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Source: Russell Sage Foundation
Resulting in 54 citations.
1. Abe, Yasuyo
Changes in Gender and Racial Gaps in Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: The NLSY97 versus the NLSY79
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 339-378
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Teenagers

Chapter: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 and 1979 Cohorts (NLSY97 and NLSY79, respectively), this study examined the frequency and types of antisocial activity among teenagers and compared findings from the 2 surveys in order to identify how youth behavior changed over 2 decades. The samples included 4,210 Ss (aged 12-18 yrs) from NLSY97 and 3,831 Ss (aged 15-23 yrs) from NLSY79. Cross-sectional gender and racial patterns were also explored. It was found that a nontrivial proportion of the youths interviewed committed various antisocial acts and that the patterns of participation varied by race and gender and type of activity. While there were some differences in racial patterns between NLSY79 and NLSY97, the overall findings were consistent. Indices reflecting the volume and the severity of antisocial activity, and the percentage of males who participated in antisocial activity are appended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Abe, Yasuyo. "Changes in Gender and Racial Gaps in Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: The NLSY97 versus the NLSY79" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 339-378
2. Argys, Laura M.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Patterns of Nonresident-Father Involvement
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 49-78
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Child Support; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Influence

Chapter: To examine nonresident-father involvement, this study analyzed a cohort of adolescent youth from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort. A sample of adolescents (aged 12-16 yrs) who did not live full-time with their fathers were extracted. First, the father-involvement measures for youths whose fathers were absent because they either divorced, separated, or never married the child's mother were compared, and the determinants of these father-child involvement measures were examined. The specific measures of involvement that were focused on include the amount of contact, level of child support, and quality of father-child and mother-father interaction. Second, the data were used to classify the children in nonmarital families into groups based on type of paternity establishment (i.e., voluntary acknowledgement, involuntary acknowledgement, and no acknowledgement) and show how different measures of father involvement vary by type of paternity establishment. The findings were generally consistent with those of studies using other data. However, lower levels of father-child contact were found. Adolescents whose paternity was established received more child support and experienced more father-child contact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M. and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Patterns of Nonresident-Father Involvement" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 49-78
3. Attewell, Paul
Lavin, David E.
Domina, Thurston
Levey, Tania Gabrielle
Passing the Torch: Does Higher Education for the Disadvantaged Pay Off Across the Generations?
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Children, Poverty; City University of New York (CUNY) Longitudinal Survey 1970-1972; Family Structure; Grandparents; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Social; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences; Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Propensity Scores; Racial Differences; School Progress; Schooling, Post-secondary

See in particular: Chapter 4: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage: Maternal Education and Children's Success and Chapter 5. How College Changes a Mother’s Parenting and Affects Her Children’s Educational Outcomes
Bibliography Citation
Attewell, Paul, David E. Lavin, Thurston Domina and Tania Gabrielle Levey. Passing the Torch: Does Higher Education for the Disadvantaged Pay Off Across the Generations? New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007.
4. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Hotz, V. Joseph
Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: What Changed and What Consequences Did It Have for Wages?
Presented: New York, NY, Russell Sage Foundation Conference on "School-to-Work Transitions and School-to-Work Programs", May 2004.
Also: http://www.econ.ucla.edu/hotz/working_papers/cohort.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Schooling; Transition, School to Work; Wages

This study examines the changes in the school-to-work transition in the United States over the latter part of the twentieth century and their consequences for the wages of young adults. In particular, we document the various types of work and schooling experiences acquired by youth who came to adulthood in the U.S. during the late 1960s, 1970s, and through the 1980s. We pay particular attention to how the differences across cohorts in these transitions vary by gender and race/ethnicity and how these differences affected their subsequent wage attainment. Evidence is evaluated using data from National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women, Young Men, and Youth 1979.

In general, we find that indicators of educational attainment, working while in school and non-school related work increased across cohorts for almost all racial/ethnic and gender groups. This was especially true for young women. Furthermore, various indicators of personal and family backgrounds changed in ways consistent with an improvement across cohorts in the preparation of young men and women for their attainment of schooling and work experience and their success in the labor market. The one exception to this general picture of improvement across cohorts was Hispanic men, who experienced a notable decline in educational attainment, the acquisition of full time work early in their adult lives and in a variety of personal and family background characteristics.

Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla and V. Joseph Hotz. "Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: What Changed and What Consequences Did It Have for Wages?" Presented: New York, NY, Russell Sage Foundation Conference on "School-to-Work Transitions and School-to-Work Programs", May 2004.
5. Bailey, Martha J.
Dynarski, Susan M.
Inequality in Postsecondary Education
In: Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. R. Murnane and G. Duncan, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011: 117-132
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): College Education; College Enrollment; College Graduates; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Income Level

Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Martha J. and Susan M. Dynarski. "Inequality in Postsecondary Education" In: Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. R. Murnane and G. Duncan, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011: 117-132
6. Bernhardt, Annette
Morris, Martina
Handcock, Mark S.
Scott, Marc A.
Divergent Paths: Economic Mobility in the New American Labor Market
New York, NY: Russell Sage, 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Earnings; Job Promotion; Job Turnover; Mobility; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market

Tracks the fortunes of two generations of young white men over the course of their careers to examine the prospects of upward mobility for workers in America's labor market. Two cohorts were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men & the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth respectively. Members of the first sample were initially interviewed in 1966 & tracked until 1981, while the second sample was interviewed yearly between 1979-1994. The older men entered the labor market at a time of prosperity & stability, while the second group began working in the early 1980s, a time marked by recession, deregulation, & the weakening of organized labor. An overview of the historical context is followed by a detailed analysis of the longitudinal data. It was shown that the second group faced a labor market that was more volatile & characterized by lower job security, higher penalties for failing to find steady employer, & growing inequalities between well-connected workers who used short-term projects to obtain better-paying positions, & increasing numbers of workers stuck in a series of low-paying, high-turnover jobs. It is concluded that the labor market of the 1960s & 1970s launched more workers up the earnings ladder than today's market. Policy strategies for improving the upward mobility of workers in the US are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Bernhardt, Annette, Martina Morris, Mark S. Handcock and Marc A. Scott. Divergent Paths: Economic Mobility in the New American Labor Market. New York, NY: Russell Sage, 2001.
7. Bernhardt, Annette
Morris, Martina
Handcock, Mark S.
Scott, Marc A.
Trends in Job Instability and Wages for Young Adult Men
In: On the Job: Is Long Term Employment a Thing of the Past? D. Neumark, ed. New York, NY: Russel Sage Foundation, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Attrition; Job Status; Mobility; Wage Growth; Wages; Wages, Young Men

Data and measurement problems have complicated the debate over trends in job instability in the United States. We compare two cohorts of young white men from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), construct a rigorous measure of job change, and confirm earlier findings of a significant increase in job instability. We then benchmark the NLS against other main data sets in the field and conduct a thorough attrition analysis. Extending the analysis to wages, we find that the wage returns to job changing have both declined and become more unequal for young adults, mirroring trends in their long-term wage growth.
Bibliography Citation
Bernhardt, Annette, Martina Morris, Mark S. Handcock and Marc A. Scott. "Trends in Job Instability and Wages for Young Adult Men " In: On the Job: Is Long Term Employment a Thing of the Past? D. Neumark, ed. New York, NY: Russel Sage Foundation, 2000
8. Bernhardt, Annette
Morris, Martina
Handcock, Mark S.
Scott, Marc M.
Work and Opportunity in the Post-Industrial Labor Market
Final report to the Russell Sage and Rockefeller Foundations. Institute on Education and the Economy, Columbia University, New York NY, 1997.
Also: http://www.tc.columbia.edu/~iee/Labor1.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Wage Equations; Wage Gap

