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Source: Small Business Economics
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Ahn, Taehyun
Racial Differences in Self-employment Exits
Small Business Economics 36,2 (February 2011): 169-186.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/30367772446p5l44/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Entrepreneurship; Exits; Modeling, Logit; Racial Differences; Self-Employed Workers; Transition Rates, Activity to Work; Transitional Programs; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using detailed work history data in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I investigate the reasons behind the racial gap in self-employment. My analysis of an 'age uniform' sample of men, all of whom are observed from age 22 to 40 years, reveals that racial differences in cross-sectional self-employment rates are largely due to the fact that minority workers' self-employment spells are relatively short-lived. Moreover, I find that minority workers' relatively high exit rates are driven primarily by transitions to nonemployment. Estimates from a multinomial logit model of self-employment exits suggest that minority workers' weak attachment to the labor market prior to entering self-employment is an important determinant of their transition from self-employment to nonemployment, while lack of prior industry and self-employment experience contributes to minorities' transitions to wage employment. When I assign blacks and Hispanics the same (mean) work histories as whites, the predicted black-white gap in the first-year self-employment survival rate decreases by 31% and the Hispanic-white gap decreases by 14%. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Ahn, Taehyun. "Racial Differences in Self-employment Exits." Small Business Economics 36,2 (February 2011): 169-186.
2. Asoni, Andrea
Sanandaji, Tino
Identifying the Effect of College Education on Business and Employment Survival
Small Business Economics 46,2 (February 2016): 311-324.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11187-015-9686-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Degree; Educational Attainment; Employment; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Self-Employed Workers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use a multipronged identification strategy to estimate the effect of college education on business and employment survival. We account for the endogeneity of both education and business ownership with a competing risks duration model augmented with a college selection equation. We estimate the model jointly on the self-employed and salaried employees in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Unlike most previous studies, we find that college does not increase business survival. By contrast, a college degree significantly increases employment survival. Cognitive skills have a positive impact on survival for both the self-employed and employees. These findings suggest that college benefits the self-employed less than salaried, perhaps by generating skills more useful in employment than self-employment, or because of differences in the value of signaling.
Bibliography Citation
Asoni, Andrea and Tino Sanandaji. "Identifying the Effect of College Education on Business and Employment Survival." Small Business Economics 46,2 (February 2016): 311-324.
3. Fairlie, Robert W.
Entrepreneurship and Earnings among Young Adults from Disadvantaged Families
Small Business Economics 25,3 (October 2005): 223-236.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f816378j56570267/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Disadvantaged, Economically; Gender Differences; Self-Employed Workers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Academicians and policymakers have argued that entrepreneurship provides a route out of poverty and an alternative to unemployment or discrimination in the labor market. Existing research, however, provides little evidence from longitudinal data on the relationship between business ownership and economic advancement for disadvantaged groups. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine the earnings of young business owners from disadvantaged families and make comparisons to young wage/salary workers from disadvantaged families. For young men from disadvantaged families, I find some evidence that self-employed business owners earn more than wage/salary workers. In contrast, I find that for young women from disadvantaged families business owners earn less than wage/salary workers. The results from these earnings comparisons are somewhat sensitive to the use of different measures of income and econometric models.
Bibliography Citation
Fairlie, Robert W. "Entrepreneurship and Earnings among Young Adults from Disadvantaged Families." Small Business Economics 25,3 (October 2005): 223-236.
4. Patrick, Carlianne
Stephens, Heather
Weinstein, Amanda
Where Are all the Self-employed Women? Push and Pull Factors Influencing Female Labor Market Decisions
Small Business Economics 46,3 (March 2016): 365-390.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11187-015-9697-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Entrepreneurship; General Social Survey (GSS); Geocoded Data; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Regions; Self-Employed Workers; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research focuses on factors that influence self-employment participation, in part because entrepreneurship has been associated with economic growth. This literature has tended to focus only on men or the comparison of women to men, while ignoring substantial heterogeneity in employment decisions among women. By investigating the impact of individual, household, and local economic and cultural characteristics on the labor market outcomes of different groups of women, we get a more comprehensive picture of their self-employment decision. Recognizing self-employment as one of multiple labor market choices, we use multinomial logit and two confidential, geocoded micro-level datasets to study women's career choices in urban areas. We find that the effects of various push and pull factors differ between married and unmarried women. In particular, more progressive gender attitudes pull married women into self-employment, while household burdens associated with children push them into self-employment. For unmarried women, the local business climate and individual characteristics have the strongest influence. In both cases, the motivations for women are quite different than men.
