and (3) the less the wife's income, the less the effect of labor force participation on marital stability. These hypotheses are investigated using multivariate statistical techniques on a national, longitudinal sample of approximately 5,000 women subdivided into whites and nonwhites. Findings from the statistical analyses suggest that for women 30 to 44 years of age, the hours worked in the paid labor force and the occupation of the respondent are important factors in marital stability, even when the husband's resource variables are controlled. Although wife's income is also an important factor in marital instability, contrary to hypothesis (3), there is already a threshold at which point marital stability increases with higher incomes. Theresults of this study suggest the importance of including both husband's and wife's economic variables for research on marital disruption, and the utility of role theory as a heuristic device for understanding the substantive meaning of the analyses.
Bibliography Citation
Taylor, Patricia A. Women's Labor Force Participation and Marital Stability in the United States: A Panel Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1976.
279. Tice, Peter Charles
Poverty Experience and Children's Behavioral and Psychological Outcomes: Contrasting a Latent Growth Curve and Piece-Wise Model of Individual Change
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, August 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Poverty; Deviance; Family Income; Family Structure; Family Studies; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Poverty; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC)

Yearly child poverty rates escalated during the late 1980's and early 1990's, averaging near 20 percent during any given year. These yearly snapshots only tell part of the story by masking a time dimension to children's experience with poverty. That is, some children are poor for a short period of time, while others are poor for a longer period, and some are poor for their entire childhood. Scholars are increasingly concerned with the developmental consequences associated with child poverty, and typically measure these consequences in terms of cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Previous research, however, has not directed attention to the relationship between problem behaviors and self-esteem, especially over time. Given the availability of longitudinal data sets, such as the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), focusing research questions on the long-term consequences of child poverty is now feasible. This dissertation does just that by investigating the relationship between change in children's antisocial behavior and self-esteem as a function of poverty experience. Using three waves of data from the NLSY (1990, 1992, 1994) this dissertation juxtaposes results from two models of individual change: (1) latent growth curve, and (2) piece-wise. The justification for this contrast stems from the equation estimating a latent growth curve slope (change) coefficient. The estimation procedure in a three wave design ignores the second data wave, thus raising the question, 'does ignoring the second data wave smooth over significant change that is captured in a piece-wise model?" The answer is yes; the latent growth curve smooths over significant change suggesting that results from a piece-wise model portray a more accurate (at least statistically) picture regarding poverty experience and change in children's antisocial behavior and self-esteem. Discussion of results focus on the piece-wise model with summary paragraphs from the latent growth curve attached. Further, discussion of the results begins with main effects common to the entire sample, followed by interaction effects between independent variables and seven poverty patterns comprising the sample. The results suggest greater explanatory power in predicting initial value than slope (change) coefficients.
Bibliography Citation
Tice, Peter Charles. Poverty Experience and Children's Behavioral and Psychological Outcomes: Contrasting a Latent Growth Curve and Piece-Wise Model of Individual Change. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, August 2000.
280. Tiemeyer, Peter Eric
Racial Differences in the Transition from School to Stable Employment Among Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; High School Completion/Graduates; Racial Differences; School Completion; Schooling, Post-secondary

In the transition from youth to adulthood the primary activity of young males shifts from school to stable employment. This study demarcates the intermediate period through which young adults pass a period Osterman calls moratorium employment. A six state model of the youth labor market is presented which distinguishes between employment while in school, moratorium employment, and stable employment. The six states in our model are labeled: school only, work only, school/work, military activity, stable employment, and other activity. The particular focus of this study is understanding the racial difference in stable employment during the early adult years. In applying both dynamic and static models to data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth we reach several understandings. The study finds that employment history and socioeconomic background are the most important influences on the racial difference in transition rates from other activity to work only while job characteristics are the most important influences on the racial difference in transition rates from stable employment to other activity.
Bibliography Citation
Tiemeyer, Peter Eric. Racial Differences in the Transition from School to Stable Employment Among Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1993.
281. Torres, Marcia G.
Characteristics and Coping Styles of Young Hispanic Mothers Involved in Education and/or Work: A Descriptive Profile
Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Hispanics; Language Problems; Racial Differences; Role Models

The objective of this study was to develop a profile of young hispanic mothers who were enrolled in school and/or employed in the labor force. This consisted of their general characteristics, their educational, occupational, and motherhood experiences (actual accomplishments, attitudes, ideals, aspirations, expectations, role models and environmental barriers in each category). Subjects' sense of individual control over their lives as well as their family role attitudes were also explored. The sample consisted of all mothers (44 hispanics, 114 blacks, and 181 whites) who were employed and/or enrolled and who were interviewed in the 1979 NLSY. All questions relating to the areas of interest to the present study were drawn from the NLS list of items. Chi-Square analysis was used to determine significant response differences across the three groups. Additionally Chi-Square analysis with Bonferroni Protection was applied where appropriate. Although responses from all three groups were examined, the main focus of the study was on the hispanic group. Through its cross-cultural perspective, the study supported more recent research which indicates that young women facing the considerable responsibilities of motherhood do aspire to achieve. The results did not support the assumptions in the literature that hispanic women are more rigid about family roles than are women from other cultures, nor that hispanic women have a more externalized sense of control. The findings did add support to the hypothesis that hispanic women face external barriers, some of which they share with the other two cultures, others only with blacks, and still others they carry alone (e.g., language, stressors of immigration, etc.).
Bibliography Citation
Torres, Marcia G. Characteristics and Coping Styles of Young Hispanic Mothers Involved in Education and/or Work: A Descriptive Profile. Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 1982.
282. Treas, Judith A.
Occupational Attainment Processes of Mature American Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Family Background; Occupational Status; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This research examines the determinants of occupational achievement among American working women. Of particular interest is the question of race and sex differences in achievement processes as specified by a basic attainment model incorporating social origins, education, and career beginnings. The implications of women's unique family roles, responsibilities, and resources for job success are explored. To gauge the influence of economic context on career beginnings, the opportunity structure afforded by hometown and by historical circumstances is considered.
Bibliography Citation
Treas, Judith A. Occupational Attainment Processes of Mature American Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1976.
283. Trott, Jerry M.
A Veterans' Advantage: World War II and Vietnam Compared
Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 1989
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Military Personnel; Occupational Attainment; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Veterans; Vietnam War

Researchers have observed that World War II veterans have an occupational superiority over their non veteran peers. In contrast, research on the occupational attainment of Vietnam era veterans indicates that they have no such advantage. This study examines the origins of the advantage held by World War II veterans and the reasons Vietnam era veterans have no such advantage. A model of military mobilization is presented to explain the differences in World War II and Vietnam era veterans' attainment. The data presented demonstrate that the high levels of mobilization in World War II, the lower levels of mobilization during Vietnam, and the Selective Service's use of student deferments as a tool of public policy heavily influences veterans' occupational attainment. This study argues that as a consequence of these factors, men from higher socioeconomic levels of society were not included in the mobilization during the Vietnam era, whereas during World War II not only were they included, but also, men from lower socioeconomic classes were excluded. The previously assumed occupational difference are not the consequences of military service, but the by-product of different mobilization structures. Data from both the NLS of Young Men and the Occupational Changes in a Generation II survey are used in multiple regression to confirm the model.
Bibliography Citation
Trott, Jerry M. A Veterans' Advantage: World War II and Vietnam Compared. Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 1989.
284. Turner, Herbert Milton, III
High School Mathematics Coursework as a Predictor of Earnings in the Labor Market
Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania, 2002. DAI-A 63/05, p. 1757, Nov 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Education, Secondary; Family Income; High School Curriculum; Modeling; Training, Occupational