One of the most pressing questions facing researchers and policy makers today is how economic restructuring has affected the nature of work and mobility in America. It is no longer simply a matter of rising wage inequality, but increasingly a question of what it means to have a job and to build a career. As workplaces are reorganized, there are potentially strong effects on job stability, career development, and upward mobility. Little is known about the long-term consequences of restructuring, so in this study we compare the first 16 years of work experience for two cohorts of young white men from the National Longitudinal Surveys: the original cohort, followed from 1966-1981, and the recent cohort, followed from 1979-1994. Conclusions and Findings.
Bibliography Citation
Bernhardt, Annette, Martina Morris, Mark S. Handcock and Marc M. Scott. "Work and Opportunity in the Post-Industrial Labor Market." Final report to the Russell Sage and Rockefeller Foundations. Institute on Education and the Economy, Columbia University, New York NY, 1997.
9. Blau, Francine D.
Ehrenberg, Ronald G.
Gender and Family Issues in the Workplace
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Wages, Women; Women's Studies

Table of Contents:
http://www.russellsage.org/publications/titles/pdf_files/gendertoc.pdf.

Introduction -- Career and family : college women look to the past -- Labor supply effects of state maternity leave legislation -- Working mothers then and now : a cross-cohort analysis of the effects of maternity leave on women's pay -- Parental leave policies in Europe and North America -- Work norms and professional labor markets -- Early career supervisor gender and the labor market outcomes of young workers -- Three perspectives on policy.

Papers presented at a conference held in April 1995 at the New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University./ Includes bibliographical references (p. 285-295) and index.
2000 edition: 1st paperback ed.

Bibliography Citation
Blau, Francine D. and Ronald G. Ehrenberg. Gender and Family Issues in the Workplace. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997.
10. Bloome, Deirdre
Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States
Working Paper, Russell Sage Foundation, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Family Income; Income; Income Distribution; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the U.S., parental resources available for improving children’s health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across U.S. states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals’ incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the U.S. The inequality to which children were exposed during youth has no robust association with the mobility they experienced as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the U.S. context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality of the size observed since 1970.
Bibliography Citation
Bloome, Deirdre. "Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States." Working Paper, Russell Sage Foundation, April 2013.
11. Card, David E.
Blank, Rebecca M.
Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Labor Market Segmentation; Mothers, Education; Skills; Wage Growth; Wage Levels

Finding Jobs offers a thorough examination of the low-skill labor market and its capacity to sustain this rising tide of workers, many of whom are single mothers with limited education. Each chapter examines specific trends in the labor market to ask such questions as: How secure are these low-skill jobs, particularly in the event of a recession? What can these workers expect in terms of wage growth and career advancement opportunities? How will a surge in the workforce affect opportunities for those already employed in low-skill jobs?
Bibliography Citation
Card, David E. and Rebecca M. Blank. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2000.
12. Cawley, John
Body Weight and the Dating and Sexual Behaviors of Young Adolescents
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 174-198
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Dating; Gender Differences; Height; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Weight

Chapter: Examined how early sexual and dating behaviors are correlated with adolescents' body weight. The data used in this study were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort. The sample consisted of 8,406 12-16 yr olds. Findings indicate that for girls, weight lowered the probability of ever having dated and the probability of dating at least monthly in the past year. It was also found that weight had an effect on sexual activity. Reporting error in weight and height is appended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Cawley, John. "Body Weight and the Dating and Sexual Behaviors of Young Adolescents" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 174-198
13. Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Gordon, Rachel A.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Neighborhood and Family Influences on the Intellectual and Behavioral Competence of Preschool and Early School-Age Children
In: Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children, Volume 1. G. Duncan, J. Brooks-Gunn, and J. Aber, eds., New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation; 1997: 79-118
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Children, Academic Development; Children, Poverty; Children, Preschool; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Ability; Family Income; Family Resources; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP); Maternal Employment; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Chapter 4: In this chapter we examine neighborhood-and family-level effects on the functioning of preschool (three- and four-year-old) and early school-age (five- and six-year-old) children. We use data from the Children of the NLSY, a survey of children based on a national survey of adolescents and young adults begun in 1979, and from the IHDP, a large eight-site study of an early educational intervention for premature and low-birth-weight children and their parents.
Bibliography Citation
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Rachel A. Gordon, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Pamela Kato Klebanov. "Neighborhood and Family Influences on the Intellectual and Behavioral Competence of Preschool and Early School-Age Children" In: Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children, Volume 1. G. Duncan, J. Brooks-Gunn, and J. Aber, eds., New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation; 1997: 79-118
14. Chatterji, Pinka
What Determines Adolescent Demand For Alcohol and Marijuana? A Comparison of Findings from the NLSY79 and the NLSY97
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 299-338
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Gender Differences; Substance Use

Chapter: Analyzed, compared, and contrasted the determinants of adolescent alcohol and drug use using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort and 1997 Cohort (NLSY79 and NLSY97, respectively). The final sample size from the NLSY79 analyses was 9,366 Ss; the final sample size from the NLSY97 analyses was 8,445 Ss. Results from the NLSY79 and NLSY97 models consistently indicate that demographic characteristics are important determinants of initiating alcohol and marijuana use before age 17 and engaging in frequent marijuana use before age 17. Girls were more likely than boys to report any alcohol or marijuana use. The effects of prices and policies on adolescent substance use are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
Bibliography Citation
Chatterji, Pinka. "What Determines Adolescent Demand For Alcohol and Marijuana? A Comparison of Findings from the NLSY79 and the NLSY97" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 299-338
15. Dominitz, Jeff
Manski, Charles F.
Fischhoff, Baruch
Who Are Youth "At Risk"? Expectations Evidence in the NLSY97
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 230-257
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Incarceration/Jail; Parenthood; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Probability judgments (also see Risk Perception); Risk Perception

Chapter: Analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort on the expectations of youths and their parents. This study examined responses to subjective probabilities of completing high school by age 20, serving time in jail or prison by age 20, and becoming a parent by age 20. The perceptions of the 2,922 youths (aged 16-17 yrs) and 2,922 parents were compared, and the cross-sectional variation of expectations with demographic attributes and past experiences were examined. Generally, moderate positive associations were found between the responses of youths and those of their parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Dominitz, Jeff, Charles F. Manski and Baruch Fischhoff. "Who Are Youth "At Risk"? Expectations Evidence in the NLSY97" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 230-257
16. Duncan, Greg J.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Consequences of Growing Up Poor
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, May 1997.
Also: http://www.russellsage.org/publications/titles/consequences_growing.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Siblings; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale); Wealth

Eighteen papers examine the consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children. Papers discuss the effects of poverty for the prenatal period and infancy, early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence; poverty trends; whether parent absence or poverty matters more; trends in the economic well-being and life chances of America's children; the effects of long-term poverty on the physical health of children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth; poverty and patterns of child care; consequences of living in poverty for young children's cognitive and verbal ability and early school achievement; economic resources, parental practices, and children's well-being; psychosocial morbidity among poor children in Ontario; family economic hardship and adolescent adjustment; the influence of poverty on children's classroom placement and behavior problems; the role of family income and sources of income in adolescent achievement; poverty during adolescence and subsequent educational attainment; childhood poverty and adolescent schooling and fertility outcomes; race, sex, and the intergenerational transmission of poverty; the effects of parents' income, wealth, and attitudes on children's completed schooling and self-esteem; whether poverty in adolescence affects the life chances of high-school graduates; and income effects across the life span. ISBN: 0-87154-143-2.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J. and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. Consequences of Growing Up Poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, May 1997..
17. Duncan, Greg J.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Income Effects Across the Life Span: Integration and Interpretation
In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, May 1997: 596-610
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Family Income; Family Structure; General Assessment; Mothers, Education; Poverty

One in five American children now live in families with incomes below the poverty line, and their prospects are not bright. Low income is statistically linked with a variety of poor outcomes for children, from low birth weight and poor nutrition in infancy to increased chances of academic failure, emotional distress, and unwed childbirth in adolescence. To address these problems it is not enough to know that money makes a difference; we need to understand how. Consequences of Growing Up Poor is an extensive and illuminating examination of the paths through which economic deprivation damages children at all stages of their development...

