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Source: RAND
Resulting in 20 citations.
1. Asch, Beth J.
Buck, Christopher
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Kleykamp, Meredith
Loughran, David S.
Military Enlistment of Hispanic Youth: Obstacles and Opportunities
RAND Report MG-773-OSD, RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2009.
Also: www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG773.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Fertility; Health Factors; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Diploma; Language Problems; Military Enlistment; Military Recruitment; Military Service; Obesity; Substance Use; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Also available in HTML format: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG773.html

An implicit goal of Congress, the Department of Defense, and the armed services is that diversity in the armed services should approximate diversity in the general population. A key aspect of that diversity is the representation of Hispanics. Although polls of Hispanic youth show a strong propensity to serve in the military, Hispanics are nevertheless underrepresented among military recruits. The authors discuss the major characteristics that disproportionately disqualify Hispanic youth and explore the following questions: If recruiting standards were relaxed, what would be the effect on military performance? What actions could be taken to increase Hispanic enlistments? Finally, they examine several approaches to increasing enlistments -- increasing the number of Hispanic youth who are eligible and would meet the military's entry standards, increasing interest and recruiting more intensively among the qualified Hispanic population, and targeting recruiting toward less-qualified Hispanics.

Hispanics are a growing segment of the youth population, yet they have historically been underrepresented among military recruits. A widely cited reason is Hispanics’ below-average rate of graduation from high school, combined with the services’ preference for recruits with high school diplomas. But other, less studied, factors may also contribute. Such factors might include lack of language proficiency as reflected in aptitude test scores; fertility choices; health factors, such as obesity; and involvement in risky activities, such as the use of illegal drugs. These factors, to the extent they are present in the Hispanic population, could adversely affect the services’ ability to meet their enlistment standards.

Our project, “Hispanic Youth in the U.S. and the Factors Affecting Their Enlistment,” analyzed the factors that lead to the underrepresentation of Hispanic youth among military enlistments. To help policymakers evaluate the feasibility of improving Hispanic enlistments by recruiting more intensively from among the population that is qualified for service and the implications of recruiting Hispanics who are less qualified, we also analyzed both the nonmilitary opportunities available to qualified Hispanic youth and the consequences of recruiting less-qualified Hispanic youth.

Bibliography Citation
Asch, Beth J., Christopher Buck, Jacob Alex Klerman, Meredith Kleykamp and David S. Loughran. "Military Enlistment of Hispanic Youth: Obstacles and Opportunities." RAND Report MG-773-OSD, RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2009.
2. Berryman, Sue E.
Waite, Linda J.
Women in Nontraditional Occupations: Choice and Turnover
Report R-3106-FF, Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1985.
Also: http://www.rand.org/pubs/reports/R3106/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Influences; Gender Differences; Military Enlistment; Military Personnel; Military Service; Occupational Choice; Occupational Status; Occupations; Transition, Job to Job; Women; Women's Roles; Work Attitudes

This report uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Behavior to test a series of hypotheses about characteristics of individuals and their families that influence their occupational preferences and their turnover in the military and in civilian jobs. The study's findings have three important policy implications: (1) Women enlistees have much lower exit rates from the armed forces than their counterparts in civilian jobs; (2) job traditionality does not affect turnover for women in civilian jobs (for a variety of definitions of the traditionality variable and for several alternative specifications of the civilian turnover model); and (3) for women in the military there is no effect of being in a traditionally female or a traditionally male occupation on turnover.
Bibliography Citation
Berryman, Sue E. and Linda J. Waite. "Women in Nontraditional Occupations: Choice and Turnover." Report R-3106-FF, Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1985.
3. Bitler, Marianne Parcella
Fathers' Time vs. Fathers' Money: Effects of the Child Support Enforcement System
Working Paper, RAND, Santa Monica, CA, July 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Support; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Presence; Household Composition; Time Use; Welfare

