Search Results

Source: Social Forces
Resulting in 78 citations.
1. Aisenbrey, Silke
Evertsson, Marie
Grunow, Daniela
Is There a Career Penalty for Mothers' Time Out - A Comparison of Germany, Sweden and the United States
Social Forces 88,2 (December 2009): 573-606.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/sof/summary/v088/88.2.aisenbrey.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Childbearing; Cross-national Analysis; Economics of Gender; German Life History Study; Germany, German; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Sweden, Swedish; Swedish Level of Living Survey; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article focuses on three countries with distinct policies toward motherhood and work: Germany, Sweden and the United States. We analyze the length of mothers’ time out of paid work after childbirth and the short-term career consequences for mothers. In the United States, we identify a career punishment even for short timeout periods; long time-out periods increase the risk of a downward move and reduce the chances of an upward move. In Germany, long time-out periods destabilize the career and, the longer the leave, the greater the risk of either an upward or downward move. In Sweden, we find a negative effect of time out on upward moves. Hence, even in “woman-friendly” Sweden, women’s career prospects are better if they return to paid work sooner rather than later.
Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke, Marie Evertsson and Daniela Grunow. "Is There a Career Penalty for Mothers' Time Out - A Comparison of Germany, Sweden and the United States." Social Forces 88,2 (December 2009): 573-606.
2. Alon, Sigal
Donahoe, Debra
Tienda, Marta
The Effects of Early Work Experience on Young Women's Labor Force Attachment
Social Forces 79,3 (March 2001): 1005-1034.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2675616
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Women; Work Attachment; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, we examine women's labor force experience during the early life course in order to assess the conditions conducive to the establishment of stable labor force careers. To represent the complexity of women's work trajectories during young adulthood, we develop a conceptual framework that depicts a broad range of work activity profiles. Empirical results obtained using the NLSY show that three aspects of early experience influence mature women's labor force attachment, namely the amount of experience accumulated; the timing of work experience; and the volatility of that experience. Above and beyond these experience measures, we also find that background factors influence adult women's attachment to the market. The conclusion discusses the policy implications of these results.
Bibliography Citation
Alon, Sigal, Debra Donahoe and Marta Tienda. "The Effects of Early Work Experience on Young Women's Labor Force Attachment." Social Forces 79,3 (March 2001): 1005-1034.
3. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Delayed Disadvantage: Neighborhood Context and Child Development
Social Forces 94,4 (June 2016): 1847-1877.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article/94/4/1847/2461910/Delayed-Disadvantage-Neighborhood-Context-and#42282700
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Life Course; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Neighborhood effects scholarship suggests that neighborhoods may impart different effects across the early life-course because children's interactions with neighborhood actors and institutions evolve across the stages of child development. This paper expands our understanding of neighborhood effects on cognitive and non-cognitive development across childhood and early adolescence by capitalizing on thirteen waves of restricted and never-before-used longitudinal data from the NLSY Child and Young Adult (1986-2010) sample. The findings from within-child fixed-effects interaction models suggest that while younger children are immune to neighborhood effects on their cognitive development, older children consistently suffer a steep penalty for growing up in disadvantaged neighborhoods. This neighborhood disadvantage penalty persists among older children despite alternative age constructs. Further, the results are robust to various adjustments for observed and unobserved sources of bias, model specifications, and also manifest as cumulative and lagged effects.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Delayed Disadvantage: Neighborhood Context and Child Development." Social Forces 94,4 (June 2016): 1847-1877.
4. Andrew, Megan
The Scarring Effects of Primary-Grade Retention? A Study of Cumulative Advantage in the Educational Career
Social Forces 93,2 (2014): 653-685.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/2/653
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Elementary School Students; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Propensity Scores; School Entry/Readiness; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Triggering events and the scarring, or status-dependence, process they induce are an important cornerstone of social stratification theory that is rarely studied in the context of the educational career. However, the decades-old high-stakes environment that ties many educational outcomes to a test score or other singular achievement underscores the potential importance of scarring in the contemporary educational career. In this paper, I study scarring in the educational career in the case of primary-grade retention. Using propensity score matching and sibling fixed-effects models, I evaluate evidence for primary-grade retention effects on high school completion and college entry and completion. I find consistent evidence of a causal effect of early primary school grade retention on high school completion. These effects operate largely through middle school academic achievements and expectations, suggesting that students who recover from the scar of grade retention on high school completion largely do so earlier rather than later in the educational career. Students can continue to recover from the effects of grade retention through early high school, not only through their academic achievements but through their expectations of high school completion as well. Models suggest that early primary grade retention scars the educational career mainly at high school completion, though there are important, unconditional effects on college entry and completion as a result. I conclude by placing these findings in the larger grade-retention literature and discussing future research on heterogeneities in and mechanisms of retention effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Andrew, Megan. "The Scarring Effects of Primary-Grade Retention? A Study of Cumulative Advantage in the Educational Career." Social Forces 93,2 (2014): 653-685.
5. Bean, Frank D.
Berg, Ruth R.
Van Hook, Jennifer V. W.
Socioeconomic and Cultural Incorporation and Marital Disruption Among Mexican Americans
Social Forces 75,2 (December 1996): 593-617.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580415
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Studies; Hispanics; Immigrants; Marital Disruption; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines how processes of socioeconomic and cultural incorporation affect marital-disruption patterns Mexican-origin persons in the U.S. in comparison to non-Hispanic whites and African Americans. The results, which are based mainly on recent National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, indicate that, once other variables are controlled, the correlation of level of education with marital disruption among U.S. native Mexican Americans is negative and similar in level to that of non-Hispanic whites. However, the correlation of educational level with marital disruption among Mexican immigrants is both positive and lower than that of other "maps". It is argued that these results do not support the idea that cultural familism explains Mexican-origin marital-disruption patterns, nor the idea that segmented assimilation processes exert influence on marital disruption, but rather the idea that socioeconomic and cultural incorporation interact in their effects on marital variables.