Bibliography Citation
Patrick, Carlianne, Heather Stephens and Amanda Weinstein. "Where Are all the Self-employed Women? Push and Pull Factors Influencing Female Labor Market Decisions." Small Business Economics 46,3 (March 2016): 365-390.
5. Spanjer, Anne
van Witteloostuijn, Arjen
The Entrepreneur's Experiential Diversity and Entrepreneurial Performance
Small Business Economics 49,1 (June 2017): 141-161.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11187-016-9811-0
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Entrepreneurship; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Skills; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the relationship between the entrepreneur's experiential diversity and entrepreneurial performance. First, we argue that entrepreneurial and industry experiences are positively associated with performance. Second, by combining Lazear's jacks-of-all-trades theory with the cognition and learning literatures, an inverted U-shaped experience diversity-performance relationship is predicted. The hypotheses are tested using data from the US National Labor Survey Youth 1979 and O*NET. We find that industry experience is positively associated with performance, but entrepreneurial experience is negatively related. Moreover, experience diversity measured in terms of skills is found to be positively associated with performance up to a certain threshold. After this threshold, an increase in an entrepreneur's experiential diversity lowers performance. Entrepreneurs with 23 different skills have the highest performance. Furthermore, when depreciating for experience, experience diversity measured in terms of both skills and knowledge is found to be positively related to performance.
Bibliography Citation
Spanjer, Anne and Arjen van Witteloostuijn. "The Entrepreneur's Experiential Diversity and Entrepreneurial Performance." Small Business Economics 49,1 (June 2017): 141-161.
6. van Praag, Mirjam
van Witteloostuijn, Arjen
van der Sluis, Justin
The Higher Returns to Formal Education for Entrepreneurs versus Employees
Small Business Economics 40,2 (February 2013): 375-396.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11187-012-9443-y
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Returns; Employment; Entrepreneurship; Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How valuable is formal education for entrepreneurs’ income relative to employees’? And if the income returns to formal education are different for entrepreneurs vis-à-vis employees, what might be a plausible explanation? To explore these questions, we analyze a large representative US panel. We show that entrepreneurs have higher returns to formal education than employees. We refer to this as the entrepreneurship returns puzzle. We run post hoc analyses to explore a number of potential explanations of this puzzle. Indirectly, our analysis indicates that the higher returns to formal education for entrepreneurs might be due to the fewer organizational constraints they face, leading to more personal control over how to use their human capital, compared to employees.
Bibliography Citation
van Praag, Mirjam, Arjen van Witteloostuijn and Justin van der Sluis. "The Higher Returns to Formal Education for Entrepreneurs versus Employees ." Small Business Economics 40,2 (February 2013): 375-396.
7. Williams, Donald R.
Youth Self Employment: Its Nature and Consequences
Small Business Economics 23,4 (November 2004): 323-336.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/r1j542102hn24826/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Self-Employed Workers; Wages, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the extent of self-employment, characteristics of the self-employed, and the returns to self-employment experiences for a sample of teenagers and young adults in the United States. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that the self-employment experience of youth is quite different from that of adults. Consequences of youth self-employment, measured at age 27, suggest both positive and negative effects.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Donald R. "Youth Self Employment: Its Nature and Consequences." Small Business Economics 23,4 (November 2004): 323-336.
8. Wunnava, Phanindra V.
Ewing, Bradley T.
Union-Nonunion Gender Wage and Benefit Differentials across Establishment Sizes
Small Business Economics 15,1 (August 2000): 47-57.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/qp524wq23vm2216h/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Benefits; Firm Size; Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Unions; Wage Differentials; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY), both male and female workers in larger establishments receive not only higher wages but also have a higher probability of receiving benefits than those in smaller establishments. This phenomenon reinforces the well documented size effect. This study also provides evidence of vast gender differences in estimated union effects on the different components of the compensation structure. Hence unions should not treat both genders similarly with respect to wages and benefits. Specifically, unions may be successful in attracting more female workers to join rank and file if unions could play an active role in making available maternity (paternity) leave, and also provided opportunities for women to join large establishments.
Bibliography Citation
Wunnava, Phanindra V. and Bradley T. Ewing. "Union-Nonunion Gender Wage and Benefit Differentials across Establishment Sizes." Small Business Economics 15,1 (August 2000): 47-57.