Since 1984, much attention has been given to formulating policies, raising standards, strengthening curricula, and allocating additional resources to encourage all K-12 pupils in the United States, not just those who pursue post-secondary education, to complete mathematics courses that are advanced. A general conclusion reached based on past research evidence is that completing more advanced high school mathematics courses has no effect on subsequent earnings. The evidence is not conclusive, however. This dissertation addresses several limitations of earlier evidence, and provides better evidence on the important question: What is the relationship between high school mathematics coursework and earnings in the labor market? The data for this study were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), High School and Beyond (HSB), and the Occupational Network for Employment and Training (ONET). The last was used to augment the NLSY79 with such occupational characteristics as the level of math knowledge required to performing a job well. To estimate the parameters in the models proposed, ordinary least squares (OLS) and generalized least squares (GLS) were used. The HSB, NLSY79, and ONET, repeated contrast coding, and multiple imputation (MI) were used to address some of the methodological limitations of previous research. This study found that completing math up to Geometry in high school was associated with positive changes in earnings. This association was robust to statistical controls and to use of multiple imputation which retained respondents in the analysis sample which would have been excluded due to listwise deletion. Moreover, this association applied to HSB respondents and varied by highest education attainment and gender. This finding was not discernible for NLSY79 respondents. Faced with the choice of investing public dollars in policies for U.S. students to complete math up to Geometry, or in alternative policies such as raising students' family income; or providing students opportunity to attend a Parochial school through voucher programs, policymakers should seriously consider investing public dollars in policies that promote students completing math up to Geometry--especially for students without college aspirations.
Bibliography Citation
Turner, Herbert Milton, III. High School Mathematics Coursework as a Predictor of Earnings in the Labor Market. Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania, 2002. DAI-A 63/05, p. 1757, Nov 2002.
285. Turner, Michael G.
Good Kids in Bad Circumstances: A Longitudinal Analysis of Resilient Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Birthweight; CESD (Depression Scale); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Life Course; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Resilience/Developmental Assets; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Welfare

A central concern of the life-course perspective has been to demarcate the factors-often called "risk factors"--that place an individual at risk for criminal activity at various points of development. This perspective, however, has resulted in only limited investigation of the factors--often called "Protective factors"--that prevent an individual from becoming involved in these problem behaviors. It is noteworthy that researchers have infrequently investigated the effects that protective factors have on high-risk youths (e.g., individuals exposed to multiple criminogenic risks as opposed to an isolated risk). This research, commonly referred to resiliency research, has generally found that protective factors emerging over the life course from many different domains play an integral role in insulating or buffering youths from the effects of multiple risk factors. The existing research on resiliency, however, has been limited by one or more considerations: the use of cross-sectional research designs; approaching research hypotheses in an atheoretical manner; relying on small samples that are not nationally representative; and generally focusing on a narrow period of the life course. The intent of this dissertation is to overcome these limitations and extend the knowledge base on resiliency by using a sample of 711 individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child-Mother data set. Using multiple analytic strategies, the findings suggest that protective factors only have trivial independent effects, however, their cumulative effects are significant and robust across multiple measures of resiliency. In addition, these findings appeared to be general across categories of race and sex. The evidence did not suggest that protective factors also functioned to moderate the effects of risk. Finally, contrary to much prior research, those identified as resilient did not experience greater levels of depression. The theoretical and policy implications of this research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G. Good Kids in Bad Circumstances: A Longitudinal Analysis of Resilient Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2000.
286. Tzeng, Meei-Shenn
Labor Market Experiences and Socioeconomic Effects on Marital Dissolution
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin – Madison, 1993. DAI-A 54/07, p. 2748, Jan 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Family Studies; Marital Instability; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Occupational Attainment; Socioeconomic Factors

This dissertation examines the effects on marital instability of husbands' and wives' labor market characteristics over the course of marriage since the mid-1960s. Three National Longitudinal Surveys and discrete hazard models are used to analyze the relationship between marital breakup and the changing aspects of couples' labor market characteristics, such as educational attainment, annual income, employment status, and occupation. In this study we investigate the effects on marital dissolution of (1) husbands' and wives' levels, differences, and changes in labor market characteristics; (2) heterogamy status and postmarital changes in heterogamy status; and (3) both spouses' occupations and the differences in couples' occupational achievement. The results suggest that, first of all, total levels of couples' educational attainment and recent work experiences positively affect marital stability. Positive changes in wives' socioeconomic and labor force characteristics over the course of their marriages increase the odds of marital disruption. As for the effects of marital heterogamy, we find that the risk of marital instability is highest among couples whose age and education status are heterogamous, and who do not follow the most traditional working arrangement where only the husband is employed full time in the labor market. Those couples who do change their original education to an equal standing and change employment status to more conventional circumstances within marriages still enjoy higher marital stability. Finally, the results show that occupational attainment has a differential effect on marital instability for husband and wife, with the effects of wife's occupation on the marriage being much weaker than husband's occupation. As for occupational inequality within the marriage, we find that differences in couples' occupational attainment affect the stability of their marriages. In general, marriages with asymmetrical occupational status are more likely to be at risk of marital disruption than those with symmetrical status. Contrary to the conservative belief that the improvement of wives' labor market and socioeconomic characteristics have destructive effects on marriages, our results indicate that marriages in which wives were able to move up the socioeconomic ladder with their husbands do not necessarily have the highest marital disruption rate.
Bibliography Citation
Tzeng, Meei-Shenn. Labor Market Experiences and Socioeconomic Effects on Marital Dissolution. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin – Madison, 1993. DAI-A 54/07, p. 2748, Jan 1994.
287. Umana, Aniefiok J.
Postsecondary Vocational Training and Its Relationship to Labor Force Participation and Wages Among Youth in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Labor Force Participation; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training, Post-School; Vocational Training; Wages, Youth

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between postsecondary vocational training and labor force participation, employment, and wages among youth in the United States. Postsecondary vocational training in this study refers to nonbaccalaureate, vocational training available from the following sources--company training, business and vocational school, apprenticeship. Data for this study were obtained from a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized youths in the United States--Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS-Y) for the years 1985 and 1986. Findings showed that participants as contrasted to nonparticipants in postsecondary vocational training are more likely to be employed or participate in the labor force. The unemployment rates among the participants in postsecondary vocational training were significantly lower than that of nonparticipants. In terms of hourly rate of pay, the analyses for two years (1985 and 1986) showed that participants with postsecondary vocational training received higher pay than did nonparticipants. Also, the average number of weeks worked in a year were higher for the participants than nonparticipants in postsecondary vocational training. For the most part, the NLS-Y respondents who were married, older, completed high school or received a GED, males, non-black and nonHispanic, and had no dependents were more likely to be employed or participate in the labor force, earned higher wages and worked more weeks.
Bibliography Citation
Umana, Aniefiok J. Postsecondary Vocational Training and Its Relationship to Labor Force Participation and Wages Among Youth in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1992.
288. Utendorf, Kelvin Robert
Precautionary Saving and Unemployment Insurance: Theoretical Insights and Their Empirical Relevance
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1993. DAI-A 54/10, p. 3824, Apr 1994
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Economics; Life Cycle Research; Modeling; Savings; Unemployment Insurance