Bibliography Citation
Bean, Frank D., Ruth R. Berg and Jennifer V. W. Van Hook. "Socioeconomic and Cultural Incorporation and Marital Disruption Among Mexican Americans." Social Forces 75,2 (December 1996): 593-617.
6. Bloome, Deirdre
Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States
Social Forces 93,3 (March 2015): 1047-1080.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/3/1047.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Family Income; Income Distribution; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children's health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals' incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Bloome, Deirdre. "Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States." Social Forces 93,3 (March 2015): 1047-1080.
7. Bollen, Kenneth A.
Brand, Jennie E.
A General Panel Model with Random and Fixed Effects: A Structural Equations Approach
Social Forces 89,1 (September 2010): 1-34.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/1/1.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Fertility; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Mothers, Income; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fixed and random effects models for longitudinal data are common in sociology. Their primary advantage is that they control for time-invariant omitted variables. However, analysts face several issues when they employ these models. One is the uncertainty of whether to apply the fixed effects (FEM) versus the random effects (REM) models. Another less discussed issue is that the FEM and REM models as usually implemented might be insufficiently flexible. For instance, the effects of variables, including the latent time-invariant variable, might change over time rather than be constant as in the usual FEM and REM. The latent time-invariant variable might correlate with some variables and not others. Lagged endogenous variables might be necessary. Alternatives that move beyond the classic FEM and REM models are known, but they involve different estimators and software that make these extended models difficult to implement and to compare. This paper presents a general panel model that includes the standard FEM and REM as special cases. In addition, it provides a sequence of nested models that provide a richer range of models that researchers can easily compare with likelihood ratio tests and fit statistics. Furthermore, researchers can implement our general panel model and its special cases in widely available structural equation models (SEMs) software.
Bibliography Citation
Bollen, Kenneth A. and Jennie E. Brand. "A General Panel Model with Random and Fixed Effects: A Structural Equations Approach." Social Forces 89,1 (September 2010): 1-34.
8. Budig, Michelle Jean
Intersections on the Road to Self-Employment: Gender, Family and Occupational Class
Social Forces 84,4 (June 2006): 2223-2239.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/social_forces/v084/84.4budig.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Constraints; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Self-Employed Workers; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Are gender differences in the effects of family structure on self-employment participation robust across different forms of self-employment? Using event history analyses of competing risks and data spanning 20 years, I find that women enter non-professional and non-managerial self-employment to balance work and family demands. In contrast, family factors do little to explain women's entrance into professional and managerial selfemployment; these women are more similar to their male peers and appear to follow a careerist model of self-employment.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean. "Intersections on the Road to Self-Employment: Gender, Family and Occupational Class." Social Forces 84,4 (June 2006): 2223-2239.
9. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Life-Course Effects of Work and Family Circumstances on Children
Social Forces 76,2 (December 1997): 637-665.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580727
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children; Children, Well-Being; Deviance; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Human Capital; Life Course; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do work and family circumstances shape young children's emotional well-being and behavior? To what extent can parental resources act as buffers against adverse effects? We investigate these questions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for a synthetic cohort of 2,342 six- and seven-year-old children born to a national cohort of young women between 1979 and 1984. As suggested by a life-course perspective, both maternal resources and current family and parental employment conditions directly impact children's behavior problems. Maternal resources also have indirect effects through current work and family circumstances. Our results suggest that improvements in current work and family circumstances can enhance children's wellbeing, even for children whose mothers have poorer emotional and cognitive resources.
Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C., Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Susan Marie Jekielek. "Life-Course Effects of Work and Family Circumstances on Children." Social Forces 76,2 (December 1997): 637-665.
10. Crutchfield, Robert D.
Pitchford, Susan R.
Work and Crime: The Effects of Labor Stratification
Social Forces 76,1 (September 1997): 93-118.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580319
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Crime; Illegal Activities; Job Satisfaction; Labor Market, Secondary; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Crutchfield and Pitchford use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to test the hypothesis that young adults employed in what are described as "secondary sector jobs" are more likely to engage in crime than those in more stable jobs. Copyright University of North Carolina Press 1997. Full text online. UMI can supply photocopy.
Bibliography Citation
Crutchfield, Robert D. and Susan R. Pitchford. "Work and Crime: The Effects of Labor Stratification." Social Forces 76,1 (September 1997): 93-118.
11. D'Amico, Ronald
Status Maintenance or Status Competition? Wife's Relative Wages as a Determinant of Labor Supply and Marital Instability
Social Forces 61,4 (June 1983): 1186-1205.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578286
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Employment; Family Resources; Household Income; Marital Instability; Oppenheimer's Model; Transfers, Financial; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper tests two contending theories about the effect of the interaction between husband's and wife's earnings capabilities on the wife's labor force participation and on the probability of marital dissolution. The first of these is Parsons' status competition model which suggests that, other things equal, the higher a woman's wage potential relative to her husband's, the more peripheral should be her labor force attachment. Violation of this constraint by her employment in a status competitive position is presumed to lead to increased risk of marital disruption. By contrast, Oppenheimer's status maintenance model proposes that the family's efforts to enhance its position in the socioeconomic hierarchy is an inducement to the wife's employment the more congruent her potential labor force achievement is with her husband's. Our results generally support the Oppenheimer model, although some support for Parsons' model was found. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for study of the interactive linkages between husbands' and wives' careers.
Bibliography Citation
D'Amico, Ronald. "Status Maintenance or Status Competition? Wife's Relative Wages as a Determinant of Labor Supply and Marital Instability." Social Forces 61,4 (June 1983): 1186-1205.
