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Source: Princeton University Press
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Arrow, Kenneth
Bowles, Samuel
Durlauf, Steven
Meritocracy and Economic Inequality
Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Educational Returns; Family Background; Family Studies; I.Q.; Intelligence; Occupational Choice; Racial Studies; Wage Differentials; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Merit and justice / Amartya Sen -- Equality of opportunity / John E. Roemer -- IQ trends over time: intelligence, race, and meritocracy / James R. Flynn -- Genes, culture, and inequality / Marcus W. Feldman, Sarah P. Otto, and Freddy B. Christiansen -- Schooling, intelligence, and income in America / Orley Ashenfelter and Cecilia Rouse -- Does schooling raise earnings by making people smarter? / Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis -- A reanalysis of The Bell curve: intelligence, family background, and schooling / Sanders Korenman and Christopher Winship -- Occupational status, education, and social mobility in the meritocracy / Robert M. Hauser, ... [et al.] -- Understanding the role of cognitive ability in accounting for the recent rise in the economic return to education / John Cawley, ... [et al.] -- Inequality and race: models and policy / Shelly J. Lundberg and Richrd Startz -- Conceptual problems in the enforcement of anti-discrimination laws / Glenn Loury -- Meritocracy, redistribution, and the size of the pie / Roland B
Bibliography Citation
Arrow, Kenneth, Samuel Bowles and Steven Durlauf. Meritocracy and Economic Inequality. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000..
2. Bowles, Samuel
Gintis, Herbert
Osborne Groves, Melissa
Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success
[Reprint]. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.
Also: http://press.princeton.edu/TOCs/c7838.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Earnings; Fathers and Sons; Human Capital; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Pairs (also see Siblings); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Table of Contents
Introduction by Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and Melissa Osborne Groves 1
Chapter One: The Apple Does Not Fall Far from the Tree by Greg Duncan, Ariel Kalil, Susan E. Mayer, Robin Tepper, and Monique R. Payne 23
Chapter Two: The Apple Falls Even Closer to the Tree than We Thought: New and Revised Estimates of the Intergenerational Inheritance of Earnings by Bhashkar Mazumder 80
Chapter Three: The Changing Effect of Family Background on the Incomes of American Adults by David J. Harding, Christopher Jencks, Leonard M. Lopoo, and Susan E. Mayer 100
Chapter Four: Influences of Nature and Nurture on Earnings Variation: A Report on a Study of Various Sibling Types in Sweden by Anders Björklund, Markus Jäntti, and Gary Solon 145
Chapter Five: Rags, Riches, and Race: The Intergenerational Economic Mobility of Black and White Families in the United States by Tom Hertz 165
Chapter Six: Resemblance in Personality and Attitudes between Parents and Their Children: Genetic and Environmental Contributions by John C. Loehlin 192
Chapter Seven: Personality and the Intergenerational Transmission of Economic Status by Melissa Osborne Groves 208
Chapter Eight: Son Preference, Marriage, and Intergenerational Transfer in Rural China by Marcus W. Feldman, Shuzhuo Li, Nan Li, Shripad Tuljapurkar, and Xiaoyi Jin 232
Chapter Nine: Justice, Luck, and the Family: The Intergenerational Transmission of Economic Advantage from a Normative Perspective by Adam Swift 256
References 277
Index 297
Bibliography Citation
Bowles, Samuel, Herbert Gintis and Melissa Osborne Groves. Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success. [Reprint]. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008..
3. Cawley, John
Heckman, James J.