This dissertation examines the behavior of precautionary saving in the presence of unemployment insurance. Given that others have found that precautionary saving could account for fifty percent of the aggregate life cycle capital accumulation in the United States, any factor which influences private precautionary saving has a potentially large effect on capital accumulation and future productivity growth. In chapter one, a precise link is developed between precautionary saving and unemployment insurance. A theoretical model is presented in which risk averse agents save as a precaution against the possibility of future unemployment. Two different types of unemployment insurance schemes are examined: a forced-saving plan with characteristics similar to those found in the U.S. unemployment insurance system; a pay-as-you-go plan possessing attributing similar to unemployment insurance systems found throughout much of the rest of the world. Precautionary saving is shown to be decreasing in the level of unemployment insurance benefits, and in fact is replaced by unemployment insurance benefits by more than one-to-one in the forced-saving model. Chapter two extends the theoretical model by giving agents the ability to borrow or lend. Previous work on precautionary saving assumes that loan markets are closed so that saving is the only means of intertemporal consumption smoothing. Opening credit markets provides agents with a second method of transferring resources across time periods. The addition of a forced-saving unemployment insurance plan is shown to harm non-covered workers by increasing the interest rate they must pay to borrow. Chapter three tests the relationship between unemployment insurance and precautionary saving using panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of men. Wealth-based measures of precautionary saving are regressed on an unemployment insurance generosity index and other determinants of precautionary saving. Precautionary saving is generally found to be positively related to the generosity of unemployment insurance, especially for union members, which may indicate that a greater than optimal portion of wages are replaced by unemployment insurance benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Utendorf, Kelvin Robert. Precautionary Saving and Unemployment Insurance: Theoretical Insights and Their Empirical Relevance. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1993. DAI-A 54/10, p. 3824, Apr 1994.
289. Veazie, Mark A.
Heavy Drinking, Alcoholism and Injuries at Work
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Disabled Workers; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Hazards

The purpose of this study was to investigate heavy drinking and alcoholism as risk factors for nonfatal work injury in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Injuries and problems with alcohol significantly diminish health status and quality of life in America and other parts of the world. Unintentional and intentional injuries represent an enormous public health problem as major causes of premature death, disability, health care utilization, economic losses and social and psychological dysfunction. Injury as a disease and alcohol as an exposure are not separate problems. From a research perspective, it is important to know if heavy drinking or alcohol dependence should be measured as potential confounders in future studies of other risk factors and intervention strategies. From a prevention perspective, this study could have two results. The finding that alcohol problems are not associated with injury would contribute to the evidence that occupational injury prevention strategies should not be focused on problem drinking or problem drinkers, but rather on more promising prevention strategies. The finding that alcohol problems are strongly associated with injury would suggest that, in addition to reducing hazards, prevention strategies that reduce problem drinking or target problem drinkers may have some effects on the risk of injury.
Bibliography Citation
Veazie, Mark A. Heavy Drinking, Alcoholism and Injuries at Work. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1994.
290. Verdugo, Richard R.
Race, Powerlessness and the Status Attainment Process: Evidence from the Sixties and Early Seventies
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Control; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Education; Occupations; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The intent of this dissertation is to examine interracial socioeconomic differentials and also to assess the influence of racial group membership on the status attainment process. In examining interracial socioeconomic differences, three strategies have been mapped. First, black-white differentials are examined in three areas of socioeconomic standing: education, occupation, and income. Second, an extended version of a Blau-Duncan (1967) model of the status attainment process is estimated across racial group boundaries. Extensions to the basic Blau-Duncan model include the following variables: items measuring the quality of school attended by a respondent; a social psychological variable, powerlessness, which reflects perceived control over one's life chances and which may adversely affect one's attainment; and finally, the attainment process over six points in time (1966 to 1971), which shows estimation of changes in the attainment experiences of the same cohort of men over time. Third, racial discrimination is addressed by seeking an answer to the following question: would interracial differences on selected measures of socioeconomic position persist if both blacks and whites were given the same profiles and white advantages?
Bibliography Citation
Verdugo, Richard R. Race, Powerlessness and the Status Attainment Process: Evidence from the Sixties and Early Seventies. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1981.
291. Vilhuber, Lars
Trois Essais sur La Mobilité la Formation des Travailleurs en Allemagne et Aux Etats-Unis (French and English Text)
Ph.D. Dissertation, Université de Montreal (Canada), 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; Heterogeneity; Human Capital; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Labor Market Segmentation; Mobility; Training, On-the-Job; Unemployment Rate; Unions; Wage Models; Wages

Chapter 1 reviews models of on-the-job training and the empirical evidence in light of those models. A brief overview of the theory correlating alternative utility to a worker's wages is given within the context of Chapter 2.

In Chapter 2 we look at how labor market conditions at different points during the tenure of individuals with firms are correlated with current earnings. Using data on individuals from the German Socioeconomic Panel for the period 1985 to 1994, we find that both the contemporaneous unemployment rate and prior values of the unemployment rate are significantly correlated with current earnings, contrary to results for the American labor market. Whereas local unemployment rates determine levels of earnings, national rates influence contemporaneous variations in earnings. We interpret this result as evidence that German unions do in fact bargain over wages and employment, but that models of individualistic contracts, such as the implicit contract model, may explain some of the observed wage drift and longer term wage movements reasonably well. Furthermore, we explore the heterogeneity of contracts over a variety of worker and job characteristics. In particular, we find evidence that contracts differ across firm we and workers type.

Formal on-the-job training and its impact on the sectoral mobility of workers is the subject of Chapters 3 and 4. In Chapter 3, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we re-examine the effect of formal on-the-job training on mobility patterns of young American workers. Confirming previous studies, we find a positive and statistically significant impact of formal on-the-job training on tenure with the employer providing the training. However, expected duration net of the time spent in the training program is generally not significantly increased. We proceed to document and analyze intra-sectoral and cross-sectoral mobility patterns in order to infer whether training provides firm-specific, industry-specific, or general human capital. The econometric analysis rejects a sequential model of job separation in favor of a competing risks specification. We find significant evidence for the industry-specificity of training. The probability of sectoral mobility upon job separation decreases with training received in the current industry, whether with the last employer or previous employers, and employment attachment increases with on-the-job training.