12. Davies, Scott
Guppy, Neil
Fields of Study, College Selectivity, and Student Inequalities in Higher Education
Social Forces 75,4 (June 1997):1417-1438.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580677
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Colleges; Gender Differences; Higher Education; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Analyses of national longitudinal survey data revealed that male college students were much more likely than females to enter fields of study with high economic returns; socioeconomic factors did not affect entry into lucrative fields net of other background factors, but did affect entry into selective colleges; and measured academic ability predicted all dependent variables. Contains 48 references. (Author/SV)
Bibliography Citation
Davies, Scott and Neil Guppy. "Fields of Study, College Selectivity, and Student Inequalities in Higher Education." Social Forces 75,4 (June 1997):1417-1438.
13. England, Paula A.
Herbert, Melissa S.
Kilbourne, Barbara Stanek
Reid, Lori Lynn
Megdal, Lori McCreary
The Gendered Valuation of Occupations and Skills: Earnings in 1980 Census Occupations
Social Forces 73,1 (September 1994): 65-100.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579918
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Comparable Worth; Discrimination, Sex; Gender; Gender Differences; Occupational Prestige; Occupations, Non-Traditional; Sex Roles; Skills; Wage Gap; Wages, Men; Wages, Women; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The percent female of an occupation lowers the pay it offers to both men and women, net of skill demands, nonpecuniary amenities and disamenities, and industrial and organizational characteristics. Net of these variables, including percent female, occupations involving nurturance offer lower wages to both men and women. We interpret these net wage penalties for working in a more female occupation, and for doing nurturant work, as sex discrimination in wage setting; occupations and types of skill are devalued because they are typically done by women. We suggest a thesis of the gendered valuation of roles and skills. The sex gap in pay would be reduced by policies mandating comparable worth in setting occupations' pay levels. Other factors contributing to the sex gap in pay include men's higher representation in jobs with authority and in occupations typically located in higher paying industries. Some nonpecuniary amenities and disamenities affect pay consistent with the theory of compensating differentials, but these make no contribution to the sex gap in pay.
Bibliography Citation
England, Paula A., Melissa S. Herbert, Barbara Stanek Kilbourne, Lori Lynn Reid and Lori McCreary Megdal. "The Gendered Valuation of Occupations and Skills: Earnings in 1980 Census Occupations." Social Forces 73,1 (September 1994): 65-100.
14. Farkas, George
England, Paula A.
Vicknair, Keven
Kilbourne, Barbara Stanek
Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings Among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers
Social Forces 75, 3 (March 1997): 913-940.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580524
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Earnings; Education; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Skills; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Wage Gap; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Do the cognitive skills possessed by an individual affect access to more cognitively demanding occupations and hence to the associated higher earnings? To what extent do difference between African Americans, U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and European Americans (Whites) in average cognitive skills account for the lower-skilled jobs and lower earnings of African Americans and Mexican Americans? From analyses of 1991 National Longitudinal Survey (NLSY) data for six groups defined by ethnicity and gender, we found that individual cognitive skill level (as standardized test scores) affects access to occupations requiring more cognitive skill and affects wages levels, even when controlling for education, work experience and other factors. Most of the effect of cognitive skills on earnings is direct; a smaller portion is indirect, through access to occupations requiring more cognitive skill. The lower average cognitive skill levels for African Americans and Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of the earnings gaps between these groups European Americans. By contrast, cognition skills explain none of the gender gap in pay within ethnic groups. We conclude that to understand or alter racial or ethnic inequalities in earnings, scholars and policy-maters must attend to social sources of group differences in cognition skills, such as school, family, and neighborhood experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Farkas, George, Paula A. England, Keven Vicknair and Barbara Stanek Kilbourne. "Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings Among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers." Social Forces 75, 3 (March 1997): 913-940.
15. Farkas, Janice I.
O'Rand, Angela M.
The Pension Mix For Women In Middle and Late Life: The Changing Employment Relationship
Social Forces 76,3 (March 1998):1007-1032.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3005701
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Gerontology; Life Course; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Pensions; Retirement; Savings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Revised version of a paper presented at the Gerontological Society of America Meetings, Los Angeles CA, 1995. The effects of life-course, employment and labor market characteristics on the probability of pension participation and on type of pension coverage are estimated for two cohorts of working women in middle and late life, respectively. The National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature and Young Women are used to differentiate the relative importance of life course and diverse structural factors on worker pension participation and employer coverage patterns. The defined contribution plan is argued to be an indicator of the changing employment relationship which is relieving employers of pension liability and increasing workers' responsibilities for retirement saving. Probit regressions are used to estimate the relative risks for nonparticipation in any pension among these working women. Multinominal logistic models, controlling for selectivity, estimate cohort processes in workers' access to employer-provided pension types. The results reveal the relative importance for middle-aged and older women of life course and structural variables that reflect life stage and changing employment relationships. Younger cohorts appear to be relatively more vulnerable to the changing employment contract given their greater dependence on defined contribution plans and the conflict between family and market contingencies.
Bibliography Citation
Farkas, Janice I. and Angela M. O'Rand. "The Pension Mix For Women In Middle and Late Life: The Changing Employment Relationship." Social Forces 76,3 (March 1998):1007-1032.
16. Fischer, Claude S.
Hout, Michael
Jankowski, Martin Sanchez
Lucas, Samuel
Swidler, Ann
Voss, Kim
Arum, Richard
Response to Nielsen's Review of Inequality by Design
Social Forces 76,4 (June 1998): 1539-1543.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3005844
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Intelligence

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article is a response to François Nielsen's critical review of the book "Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth," by Claude S. Fischer, Michael Hout, Martin Sánchez Jankowski, Samuel R. Lucas, Ann Swidler and Kim Voss. According to the authors, first Nielsen largely ignores the central argument of the book, one that is stated regularly: Explaining who gets ahead and who falls behind in the race for success explains nothing about systems of inequality. Second, Nielsen focuses on one chapter in IBD: chapter 4, "Who Wins, Who Loses?" It examines the "Bell Curve's" statistical analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In defending "The Bell Curve" on this point, Nielsen misrepresents the analysis. He also slides in a critical but dubious assumption: that the AFQT is a measure of innate "cognitive ability" or "intelligence." Nielsen has two major criticisms of the re-modeling the NLSY data. First, he states that the corrected models fail to erase the AFQT score as a significant predictor of poverty. This is irrelevant. The issue is whether the AFQT score "dominates" other factors in explaining individual outcomes. Second, Nielsen charges that we use control variables especially years of schooling that are effects of "cognitive ability" and so bias the models given by the authors against the AFQT predictor.