Based on their findings, the editors and contributors to Consequences of Growing Up Poor recommend more sharply focused child welfare policies targeted to specific eras and conditions of poor children's lives. They also weigh the relative need for income supplements, child care subsidies, and home interventions. Consequences of Growing Up Poor describes the extent and causes of hardships for poor children, defines the interaction between income and family, and offers solutions to improve young lives. (Source: http://www.russellsage.org/publications/titles/consequences_growing.htm. Russell Sage Foundation.)

Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J. and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Income Effects Across the Life Span: Integration and Interpretation" In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, May 1997: 596-610
18. Duncan, Greg J.
Magnuson, Katherine A.
The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention Skills, and Behavior Problems
In: Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. Richard J. Murnane and Greg J. Duncan, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011; pp.47-70.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Achievement; Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Family Characteristics; High School Completion/Graduates; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Completion; Temperament

Duncan and Magnuson argue that the domains of achievement, attention, and behavior are useful for organizing the most important children’s skills and behaviors. Upon entering kindergarten, children from low-income families have weaker academic and attention skills, on average, and a higher probability of demonstrating antisocial behavior than children from higher-income families. None of these gaps shrinks over the course of elementary school.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J. and Katherine A. Magnuson. "The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention Skills, and Behavior Problems" In: Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. Richard J. Murnane and Greg J. Duncan, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011; pp.47-70.
19. Ellwood, David T.
Wilde, Elizabeth T. Y.
Batchelder, Lily
The Mommy Track Divides: The Impact of Childbearing on Wages of Women of Differing Skill Levels
RFS Working Paper, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, January 2009.
Also: https://www.russellsage.org/publications/category/working-papers
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Fertility; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Wage Differentials

This paper explores how the wage and career consequences of motherhood differ by skill and timing. Past work has often found smaller or even negligible effects for high skill women. This paper finds the opposite. Wage trajectories diverge sharply for high scoring women after (but not before) they have children, while there is little change for low skill women. There is some evidence that the costs of childbearing for high skill women are reduced by delaying children. Factors such as remaining in the same job and keeping interruptions short reduce the costs to women, but costs remain high for high scoring women. Men show far less impacts. As a result it appears that the lifetime costs of childbearing, especially early childbearing are particularly high for skilled women. These differential costs of childbearing may account for the far greater tendency of high skill women to delay childbearing or avoid it altogether.
Bibliography Citation
Ellwood, David T., Elizabeth T. Y. Wilde and Lily Batchelder. "The Mommy Track Divides: The Impact of Childbearing on Wages of Women of Differing Skill Levels." RFS Working Paper, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, January 2009.
20. Farkas, George
How Educational Inequality Develops
In: The Colors of Poverty: Why Racial and Ethnic Disparities Exist. A. C. Lin and D. R. Harris eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2008: pp. 105-134
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Children, Poverty; Language Development; Modeling, Multilevel; Parents, Single; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Racial Differences; Social Environment

Bibliography Citation
Farkas, George. "How Educational Inequality Develops" In: The Colors of Poverty: Why Racial and Ethnic Disparities Exist. A. C. Lin and D. R. Harris eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2008: pp. 105-134
21. Ferguson, Ronald F.
Shifting Challenges: Fifty Years of Economic Change Toward Black-White Earnings Equality
In: An American Dilemma Revisited: Race Relations in a Changing World. C. Obie, Jr., ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1996: pp. 76-111
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Education; Employment; Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO); Illegal Activities; Migration; Migration Patterns; Racial Differences; Regions; Schooling; Skills; Unions; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wages

Argues that wage & employment differentials between whites & blacks are explained by the fact that basic skills of young black workers are not, on average, as well matched to shifting patterns in the market demand for labor as are their white counterparts, controlling for schooling levels and regional differences. A review of black employment 1940-1975 suggests that progress made by blacks in those years was due to black migration away from southern states, improvements in quality of education, and the dismantling of overt discrimination in the labor market. However, it is observed that such progress has been stifled since 1975 due to skills-based market changes to which whites have reacted better than blacks. Data from the 1980 Armed Forces Qualifications Test component of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are consulted to demonstrate that disparities in reading & math skills account for much of the wage differential between whites and blacks. However, it is also noted that the skill differential between whites and blacks has been declining, which suggests that either the value of skill rose faster than the gap closed, or blacks were earning more than whites with similar skills in the pre-1975 period. 2 Tables, 8 Figures. D. M. Smith (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Ferguson, Ronald F. "Shifting Challenges: Fifty Years of Economic Change Toward Black-White Earnings Equality" In: An American Dilemma Revisited: Race Relations in a Changing World. C. Obie, Jr., ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1996: pp. 76-111
22. Freeman, Richard B.
Gottschalk, Peter
Generating Jobs: How to Increase Demand for Less-Skilled Workers
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Analysis; Job Rewards; Skilled Workers; Skills; Wage Dynamics; Wages

Contributors: Introduction: Part I: Wage Subsidies and Public Employment. Chapter 1, Wage Subsidies for the Disadvantaged. L awarence E Katz. Chapter 2, The Spatial Dimension: Should Worker Assistance Be Given to Poor People or Poor Places? Edward M. Gramlich and Colleen M. Heflin Chapter 3, The Impact of Changes in Public Employment on Low-Wage Labor Markets. Peter Gottschalk. Part II: Changes in Modes of Pay. Chapter 4, Profit-Sharing and the Demand for Low-Skill Workers. Douglas L. Kruse. Chapter 5, The Effects of Employer Mandates. Susan N. Houseman. Part III: Employment Regulations. Chapter 6, Work-Sharing to Full Employment: Serious Option or Populist Fallacy? Richard B. Freeman
Bibliography Citation
Freeman, Richard B. and Peter Gottschalk. Generating Jobs: How to Increase Demand for Less-Skilled Workers. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998.
23. Gibson, Diane M.
Food Stamp Program Participation and Health: Estimates from the NLSY97
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 258-295
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Obesity; Parental Influences; Program Participation/Evaluation; Self-Reporting; Weight

Chapter: Examined the relation between Food Stamp Program participation and the health of youths (aged 12-18 yrs) using data from the 1st round of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort. The measures of health used were indicators of whether a youth was underweight or obese, a youth's self-reported health status, and chronic-illness status as reported by the youth's parents. Findings indicate that the relation between Food Stamp Program participation and youth health is not strong. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Gibson, Diane M. "Food Stamp Program Participation and Health: Estimates from the NLSY97" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 258-295
24. Grogger, Jeffrey
Immigration and Crime Among Young Black Men: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
In: Help or Hindrance?: The Economic Implications of Immigration for African Americans. D. S. Hamermesh and F. D. Bean eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998: pp. 322-342
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Black Youth; Crime; Employment; Immigrants

See also, Help or Hindrance? : the Economic Implications of Immigration for African Americans / Daniel S. Hamermesh and Frank D. Bean, eds., in this on-line bibliography.
Bibliography Citation
Grogger, Jeffrey. "Immigration and Crime Among Young Black Men: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth" In: Help or Hindrance?: The Economic Implications of Immigration for African Americans. D. S. Hamermesh and F. D. Bean eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998: pp. 322-342
25. Hamermesh, Daniel S.
Bean, Frank D.
Help or Hindrance? : The Economic Implications of Immigration for African Americans
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Benefits; Educational Attainment; Immigrants; Job Skills; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Scholarships; Skilled Workers; Working Conditions

[From book review.] With recent immigration at a near record high, many observers fear that African Americans, particularly those in low skill jobs, are increasingly losing out to immigrants in the American labor market. Because today's immigrants are largely non-European and non-white, there is also speculation that their presence will intensify the competition for housing and educational opportunities among minority groups. Help or Hindrance? probes the foundation of these concerns with the first comprehensive investigation into the effects of immigration on African Americans.