Finally, Chapter 4 studies mobility patterns of German workers in fight of a model of sector-specific human capital. Furthermore, I employ and describe little-used data on continuous on-the-job training occurring after apprenticeships. Results are presented describing the incidence and duration of continuous training. Continuous training is quite common, despite the high incidence of apprenticeships which precedes this part of a worker's career. Most previous studies have only distinguished between firm-specific and general human capital, generally concluding that training was general. Inconsistent with those conclusions, I show that German men are more likely to find a job within the same sector if they have received continuous training in that sector. These results are similar to results obtained for young U.S. workers, and suggest that sector-specific capital is an important feature of very different labor markets. Furthermore, the results suggest that the observed effect of training on mobility is sensitive to the state of the business cycle. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Bibliography Citation
Vilhuber, Lars. Trois Essais sur La Mobilité la Formation des Travailleurs en Allemagne et Aux Etats-Unis (French and English Text). Ph.D. Dissertation, Université de Montreal (Canada), 1999.
292. Viscusi, W. Kip
Employment Hazards: An Investigation of Market Performance
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1976
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Job Hazards; Job Knowledge; Job Satisfaction; Job Search; Quits; Wages, Reservation; Work Attitudes

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze labor market performance with respect to job hazards. Part I analyzes wealth effects and earnings premiums for job hazards. Part II analyzes the quit rate response to job hazards. Part III analyzes the process of worker learning about job characteristics. As predicted, observations of job characteristics and injury experiences were important determinants of worker's job risk assessments.
Bibliography Citation
Viscusi, W. Kip. Employment Hazards: An Investigation of Market Performance. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1976.
293. Wadsworth, Thomas P.
Employment, Crime, and Context: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Work and Crime
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 05A (2001): 1950
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Crime; Industrial Relations; Labor Market Demographics

This dissertation examines the influence of work on criminal behavior. It stems from the perspective that work, at both the individual and community level, can shape attitudes, influence behavior and structure lifestyles. In this research, I examine whether industrial composition, labor market opportunities, and employment experiences, at both the macro and micro levels, can play an important role in affecting crime.

I draw on U.S. Census Data, the Uniform Crime Reports, and individual level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine how industrial and labor market characteristics of areas can influence aggregate rates of crime and how the employment experiences of individuals can effect individual levels of participation in criminal behavior. This multi-level approach allows for the examination of individual and contextual-level causal mechanisms in the employment/crime relationship.

At the aggregate level this research goes beyond much of the current literature by treating industrial composition, not labor force participation as the exogenous variable in aggregate models of work and crime. Industrial composition is shown to influence labor force participation, social organization, and residential segregation. All of these factors influence crime rates. This approach begins to address the role of labor market stratification, as well as de-industrialization in understanding the relationship between work and crime.

At the individual-level I use subjective indicators of job quality to determine whether investments in employment can deter individuals from criminal behavior. The findings suggest an interpretation of the relationship between work and crime that is supportive of the age-graded social control theory proposed by Sampson and Laub (1990). The results also suggest that the industrial and labor market contexts of counties have a significant effect on individual criminal behavior above and beyond the influence of individual employment. Collectively, these findings offer strong support to the labor market stratification and crime perspective. This approach combines social control theory, social disorganization theory, and the routine activities and crime perspective to understand the role of individuals and communities in the relationship between work and crime.

Bibliography Citation
Wadsworth, Thomas P. Employment, Crime, and Context: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Work and Crime. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 05A (2001): 1950.
294. Waldfogel, Jane
Women Working for Less: Family Status and Women's Pay in the United States and United Kingdom
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Britain, British; Cross-national Analysis; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Discrimination, Employer; Endogeneity; Family Studies; General Household Survey (GHS); Human Capital; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Modeling; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Variables, Instrumental; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wages, Women; Work Experience

This dissertation investigates the "family gap" (wage differentials among women related to family status) as well as the gender gap (wage inequality between men and women), using American and British data (the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and of Youth and the Current Population Survey from the US, and the National Child Development Study and the General Household Survey from the UK). In both the US and UK, there is a large family gap. Among young women, mothers' wages lag twenty percentage points behind non-mothers', relative to men's. There are three alternative, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses for this family gap. First, there might be no causal relationship between motherhood and lower wages and both might be due to unobserved heterogeneity. Second, the lower wages might be caused by the lower investment mothers make in human capital, such as education and experience. Third, some portion of the family gap might be due to the direct effects of family status. This dissertation investigates the effects of maternity leave, using an instrumental variables approach to control for the endogeneity of maternity leave usage, and finds a large positive effect of taking maternity leave and returning to the job. It also finds a large penalty to part-time work. Principal policy implications of this research are included.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane. Women Working for Less: Family Status and Women's Pay in the United States and United Kingdom. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1994.
295. Wan, Mohamed
Wan, Azlinda
Participation in Vocational Education and Underemployment Among United States High School Graduates
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education Indicators; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Underemployment; Unemployment; Vocational Education

The controversy regarding unemployment measures in the mid-1970s has caused the measurement of underemployment to be the only labor statistic measurement mandated by the Congress (Pub. L. No. 93--;203, ' 302(b), (c), 87 Stat. 876, 1973). Since then, several indexes--the Wirtz Index, Miller Index, Levitan-Taggart Index, and Hauser's Labor Utilization Framework Index --have been proposed by researchers to better capture the true employment picture. The purpose of this study is to measure the index of underemployment among high school graduates, and to examine the relationship between underemployment and three variables: participation in vocational education, race, and gender. Underemployment in this study includes the jobless, involuntary part-time workers, and the "working poor" Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort (NLSY79), underemployment risks are measured for 1980 high school graduates from 1981-1990. Latent class analysis is used to examine the data because it assumes that underemployment is indirect and therefore cannot be measured directly. However, the availability of some observed variables means a latent variable of underemployment risks could be produced. The observed variables used in this study are gender, race, type of high school program, labor utilization framework, hours worked, and income status. The findings show that the index of underemployment can be measured using latent class analysis. Three classes are created: high-risk underemployment, medium-risk underemployment, and low-risk underemployment. The results show that the risk of underemployment varies from year to year; however, as the year progresses, high-risk underemployment is the lowest compared to the other two types of underemployment risk. This implies that high-risk underemployment decreases as students age and gain more experience in the labor market. The findings also show that non-whites have a greater risk of being underemployed compared to whites. In addition, females tend to be more underemployed than males. Lastly, participants enrolled in general education have a greater risk of being underemployed than participants enrolled in college preparatory or vocational education programs. Index of underemployment can be a tool for evaluating the effect of policy, evaluating the efficiency of education and training programs, and funding allocations.
Bibliography Citation
Wan, Mohamed and Azlinda Wan. Participation in Vocational Education and Underemployment Among United States High School Graduates. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1998.
296. Wang, Boqing
Maximum Likelihood Estimation With Sample Selection: An Application to the Labor Supply of Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Economics; Labor Supply; Modeling; Sample Selection; Women; Work Hours

Sample selection bias has been a focus in econometrics since the 1950s. However, previous methods did not provide efficient and robust estimates for a three-equation system with sample selection. To find efficient and robust estimates, a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) estimate model based on a trivariate logistic distribution is developed in this study. This FIML model is applied to the three-equation model of female labor supply. The data used in this study are from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The empirical results in this study show that the three-equation FIML model of female labor supply provides an efficient and robust estimate for a woman's hours of work while the Heckman two-stage method does not. The three-equation FIML model was extended to a four-equation FIML model with double selection biases. The FIML models developed in this study have wide application in econometric analysis.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Boqing. Maximum Likelihood Estimation With Sample Selection: An Application to the Labor Supply of Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1994.
297. Wazienski, Robert J.
Structural and Individual Determinants of Commitment to Work
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1987
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Industrial Sector; Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards; Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Occupational Status; Work Attachment