Bibliography Citation
Fischer, Claude S., Michael Hout, Martin Sanchez Jankowski, Samuel Lucas, Ann Swidler, Kim Voss and Richard Arum. "Response to Nielsen's Review of Inequality by Design." Social Forces 76,4 (June 1998): 1539-1543.
17. Gee, Gilbert C.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Long, J. Scott
Age, Cohort and Perceived Age Discrimination: Using the Life Course to Assess Self-reported Age Discrimination
Social Forces 86,1 (September 2007): 265-290.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4495036
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Discrimination, Age; Gender Differences; Life Course; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Self-reported discrimination is linked to diminished well-being, but the processes generating these reports remain poorly understood. Employing the life course perspective, this paper examines the correspondence between expected age preferences for workers and perceived age discrimination among a nationally representative sample of 7,225 working women, followed between 1972-1989. Analyses find that perceived age discrimination is high in the 20s, drops in the 30s and peaks in the 50s. This curvilinear pattern matches external reports of age preferences and is robust to a variety of controls and model specifications. Additionally, the primary driver of perceived age discrimination is age--not cohort or historical period. These findings suggest that perceived age discrimination is a useful indicator of population-level exposure to work-related age discrimination among women. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Longitudinal data from the Mature and Young Women's Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) are used to examine reports of discrimination between 1972 and 1988. Unlike previous cross-sectional studies of age discrimination, the NLS cohorts allow us to follow a nationally representative sample of U,S. women spanning several birth cohorts.

Bibliography Citation
Gee, Gilbert C., Eliza K. Pavalko and J. Scott Long. "Age, Cohort and Perceived Age Discrimination: Using the Life Course to Assess Self-reported Age Discrimination." Social Forces 86,1 (September 2007): 265-290.
18. Glass, Jennifer L.
Noonan, Mary Christine
Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989-2008
Social Forces 95, 1 (1 September 2016): 217-250.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article-abstract/95/1/217/2427137
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Telecommuting; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989-2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home. Working from home rather than the office produces equal earnings growth in the first 40 hours worked, but "taking work home" or overtime telecommuting yields significantly smaller increases than overtime worked on-site. Yet, most observed telecommuting occurs precisely during this low-yield overtime portion of the hours distribution. Few gender or parental status differences emerged in these processes. These trends reflect potentially widespread negative consequences of the growing capacity of workers to perform their work from any location. Rather than enhancing true flexibility in when and where employees work, the capacity to work from home mostly extends the workday and encroaches into what was formerly home and family time.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L. and Mary Christine Noonan. "Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989-2008." Social Forces 95, 1 (1 September 2016): 217-250.
19. Glass, Jennifer L.
Sassler, Sharon
Levitte, Yael
Michelmore, Katherine
What's So Special about STEM? A Comparison of Women's Retention in STEM and Professional Occupations
Social Forces 92,2 (2013): 723-756.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/92/2/723
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): College Graduates; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Exits; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Non-Traditional; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics); Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We follow female college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and compare the trajectories of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related occupations to other professional occupations. Results show that women in STEM occupations are significantly more likely to leave their occupational field than professional women, especially early in their career, while few women in either group leave jobs to exit the labor force. Family factors cannot account for the differential loss of STEM workers compared to other professional workers. Few differences in job characteristics emerge either, so these cannot account for the disproportionate loss of STEM workers. What does emerge is that investments and job rewards that generally stimulate field commitment, such as advanced training and high job satisfaction, fail to build commitment among women in STEM.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L., Sharon Sassler, Yael Levitte and Katherine Michelmore. "What's So Special about STEM? A Comparison of Women's Retention in STEM and Professional Occupations." Social Forces 92,2 (2013): 723-756.
20. Goosby, Bridget J.
Cheadle, Jacob E.
Birth Weight, Math and Reading Achievement Growth: A Multilevel Between-Sibling, Between-Families Approach
Social Forces 87,3 (March 2009): 1291-1320.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40345162
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Educational Attainment; Family Environment; Family Studies; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Multilevel; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We used multilevel covariance structure analysis to study the relationship between birth weight, family context and youth math and reading comprehension growth from approximately ages 5 through 14 within and between families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample, we examined the relationship between birth weight and subsequent academic achievement growth disparities, distinguishing between birth weight and other contextual social confounders. We found that smaller birth weight is associated with lower math and reading scores at age 5. Additional findings indicated that the home environment has important developmental consequences from early childhood and into adolescence. Overall, the pattern of findings painted a complex picture of disadvantage, beginning in the womb and extending through a variety of mechanisms into adolescence. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Social Forces is the property of University of North Carolina Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Goosby, Bridget J. and Jacob E. Cheadle. "Birth Weight, Math and Reading Achievement Growth: A Multilevel Between-Sibling, Between-Families Approach." Social Forces 87,3 (March 2009): 1291-1320.
21. Gregg, Paul
Jonsson, Jan O.