With detailed economic analysis of African American job prospects, benefits, and working conditions, Help or Hindrance? demonstrates that although immigration does not appear to have affected the actual employment rate of blacks, it has contributed slightly to the widening gap between the annual earnings of black and white males. Those near the lowest skills level appear most affected, suggesting that the most likely losers are workers with abilities similar to those of immigrants. With many employers moving away from cities, access to housing and problems of segregation have also become integral to success in the job market. And within black neighborhoods themselves, the establishment of small immigrant businesses has raised concerns that these may hinder local residents from starting up similar ventures. Help or Hindrance? also examines how immigration has affected the educational attainment of African Americans. Increased competition for college affirmative action and remedial programs has noticeably reduced African Americans' access to college places and scholarships.

Bibliography Citation
Hamermesh, Daniel S. and Frank D. Bean. Help or Hindrance? : The Economic Implications of Immigration for African Americans. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998.
26. Hauser, Robert M.
Brown, Brett V.
Prosser, William R.
Indicators of Children's Well-Being
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, November 1997.
Also: http://www.russellsage.org/publications/titles/indicators_children.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Child Health; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Well-Being; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Family Resources; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

The search for reliable information on the well-being of America's young is vital to designing programs to improve their lives. Yet social scientists are concerned that many measurements of children's physical and emotional health are inadequate, misleading, or outdated, leaving policymakers ill-informed. Indicators of Children's Well-Being is an ambitious inquiry into current efforts to monitor children from the prenatal period through adolescence. Working with the most up-to-date statistical sources, experts from multiple disciplines assess how data on physical development, education, economic security, family and neighborhood conditions, and social behavior are collected and analyzed, what findings they reveal, and what improvements are needed to create a more comprehensive and policy-relevant system of measurement. Today's climate of welfare reform has opened new possibilities for program innovation and experimentation, but it has also intensified the need for a clearly defined and wide-ranging empirical framework to pinpoint where help is needed and what interventions will succeed. Indicators of Children's Well-Being emphasizes the importance of accurate studies that address real problems. Essays on children's material well-being show why income data must be supplemented with assessments of housing, medical care, household expenditure, food consumption, and education. Other contributors urge refinements to existing survey instruments such as the Census and the Current Population Survey. The usefulness of records from human service agencies, child welfare records, and juvenile court statistics is also evaluated.
Bibliography Citation
Hauser, Robert M., Brett V. Brown and William R. Prosser. Indicators of Children's Well-Being. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, November 1997..
27. Hill, Carolyn J.
Holzer, Harry J.
Labor Market Experiences and Transitions to Adulthood
In: The Price of Independence: The Economics of Early Adulthood. pp.141-169. S. Danziger, and C. Rouse, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Labor Market Outcomes; Marital Status; Risk-Taking; Transition, Adulthood

This chapter examines the extent to which labor market changes and other personal characteristics explain changes over time in young adults' living arrangements (living with parents or marrying).
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Carolyn J. and Harry J. Holzer. "Labor Market Experiences and Transitions to Adulthood" In: The Price of Independence: The Economics of Early Adulthood. pp.141-169. S. Danziger, and C. Rouse, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007
28. Holzer, Harry J.
LaLonde, Robert J.
Job Change and Job Stability among Less Skilled Workers
In: Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform. D.E. Card and R.M. Blank, eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Characteristics; Job Search; Job Skills; Job Tenure; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Skilled Workers; Skills; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

...Thus, we find a need to update important parts of the previous literature on employment stability among less skilled workers, particularly in light of the major changes that have occurred in the labor market for these workers. More attention needs to be placed on less skilled workers more generally, who can be identified on the basis of academic achievement through test scores as well as educational attainment. In addition, we need to consider how other determinants of employment stability, such as job characteristics, previous employment experiences, and family status, affect this group compared with other workers.
Bibliography Citation
Holzer, Harry J. and Robert J. LaLonde. "Job Change and Job Stability among Less Skilled Workers" In: Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform. D.E. Card and R.M. Blank, eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2000
29. Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Gordon, Rachel A.
Are Neighborhood Effects on Young Children Mediated by Features of the Home Environment?
In: Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children, Volume 1. G. Duncan, J. Brooks-Gunn, and J. Aber, eds., New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation; 1997: 119-145
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Children, Poverty; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Ability; Family Income; Family Resources; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP); Maternal Employment; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Chapter 5: Our goal in this chapter is to extend chapter 4's analyses in several ways in order to understand whether or not neighborhood of residence is linked to the actual environments of children's homes, not just to the family's income and educational resources...This chapter has three aims. The first is to look at how neighborhood composition is correlated with indicators in the home environment and cultural characteristics of the young children's mothers. Our measures include the cognitive stimulation provided to the child in the home, the physical environment of the home, the mother's warmth toward the child, the mother's mental health, the mother's coping style, and the social support received by the mother...The second aim of this chapter is to see whether or not the neighborhood effects on child outcomes reported in chapter 4 are mediated by the family-level process variables just specified...Our final aim is to go beyond examining mediated effects to explore a few likely moderated effects. The ways in which the family resource variables operate may differ as a function of the type of neighborhoods in which families reside.
Bibliography Citation
Klebanov, Pamela Kato, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Rachel A. Gordon. "Are Neighborhood Effects on Young Children Mediated by Features of the Home Environment?" In: Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children, Volume 1. G. Duncan, J. Brooks-Gunn, and J. Aber, eds., New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation; 1997: 119-145
30. Korenman, Sanders D.
Miller, Jane E.
Effects of Long-Term Poverty on Physical Health of Children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G.J. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: pp. 70-99
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Family Structure; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Income; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Poverty; Siblings; Weight

In this chapter, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 1979-91, that provide background information on socioeconomic characteristics and annual data on income and family structure for a nationally representative sample of women selected in 1979. In combination with assessments of the health and development of the children born to this cohort of women, these data provide and excellent opportunity to investigate the effect of poverty dynamics on children's physical health and development in the United States (for example, Chase-Landsdale et al. 1991). We investigate the relations between income and timing or duration of poverty on the one hand and indicators of nutritional status and motor and social development (MSD) on the other. (The MSD index provides a measure of how a child's physical, language, and motor skills compare to standards for children of the same age.) Better estimates of the relationships between poverty history and child health may aid n the formulation of health and social policies. For example, identifying ages at which children are most vulnerable to the effects of poverty may allow resources to be targeted effectively, as demonstrated by the age range of children, youth, and young adults studied in this volume (Children's Defense Fund 1994). p. 71
Bibliography Citation
Korenman, Sanders D. and Jane E. Miller. "Effects of Long-Term Poverty on Physical Health of Children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth" In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G.J. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: pp. 70-99
31. Lichter, Daniel T.
Shanahan, Michael J.
Gardner, Erica L.
Becoming a Good Citizen? The Long-Term Consequences of Poverty and Family Instability During Childhood
Working Paper, Russell Sage Foundation, December 1999.
Also: http://www.russellsage.org/publications/working_papers/lichter-citizen.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Behavior, Prosocial; Family Structure; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Poverty; Volunteer Work

