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Source: Research in Labor Economics, 1977-1998
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Altonji, Joseph G.
Dunn, Thomas Albert
Relationships Among the Family Incomes and Labor Market Outcomes of Relatives
Research in Labor Economics 12 (1991): 269-310.
Also: http://www.econ.yale.edu/~jga22/website/research_papers/altonji_dunn.pdf
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Earnings; Family Income; Fathers; Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Job Productivity; Labor Market Outcomes; Mothers; Pairs (also see Siblings); Sons

This paper examines the links between the labor market outcomes of individuals who are related by blood or by marriage using panel data on pairs of matched family members from the NLS. The authors examine the intergenerational and sibling correlations among a broad set of labor market variables using time average, method of moments, and regression techniques designed to reduce the biases introduced by transitory and measurement errors. They also show that family data can be exploited to investigate theories of job turnover, labor supply, and the industry structure of wages. The primary findings follow. First, there are strong correlations between the family incomes of relatives. The method of moments estimates are .38 for brother pairs, .73 for sister pairs, and .56 for brother-sister pairs. The intergenerational family income correlations are .36 for father-son pairs, .48 for father-daughter pair, and .56 for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs. These estimates, except for the father-son result, are large compared to those in the literature for the U.S. Second, strong correlations were found in the wages and earnings of relatives. Wage correlations vary around .40 for all family member pairs, and earnings correlations vary around .35. Work hours of family members of the same sex are also fairly strongly related. Fourth, strong correlations were found in the earnings of "in-laws" that may support a theory of assortive mating in which parental earnings have value. Also provided was evidence that job turnover rates depend on family characteristics and are negatively correlated with labor market productivity. Further, it was shown that young men whose fathers work in high wage industries tend themselves to work in high wage industries and that a father's collective bargaining coverage has a strong positive influence on his son's collective bargaining status.
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G. and Thomas Albert Dunn. "Relationships Among the Family Incomes and Labor Market Outcomes of Relatives." Research in Labor Economics 12 (1991): 269-310.
2. Borjas, George J.
Rosen, Sherwin
Income Prospects and Job Mobility of Younger Men
Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 159-181
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Income Dynamics/Shocks; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Layoffs; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits

This study approaches labor turnover as a sorting phenomenon that arises because imperfect information and mobility costs create mismatches in the existing allocation of workers to firms. Labor turnover is the device through which workers move to their highest valued uses. In this framework, a job change occurs when it is discovered that alternative productivity exceeds current productivity. Gains from mobility to movers are larger than the gains would have been to stayers had they moved. Conversely, the gains to immobility are greater for stayers than for movers had they stayed. The empirical results are not precise, since job separations cannot be predicted accurately at the micro level, but nevertheless suggest that labor turnover improves the allocative efficiency of the labor force.
Bibliography Citation
Borjas, George J. and Sherwin Rosen. "Income Prospects and Job Mobility of Younger Men." Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 159-181.
3. Ehrenberg, Ronald G.
Marcus, Alan J.
Minimum Wage Legislation and the Educational Outcomes of Youth
Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 61-93
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Employment; High School; Minimum Wage; Schooling; Teenagers

This analysis of the statewide data on white male and female teenagers from the l970 Census of Population and the l966 NLS data for nonwhite male teenagers yields conflicting evidence. The former suggest that the effect of minimum wage changes on teenagers' educational decisions is small, and that the major effect of the changes is to redistribute jobs from the children of the poor to the children of the nonpoor. The latter suggest that such changes induce a shift from full-time schooling to full-time employment for nonwhite male teens from low-income families. While coherent explanations can be provided for each of these results, confidence in them would have been increased if the various data bases had yielded similar findings.
Bibliography Citation
Ehrenberg, Ronald G. and Alan J. Marcus. "Minimum Wage Legislation and the Educational Outcomes of Youth." Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 61-93.
4. Farber, Henry S.
Unionism, Labor Turnover, and Wages of Young Men
Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 33-53
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Layoffs; Quits; Skilled Workers; Unions; Wages, Young Men; Work History