Macmillan, Lindsey
Mood, Carina
The Role of Education for Intergenerational Income Mobility: A Comparison of the United States, Great Britain, and Sweden
Social Forces 96,1 (1 September 2017): 121-152.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article/3885844
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): British Cohort Study (BCS); Cross-national Analysis; Educational Returns; Family Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Sons; Sweden, Swedish

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous studies have found that intergenerational income persistence is relatively high in the United States and Britain, especially as compared to Nordic countries. We compare the association between family income and sons' earnings in the United States (National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979), Britain (British Cohort Study 1970), and Sweden (Population Register Data, 1965 cohort), and find that both income elasticities and rank-order correlations are highest in the United States, followed by Britain, with Sweden being clearly more equal. We ask whether differences in educational inequality and in return to qualifications can explain these cross-country differences. Surprisingly, we find that this is not the case, even though returns to education are higher in the United States. Instead, the low income mobility in the United States and Britain is almost entirely due to the part of the parent-son association that is not mediated by educational attainment. In the United States and especially Britain, parental income is far more important for earnings at a given level of education than in Sweden, a result that holds also when controlling for cognitive ability. This goes against widespread ideas of the United States as a country where the role of ascription is limited and meritocratic stratification prevails.
Bibliography Citation
Gregg, Paul, Jan O. Jonsson, Lindsey Macmillan and Carina Mood. "The Role of Education for Intergenerational Income Mobility: A Comparison of the United States, Great Britain, and Sweden." Social Forces 96,1 (1 September 2017): 121-152.
22. Greve, Henrich R.
Fujiwara-Greve, Takako
Job Search with Organizational Size As a Signal
Social Forces 82,2 (December 2003): 643-670.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598205
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Firm Size; Job Search; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Mobility, Job

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is in workers' interest to leave their jobs if better work can be found, but imperfect information on outside opportunities impedes their job search. We describe two theories on workers' search using the organizational size as a proxy for work characteristics and derive hypotheses on how the organizational size distribution in a labor market affects job separations. We test the hypotheses with NLSY 79 data on job separations, finding that diversity in organizational sizes affects worker mobility. Workers are more likely to move within counties with many organizations larger than their current one or many organizations of different sizes and are more likely to leave counties lacking these characteristics.

Copyright of Social Forces is the property of University of North Carolina Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Greve, Henrich R. and Takako Fujiwara-Greve. "Job Search with Organizational Size As a Signal." Social Forces 82,2 (December 2003): 643-670.
23. Guo, Guang
The Timing of the Influences of Cumulative Poverty on Children's Cognitive Ability and Achievement
Social Forces 77,1 (September 1998): 257-287.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3006017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Home Environment; Children, Poverty; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Genetics; Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Is childhood such a critical period by the end of this period, cumulative poverty would have exerted maximum effect on children's cognitive outcomes? Or are cognitive outcomes more a function of the length of exposure to poverty regardless of the life stage in which the child is exposed to poverty? The NLSY, which measures each child's cognitive development repeatedly over time, was analyzed to answer these questions. We distinguish between ability and achievement. Ability is a more stable trait than achievement and tends to be determined by both environmental and genetic factors early in life. Achievement on the other hand is more acquired. This study shows that long-term poverty has substantial influences on both ability and achievement, but the time patterns of these influences are distinctly different. Childhood appears to be a much more crucial period for the development of cognitive ability than early adolescence. In contrast, poverty experienced in adolescence appears to be more influential to adolescent achievement than poverty experienced earlier in life.
Bibliography Citation
Guo, Guang. "The Timing of the Influences of Cumulative Poverty on Children's Cognitive Ability and Achievement." Social Forces 77,1 (September 1998): 257-287.
24. Hall, Matthew
Farkas, George
Adolescent Cognitive Skills, Attitudinal/Behavioral Traits and Career Wages
Social Forces 89,4 (June 2011): 1261-1285.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/4/1261.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Attitudes; Behavioral Differences; Cognitive Ability; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Ethnic Groups; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Self-Esteem; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to estimate the effects of cognitive skills (measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test) and attitudinal/behavioral traits (a latent factor based on self-reported self-esteem, locus of control, educational aspirations and educational expectations) on career wage trajectories of white, black and Latino/a men and women. We find that both cognitive and attitudinal/behavioral traits affect initial wages and wage growth, above and beyond their effects on schooling and transcript-reported high school grades. The relative size of these effects, however, varies by race/ethnicity. We also show that black and Latino men, and black women have substantially flatter wage trajectories than white men and women. Using wage decomposition techniques, we find that the lower wages of these groups are partially, but not fully, accounted for by group differences in cognitive skill and attitudinal/behavioral traits. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Social Forces is the property of University of North Carolina Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Hall, Matthew and George Farkas. "Adolescent Cognitive Skills, Attitudinal/Behavioral Traits and Career Wages." Social Forces 89,4 (June 2011): 1261-1285.
25. Hardie, Jessica H.
Seltzer, Judith A.
Parent-Child Relationships at the Transition to Adulthood: A Comparison of Black, Hispanic, and White Immigrant and Native-Born Youth
Social Forces 95,1 (September 2016): 321-353.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/321
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Ethnic Differences; Immigrants; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Investments; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parents play a key role in launching their children into adulthood. Differences in the resources they provide their children have implications for perpetuating patterns of family inequality. Using data on 6,962 young adults included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine differences in the support parents provide to young adult children by immigrant status and race/ethnicity and whether and how those differences are explained by parent resources and young adult resources and roles. Immigrant status and race/ethnicity are associated with patterns of support in complex ways. We find that racial/ethnic and immigrant disparities in perceptions of support, financial support, and receiving advice from parents about education or employment are explained by family socioeconomic resources. Group differences in whether young adults say they would turn to a parent for advice and coresidence persist after accounting for these factors, however. Young adult resources and roles also shape parental support of young adults in the transition to adulthood, but taking account of these characteristics does not explain immigrant and racial/ethnic group differences. Our findings highlight the need to consider both race/ethnicity and immigrant status to understand family relationships and sources of support.
Bibliography Citation
Hardie, Jessica H. and Judith A. Seltzer. "Parent-Child Relationships at the Transition to Adulthood: A Comparison of Black, Hispanic, and White Immigrant and Native-Born Youth." Social Forces 95,1 (September 2016): 321-353.