Children's attainments in later life are tied to a variety of inputs that come from within the family. These inputs increasingly come from absent fathers who can contribute both money and time to their children. Government actions to collect child support from absent fathers could lead them to spend more time with their children or it could cause them to substitute money for time. Aggressive enforcement may also reduce contact with fathers who are afraid of being targeted for sanctions. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I find that more aggressive enforcement at the state level reduces father-child contact as measured by number of visits and physical distance. Instrumental variables estimates suggest that time and money are substitutes for fathers affected by these child support enforcement mechanisms.
Bibliography Citation
Bitler, Marianne Parcella. "Fathers' Time vs. Fathers' Money: Effects of the Child Support Enforcement System." Working Paper, RAND, Santa Monica, CA, July 2000.
4. Bitler, Marianne Parcella
Currie, Janet
Thomas, Duncan
The Effects of WIC on Children's Outcomes
Working Paper, RAND, Santa Monica, CA, October 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Head Start; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Infants; Medicaid/Medicare; Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Health; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Welfare

This paper examines the effect of the Special Supplement Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Previous studies have found extensive evidence of positive effects of WIC on a variety of pregnancy outcomes, yet few have found any longer lasting evidence of the effect of WIC on young children. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find evidence that WIC may have positive but small effects on some pregnancy outcomes and on some cognitive test scores and on Medicaid and Food Stamp use in regressions with family fixed effects. However, in instrumental variables analysis, WIC has a negative effect on one motor skill test and no effect in other test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Bitler, Marianne Parcella, Janet Currie and Duncan Thomas. "The Effects of WIC on Children's Outcomes." Working Paper, RAND, Santa Monica, CA, October 2001.
5. Currie, Janet
Thomas, Duncan
Race, Children's Cognition Achievement and the Bell Curve
Working Paper DRU-1178-1-NICHD, RAND, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Intelligence; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

In the Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray demonstrate that a mother's score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) is a powerful predictor of her child's score on a cognitive achievement test. The authors replicate this finding. However, even after controlling for maternal scores, there are significant gaps in the scores of black and white children which suggests that maternal scores are not all that matter. In fact, both maternal education and income are important determinants of child test scores, conditional on maternal AFQT. The authors argue that racial gaps in test scores matter because even within families, children with higher scores are less likely to repeat grades. However, conditional on both child test scores and maternal AFQT, maternal education and income also affect a child's probability of grade repetition. The authors conclude that, even if one accepts test scores as valid measures of "nature", both nature and nurture matter. Finally, the authors show that the effects on child test scores of maternal test scores, education, and income differ dramatically depending on the nature of the test, the age of the child, and race. The results suggest that understanding the relationships between different aspects of maternal achievement and child outcomes may help unravel the complex process through which poverty is transmitted across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Duncan Thomas. "Race, Children's Cognition Achievement and the Bell Curve." Working Paper DRU-1178-1-NICHD, RAND, 1995.
6. Grissmer, David W.
Kirby, Sheila Nataraj
Berends, Mark
Williamson, Stephanie
Student Achievement and the Changing American Family
MR-488-LE, Rand Corporation, Institute on Education and Training, 1994.
Also: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2006/MR488.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Demography; Family Characteristics; Family Environment; Family Size; Income; Labor Force Participation; Minority Groups; National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Parents, Single

Perceived declines in student achievement and family environment and the perceived ineffectiveness of increases in educational expenditures have stimulated the present investigation, which focuses primarily on estimating the change in achievement test scores that can be attributed to changing family and demographic characteristics. Family characteristics included in the analysis were income, family size, parental education levels, age of the mother at the child's birth, labor-force participation of the mother, and single-parent families. The analysis estimates effects of family changes on achievement scores of a national sample of students aged 14 to 17 in 1970 to 1975 and 1990 using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1980 and the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988. Using test scores as the sole measure of the effects of changes in the family provides no evidence of a deteriorating family environment for youth in 1990 compared to the same age group in 1970-1975. This study does not support the view that the schools of the 1970s and 1980s have deteriorated in significant ways with respect to the schools of the 1950s and 1960s in their instruction, and it suggests that schools have made significant progress in decreasing educational inequalities for minorities. Eighteen tables and 44 figures illustrate the discussion. (Contains 82 references.) (SLD)
Bibliography Citation
Grissmer, David W., Sheila Nataraj Kirby, Mark Berends and Stephanie Williamson. Student Achievement and the Changing American Family. MR-488-LE, Rand Corporation, Institute on Education and Training, 1994..
7. Grissmer, David W.
Kirby, Sheila Nataraj
Berends, Mark
Williamson, Stephanie
Student Performance and the Changing American Family
RB-8009, RAND Research Brief Series, December 1994.
Also: http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB8009.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Demography; Family Characteristics; Family Environment; Income; Labor Force Participation; Minority Groups; National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Parents, Single; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