The empirical work utilized a sample from the NLS Young Men's data set. The major hypotheses were supported by the results. First, and consistent with the rationing hypothesis, it was found that more skilled workers were more likely to work on union jobs. Second, it was found that those workers less likely to quit were more likely to be union members. As a result, the observed negative correlation between unionization and quits among young workers is an overstatement (in absolute terms) of the direct impact of unionization on quits. In conclusion, two general comments are in order. First, the differences between the results on quits and the results on total permanent job transitions are evidence that quits and involuntary terminations must be modeled as distinct phenomena. Second, the obvious differences between the results of this study relating to young workers and the results of studies that deal with a more varied group of workers is evidence that unions have differing impacts on different groups of workers. Studies that deal with a wide variety of workers and rely on a single union dummy variable to measure the average impact of unionization may be misleading when the results are applied to particular groups.
Bibliography Citation
Farber, Henry S. "Unionism, Labor Turnover, and Wages of Young Men." Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 33-53.
5. Garvey, Nancy
Reimers, Cordelia
Predicted vs. Potential Work Experience in an Earnings Function for Young Women
Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 99-127
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Children; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earnings; Health Factors; Marriage; Schooling; Work Experience

When an earnings function is estimated and data on actual work experience are unavailable, potential work experience--age minus educational attainment minus 5 (or 6)--is often substituted for actual experience. This paper explores the biases introduced by this procedure and proposes that predicted experience, based on demographic information, be used instead. Using NLS data, we estimate a predicting equation, by both OLS and Tobit methods, for women under age 30. We then compare the estimated earnings functions using potential, predicted, and actual work experience, and we find that the coefficients estimated using potential experience differ substantially from those estimated using either predicted or actual experience, whereas the latter are very close together. Moreover, the bias introduced by using potential experience varies by race.
Bibliography Citation
Garvey, Nancy and Cordelia Reimers. "Predicted vs. Potential Work Experience in an Earnings Function for Young Women." Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 99-127.
6. Griliches, Zvi
Expectations, Realizations, and the Aging of Young Men
Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 1-21.
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Career Patterns; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Job Aspirations; Work History

This paper exploits the fact that educational and occupational expectations were asked in the NLS, and that by 1975 a significant fraction of this cohort had actually reached the point at which the success of their forecasts could be evaluated ex post. It was hoped that this work would indicate how good are such expectations and what they can tell us about the unmeasured aspects of the individuals. Unfortunately, the following data and sample design problems were encountered: (1) the sample turned out to be smaller than originally expected; and (2) the educational expectations question was asked only of those still in school, about one-third of the total. The major findings of this study are: (1) the quality of such expectations is not impressive.The R2 between expected and actual schooling (for those with valid expectations) was 0.47 and between expected occupation in 1966 and actual in 1975 less than 0.25; (2) even though unimpressive as far as accuracy of forecasting is concerned, these expectations were close to being rational, in the sense that it is difficult to improve on them by using variables that were known to the respondents as of 1966; and (3) constructing an alternative occupational scale and reweighting the observations made little difference to the results.
Bibliography Citation
Griliches, Zvi. "Expectations, Realizations, and the Aging of Young Men." Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 1-21. .
7. Lillard, Lee A.
Tan, Hong W.
Private Sector Training: Who Gets It and What Are Its Effects
Research in Labor Economics 13 (1992): 1-62
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Schooling, Post-secondary; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Training; Training, Post-School