26. Hardy, Melissa A.
Social Policy and Determinants of Retirement: A Longitudinal Analysis of Older White Males, 1969-1975
Social Forces 60,4 (June 1982): 1103-1122.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2577880
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Tenure; Marital Status; Pensions; Retirement; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzed short-term changes in the retirement behavior of older white males. The l969 to l975 period straddles a major turning point in the Social Security system and allows examination of the hypothesis that older workers quickly respond to policy changes that alter their opportunity structures. Retirement is approached through labor supply, which allows maximum flexibility in analytic conception. Changes in the patterns of results during the l969-l975 period reflect the interaction of the "pull" dynamic of liberalized benefits with other determinants of retirement behavior. The strongest shifts were observed for workers with health limitations and workers facing compulsory retirement but covered by second pensions.
Bibliography Citation
Hardy, Melissa A. "Social Policy and Determinants of Retirement: A Longitudinal Analysis of Older White Males, 1969-1975." Social Forces 60,4 (June 1982): 1103-1122.
27. Hayward, Mark D.
The Influence of Occupational Characteristics on Men's Early Retirement
Social Forces 64,4 (June 1986): 1032-1045.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578793
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Early Retirement; Occupations; Pensions; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the influence of occupational characteristics on the early retirement of men, using data derived from the 1973-1981 interview waves of the NLS of Older Men. The results indicate that there is some age- grading of occupational "attractiveness" such that occupational characteristics gain or lose their direct salience for retirement depending on the age of incumbents. In addition, when the nature of work is controlled, the influence of pension coverage declines, suggesting that past research may have overestimated the pecuniary influence of pension benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. "The Influence of Occupational Characteristics on Men's Early Retirement." Social Forces 64,4 (June 1986): 1032-1045.
28. Hogan, Dennis P.
Hao, Lingxin
Parish, William L.
Race, Kin Networks, and Assistance to Mother-headed Families
Social Forces 68,3 (March 1990): 797-812.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579354
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Child Care; Marital Status; Mothers; Parents, Single; Racial Differences; Sons; Support Networks

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using NLSY data on black and white American mothers who are single or currently married in 1984, the research investigates issues relating to kin networks, childcare, and financial support to families. The analysis confirms that black mothers have better access to kin and are more likely to coreside with kin than white mothers, the childcare they use more often is provided by kinfolk and is free, and they more often receive half or more of their income from someone other than their husband. Most of the differences in childcare and economic support are attributable to the greater proportion of blacks who are single and to their better kin access. There is no evidence that blacks are more responsive than whites to the needs of single mothers. The persistent black advantage in support network involvement is due to the greater likelihood that they coreside with adult kin and use free childcare rather than to any black advantage in financial support. But almost one third of single black mothers were not involved in support networks, and the network support was insufficient to provide adequate childcare for many mothers who were involved.
Bibliography Citation
Hogan, Dennis P., Lingxin Hao and William L. Parish. "Race, Kin Networks, and Assistance to Mother-headed Families." Social Forces 68,3 (March 1990): 797-812.
29. Jacobs, Jerry A.
Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr.
Changing Places: Conjugal Careers and Women's Marital Mobility
Social Forces 64,3 (March 1986): 714-732.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578821
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Husbands; Marital Disruption; Marriage; Mobility; Occupational Status; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between the socioeconomic status of successive husbands for two national samples of women (the Mature and Young Women cohorts) who married two or more times is investigated. Socioeconomic homogamy, as indicated by the educational attainment and occupational status of spouses, is similar in first and second marriages for both cohorts. On average, the socioeconomic standings of husbands in subsequent marriages are about equal to those in previous marriages, when adjustments are made for the career trajectories of the men involved. Socioeconomic variables, timing, and the presence of children all influence the chances of finding an accomplished second husband. The implications of these findings for the welfare of children of disrupted families and for future trends in socioeconomic homogamy are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Jacobs, Jerry A. and Frank F. Jr. Furstenberg. "Changing Places: Conjugal Careers and Women's Marital Mobility." Social Forces 64,3 (March 1986): 714-732.
30. James, Spencer
Beattie, Brett
Reassessing the Link between Women's Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality
Social Forces 91,2 (December 2012): 635-662.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/91/2/635
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Structure; Marital Satisfaction/Quality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and communication and positively related to conflict. As in previous research, selection mechanisms appear to increase the odds of cohabitation while decreasing marital happiness. A closer examination of the problem also reveals a negative effect of the experience of cohabitation. This paper's primary contributions are the ability to model selection and experience in the same model and evidence of a robust effect of cohabitation on marital quality. These results underscore the complex pathways between union formation, family structure and marital outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
James, Spencer and Brett Beattie. "Reassessing the Link between Women's Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality." Social Forces 91,2 (December 2012): 635-662.
31. Jekielek, Susan Marie
Parental Conflict, Marital Disruption and Children's Emotional Well-Being
Social Forces 76,3 (March 1998): 905-936.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3005698
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Marital Conflict; Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Parental Influences; Parental Marital Status; Parents, Behavior; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to examine the question: Are children better off when they remain in two-parent families characterized by marital conflict, or are they better off when their parents dissolve their marital relationship? I find that both parental conflict and marital disruption, particularly disruption less than two years ago, increase the anxiety and depression/withdrawal of children aged 6-14 (n=1640). I also find significant interactions: Children remaining in high conflict environments generally exhibit lower levels of well-being than children who have experienced high levels of parental conflict but whose parents divorce or separate. These results support the possibility that marital disruption, following high conflict, may actually improve the well-being of children relative to a high conflict family status.
Bibliography Citation
Jekielek, Susan Marie. "Parental Conflict, Marital Disruption and Children's Emotional Well-Being." Social Forces 76,3 (March 1998): 905-936.
32. Johnson, Kecia
Pais, Jeremy
South, Scott J.
Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence From Fixed-Effects Models
Social Forces, 91,1 (September 2012): 181-208.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/social_forces/v091/91.1.johnson.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Ethnic Differences; Migration; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Residential Segregation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minority population concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely to differ from minorities who reside in areas with few minorities on unobserved characteristics related to economic attainment. Thus, this association may be a product of differential skills, behaviors and networks acquired during childhood or of selective migration. Applying fixed-effects models to a quarter century of panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that for Blacks and Latinos the inverse association between minority population concentration and earnings is eliminated when unobserved person-specific characteristics are controlled. The findings suggest that the negative association between Black population size and Blacks’ earnings is driven largely by the selection of high-earning Blacks into labor markets with relatively small Black populations. Most of the association between Latino population concentration and earnings is attributable to the level of Latino population concentration experienced during childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Kecia, Jeremy Pais and Scott J. South. "Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence From Fixed-Effects Models." Social Forces, 91,1 (September 2012): 181-208.
33. Keister, Lisa A.
Religion and Wealth: The Role of Religious Affiliation and Participation in Early Adult Asset Accumulation
Social Forces 82,1 (September 2003): 175-207.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598143
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Assets; Demography; Economics, Demographic; Family Background; Family Influences; Religion; Religious Influences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers have documented extreme inequalities in wealth ownership, but the processes that create these inequalities are not well understood. One important contributing factor that attracts little attention is religion. This study explores the relationship between religious participation, religious affiliation, and patterns of wealth accumulation. I argue that religion affects wealth ownership indirectly by shaping demographic behaviors. I also argue that religion directly influences wealth accumulation by identifying valuable goals, by providing a set of competencies that direct strategies of action, and by contributing to social contacts that provide information and opportunities that can enhance wealth ownership. The findings suggest that Jews enjoy tremendous gains in wealth ownership, while conservative Protestants accumulate relatively little wealth. In contrast, mainline Protestants and Catholics are indistinguishable from each other and from the general population. The results demonstrate the importance of family processes in shaping wealth accumulation, and they underscore the importance of culture in shaping economic behavior and ultimately in creating social inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Keister, Lisa A. "Religion and Wealth: The Role of Religious Affiliation and Participation in Early Adult Asset Accumulation." Social Forces 82,1 (September 2003): 175-207.
34. Keister, Lisa A.
Upward Wealth Mobility: Exploring the Roman Catholic Advantage
Social Forces 85,3 (March 2007): 1195-1225.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4494970
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Hispanics; Mobility; Religion; Religious Influences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data are from the NLSY79 [Ed.]
Wealth inequality is among tile most extreme forms of stratification in the United States, and upward wealth mobility is not common. Yet mobility is possible, and this paper takes advantage of trends among a unique group to explore the processes that generate mobility. I show that non-Hispanic whites raised in Roman Catholic families have been upwardly mobile in the wealth distribution in recent decades, and I find that unique fertility, marriage and education patterns contributed to this change. I also show that Catholic values related to work and money contributed to relatively high saving and portfolio behavior that facilitated mobility. The results provide important insight into the process by which childhood experiences shape adult well-being, particularly adult wealth ownership. The findings also contribute to understanding of social inequality by identifying important behaviors and processes that facilitate mobility. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Social Forces is the property of University of North Carolina Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Keister, Lisa A. "Upward Wealth Mobility: Exploring the Roman Catholic Advantage." Social Forces 85,3 (March 2007): 1195-1225.
35. Kerckhoff, Alan C.
Jackson, Robert A.
Types of Education and the Occupational Attainments of Young Men
Social Forces 61,1 (September 1982): 24-45.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578072
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Fathers, Influence; High School Curriculum; Occupational Status; Schooling; Vocational Training

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the effects of high school curriculum and vocational training on occupational outcomes among young men 25-29 and 29-33 years of age. The effects on both occupational status and occupational routines (concern with people, data, and things) are reported. Returns to years of schooling tend to be greater for whites, but returns to curriculum and vocational training are generally greater for blacks. The major exceptions to stronger effects of vocational training for blacks involve skilled manual training and occupations dealing with things. The findings are interpreted as indicating that: (1) the usual status attainment model has inadequately specified the relationship between educational and occupational attainment; (2) the common conclusion that black occupational outcomes are less predictable than those of whites is unwarranted; and (3) curriculum and vocational training have such strong effects for blacks because they help more blacks into people-and data-processing occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Kerckhoff, Alan C. and Robert A. Jackson. "Types of Education and the Occupational Attainments of Young Men." Social Forces 61,1 (September 1982): 24-45.
36. Kilbourne, Barbara Stanek
England, Paula A.
Beron, Kurt
Effects of Individual, Occupational, and Industrial Characteristics on Earnings: Intersections of Race and Gender
Social Forces 72,4 (June 1994): 1149-1176.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580296
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Industrial Sector; Marital Status; Mobility, Social; Racial Differences; Social Environment; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Generalizations regarding the effects of experience, education, marital status, occupational characteristics, and industrial sector on earnings are analyzed using data from the National Longitudinal Survey (1966-81). Regression decomposition to ascertain factors that explain the gender and/or racial (black/white) gap in earnings is used. Results reveal a number of complex race/gender interactions affecting income inequality. Education affects the racial gap but not the gender gap
Bibliography Citation
Kilbourne, Barbara Stanek, Paula A. England and Kurt Beron. "Effects of Individual, Occupational, and Industrial Characteristics on Earnings: Intersections of Race and Gender." Social Forces 72,4 (June 1994): 1149-1176.