This paper was also presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1999. Our main objective is to evaluate whether a disadvantaged childhood inevitably leads to a politically disaffected and socially disengaged late adolescence. We examine the relationship between social and economic disadvantages during early childhood and "good citizenship" during late adolescence. Measures of formal activities are now available from the 1996 young adult supplements of the National Longitudunal Survey of Youth (NLSY); these data are linked to mother and family records from the 1979-96 main NLSY sample to create life-history records spanning childhood and adolescence. Children -- especially males -- from single parent families are less likely than children growing up in married couple households to be involved in volunteer work. Volunteer behavior is more strongly related to time spent in poverty among females than males. More generally, our results provide support for a mediational model, one in which long-term negative effects of childhood social and economic disadvantages on later pro-social behavior occur indirectly through effects on socioemotional development and life experiences during adolescence (e.g., attendance at religious services and school success). These results address current concerns about putative declines in a civil society in America and about the elevation of individualism over communalism among today's young people. (Copyright Russell Sage Foundation.)
Bibliography Citation
Lichter, Daniel T., Michael J. Shanahan and Erica L. Gardner. "Becoming a Good Citizen? The Long-Term Consequences of Poverty and Family Instability During Childhood." Working Paper, Russell Sage Foundation, December 1999.
32. Love, John M.
Indicators of Problem Behavior and Problems in Early Childhood
In: Indicators of Children's Well-Being. R. M. Hauser, B. V. Brown, and W. R. Prosser, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 279-308.
Also: http://www.russellsage.org/publications/titles/indicators_children.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Well-Being

The search for reliable information on the well-being of America's young is vital to designing programs to improve their lives. Yet social scientists are concerned that many measurements of children's physical and emotional health are inadequate, misleading, or outdated, leaving policymakers ill-informed. Indicators of Children's Well-Being is an ambitious inquiry into current efforts to monitor children from the prenatal period through adolescence. Working with the most up-to-date statistical sources, experts from multiple disciplines assess how data on physical development, education, economic security, family and neighborhood conditions, and social behavior are collected and analyzed, what findings they reveal, and what improvements are needed to create a more comprehensive and policy-relevant system of measurement. (Source: http://www.russellsage.org/publications/titles/indicators_children.htm. Russell Sage Foundation.)
Bibliography Citation
Love, John M. "Indicators of Problem Behavior and Problems in Early Childhood" In: Indicators of Children's Well-Being. R. M. Hauser, B. V. Brown, and W. R. Prosser, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 279-308.
33. Michael, Robert T.
Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Dating; Drug Use; Educational Attainment; Family Characteristics; Family Influences; Family Studies; Geographical Variation; Income; Parents, Single; Racial Differences; Sexual Behavior; Teenagers

Jacket: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a survey of more than 9,000 12-16 yr olds, this book explores the choices adolescents make about their lives and their futures. It focuses on the key role the family plays as teenagers navigate the transition from childhood to adulthood. This book analyzes a range of adolescent behaviors and issues that affect teenagers' lives, from dating and sexual behavior, drug and alcohol use, and physical and mental well-being, to their career goals and expectations for the future. It is argued that the findings strengthen one's understanding of how an array of family characteristics (single parenthood, income, educational level, race, and geographic location) influence teens' lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Michael, Robert T. Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001.
34. Moore, Mignon R.
Family Environment and Adolescent Sexual Debut in Alternative Household Structures
In: Social Awakening: Adolescents' Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 104-131
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age at First Intercourse; Cohabitation; Family Influences; Family Structure; Fathers, Influence; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Stepfamilies

Abstract: (Author's abstract http://www.sociology.columbia.edu/downloads/other/mm1664/social_awakening.pdf). Data are from Wave 1, NLSY97. With Mignon Moore's essay, the focus of the volume narrows to particular important adolescent behaviors, in this case the beginning of partnered sexual activity, which she terms sexual debut. Moore uses sexual debut as a vehicle with which to investigate the influence of family structure, the concept family here being refined so as to capture the distinctions between two-biological-parent families, remarried stepfamilies, first-marriage stepfamilies, cohabiting households, maritally disrupted single-parent families, and never-married single-parent families. She is interested in documenting how family structure is related to sexual debut--what differences there are among whites and blacks, and whether the observed differences are associated with the nature of parental support and discipline, characterized as parenting style.

Moore's sample is between the ages of fourteen and sixteen, and her focus is on a dummy variable indicating whether the youth has had intercourse; a weighted logistic regression model is used. Confirming previous results, Moore initially shows that youths in intact families are much less likely to have had sex than are those in any of the other family-structure types. A more refined analysis, one fully interacting these effects by race, finds a similar association with family structure for whites and blacks, but only for some types of family structure--that is, for maritally disrupted and never-married single-parent families compared to intact families but not for remarried black stepfamilies or cohabiting black households. Her decomposition of the white-black results reveals gender differences among the two races: among the blacks, but not among the whites, girls are much less likely to have had intercourse than are boys (see table 4.3).

Moore also introduces measures of parenting style, in particular the strictness and the supportiveness of each parent, and she does so taking account of family structure. The results are complicated, differing by race and family structure. One of the complications is that the influence of a biological father and that of a stepfather are quite distinct, causing Moore to suggest that "it appears as though most parenting efforts by stepfathers in remarried stepfamilies are likely to be rebuffed, at least initially" (125). Moore's essay shows again how important a full elaboration of family structure can be in investigating the influence of families on adolescents. (Copyright, Russell Sage Foundation, June 2001.)

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Mignon R. "Family Environment and Adolescent Sexual Debut in Alternative Household Structures" In: Social Awakening: Adolescents' Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 104-131
35. Mott, Frank L.
Looking Backward: Post Hoc Reflections on Longitudinal Surveys
In: Looking at Lives: American Longitudinal Studies of the Twentieth Century. E. Phelps, F. F. Furstenberg, Jr., and A. Colby eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLS General, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Life Course; Longitudinal Surveys; Overview, Child Assessment Data

The impact of long-term longitudinal studies on the landscape of 20th century social and behavioral science cannot be overstated. The field of life course studies has grown exponentially since its inception in the 1950s, and now influences methodologies as well as expectations for all academic research. Looking at Lives offers an unprecedented "insider's view" into the intentions, methods, and findings of researchers engaged in some of the 20th century's landmark studies. In this volume, eminent American scholars -- many of them pioneers in longitudinal studies -- provide frank and illuminating insights into the difficulties and the unique scientific benefits of mounting studies that track people's lives over a long period of time.