Vytlacil, Edward
Understanding the Role of Cognitive Ability in Accounting for the Recent Rise in the Economic Return to Education
In: Meritocracy and Economic Inequality. K. Arrow, S. Bowles, and S. Durlauf, eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Educational Returns; Gender Differences; I.Q.; Intelligence; Occupational Choice; Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Wage Differentials; Wage Rates; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previously issued as "Cognitive Ability and the Rising Return to Education", Working Paper No. 6388, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 1998. This chapter examines the contribution of the rise in the return to ability to the rise in the economic return to education. All of the evidence on this question comes from panel data sets in which a small collection of adjacent birth cohorts is followed over time. The structure of the data creates an identification problem that makes it impossible to identify main age and time effects and to isolate all possible age-time interactions. In addition, many education-ability cells are empty due to the stratification of ability with educational attainment. These empty cells or identification problems are literature and produce a variety of different estimates. We test and reject widely used linearity assumptions invoked to identify the contribution of the return to ability on the return to schooling. Using nonparametric methods find little evidence that the rise in the return to education is centered among the most able.
Bibliography Citation
Cawley, John, James J. Heckman and Edward Vytlacil. "Understanding the Role of Cognitive Ability in Accounting for the Recent Rise in the Economic Return to Education" In: Meritocracy and Economic Inequality. K. Arrow, S. Bowles, and S. Durlauf, eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000
4. Cogan, John F.
Married Women's Labor Supply: A Comparison of Alternative Estimation Procedures
In: Female Labor Supply: Theory and Estimation. JP Smith, ed., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980: 90-118
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Dual-Career Families; Educational Returns; Labor Supply; Research Methodology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Four methods of estimating the parameters underlying married women's labor supply function are examined in order to deal with the problem that no market wage is observed for women who do not work. The implicit restrictive assumptions concerning the disturbance structure of two conventional empirical approaches are brought to light. Gronau's approach of estimating reservation wages is compared with conventional methods and judged to be inferior on methodological grounds. Empirical comparisons are made among the two conventional methods and Heckman's 1974 maximum likelihood method. Large and systematic differences in the estimated parameters of the hours of work equation are found between Heckman's approach and the conventional procedure of using only the subsample of working women. Systematic, but relatively small differences in estimated hours of work parameters are found between Heckman's method and an alternative conventional approach of imputing wages to all women and estimating the hours of work equation over the entire sample of observation. Comparisons of predictions among the various are discussed as well as the differences in estimated wage effects. If the estimates are used to predict reservation wages (for use as an estimate of the value of time) or labor force participation rates, the small differences between the two approaches suggest that the simpler and cheaper conventional approach may be preferred.
Bibliography Citation
Cogan, John F. "Married Women's Labor Supply: A Comparison of Alternative Estimation Procedures" In: Female Labor Supply: Theory and Estimation. JP Smith, ed., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980: 90-118
5. Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Mayer, Susan E.
Tepper, Robin L.
Payne, Monique R.
The Apple Does Not Fall Far from the Tree
In: Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success. S. Bowles, H. Gintis, and M. O. Groves eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008: pp. 23-79
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Cognitive Ability; Depression (see also CESD); Deviance; Economic Well-Being; Genetics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Risk-Taking; Role Models; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Ariel Kalil, Susan E. Mayer, Robin L. Tepper and Monique R. Payne. "The Apple Does Not Fall Far from the Tree" In: Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success. S. Bowles, H. Gintis, and M. O. Groves eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008: pp. 23-79
6. Fischer, Claude S.
Hout, Michael
Jankowski, Martin Sanchez
Lucas, Samuel
Swidler, Ann
Voss, Kim
Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth
Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 1996.
Also: http://pup.princeton.edu/titles/5877.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups; I.Q.; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Poverty; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Racial Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The strongest recent statement that inequality in America is the natural result of a free market came in "The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life" by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray. These authors argued that intelligence determines how well people do in life, and the rich are rich largely because they are intelligent, the poor largely because they are not, and the middle class in middle circumstances mainly because they are of middling intelligence. The "Bell Curve" also attributed the strong connection of inequality to race and ethnicity to the fact that minorities, by nature, are not as intelligent as the dominant society. This book uses the data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth used by Herrnstein and Murray to demonstrate that, contrary to their conclusions, inequality in America is not the inevitable result of free markets operating on natural intelligence, but that it is a social construction molded by social environment and conscious social policy. Americans have created inequality and they maintain it. Specific chapters examine arguments of "The Bell Curve" and show that inequality can be changed, and has, in fact, been changed to some extent already. (Contains 3 tables, 24 figures, and 446 references.) (SLD) (Abstract from ERIC)
Bibliography Citation
Fischer, Claude S., Michael Hout, Martin Sanchez Jankowski, Samuel Lucas, Ann Swidler and Kim Voss. Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth. Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 1996..