The purpose of this research is to clarify the concept of commitment, assess some of the determinants of commitment to work, and isolate and discuss gender differences in commitment to work. The study utilized data from 6,396 individuals in the Young Men and Young Women cohorts of the NLS. Discriminant analysis was used to assess a model including occupational status, industrial sector, gender, race, education, marital status, job tenure, job content, job context, job satisfaction, and locus of control as determinants of commitment to work. It was hypothesized that the structural factors of occupational status and industrial sector are more important determinants of commitment to work than the individual factors including personal characteristics, perceptions of job characteristics, and attitudinal characteristics for both genders. Results from the analyses fail to support this hypothesis. Overall, the individual determinants of perceptions of job content and job satisfaction are the most consistent and significant determinants of commitment to work. Structural variables are significant determinants only for men. For women, personal factors such as education and marital status are significant. These findings are interpreted and discussed in terms of the different sources of power and control for men and women.
Bibliography Citation
Wazienski, Robert J. Structural and Individual Determinants of Commitment to Work. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1987.
298. Wilk, Steffanie Louise
Cognitive Ability, Person-Job Fit, and Occupational Mobility: a Process Model and Longitudinal Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Industrial Relations; Job Analysis; Job Rewards; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Modeling; NLS of H.S. Class of 1972; Vocational Guidance

This study attempted to develop and test a model of job mobility as a function of congruence between abilities and job complexity. The gravitational hypothesis (McCormick, Jeanneret and Mecham, 1972; McCormick, DeNisi and Staw, 1979), a keystone of this objective, posits that individuals will sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level. A first objective of this research was to examine empirically the gravitational hypothesis. A second objective of this study was to examine the effect of fit between ability and job complexity on both (a) satisfaction with the tasks and duties of the job and (b) changes in job complexity over time. This created a triad of key variables: FIT (between ability and job complexity), Job Satisfaction (specifically the facet focusing on the tasks and duties of the job itself), and Job Complexity Changes (including both intra- and inter-organizational mobility). Specifically, this research tested the notion that better fit would lead to higher job satisfaction and fewer job complexity changes. Further, this research examined the indirect effect between fit and job complexity changes through job satisfaction, hypothesizing that higher job satisfaction would lead to fewer job complexity changes. Two national, longitudinal datasets were used to test the hypotheses: the National Longitudinal Study of the Class of 1972 and the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience--Youth Cohort. Support was found for the gravitational hypothesis. Ability was a predictor of job complexity level over time, even after controlling for variables such as education. As for the linkages between the triad of key variables, only the linkage between ability-job complexity fit and job satisfaction was not supported. The linkage between ability-job complexity fit and changes in job complexity wassupported, where the better the match between ability and job complexity the less likely a change in job complexity in future time periods. The linkage between job satisfaction and job complexity change was supported where the higher the job satisfaction the less likely a change in job complexity. These results have implications for employers, vocational counselors and applicants. Suggestions for improving the ability-job complexity match are provided.
Bibliography Citation
Wilk, Steffanie Louise. Cognitive Ability, Person-Job Fit, and Occupational Mobility: a Process Model and Longitudinal Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1995.
299. Wilson, Alisa
A Documentation of Woman's Intersectorial and Occupational Mobility Using a Multidimensional Model of Economic Segmentation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1984
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Mobility, Job; Occupations; Women

This study of women's movement between segments of the economy assesses whether intersectoral mobility occurs and whether selected industry characteristics prohibit such movement. Interest in these questions stems from the belief that industries, as structural institutions, exert a unique influence on the mobility process. The first part of the study seeks to determine whether economic segmentation is more realistically portrayed by a bifurcated model of the economy, as suggested by dual economy theory, or by an empirically defined model of economic segmentation which allocates industries to sectors on the basis of ten concept groups: concentration, size, capital intensity or labor intensity, foreign involvement, government intervention, profit, autonomy, productivity, unionization, and growth. The dual economy typology is rejected in favor of a multidimensional typology of economic segmentation. Major findings are: (1) intersectoral mobility occurs, albeit with decreasing frequency as women age. (2) black women and white women exhibit quite different mobility patterns for the two time periods in question. (3) industrial sectors retain women between time 1 and time 2 on a basis much greater than that expected to occur by chance. This finding confirms the independent effect that industrial groupings exert on labor market mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Wilson, Alisa. A Documentation of Woman's Intersectorial and Occupational Mobility Using a Multidimensional Model of Economic Segmentation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1984.
300. Wittig, Deborah Richey
Transitions in the Life Course and Gender Role Ideology: Stability and Change from Adolescence to Adulthood
Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 1998. DAI-A 59/04, p. 1351, Oct 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender; Gender Differences; Life Course; Racial Differences; Women's Roles

We do not yet have an understanding of how gender role ideology changes over time and which events impact these beliefs. In this research, a socialist feminist perspective is coupled with a life course paradigm to address overall patterns, and individual-level change in gender role ideology using panel data. Patterns of change in gender-role ideology about women, work, and the family were explored using the National Longitudinal Surveys-Youth cohort (NLSY). This panel study consists of a cross-sectional sample of U.S. youth, age 14 to 21 in 1979 when they were first interviewed. Measures of gender-role beliefs were collected in 1979, 1982 and 1987 and these observed variables were used to construct a scale of gender-role ideology, reflecting a continuum ranging from traditional-to-egalitarian beliefs. The analysis consisted of three phases. First, the measurement was tested to determine if gender role ideology was defined the same by gender, race and across time (1979-82-87). It was determined that there were gender and racial variations and differences over time. Second, changes by age-cohort, race, year (1979-82-87), and gender were examined for gender and racial patterns. It was determined that some patterns of change are similar in nature across race and gender while other change is more specific to race and gender categories. Finally, I investigated to determine if life events acted as sources of change in gender role ideology across the transitions of the young adult years. All portions of the analysis were performed separately for women and men by race to examine whether changes in gender-role beliefs appear to occur from similar sources of influence. The author concludes that, to some extent, life course events affect the gender role beliefs of gender and racial populations differently. While there are variations to these generalizations, men tend to be affected most by education while women tend to be affected by both work and educational experiences. Surprisingly, few of the other life course events were significant predictors of change in gender role ideology and further study is indicated.
Bibliography Citation
Wittig, Deborah Richey. Transitions in the Life Course and Gender Role Ideology: Stability and Change from Adolescence to Adulthood. Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 1998. DAI-A 59/04, p. 1351, Oct 1998.
301. Wolfe, Jerri L.
Employment Experience and Job Satisfaction of New Mothers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University, 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Patterns; Job Satisfaction; Mothers; Working Conditions