Looking at Lives includes studies from a range of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, and education, which together cover a span of more than fifty years. The contributors pay particular attention to the changing historical, cultural, and scientific context of their work, as well as the theoretical and methodological changes that have occurred in their fields over decades...[Copyright, Russell Sage Foundation, 2002]

Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. "Looking Backward: Post Hoc Reflections on Longitudinal Surveys" In: Looking at Lives: American Longitudinal Studies of the Twentieth Century. E. Phelps, F. F. Furstenberg, Jr., and A. Colby eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2002
36. Neumark, David B.
Improving School-to-work Transitions
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Immigrants; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education; Vocational Preparation; Vocational Training

David Neumark and Donna Rothstein investigate the impact of school-to-work programs on the "forgotten half," students at the greatest risk of not attending college. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth, they find that participation by these students in programs like job shadowing, mentoring, and summer internships raise employment and college attendance rates among men and earnings among women.

Transitions to work for racial, ethnic, and immigrant groups --Participation in career and technical education and school-to-work in American high schools -- Do school-to-work programs help the "forgotten half"? -- Learning by doing career academies -- The National Academy Foundation's career academies : shaping postsecondary transitions -- Labor-market linkages among two-year college faculty and their impact on student perceptions, effort, and college persistence – Smoothing the transition from school to work : building job skills for a local labor market.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Improving School-to-Work Transitions: Introduction (Neumark)
Chapter 2 Transitions to Work for Racial, Ethnic, and Immigrant Groups (Reed, et al.)
Chapter 3 Participation in Career and Technical Education and School-to-Work in American High Schools (Stone and Aliaga)
Chapter 4 Do School-to-Work Programs Help the "Forgotten Half"? (Neumark and Rothstein)
Chapter 5 Learning by Doing Career Academies (Stern, et al.)
Chapter 6 The National Academy Foundation's Career Academies: Shaping Postsecondary Transitions (Orr, et al.)
Chapter 7 Labor-Market Linkages Among Two-Year College Faculty and Their Impact on Student Perceptions, Effort, and College Persistence (Person and Rosenbaum)
Chapter 8 Smoothing the Transition from School to Work: Building Job Skills for a Local Labor Market (Maxwell)

Bibliography Citation
Neumark, David B. Improving School-to-work Transitions. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007.
37. Peters, H. Elizabeth
Mullis, Natalie C.
The Role of Family Income and Sources of Income in Adolescent Achievement
In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, May 1997: 340-381
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Child Support; Family Income; Immigrants; Siblings; Wage Rates; Welfare

Children who benefit from child support payments seem to fare better than those who obtain the same amount of money from welfare, according to a Cornell University study. And when child support stems from an agreement between parents rather than a court-ordered one, the children do even better.

"We now have evidence that money from child support may have a direct positive effect on children's cognitive development and educational attainment," said Elizabeth Peters, Cornell professor of consumer economics and housing.

How far children go in school also is influenced by other factors, such as family income, education of parents, family structure and composition and residential location, according to an earlier study by Peters.

"Some of these findings have important implications for policy," said Peters, an expert on the economic dimensions of marriage, divorce, child custody and child support who makes a concerted effort to bridge the gap between research and family policy. "Since we now know, for example, that fathers' child support payments have benefits beyond their economic value, we should consider this when developing policy." Cornell University, RELEASE: Jan. 24, 1997.

Bibliography Citation
Peters, H. Elizabeth and Natalie C. Mullis. "The Role of Family Income and Sources of Income in Adolescent Achievement" In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, May 1997: 340-381
38. Pfeffer, Fabian T.
Status Attainment and Wealth in the United States and Germany
In: Persistence, Privilege, and Parenting: The Comparative Study of Intergenerational Mobility. R. Erikson, M. Jäntti and T. Smeeding, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011: 109-137.
Also: https://www.russellsage.org/publications/persistence-privilege-and-parenting
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Assets; Cross-national Analysis; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Germany, German; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Social; Neighborhood Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Social Capital; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wealth

Research on intergenerational mobility typically conceptualizes and measures family background as any combination of parental education, parental occupation, and family income. One important feature of economic circumstances that is often overlooked in these studies is family wealth, or net worth. Wealth is a dimension of economic well-being that suffers particularly stark inequalities, and thus its neglect is troubling. Severe inequalities in familial wealth may well create unequal opportunities for children over and above those created by other socio-economic characteristics of families. Recent research has begun to document strong and independent effects of parental wealth on children's educational opportunities for the United States. This paper extends this research by documenting the role of wealth for the entire status attainment process, that is, not only educational but also occupational attainment. In addition, it assesses the degree to which the association between parental wealth and attainment differs by national context. Drawing on national panel datasets – the NLSY-79, the PSID and the GSOEP – this paper investigates how the link between wealth inequality and inequality in opportunities differs between the United States and Germany.
Bibliography Citation
Pfeffer, Fabian T. "Status Attainment and Wealth in the United States and Germany" In: Persistence, Privilege, and Parenting: The Comparative Study of Intergenerational Mobility. R. Erikson, M. Jäntti and T. Smeeding, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011: 109-137.
39. Phelps, Erin
Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr.
Colby, Anne
Looking at Lives: American Longitudinal Studies of the 20th Century
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, May 2002.
Also: http://www.russellsage.org/publications/titles/lookingatlives.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Inner-City; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Course; Longitudinal Surveys; Overview, Child Assessment Data; Poverty

The impact of long-term longitudinal studies on the landscape of 20th century social and behavioral science cannot be overstated. The field of life course studies has grown exponentially since its inception in the 1950s, and now influences methodologies as well as expectations for all academic research. Looking at Lives offers an unprecedented "insider's view" into the intentions, methods, and findings of researchers engaged in some of the 20th century's landmark studies. In this volume, eminent American scholars -- many of them pioneers in longitudinal studies -- provide frank and illuminating insights into the difficulties and the unique scientific benefits of mounting studies that track people's lives over a long period of time.

Looking at Lives includes studies from a range of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, and education, which together cover a span of more than fifty years. The contributors pay particular attention to the changing historical, cultural, and scientific context of their work, as well as the theoretical and methodological changes that have occurred in their fields over decades. What emerges is a clear indication of the often unexpected effects these studies have had on public policies and public opinion - especially as they relate to such issues as the connection between poverty and criminal behavior, or the consequences of teen-age pregnancy and drug use for inner-city youth. For example, David Weikart reveals how his long-term research on preschool intervention projects, begun in 1959, permitted him to show how surprisingly effective preschool education can be in improving the lives of disadvantaged children. In another study, John Laub and Robert Sampson build on findings from a groundbreaking study begun by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck in the 1950s to reveal the myriad ways in which juvenile delinquency can predict criminal behavior in adults. And Arland Thornton, Ronald Freedman, and William Axinn employ an intergenerational study of women and their children begun in 1962 to examine the substantial relaxation of social mores for family and individual behavior in the latter decades of the 20th century.

Looking at Lives is full of striking testimony to the importance of long-term, longitudinal studies. As a unique chronicle of the origins and development of longitudinal studies in America, this collection will be an invaluable aid to 21st century investigators who seek to build on the successes and the experiences of the pioneers in life-course studies. Copyright Russell Sage Foundation, 2002.