This research brief describes work documented in Student Achievement and the Changing American Family (MR-488-LE).

Full document online: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_briefs/2009/RB8009.pdf

Critics of American education frequently blame lagging student performance on the deteriorating American family structure. Moreover, it is widely asserted that substantial spending on schools and social programs over the past two decades has failed to reverse the educational downtrend. However, a recent study conducted by RAND’s Institute for Education and Training sharply challenges this view. First, the study points out that prior research--contrary to public perception--has reported gains in student performance between 1970 and 1990, as measured by nationally representative test score data. The largest gains were made by minority students, although a substantial gap still remains. Second, the study finds that demographic trends affecting the family over this time period contributed to rising test scores. Third, the minority gains cannot be fully explained by changing family characteristics, suggesting that we need to look to other factors for explanations. The most likely explanations are rising public investment in schools and families and equal educational opportunity policies.

Bibliography Citation
Grissmer, David W., Sheila Nataraj Kirby, Mark Berends and Stephanie Williamson. "Student Performance and the Changing American Family." RB-8009, RAND Research Brief Series, December 1994.
8. Hao, Lingxin
Poverty, Public Assistance and Children in Intact and Single-Mother Families
Working Paper DRU-1093-NICHD, RAND, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Family Background; Head Start; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Welfare

This paper examines the effects of poverty, public assistance, and family structure on school-age children's home environment and developmental outcomes using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The central question of this study is whether public support negatively affects school-age children's developmental outcomes thereby contributing to the intergenerational transmission of welfare dependency. The results show that long duration and late timing of poverty have a detrimental effect on home environment and child developmental outcomes. Long duration of public assistance disturbs reading ability for children of intact families only. Late timing of public assistance actually enhances the cognitive and emotional environment, with a greater effect on emotional environment for single-mother families. Long duration and late timing of single motherhood are detrimental to the emotional environment. Taken together, the findings of this paper suggest that the process of intergenerational transmission of welfare dependency during school-age years is primarily due to poverty and single motherhood rather than the duration and timing of public assistance.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Poverty, Public Assistance and Children in Intact and Single-Mother Families." Working Paper DRU-1093-NICHD, RAND, 1995.
9. Hao, Lingxin
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Public Policies, Private Support and Single Mothers' Schooling, Work, and Child Care
Working Paper DRU-853-NICHD, RAND, October 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Care; Education; Fertility; Maternal Employment; Welfare

This paper examines whether low-cost child care that is tied to single mothers' productive activities increases the likelihood of their schooling and work. Child care opportunities open to single mothers include coresident kin and certain public programs, e.g., subsidized child care places, AFDC earned income disregards for child care expenses, and child care tax credits for mothers who are attending school or working. Also examined in this paper is whether public programs are substitutes for kin support in affecting unmarried mothers' schooling, work, and for enrolled or working women, child care type. Findings include: (1) public policies tied to single mothers' performance can stimulate their schooling and work, while those that are not tied to performance can deter productive activities; (2) living with kin increases schooling and work among unmarried mothers; (3) public programs tend not to substitute for kin support, in particular, not to reduce kin's incentives to care for children.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Arleen A. Leibowitz. "Public Policies, Private Support and Single Mothers' Schooling, Work, and Child Care." Working Paper DRU-853-NICHD, RAND, October 1994.
10. Hosek, James R.
Peterson, Christine E.
Serving Her Country: An Analysis of Women's Enlistment
Interim Report, The RAND Corporation, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Gender Differences; Local Labor Market; Marriage; Military Enlistment; Women