In spite of the high family demands associated with having an infant, an increasing number of women are choosing to retain close ties to the labor force during this period. This study explored the employment adjustments and job satisfaction of a group of women who became mothers for the first time. The data for this study were taken from the NLSY. Thirty-one married women who had their first child between the 1981 and 1982 interviews and were employed during both the 1980 and 1982 interviews were the focus of analysis. Two additional groups of women, childless women (n = 171) and women with at least two children (n = 62) were included in the analysis for comparison purposes. Strategies for managing the new responsibilities of parenthood included decreasing hours worked on the job and changing the shift worked. Few other changes were observed in the comparison of pre-pregnancy job characteristics with postchildbirth job characteristics. No change in job satisfaction was found. This stability may be due to the fact that 65 percent of new mothers were attached to one employer during this two year period. Additional analysis revealed that 91 percent of new mothers had only one employer during the year they gave birth. Thus, it appears from these data that the ability to return to the same employer following childbirth may be pivotal in women's decision to return quickly to the labor force.
Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Jerri L. Employment Experience and Job Satisfaction of New Mothers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University, 1987.
302. Won, Changhee
Unionism and Turnover: Exit-Voice Tradeoff, Firm Size, and Spillover Effects
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Firm Size; Firms; Grievance System; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Unions; Wages

It has been shown in the literature that unionism has a deterrent effect on turnover primarily due to union wage premium and voice mechanism. The exit-voice tradeoff hypothesis was established from the tradeoff between voice and exit. The existing test of the exit-voice tradeoff proposed by Freeman is to show a negative coefficient on the union membership variable when wages are controlled in quit regressions. Whether such a test is valid is in fact questionable. If the union effect is to be regarded as the composite effect that captures all but the union wage effect, and if the composite effect contains other effects as well as the voice effect, then union membership is not merely a proxy for union voice. Based on this criticism, the author proposes another test of the exit-voice tradeoff and incorporates an explicit instrument for union voice, that is, the percentage of union contracts covered by grievance provisions. To identify the more precise effects of union voice, some omitted variables such as firm size, fringe benefits, and tenure are also included which are correlated with unionism. This paper proposes that large nonunion employers faced with the threat of unionization may remain nonunion by mimicking unions on grievance provisions but not on seniority rules. To test the exit-voice tradeoff, a turnover model is used in which a worker quits his current job if the total compensation of the best alternative job exceeds the total compensation of his current job plus the cost of changing jobs. The results from the NLSY, Young Men, and Old Men demonstrate that the exit-voice tradeoff is seen among younger union workers but not among older members. The data also support the argument that large unorganized firms mimic union grievance procedures to deter unionization.
Bibliography Citation
Won, Changhee. Unionism and Turnover: Exit-Voice Tradeoff, Firm Size, and Spillover Effects. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1988.
303. Wu, Huoying
Two Essays in the Human Capital Theory
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Gender Differences; Human Capital Theory; Job Turnover; Layoffs; Leisure; Life Cycle Research; Quits; Racial Differences

This dissertation contains two essays. In the first, a dynamic structure of the wage generating process is developed and estimates of this continuous-time model are made using the NLSY data from 1979 to 1985. The value of human capital stock is assumed to be a stochastic process, as are the wage rates which correlated at different points in time in the theoretical model and empirical work. In detail, a life-cycle wage process is developed from the human capital theory by considering the value of leisure and uncertainty in the investment in human capital. The individual is assumed to maximize the present value of the sum of both life-cycle income and the value of leisure, since there exists a trade-off between leisure and income. The model implies that the range of possible values of human capital the individual could obtain diverges as time progresses. The rental rate of human capital and the productivity coefficients using MLE is then estimated. Additionally, a method of estimating continuous-time optimal control problems with a stochastic state constraint is developed. These models have lacked empirical validation previously. Instead of the age-earnings profile, the age-wage profile is examined. In the second essay, the effects of firm-specific human capital and sharing ratio on permanent and temporary separations are analyzed. In a multiperiod framework, the profiles of quit probability, layoff probability, recall probability, optimal sharing ratio, specific human capital, and the expected wage can be obtained over the life-cycle. In addition, the effects of the sharing ratio and the amount of specific human capital on the layoff, quit, recall, and wage rate are systematically discussed in a three-period model.
Bibliography Citation
Wu, Huoying. Two Essays in the Human Capital Theory. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989.
304. Yang, Hae-Sung
Union-Nonunion Wage Differential: A Human Capital Approach
Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Occupational Investment; Unions; Wage Differentials

The objective of this study is to empirically examine union-nonunion wage differential in the context of human capital theory. Previous theoretical and empirical studies explaining the union-nonunion wage differential are surveyed. Most recent empirical studies have shown that there exists a quite large wage differential of about 15 to 30 percent. In examining the underlying causes which bring it about, most conventional studies stand on the view of the wage differential as monopoly rent. This approach, however, does not explain several aspects of real phenomena. Recently, several theories which interpret the wage differential from different points of view have been developed. This study attempts to analyze the role of unions in the creation of wage differentials via their effect on investment in specific human capital. From the theoretical argument one testable hypothesis follows: the worker-financed stock of specific human capital would be increased under unionism, and thereby some portion of the allegedly higher wage of union workers would be explained by the return to increased union worker-owned specific human capital. The empirical content of the hypothesis is tested by the introduction of the interaction term between union dummy variable and rehire rate. The primary data for the study were taken from the NLS of Young Men. Cross-sectional results show that one-third or one-quarter of union wage premium might be credited to the specific human capital possessed by union members. Additionally, the empirical estimates from the wage change equation, which are utilized to take fuller advantage of the longitudinal nature of the data, provide some indirect evidence for the support of the hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Yang, Hae-Sung. Union-Nonunion Wage Differential: A Human Capital Approach. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University, 1982.
305. Yankow, Jeffrey Jon
Migration, Job Change and Wage Growth Among Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Job Turnover; Labor Economics; Migration; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Probit; Wage Dynamics; Wage Growth

Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, this dissertation explores the relationship between migration, job mobility and wage development during the early stages of the working career. Attention is focused on the between-job wage growth accompanying job transitions, comparing the returns from changing jobs across labor markets relative to local job changes. Between-job wage growth regression analysis reveals that, holding other factors constant, workers receive a positive return to migration above the return to job changing as predicted by the human capital model of migration. Workers migrating between jobs collect an additional 3.2 percent wage boost above the average return to within-location job change. Recognizing that economic rewards to migration need not be forthcoming immediately upon a change of locations, the next portion of this research complements much of the preceding work by allowing for the full pecuniary gain to be realized over an extended time horizon. Time-varying returns are measured using an extended panel of data to estimate a more flexible earnings specification than used in previous studies of migration. In particular, this research demonstrates that young migrants receive significant positive returns to geographic mobility. These pecuniary returns generally accumulate over a five-year period following migration, during which time migrants experience superior wage growth vis-a-vis non-migrants. Starting at levels nearly identical to non-migrants in the years just prior to migration, migrant wages increase steadily over the first five years post-migration relative to the non-migrant benchmark. After five years, migrant wages peak nearly 5 percent higher than the non-migrant wage level. The final section estimates a Probit model of migration accounting for the selectivity associated with the decision to change jobs. Because migration is only observed conditional on a change of employers, full model specification necessitates both a migration and job change equation. The model is shown to be particularly useful for disentangling the impact of variables on the decision to migrate from their separate effect on the decision to change jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Yankow, Jeffrey Jon. Migration, Job Change and Wage Growth Among Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1999.
306. Ye, Huaide
Does the Family Structure Matter in the Process of Migration Decision-Making? A Longitudinal Analysis of Migration among American Youth: 1984-1994
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Ethnic Studies; Family Income; Family Structure; Human Capital; Migration; Racial Studies; Skills; Training