Bibliography Citation
Phelps, Erin, Frank F. Jr. Furstenberg and Anne Colby. Looking at Lives: American Longitudinal Studies of the 20th Century. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, May 2002..
40. Pierret, Charles R.
The Effects of Family Structure on Youth Outcomes in the NLSY97
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 25-48
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Behavioral Problems; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Family Studies; Illegal Activities; Incarceration/Jail; Mothers, Education; Sexual Behavior

Chapter: Examined whether particular children in a particular family situation would fare better if the parents were to stay together or split up. The sample for this analysis was drawn from the 1st round of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Outcome measures included GPA in the 8th grade and indicator variables for certain negative behaviors: whether the youth smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol, or smoked marijuana on at least 2 days in the last month, had been arrested 2 or more times, and had sex with 3 or more partners ever. Information about the family structure was obtained from the parent interview. It was found that children living in nonintact families earn lower grades in school and exhibit a greater propensity to engage in problem behaviors in their teen years. Even after controlling for income and mother's education, NLSY97 youths living in nonintact families were up to 120% more likely to use marijuana regularly and 250% more likely to have been arrested 2 or more times. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Pierret, Charles R. "The Effects of Family Structure on Youth Outcomes in the NLSY97" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 25-48
41. Raphael, Steven
Early Incarceration Spells and the Transition to Adulthood
In: The Price of Independence: The Economics of Early Adulthood. S. Danziger, and C. Rouse, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Crime; Earnings; Incarceration/Jail; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Punishment, Criminal; Transition, Adulthood; Wages, Youth; Work Experience; Work Hours

In this chapter I explore the effect of having served time on conventional measures of the transition to adulthood. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 through 1996, I test for a connection between prior jail or prison time (measured as having been interviewed for the survey while incarcerated) and four conventional markers of adult transition: current residence with ones parents, never having been married, the proportion of the survey year employed, and hourly earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Raphael, Steven. "Early Incarceration Spells and the Transition to Adulthood" In: The Price of Independence: The Economics of Early Adulthood. S. Danziger, and C. Rouse, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007
42. Reardon, Sean F.
The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations
In: Whither Opportunity: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. G. Duncan and R. Murnane, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Achievement; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Family Income; High School and Beyond (HSB); Income Distribution; National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Socioeconomic Status (SES)

In this chapter I examine whether and how the relationship between family socioeconomic characteristics and academic achievement has changed during the last fifty years. In particular, I investigate the extent to which the rising income inequality of the last four decades has been paralleled by a similar increase in the income achievement gradient. As the income gap between high- and low-income families has widened, has the achievement gap between children in high- and low-income families also widened?
Bibliography Citation
Reardon, Sean F. "The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations" In: Whither Opportunity: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. G. Duncan and R. Murnane, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011
43. Smith, Judith R.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Jackson, Aurora P.
Parental Employment and Children
In: Indicators of Children's Well-Being. R.M. Hauser, B. V. Brown, and W.R. Prosser, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 279-308.
Also: http://www.russellsage.org/publications/titles/indicators_children.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Family Resources; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Includes bibliographical references and index. Indicators of children's well-being : a review of current indicators based on data from the federal statistical system / Brett V. Brown -- Criteria for indicators of child well- being / Kristin A. Moore -- Population indicators of prenatal and infant health / Paula Lantz and Melissa Partin -- Health indicators for preschool children, ages one to four / Barbara L. Wolfe and James Sears -- Health indicators for preadolescent school-age children / Barbara Starfield -- Adolescent health indicators / Arthur B. Elster -- Indicators for school readiness, schooling, and child care in early to middle childhood / Deborah A. Phillips and John M. Love -- Indicators of high school completion and dropout / Robert M. Hauser -- Postsecondary and vocational education : keeping track of the college track / Thomas J. Kane -- Indicators of educational achievement / Daniel Koretz -- Indicators of children's economic well-being and parental employment / Susan E. Mayer -- Longitudinal indicators of children's poverty and dependence / Greg J. Duncan and Leslie Moscow -- Parental employment and children / Judith R. Smith, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Aurora Jackson -- Demographic change and the population of children : race/ethnicity, immigration, and family size / Dennis P. Hogan and David J. Eggebeen -- Family structure, stability, and the well-being of children / Gary D. Sandefur and Jane Mosley -- The influence of neighborhoods on children's development : a theoretical perspective and a research agenda / Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., and Mary Elizabeth Hughes -- Potential and problems in developing community-level indicators of children's well-being / Claudia J. Coulton -- Indicators of positive development in early childhood : improving concepts and measures / J. Lawrence Aber and Stephanie M. Jones -- Indicators of problem behavior and problems in early childhood / John M. Love -- Positive indicators of adolescent development : redressing the negative image of American adolescents / Ruby Takanishi, Allyn M. Mortimer, and Timothy J. McGourthy -- The status of adolescent problem behavior indicators / Bruce P. Kennedy and Deborah Prothrow-Stith -- Potential and problems in developing indicators on child well-being from administrative data / Robert M. Goerge -- Context and connection in social indicators : enhancing what we measure and monitor / Marc L. Miringoff and Marque-Luisa Miringoff -- Children in dire straits : how do we know whether we are progressing? / William R. Prosser and Matthew Stagner.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Judith R., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Aurora P. Jackson. "Parental Employment and Children" In: Indicators of Children's Well-Being. R.M. Hauser, B. V. Brown, and W.R. Prosser, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 279-308.
44. Smith, Judith R.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Consequences of Living in Poverty for Young Children's Cognitive and Verbal Ability and Early School Achievement
In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G.J. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 132-189
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Development; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Poverty; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Ability; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Schooling

In Consequences of Growing Up Poor, developmental psychologists, economists, and sociologists revisit a large body of studies to answer specific questions about how low income puts children at risk intellectually, emotionally, and physically. Many of their investigations demonstrate that although income clearly creates disadvantages, it does so selectively and in a wide variety of ways. Low-income preschoolers exhibit poorer cognitive and verbal skills because they are generally exposed to fewer toys, books, and other stimulating experiences in the home. Poor parents also tend to rely on home-based child care, where the quality and amount of attention children receive is inferior to that of professional facilities. In later years, conflict between economically stressed parents increases anxiety and weakens self-esteem in their teenaged children.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Judith R., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Pamela Kato Klebanov. "Consequences of Living in Poverty for Young Children's Cognitive and Verbal Ability and Early School Achievement" In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G.J. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 132-189
45. Stone, James R., III
Aliaga, Oscar A.
Participation in Career and Technical Education and School-To-Work in American High Schools
In: Improving School-to-work Transitions. Neumark, D., ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007: pp. 59-86
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education; Vocational Preparation; Vocational Training

Bibliography Citation
Stone, James R., III and Oscar A. Aliaga. "Participation in Career and Technical Education and School-To-Work in American High Schools" In: Improving School-to-work Transitions. Neumark, D., ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007: pp. 59-86
46. Teachman, Jay D.
Paasch, Kathleen M.
Day, Randal D.
Carver, Karen P.
Poverty During Adolescence and Subsequent Educational Attainment
In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G.J. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 382-418
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Child Health; Children, Poverty; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Fertility; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Diploma; Household Composition; Intelligence; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Chapter 13. The immediate effects of poverty on the living conditions, nutrition and physical and emotional health of children are relatively well documented (Mare 1982; McLeod and Shanahan 1993; McLoyd 1990; Miller and Korenman 1994a, I994b; Parker, Greer, and Zuckerman 1988). Less evidence is available on the longer-term consequences of poverty for children. This chapter focuses on the potential link between the experience of poverty in adolescence and subsequent educational achievement. A variety of evidence linking events and circumstances in childhood to outcomes in later life suggests that a childhood lived in poverty may have lasting effects. A substantial body of literature indicates the importance of parental socioeconomic and household characteristics for their offspring's eventual level of education, occupational status, and income (Blau and Duncan 1967; Corcoran et al. 1992; Duncan, Featherman, and Duncan 1972; Featherman and Hauser 1978: Hauser and Daymont 1977; Hauser and Featherman 1977; Jencks et al. 1972, 1979; Jencks, Crouse, and Meuser 1983; Sewell and Hauser 1975; Sewell, Hauser, and Wolfe 1980). We build on this literature by examining the link between poverty experienced during adolescence and several educational outcomes, including high school completion, college attendance, and years of schooling attained. We take a longitudinal perspective, distinguishing between short-term and longer term poverty. We also consider various measures of poverty as well as the impact of welfare receipt. Finally, we implement controls for a wide range of potentially confounding influences such as race, sex, parental education, family structure and intellectual ability (IQ).
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D., Kathleen M. Paasch, Randal D. Day and Karen P. Carver. "Poverty During Adolescence and Subsequent Educational Attainment" In: Consequences of Growing Up Poor. G.J. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 382-418
47. Tepper, Robin L.
Parental Regulation and Adolescent Discretionary Time-Use Decisions: Findings from the NLSY97
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 79-105
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Children, School-Age; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Teenagers; Television Viewing; Time Use