7. Heckman, James J.
Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error with an Application to the Estimation of Labor Supply Functions
In: Female Labor Supply: Theory and Estimation. JP Smith, ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980: pp. 206-248
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior; Husbands, Income; Research Methodology; Sample Selection; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The author discusses the bias that results from using non-randomly selected data within the specification error framework of Griliches and Theil and presents a method that enables economists to use simple regression techniques to estimate behavioral functions free of selection bias. A model of female labor supply and wage rates is estimated with this technique. The empirical results suggest that selection bias is an important problem in estimating labor supply functions, but is less important in estimating wage functions. Very high estimates of the elasticity of female labor supply are derived, but these are shown to be consistent with conventional estimates that ignore selection bias.
Bibliography Citation
Heckman, James J. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error with an Application to the Estimation of Labor Supply Functions" In: Female Labor Supply: Theory and Estimation. JP Smith, ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980: pp. 206-248
8. Osborne Groves, Melissa
Personality and the Intergenerational Transmission of Economic Status
In: Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success. S. Bowles, H. Gintis, and M. Osborne Groves, eds., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Earnings; Fathers and Sons; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Pairs (also see Siblings); Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A copy of Chapter 7 is available at: http://www.sv.uio.no/forskerskole/Groves%20on%20personality%20and%20intergen %20inequality.pdf#search=%22osborne%20groves%3A%20Personality%20and %20the%20Intergenerational%20Transmission%20of%20Economic%20Status%20%22

Educational attainment, cognitive performance, and the receipt of wealth transfers have been shown to be strong indicators of economic success across occupations and explanatory variables in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. Research also suggests, however, that these three mechanisms are not able to explain the bulk of the large intergenerational persistence of earnings. Few researchers have explored the economic implications of the transmission of personality that occurs in the household. While personality has been shown to be highly heritable through a combination of environmental and genetic mechanisms and rewarded in the labor market, its influence on the transmission of earnings remains unclear. This chapter will estimate the influence of personality on the intergenerational transmission of earnings using matched father-son pairs from the mature and young male cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS).

Copublished by Russell Sage Foundation.

Bibliography Citation
Osborne Groves, Melissa. "Personality and the Intergenerational Transmission of Economic Status " In: Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success. S. Bowles, H. Gintis, and M. Osborne Groves, eds., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005
9. Uslaner, Eric M.
Generalized Trust Questions
In: Improving Public Opinion Surveys: Interdisciplinary Innovation and the American National Election Studies. John H.Aldrich and Kathleen M. McGraw, eds., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011: 101-112
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): American National Election Studies (ANES); Parent-Child Interaction; Political Attitudes/Behaviors/Efficacy; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Trust; Volunteer Work; Voting Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The ANES and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) will begin a long-term collaboration focusing on parent-child socialization. This collaboration offers a unique opportunity to trace the roots of youth socialization on political and social attitudes. The ANES-NLSY surveys will include key measures of social capital— most notably, generalized trust. The ANES and NLSY have traditionally used different questions to measure generalized trust. The 2006 ANES Pilot Study asked both questions (as well as two new measures). The ANES may change the wording of the traditional “standard” question to the NLSY measure— or perhaps to one of the two new measures. In this report, I investigate how well these measures perform in comparison with each other and with theoretical expectations about the determinants and consequences of trust. Would a change in question wording make a difference?
Bibliography Citation
Uslaner, Eric M. "Generalized Trust Questions" In: Improving Public Opinion Surveys: Interdisciplinary Innovation and the American National Election Studies. John H.Aldrich and Kathleen M. McGraw, eds., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011: 101-112