In this research, I consider how family structure affects the propensity of household migration among American young adults. I focus on three questions: (1) Are different family structures causes of households to stay or migrate, and migrate in short or long distance? (2) Do some family demographic characteristics, household human capital, and household economic status within each family structure influence the household or family migration decision making and if they do, to what extent? (3) Are different migration patterns among different racial and ethnic groups associated with their different family structures? I address these questions using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) with a pooled sample of 92,293 respondents aged 19 to 36 from the 1984 to 1994 survey rounds. The results reveal that overall, without controls, male broken families have experienced greater likelihood of migration than married couple families for all racial and ethnic groups and after controls, male broken families have experienced greatest likelihood of migration among all family structure categories for all racial and ethnic groups except for Cuban Americans. Black never-married mother families are least likely to migrate both in short and long distance before and after controls. Within family, number of own children, education, total family income, and respondent employment status are predictors in household migration decision-making for all racial and ethnic groups except for Cuban Americans. However, the findings of a differential in effects of family structure on household migration propensity among different racial and ethnic groups suggest a need for developing different migration theories and models for different racial and ethnic groups. From a policy perspective, the important findings that the persistence of least likelihood of migration both in short and long distance for black never-married mother families before and after controls point to the need for possiblepolicy intervention. If high welfare payments have served as an attraction to these black never- married mothers in the regions with the highest unemployment rates, more appropriate policy seems to have them increased their human capital through training and skill upgrading given that human capital is known to be positively associated with migration.
Bibliography Citation
Ye, Huaide. Does the Family Structure Matter in the Process of Migration Decision-Making? A Longitudinal Analysis of Migration among American Youth: 1984-1994. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1999.
307. Yip, Chun Seng
Job Search and Labor Force Participation in Equilibrium: Theory and Estimation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2004. DAI-A 65/06, p. 2312, Dec 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Job Search; Labor Economics; Labor Force Participation; Modeling; Quits; Welfare

Recent empirical evidence suggests that an increasing number of working-age individuals have a weaker attachment to the labor force. However an important short-coming of much current work applying search models to frictional labor These are potentially significant omissions especially because search models are often applied to data and used to perform counterfactual policy experiments. I develop an equilibrium model where workers determine participation/exit decisions as well as their job quit/acceptance rules. Unlike previous models, all transitions are the result of optimal decisions. The key features of the model are that being unemployed entails a search cost compared to being out of the labor force, and workers face occasional shocks to their non-work alternatives, causing them to revise their labor market entry/exit and job accept/quit decisions. The model is structurally estimated using data on young women from the 1979 Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). Despite data limitations arising from crucial unobserved market-entry and exit transitions, I am able to estimate the model. This is accomplished by modifying the likelihood contributions through the use of Bessel functions. The model estimates the magnitude of these hidden transitions and provides a more complete picture of the labor market movement than with many current models. The model is used to assess and compare the effects of labor market policies targeted at the unemployed, with policies towards both unemployed and nonparticipants in the labor force. These policy simulations suggest that tying welfare payments to search activity has very different consequences from welfare payments regardless of search status (unemployment payments vs. non-employment payments). These simulations provides a more thorough analysis of canonical labor market policy that is not possible with previous models without endogenous participation and quits.
Bibliography Citation
Yip, Chun Seng. Job Search and Labor Force Participation in Equilibrium: Theory and Estimation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2004. DAI-A 65/06, p. 2312, Dec 2004.
308. Yoon, Byungsik
An Estimation of the Returns to Migration of Male Youth in the United States: A Longitudinal Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Human Capital Theory; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Labor Market Outcomes; Migration; Modeling; Urban and Regional Planning

The human capital model of migration treats migration as an investment decision in which an individual is likely to move if he perceives that the present value of a future stream of earnings at a destination exceeds the present value of expected earnings at the origin by an amount at least equal to the cost of moving. This implies that the earnings of migrants increase faster than those of nonmigrants and the primary objective of this study is to test this hypothesis in a longitudinal framework. The hypothesis is examined on the basis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1991. The target population is young males in the civilian labor force of the United States. This study is also confined to the individuals who can be presumed to make autonomous migration decisions. Rates of earnings growth are measured by the first difference of the natural logarithm of real annual earnings. The relationship between migration and earnings growth is examined in the context of a set of contemporaneous personal, occupational, and locational characteristics which are incorporated as control variables. The random effects model is used to estimate coefficients for the relationship between migration and the growth of earnings. Inter-county and inter-state migration are shown to have positive effects on the growth of earnings, at least for the first instance of migration in an individual's history. Coefficients that measure the effects of repeated instances of migration are not statistically significant. Educational attainment and job- related experience are observed to have positive effects on earnings growth for both migrants and nonmigrants. However, these effects are greater for migrants. The effects of migration on the growth of earnings apparently diminish with a migrant's age. The rate of post-migration earnings growth for migrants who are classified asprofessional, managerial, and technical workers, is also shown to be faster than that of their nonmigrant counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Yoon, Byungsik. An Estimation of the Returns to Migration of Male Youth in the United States: A Longitudinal Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1995.
309. Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Welfare Dynamics, Support Services, Mothers' Earnings, and Child Development: Implications for Contemporary Welfare Reform
Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Cognitive Development; Human Capital; Job Training; Mothers, Income; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Support Networks; Welfare

These three prospective longitudinal studies, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), address the gap in the literature regarding the effects of welfare reform on children. Key questions addressed include whether welfare dynamics and support services relevant to welfare reform in the first five years of life are associated with subsequent mothers' earnings and middle childhood developmental outcomes. Studies 1 and 2 focus on child cognitive and mental health outcomes, respectively. Welfare dynamics variables include time on welfare, cycling on and off welfare, and degree to which welfare and work are combined. Support services include three forms of child care (relative, babysitter, and center-based), as well as human capital supports (child support, job training, and education). In study 1, small positive associations with mother's earnings were found for child support, education, and job training. Small positive associations were also found between child support and both math and reading scores. Finally, positive associations of medium effect size were found between center care and both mothers' earnings and child PPVT scores. The results suggest the potential value of welfare reform approaches which emphasize long-term human capital development. Interactions among welfare dynamics and support services suggest that effects of supports on child cognitive outcomes differ according to the mother's welfare dynamics. In Study 2, no main effects of welfare use patterns or support services were found on child externalizing or internalizing symptoms. However, as with the cognitive outcomes, interactions imply subgroup differences. For example, the combination of job training and high levels of work while on welfare is associated with elevated levels of externalizing symptoms, suggesting a "stress overload" process resulting in potential harm to children's development. In Study 3, multi-dimensional cluster profiles of welfare dynamics were developed, validated using mother's earnings as the criterion, and then investigated in relation to the child outcomes. Clusters found include Short-Term, Short-Term Work Exit, Working Cyclers, Non-Working Cyclers, Cycle to Long-Term Exit, and Long-Term groups. Children of the Working Cyclers were found to show higher levels of internalizing symptoms than those of Non-Working Cyclers. Implications for contemporary welfare reform policies are discussed. Copyright: Dissertation Abstracts
Bibliography Citation
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu. Welfare Dynamics, Support Services, Mothers' Earnings, and Child Development: Implications for Contemporary Welfare Reform. Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1998.
310. Yu, Chien
Factors Influencing Young Women's Occupational Choice and Aspirations
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1987
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Fathers, Influence; Industrial Sector; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Choice; Residence; Vocational Education; Women; World of Work Test