Training after high school in the United States was studied to determine who is trained and the extent of training, as well as economic consequences of training. Data sources were the Current Population Survey (CPS) of 1983, the NLS of Young Men, Older Men, and Mature Women cohorts for 1967 to 1980, and the Employment Opportunities Pilot Projects Surveys (training of the economically disadvantaged in 1979 and 1980). It was found that nearly 40% of both men and women in the CPS reported undertaking training to improve current job skills. For a given 2- year period in the NLS, the fractions of young men, career women, and older men reporting some training were about 30%, 24%, and 10%, respectively. For all three groups, the employer was the single most important source of training. Only 11% of the disadvantaged sample reported some training over a similar time interval, with a relatively low proportion getting training from company sources. Also assessed are analyses concerning factors that determine the probability of getting training for each source and type of training, and the effects of training on earnings, earnings growth, and employment stability. [ERIC ED-284464]
Bibliography Citation
Lillard, Lee A. and Hong W. Tan. "Private Sector Training: Who Gets It and What Are Its Effects." Research in Labor Economics 13 (1992): 1-62.
8. Macke, Anne Statham
Mott, Frank L.
The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Significant Life Events on the Work Orientation of Adolescent Women: A Longitudinal Look
Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 129-146
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; High School; Marriage; Mothers and Daughters; Pairs (also see Siblings); Work Attitudes

A mother-daughter sample from the NLS of Mature and Young Women cohorts is used to examine important determinants of work orientation among adolescent women. The impact of maternal characteristics and other key life experiences is examined for adolescent women when they are in high school and again when they are college-aged and beyond. Findings show the importance of maternal influence, the college experience, the current family experiences (getting married, having a child). Implications for future trends in women's labor force participation, including continued racial differences, are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Macke, Anne Statham and Frank L. Mott. "The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Significant Life Events on the Work Orientation of Adolescent Women: A Longitudinal Look." Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 129-146.
9. Parsons, Donald O.
Models of Labor Market Turnover: A Theoretical and Empirical Survey
Research in Labor Economics 1 (1977): 185-223
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavior; Industrial Sector; Job Search; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Mobility, Job

The author surveys some of the recent theoretical and empirical contributions to job attachment or, conversely, job turnover and explores the theoretical developments in search models of worker behavior. This is followed by a discussion of current labor market models of the firm with stress on firm turnover behavior in the presence of specific human capital and incomplete information. The recent literature introducing uncertainty into the firm- worker interaction is also reviewed. A number of important empirical studies of turnover behavior are examined. Most of these studies are only vaguely guided by current theory.
Bibliography Citation
Parsons, Donald O. "Models of Labor Market Turnover: A Theoretical and Empirical Survey." Research in Labor Economics 1 (1977): 185-223.
10. Stephenson, Stanley P., Jr.
A Turnover Analysis of Joblessness for Young Women
Research in Labor Economics 5 (1982): 279-318
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; Job Turnover; Transition Rates, Activity to Work; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment; Unemployment, Youth; Work Experience; Work History

This paper is an empirical analysis of the nonemployment of noncollege young women in the first weeks and months after they leave school. By estimating the determinants of transition rates of entering and leaving non-employment, the author is able to show the effect of race, dropout status, and prior work experience on the average length of joblessness, the expected number of work and nonwork spells, the average work spell length, and the steady-state probability of joblessness. In the analysis, special attention is given to the measurement of two types of structural state dependence, subgroup differences in transition rates, and adjustment for the fact that some young women never worked in the 2.7-year observation period. Data used are for young women who left school in l970. Results suggest that in-school job holding affects the rate of job finding for white young women but not for black young women. This prior work experience is interpreted as evidence of lagged employment dependence, a type of state dependence. In contrast, for black young women, labor demand characteristics (not prior work) are important determinants of the rates of entering and leaving nonemployment. One possible reason for this difference concerns the nature of in-school jobs: most black young women who worked in school held government sector jobs, whereas white young women were more likely to have had private sector work experience. Whether or not these prior jobs were associated with racial differences in rates of on-the-job training or merely created such an impression to subsequent employers cannot be determined with the data used here. Yet, the race-specific effect of prior work experience on later employment behavior may have implications for youth employment policies.
Bibliography Citation
Stephenson, Stanley P., Jr. "A Turnover Analysis of Joblessness for Young Women." Research in Labor Economics 5 (1982): 279-318.