Using data drawn from a 1979 Department of Defense survey of enlistees and the 1979 wave of the NLSY, this report examines one aspect of women's military service--the factors affecting the flow of new recruits. The analysis uses models of both individual willingness to enlist and the allocation of recruiter effort to enlist women and other groups. These models, estimated with a microdatabase containing many individual and local market variables, make it possible to circumvent the distorting effects of the overall demand constraint that has, in the past, jeopardized aggregate data analyses of women's enlistment. The authors compare the options and behavior of women with those of men. For example, they consider whether labor market forces influence young men and women differently; the ways in which marriage expectations affect the enlistment decision; whether the role of education expectations differs between the two sexes; and what impact local labor market conditions have on individual's enlistment outcome. The research suggests that there are strong similarities between men and women in the factors influencing their enlistment decisions. [NTIS AD-A221-840-2-XAB]
Bibliography Citation
Hosek, James R. and Christine E. Peterson. "Serving Her Country: An Analysis of Women's Enlistment." Interim Report, The RAND Corporation, 1990.
11. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Data for DoD Manpower Policy Analysis
Technical Report, RAND, Santa Monica CA, 2009. Also: Also: http://www.rand.org.proxy.lib.ohio-state.edu/pubs/technical_reports/2009/RAND_TR486.pdf
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Manpower Research; Military Personnel; Military Service

To allow analyses of its personnel practices, the Department of Defense maintains historical administrative data files and administers surveys of military personnel. Military manpower analyses also make use of civilian cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Klerman provides an overview of these data sources and discusses how they can be analyzed with currently underutilized data-matching strategies. These data-matching strategies involve matching DoD administrative data files to (1) civilian administrative data (such as Social Security Administration earnings data); (2) DoD survey data; and (3) civilian survey data. These strategies have the potential for large payoffs in terms of better analysis-and therefore better policy-for DoD. Klerman also discusses the degree to which DoD should help fund a future National Longitudinal Study of Youth, and whether DoD should initiate a new military panel survey. Data for DoD Manpower Policy Analysis maintains that the research questions that these proposed surveys would help answer can instead be explored through data matching. Moreover, streamlining procedures for data matching-that is, making it easier for researchers to analyze the data DoD already has-is likely to be much less expensive than engaging in major new data-collection efforts.

Quote from the report:

    "DoD has now been approached about partnering in the follow-on NLS-Y2010. That survey is projected to select a sample of 8,000 to 12,000 individuals age 12 to 17. They would then be followed and reinterviewed annually.

    Unless the NLS-Y2010 is much larger than currently projected (which seems unlikely) or military enlistment increases sharply (which seems even less likely), the projected number of participating enlistees for the NLS-Y2010 is likely to be about 500. As was just noted, this is simply too small to do serious analysis of the enlistment decision. Thus, concerns about sample size for enlistment analyses are likely to remain."

Contents: Introduction -- Military Administrative Data -- Current Military Cross-Sectional Survey Programs -- Matching DoD Administrative Data to DoD Cross-Sectional Surveys -- Matching DoD Administrative Data to Civilian Administrative Data -- Matching DoD Administrative Data to Civilian Cross-Sectional Surveys -- Civilian Panel Surveys and Choice-Based Sampling -- An Alternative Model for Military Cross-Sectional Surveys -- A Military Panel Survey -- Discussion -- Appendix A: Formal Discussion of Some Technical Issues -- Appendix B: U.S. Census Bureau Residence Rules -- Appendix C: Survey Veteran Questions.

Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex. "Data for DoD Manpower Policy Analysis." Technical Report, RAND, Santa Monica CA, 2009.
12. Lillard, Lee A.
Work Experience, Job Tenure, Job Separation and Wage Growth
Working Paper, The RAND Corporation, 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Human Capital Theory; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Wages; Work Experience

This paper explores empirically a number of leading theories of job change and wage growth, especially the relationships between general work experience, job tenure, job change and wages. Wages and job change are modeled jointly to incorporate the potential endogeneity of job tenure. The econometric model exploits the precise dating of job changes and the panel data on wages within jobs in the NLSY to explore their implications for distinguishing among these hypotheses. The estimates indicate a significant effect of job tenure on wages and the hazard of job separation, as well as evidence of returns to job search, job turnover due to match quality, and job specific human capital investments.
Bibliography Citation
Lillard, Lee A. "Work Experience, Job Tenure, Job Separation and Wage Growth." Working Paper, The RAND Corporation, 1991.
13. Loughran, David S.
Datar, Ashlesha
Kilburn, M. Rebecca
Interactive Effect of Birth Weight and Parental Investment on Child Test Scores
Working Paper No. WR-168, RAND, June 2004.
Also: http://www.rand.org/publications/WR/WR168/WR168.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Family Models; Family Size; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Progress

This paper explores how observed and unobserved parental investments compensate for low birth weight. Controlling for family fixed effects, which encompass unobserved parental investment, we find birth weight positively correlates with math and reading scores and these estimates are considerably larger in magnitude than estimates derived from models that do not control for family fixed effects. Additionally, we examine how three specific parental investments -- kindergarten entrance age, maternal labor supply, and family size -- interact with birth weight in models of child test scores. Of these investments, only smaller family size conveys particular advantage to low birth weight children.
Bibliography Citation
Loughran, David S., Ashlesha Datar and M. Rebecca Kilburn. "Interactive Effect of Birth Weight and Parental Investment on Child Test Scores." Working Paper No. WR-168, RAND, June 2004.
14. Loughran, David S.
Datar, Ashlesha
Kilburn, M. Rebecca
The Response of Household Parental Investment to Child Endowments
RAND Working Paper Series No. WR-404-1, RAND, April 2008.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=999821
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Family Models; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

The theoretical and empirical literature on parental investment focuses on whether child-specific parental investments reinforce or compensate for a child's initial endowments. However, many parental investments, such as neighborhood quality and family size and structure, are shared wholly or in part among all children in a household. The empirical results of this paper imply that such household parental investments compensate for low endowments, as proxied by low birth weight.
Bibliography Citation
Loughran, David S., Ashlesha Datar and M. Rebecca Kilburn. "The Response of Household Parental Investment to Child Endowments." RAND Working Paper Series No. WR-404-1, RAND, April 2008.
15. Loughran, David S.
Zissimopoulos, Julie M.
Are There Gains to Delaying Marriage? The Effect of Age at First Marriage on Career Development and Wages
Working Paper No. WR-207, RAND, November 2004.
Also: http://www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/2004/RAND_WR207.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Career Patterns; Marriage; Wages

Age at first marriage has risen dramatically since the mid-1960s among a wide spectrum of the U.S. population. Researchers have considered many possible explanations for this trend. Few, though, have asked why individuals should want to delay marriage in the first place. One possibility is that early marriage inhibits the career development of one or both individuals in a marriage. We test this hypothesis using data from the NLSY79. Using panel data methods that exploit longitudinal variation in wages and marriage timing, we estimate that delaying marriage increases hourly wages of women by nearly four percent for each year they delay. Marriage timing has no impact on the wages of men. We find that delaying marriage may have costs as well. All else equal, women who delay marriage marry spouses with lower wages.
Bibliography Citation
Loughran, David S. and Julie M. Zissimopoulos. "Are There Gains to Delaying Marriage? The Effect of Age at First Marriage on Career Development and Wages." Working Paper No. WR-207, RAND, November 2004.
16. Mott, Frank L.
Paternal Absence from the Home: Consequences for Early Childhood Cognitive Development
Presented: Santa Monica, CA, RAND Conference on Economic and Demographic Aspects of Intergenerational Relations, 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Biological; Gender Differences; General Assessment; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Tests and Testing