Chapter: Used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort, to explore parents' role in influencing adolescents' decisions regarding time use. The sample included 2,318 12-13 yr olds. The link between parental regulation and adolescent time use was examined, and the hypothesis that parents who regulate adolescent behavior have a positive influence on time-use decisions was tested. Three dimensions of parental regulation were identified: regulation through structure, regulation through monitoring, and regulation through rules. Three aspects of time use were explored: time spent watching TV, reading for pleasure, and doing homework. Parental regulation was found to have a significant influence on all 3 of these time-use activities. The findings also suggest that some methods of regulation may be more effective than others. Those parents who regulated via structure and monitoring were found to have greater effect on adolescent's time-use decisions than did those who regulated their adolescents' behavior primarily through the use of rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Tepper, Robin L. "Parental Regulation and Adolescent Discretionary Time-Use Decisions: Findings from the NLSY97" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 79-105
48. Waldfogel, Jane
Working Mothers Then and Now: A Cross-Cohort Analysis of the Effects of Maternity Leave on Women's Pay
In: Gender and Family in the Workplace. F.D. Blau and R.G. Ehrenberg, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 92-126
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Wages, Women

An examination of the disadvantages that women -- particularly young mothers -- face in today's workplace sets the stage for the debate...and Jane Waldfogel demonstrates that having children results in substantially lower wages for women. Adapted from publication publicity notice, copyright Russell Sage Foundation.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane. "Working Mothers Then and Now: A Cross-Cohort Analysis of the Effects of Maternity Leave on Women's Pay" In: Gender and Family in the Workplace. F.D. Blau and R.G. Ehrenberg, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997: 92-126
49. Waldfogel, Jane
Mayer, Susan E.
Gender Differences in the Low-Wage Labor Market
In: Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform. D.E. Card and R.M. Blank, eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; Family Size; Gender; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Job Tenure; Marital Status; Part-Time Work; Wage Effects; Wage Levels; Wages; Work Experience

...Thus, this chapter differs from previous research in that we estimate and decompose changes in the gender gap in pay for workers with different levels of education. Also in contrast to prior research, we include detailed controls for marital status and number of children, and we include both full-time and part-time workers. In common with prior research, we use both cross-sectional and panel data, so that we can take actual work experience and job tenure into account as well as the usual controls for education and other human capital and demographic variables that affect wages.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane and Susan E. Mayer. "Gender Differences in the Low-Wage Labor Market" In: Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform. D.E. Card and R.M. Blank, eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2000
50. Walker, James R.
Adolescents' Expectations Regarding Birth Outcomes: A Comparison of the NLSY79 and NLSY97 Cohorts
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 201-229
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; College Graduates; Fertility; Gender Differences

Chapter: Used data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97, respectively) to investigate whether youths can reasonably forecast their future fertility outcomes and, if so, whether the intentions of the cohorts differ. The sample consisted of Ss aged 15-17 yrs. It was found that youths can reliably assess (short-term) fertility outcomes, and, unlike other events (such as mortality and perhaps college graduation), fertility events are salient to them. Little difference was found between the fertility expectations of the members of the NLSY79 cohort and those of NLSY97 cohort. The differences that did occur were among males, especially poor males. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Walker, James R. "Adolescents' Expectations Regarding Birth Outcomes: A Comparison of the NLSY79 and NLSY97 Cohorts" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 201-229
51. Western, Bruce
Incarceration, Marriage, and Family Life
Working Paper, Russell Sage Foundation, September 2004.
Also: http://www.russellsage.org/publications/workingpapers/incarcerationmarriagefamilylife/document
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Crime; Divorce; Domestic Violence; Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study; Incarceration/Jail; Marriage

This paper examines the effects of incarceration on marriage and family life. The paper reports on three empirical analyses. First, estimates show that incarcerated men are only about half as likely to be married as noninstituional men of the same age, however they are just as likely to have children. By 2000, more than 2 million children had incarcerated fathers; 1 in 10 black children under age 10 had a father in prison or jail by 2000. Analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the Fragile families Study of Child Wellbeing, indicates that formerly incarcerated men experience lower marriage rates and increased risks of divorce. Finally, analysis of domestic violence data shows that formerly-incarcerated men are about twice as likely to have assaulted the mothers of their children than men of the same age, race, and recent history of spouse abuse. Married women in longlasting and affectionate relationships are at lower risk of domestic violence. These results suggest that the crime-suppressing effects of incarceration, through incapacitation, may be offset by the negative effects of imprisonment on marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Western, Bruce. "Incarceration, Marriage, and Family Life." Working Paper, Russell Sage Foundation, September 2004.
52. Western, Bruce
The Impact of Incarceration on Earnings Mobility and Inequality
Working Paper, Russel Sage Foundation, December 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Crime; Incarceration/Jail; Mobility

Bibliography Citation
Western, Bruce. "The Impact of Incarceration on Earnings Mobility and Inequality." Working Paper, Russel Sage Foundation, December 2000.
53. Western, Bruce
Lopoo, Leonard M.
Pettit, Becky
Punishment and Inequality in America
New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Minorities; Minority Groups; Punishment, Criminal; Racial Equality/Inequality

The recent explosion of imprisonment is exacting heavy costs on American society and exacerbating inequality. Whereas college or the military were once the formative institutions in young menʼs lives, prison has increasingly usurped that role in many communities. Punishment and Inequality in America profiles how the growth in incarceration came about and the toll it is taking on the social and economic fabric of many American communities.

See in particular Chapter 6: Incarceration, Marriage, and Family Life"

See review of monograph: http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/western1006.htm

Bibliography Citation
Western, Bruce, Leonard M. Lopoo and Becky Pettit. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007.
54. Williams, L. Susan
City Kids and Country Cousins: Rural and Urban Youths, Deviance, and Labor Market Ties
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 379-413
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Drug Use; Runaways; Rural Youth; Rural/Urban Differences

Chapter: Examined ways in which the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 and 1979 Cohort (NLSY97 and NLSY79, respectively) contributes to the assessment of trends in youths' illicit activities in both rural and urban areas. The samples consisted of 9,022 Ss (aged 12-18 yrs) from NLSY97 and 12,686 Ss (aged 14-22 yrs) from NLSY79. 11 primary variables were used for the comparative analysis of NLSY97 and NLSY79: drink alcohol, smoke marijuana, destroy property, steal less than $50, steal greater than $50, sell drugs, fight, attack others, run away, suspended, and arrested. Partial support was found to support rural-urban convergence in levels of serious delinquent behavior by youths. It was also found that rural areas exert a unique influence on youth deviance, often in complex, interactive ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Williams, L. Susan. "City Kids and Country Cousins: Rural and Urban Youths, Deviance, and Labor Market Ties" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 379-413