The data used in this study were selected from the Young Women cohort and the NLSY. The purposes of the study were: (1) to investigate the differences in employment patterns of the 1968 women's cohort and the 1979 women's cohort aged 14 to 22; (2) to explore the differences in occupational aspirations of the sames cohorts; and (3) to apply the regression models for young women's occupational choices and aspirations to the 1979 cohort. The statistical techniques of chi-square, independent t-test, and univariate and multivariate multiple regressions were applied in the study. The findings were: (1) More women from the 1979 cohort aged 14 to 17 were engaged in professional, technical, and kindred levels than those from the 1968 cohort. In the 18 to 22 age group, however, the pattern was reversed. (2) Fewer women in the 1968 cohort aged 14 to 17 were found to be hired in manufacturing, transportation, communication and public utilities than their counterparts in 1979. (3) The father's education and the female's residence were found to be associated with a female's occupational choice. (4) There is an interactive effect of a female's age and education on her occupational choice. (5) Females enrolled in an academic program had higher scores in occupational choice than those enrolled in vocational and general education. Additional findings with respect to age, education, residence, and occupational aspiration are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Yu, Chien. Factors Influencing Young Women's Occupational Choice and Aspirations. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1987.
311. Zak, Thomas A.
Earnings and Occupational Amenities
Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Occupational Attainment; Occupations; Working Conditions

This dissertation examines the role of nonpecuniary compensation for workers. The idea of higher wages compensating for onerous tasks is not new in economics literature but, until recently, very little empirical work was attempted in this area. Some factors which influence psychic income may be measurable. The statistical relationship between wages and job characteristics may indicate the marginal evaluation that people place on different features of the quality of life as reflected in job related factors. Such valuations are known as hedonic wages. Job characteristic variables from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles are introduced into reduced form wage equations containing personal characteristics from the NLS to provide hedonic wage estimates. A statistically significant negative job characteristic coefficient implies that workers accept lower pecuniary compensation in jobs containing the condition of an occupational amenity. A disamenity, however, requires additional monetary compensation to induce workers to undertake these tasks and is indicated by a positive coefficient. Hedonic wage equations estimated across all occupations yield weak and misleading results. Personal characteristics, for the most part, determine the occupational opportunity set to which an individual has access; but many personal attributes remain unmeasured. Segmentation into five groups of occupations produces mixed results. Compared to estimates across all occupations, each subset of occupations has far fewer "wrong signed" coefficients. Three occupational groups including jobs characteristics has very little effect. The most encouraging results come from the professions. Both the increase in explanatory power and changes in personal characteristic coefficients indicate that psychic income plays a major role in these occupations. Regressionsbased on laborers also produce interesting results, with positive compensating differentials for a number of conditions believed to be onerous.
Bibliography Citation
Zak, Thomas A. Earnings and Occupational Amenities. Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1980.
312. Zalokar, C. Nadja
A Human Capital Model of Sex Differences in Occupational Distribution and Wages
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Investment; Training, Occupational

This dissertation develops a human capital model of occupational choice in order to determine the extent to which differences in the labor force participation patterns of men and women can explain sex differences in the distribution of first occupations. In Chapter 1, the theoretical and empirical research on the causes of sex differences in occupations is examined. It is argued that a better human capital model of occupational choice must be developed before the human capital explanation of sex differences in occupations can be given a fair test. In Chapter 2, a simple human capital model of sex differences in occupational distribution and wages is developed in a general equilibrium framework. The model suggests how changes in the lifetime labor force participation patterns of women can lead to changes over time in the occupational distribution of men and women and in their relative wages. In Chapter 3, a partial equilibrium framework is used to develop a more realistic human capital model of occupational choice. Under the assumption that occupations require different amounts of general and occupation-specific training, it is shown that the length and timing of discontinuities in the labor force participation pattern affect occupational choice, because they affect the optimal investments in general and specific training. In Chapter 4, data from the NLS of Mature Women are used to test the model. It is shown that, in fact, women's choices of first occupation among general and specific training categories are quite sensitive to their labor force participation patterns. The occupational distribution of women if they had men's labor force participation patterns is simulated and compared to the women's actual occupational distribution. It is found that if women had men's labor force participation patterns, they would choose first occupations requiring more training, especially occupation-specific training, In Chapter 5, it is concluded thatthe effect of sex differences in labor force participation patterns on their occupational distributions can potentially explain almost three quarters of the male-female wage differential.
Bibliography Citation
Zalokar, C. Nadja. A Human Capital Model of Sex Differences in Occupational Distribution and Wages. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1982.
313. Zhao, Hongxin
Children of Teenage Mothers: What Determines Their Resilience?
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Behavior; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Ability; Fathers, Involvement; Genetics; Mothers, Adolescent; Resilience/Developmental Assets

Based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this study follows a cohort of young children of teenage mothers through the early childhood, and tracks the association between developmental resources and child resilience. The specific question motivating this thesis are: (1) under what circumstances or conditions (multiple conditions) are children of teenage mothers able to overcome adversity? and (2) How do these factors play out over time to promote child resilience? Three major theories are employed to offer interdisciplinary insights on the search for the answers. Resilience Theory points out the importance of individual traits such as competence and self-efficacy to enable children to maneuver their way out of economic and social disadvantage. Social Capital Theory underscores the importance of family structure and process resources and social networks in the communities in promoting successful development among disadvantaged children. Limited Difference Theory stresses the importance of interactions between external support and individual reactions and their cumulative effects on positive growth. A novel Boolean-logic methodology is used to identify and distill the essential features of a complex array of developmental resources that are associated with the successful pathways of resilient children of teenage mothers. Results of the present study suggest that there is not an average pathway to success for the resilient children of teenage mothers; rather, these children utilize different resource packages and thrive accordingly: some have more social capital, others possess more internal strength. Second, cognitive resilience and behavioral resilience capture two distinct areas in children's welfare. Whereas cognitive resilience requires both genetic endowment and provision of learning experience, behavioral resilience is largely a product of high levels of social support, e.g., father's involvement, mother's warmth. Third, the quantitative comparisons of frequencies of generic pathways indicate that the life experience of the resilient children of teenage mothers are distinct from the vulnerable children to a great extent.
Bibliography Citation
Zhao, Hongxin. Children of Teenage Mothers: What Determines Their Resilience? Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1997.