This study uses data from the 1979 through 1986 waves of the NLSY and linked child assessment data to explore associations between a father's absence from the home and the cognitive development of children between the ages of three and seven. The research describes in detail linkages between various paternal-absence family forms (e.g., visitation in comparison with a "new man" present in comparison with no man present; father never present in comparison with father previously present) and a child's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the PIAT reading recognition, comprehension and mathematics assessments controlling for a wide range of maternal and post-paternal absence family factors, testing a number of hypotheses suggested by the literature as potentially important predictors of child cognitive development. This includes (but is not limited to) examining the relevance of father presence or absence per se, the extent to which a visiting father or a new man in the home can moderate (or exacerbate) the effect of a biological father's non-residence and whether a father's recent absenting in comparison with never having been present makes a difference. Gender and racial variations are explored. Among the results: (1) a father's absence from the home shows only limited association with younger children's cognitive development even without any controls for background factors which can be anticipated to be associated both with father's absence and child cognition; (2) controlling for child behavior problems does not affect the association between father's absence and cognition in any way; (3) father's absence does not appear to adversely impact on young boys mathematical competence (it does adversely effect black girls); and (4) there is systematic evidence that continuing contact with an absent biological father is a preferable situation for white girls in comparison with living in an environment which includes a new man in the home.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. "Paternal Absence from the Home: Consequences for Early Childhood Cognitive Development." Presented: Santa Monica, CA, RAND Conference on Economic and Demographic Aspects of Intergenerational Relations, 1992.
17. Nazarov, Zafar
Maternal Input Choices and Child Cognitive Development: Testing for Reverse Causality
RAND Working Paper WR-813, Rand Corporation, November 2010.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1721101
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Achievement; Child Care; Maternal Employment; Parental Investments; Parents, Single; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Welfare

This paper assesses whether the results of child achievement tests affect maternal employment and the child-care choices of mothers with prekindergarten children. To test this hypothesis, it first incorporates into Bernal and Keane's (2010) model the mother's imperfect knowledge of the child's cognitive ability endowment and possible mechanisms through which the mother may learn the child's endowment. Then it uses a quasi-structural approach to form approximations to the mother's employment and child-care decision rules and jointly estimate them with the child cognitive development production function and wage equation. Using a sample of single mothers from the NLSY79, it finds evidence that maternal employment and child-care decisions are sensitive to past achievement scores. In particular, a mother whose child has taken the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test before entering kindergarten and whose child's standardized test score is above a certain threshold intends to use child care more and work more part-time hours immediately after observing the child's performance on the achievement test.
Bibliography Citation
Nazarov, Zafar. "Maternal Input Choices and Child Cognitive Development: Testing for Reverse Causality." RAND Working Paper WR-813, Rand Corporation, November 2010.
18. Tan, Hong W.
Youth Training in the United States, Britain, and Australia
Report, The RAND Corporation, 1991
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Australia, Australian; Australian Longitudinal Survey (ALS); Britain, British; Cross-national Analysis; Educational Attainment; Job Training; Labor Market Outcomes; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Schooling, Post-secondary; Training, Post-School; Unions; Wages; Work Experience

Training measures in the U.S. NLS of Young Men, the National Child Development Study for Britain, and the Australian Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to study determinants and labor market outcomes of postschool training received by young men. Twelve percent of U.S. youth reported getting formal training in the first year, compared with between 30 and 40 percent of nonapprentice males in Britain and Australia. As they acquired work experience, a high proportion of U.S. youth reported receiving training, whereas job training in Britain and Australia proceeded at a slower pace. U.S. employers provided workers with company-based training; British and Australian employers relied on outside training sources. Level of schooling attainment was an important predictor of postschool training and labor market success. For all three countries, better-educated youth were considerably more likely to get training. Rapid technical changes increased the likelihood of getting company training, especially for youth with the most education. In all three countries, union membership was associated with an increased probability of training, and company-based training had by far the largest quantitative influence on raising youth wages. Other training benefits were employability and job stability. Wage effects of formal training in the United States were roughly twice those in Britain and Australia. [ERIC ED336616]
Bibliography Citation
Tan, Hong W. "Youth Training in the United States, Britain, and Australia." Report, The RAND Corporation, 1991.
19. Thomas, Duncan
Like Father, Like Son, Or, Like Mother, Like Daughter: Parental Education and Child Health
RAND Publication, RP-381, Santa Monica CA: The RAND Corporation, April 1994
Also: http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/e-getabbydoc.pl?RP-381
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Age at Menarche; Child Health; Cross-national Analysis; Fathers, Influence; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Age at Menarche; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Height; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Parental Influences; Racial Differences

Using household survey data from the United States, Brazil and Ghana, we examine the relationship between parental education and child height, an indicator of health and nutritional status. In all three countries, the education of the mother has a bigger effect on her daughter's height; paternal education, in contrast, has a bigger impact on his son's height. There are, apparently, differences in the allocation of household resources depending on the gender of the child and these difference vary with the gender of the parent. These results are quite robust and persist even after including controls for unobserved household fixed effects. In Ghana, relative to other women, the education of a woman who is better educated than her husband has a bigger impact on the height of her daughter than her son. In BraziL women's nonlabor income has a positive impact on the health of her daughter but not on her son's health. If relative education of parents and non-labor income are in dicators of power in a household bargaining game, then these results suggest that gender differences in resource allocations reflect both technological differences in child rearing and differences in the preferences of parents.
Bibliography Citation
Thomas, Duncan. "Like Father, Like Son, Or, Like Mother, Like Daughter: Parental Education and Child Health." RAND Publication, RP-381, Santa Monica CA: The RAND Corporation, April 1994.
20. Wong, Jennifer S.
No Bullies Allowed: Understanding Peer Victimization, the Impacts on Delinquency, and the Effectiveness of Prevention Programs
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pardee RAND Graduate School, March 2009.
Also: http://www.rand.org/pubs/rgs_dissertations/2009/RAND_RGSD240.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Propensity Scores; Self-Reporting; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Over the past decade school bullying has emerged as a prominent issue of concern for students, parents, educators, and researchers in North America and around the world. Research evidence suggests non-trivial and potentially serious negative repercussions of both bullying and victimization. The first chapter of the dissertation presents a comprehensive narrative literature review on the nature and significance of school bullying including controversies in definition; types of measurement; a description of victims, bully-victims, bullies, and bystanders with regard to defining characteristics, risk and protective factors, and outcomes and correlates of involvement in bullying/victimization; and a review of theoretical models that explain why bullying occurs. The second chapter of the dissertation uses a large, nationally representative panel dataset, the NLSY97, and a propensity score matching technique to assess the impact of bully victimization on a range of 10 delinquency outcomes measured over a six-year period. This analytic strategy considers the effect of baseline group differences by matching bullied and non-bullied subjects on propensity scores, thus allowing observable covariates to be eliminated as potential confounders of the estimated treatment effect. Results show that victimization prior to the age of 12 years is significantly predictive of the development of several delinquent behaviors, including running away from home, selling drugs, vandalism, theft, other property crimes, and assault. Using meta-analysis, the final chapter of the dissertation assesses the overall effectiveness of school-based programs for preventing bullying and victimization. Results suggest that as a whole, prevention programs are significantly effective at reducing the problem of victimization in schools, but are only marginally successful at reducing bullying. After participating in bullying prevention programs, students report an effect size of .188 for reduction in victimization, and an effect size of .109 for reduction in bullying others. The possibility of systematic between-study heterogeneity was explored via moderator analyses, and several significant moderators of treatment impact on victimization were identified. More work is needed to determine why programs are more successful with victims of bullying than with perpetrators, and prevention efforts should focus on the development of programs that are more likely to bring about successful reductions in both bullying and victimization.
Bibliography Citation
Wong, Jennifer S. No Bullies Allowed: Understanding Peer Victimization, the Impacts on Delinquency, and the Effectiveness of Prevention Programs. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pardee RAND Graduate School, March 2009..