37. Killewald, Alexandra
Bryan, Brielle
Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood
Social Forces 97,2 (1 December 2018): 705-740.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article-abstract/97/2/705/5053105
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Home Ownership; Life Course; Racial Differences; Wage Gap; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Whites' wealth advantage compared to blacks and Hispanics is vast and increases with age. While prior research on wealth gaps focuses primarily on wealth levels, we adopt a life-course perspective that treats wealth as a cumulative outcome and examine wealth accumulation across individuals' lives. We test to what extent intergenerational disadvantage and disparities in achieved characteristics explain accumulation disparities. We hypothesize that disparities in wealth determinants, like income and education, family and household characteristics, and homeownership and local context, increase through early and middle adulthood, widening wealth accumulation gaps. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we show that whites accumulate wealth more rapidly than blacks and Hispanics throughout early and middle adulthood, with the result that both groups fall further behind whites in amassed wealth with each passing year. Furthermore, the accumulation gap grows substantially in the 30s, so that blacks and Hispanics in this age range lose ground at an increasing annual rate. We find that adjusting for intergenerational disadvantage reduces the Hispanic-white and black-white gaps in wealth accumulated between ages 20 and 50 by over 40 percent and 50 percent, respectively, and even more in young adulthood. Yet, disparities in outcomes like income, marriage, and homeownership rise with age; together, these intragenerational processes explain a greater share of accumulation gaps in middle adulthood than at younger ages. These findings highlight that wealth gaps in the United States are both shaped by intergenerational legacies of disadvantage and created fresh in each generation through unequal distribution of achieved wealth-enhancing traits.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Brielle Bryan. "Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood." Social Forces 97,2 (1 December 2018): 705-740.
38. Kleiner, Sibyl
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Clocking In: The Organization of Work Time and Health in the United States
Social Forces 88,3 (March 2010): 1463-1486.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/sof/summary/v088/88.3.kleiner.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Family Characteristics; Health Factors; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Characteristics; Obesity; Part-Time Work; Stress; Time Use; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article assesses the health implications of emerging patterns in the organization of work time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine general mental and physical health (SF-12 scores), psychological distress (CESD score), clinical levels of obesity, and the presence of medical conditions, at age 40. Overall, we find that health varies more across work hours than across types of shifts, and part-time workers report worse physical and emotional health than full-time workers. However, controlling for individual, family and job characteristics explains the poorer health observed among part-time workers. Those who are satisfied with their jobs, have more education, or have an employed spouse, report better health, while women and those with a prior health limitation report worse health. After taking these factors into account, we find a curvilinear relationship between work hours and health, with those working between 40 and 59 hours per week reporting worse mental and physical health than those working 40 hours per week. We also find that obesity differs from current health problems in its relationship to work time. Those who work part-time or fixed-hour schedules are less likely to be obese, suggesting that long-term health risks operating through obesity, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, are affected by time availability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Social Forces is the property of University of North Carolina Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Kleiner, Sibyl and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Clocking In: The Organization of Work Time and Health in the United States." Social Forces 88,3 (March 2010): 1463-1486.
39. Kleiner, Sibyl
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Double Time: Is Health Affected by a Spouse's Time at Work?
Social Forces 92,3 (March 2014): 983-1007.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/92/3/983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Exercise; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Husbands; Stress; Wives; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The amount of time families spend at work increased substantially over the course of the 20th century, but the health implications of these shifts remain poorly understood. Using the NLSY79, we examine potential consequences of men's and women's work time on the health of their spouse. We also investigate three mechanisms through which spousal hours might affect health: resources from the job, stress, and time for physical activity and exercise. Husbands' long (50+) hours predict better health for wives, due in part to greater resources. Wives' moderately long (41–49) hours of work predict worse health for husbands, due in part to husbands' reduced exercise time. Our gendered findings highlight persistent inequities in work and family life that constrain the family health–promoting benefits of women's labor.
Bibliography Citation
Kleiner, Sibyl and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Double Time: Is Health Affected by a Spouse's Time at Work?" Social Forces 92,3 (March 2014): 983-1007.
40. Leahey, Erin
Guo, Guang
Gender Differences in Mathematical Trajectories
Social Forces 80,2 (December 2001): 713-732.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2675595
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Academic Development; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Ability; Elementary School Students; Gender Differences; High School Students; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article we test the hypothesis that male students outperform female students in mathematics. Using large national data sets and curvilinear growth models, we examine gender differences in mathematical trajectories from elementary school through high school. We analyze subsamples of high-scoring students and also different areas of math, such as reasoning and geometry. Despite relatively equal starting points in elementary school, and relatively equal slopes, we find that boys have a faster rate of acceleration. By the 12th grade, this results in a slight gender difference, which is most pronounced in geometry. Realizing this slight and delayed emergence of gender differences, we qualify the strong conclusions of earlier research, such as Benbow and Stanley's (1980, 1983), which found that large gender differences emerge by junior high school.
Bibliography Citation
Leahey, Erin and Guang Guo. "Gender Differences in Mathematical Trajectories." Social Forces 80,2 (December 2001): 713-732.
41. Lewis, Susan Kay
Ross, Catherine E.
Mirowsky, John
Establishing a Sense of Personal Control in the Transition to Adulthood
Social Forces 77,4 (June 1999): 1573-1599.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3005887
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Cognitive Ability; Control; Dropouts; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study tests the hypothesis that the high sense of personal control enjoyed by adult Americans develops during the transition to adulthood. Analyses use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which interviewed respondents in 1979 who were between the ages of 14 and 22 and again in 1992 when they were between 27 and 35. Cross-sectional analyses show a positive slope of perceived control with respect to age in the range from 14 through 22. Dropping out of school dampens the increase. It further reduces perceptions of control prospectively, net of control at time 1. Getting pregnant or getting a partner pregnant does not flatten the slope and does not affect later adulthood perceptions of control, except indirectly if it leads to dropping out of school. Adolescent sense of control correlates positively with parental education and the adolescent's cognitive skill, and cognitive skill increases the trajectory for young men but not for young women. Both factors predict more positive changes in the sense of control in the period between adolescence and middle age. A low sense of control at the beginning of the follow-up period does not increase the risk of subsequently dropping out of school, but it does increase the risk of a subsequent nonmarital pregnancy.
Bibliography Citation
Lewis, Susan Kay, Catherine E. Ross and John Mirowsky. "Establishing a Sense of Personal Control in the Transition to Adulthood." Social Forces 77,4 (June 1999): 1573-1599.
42. Lichter, Daniel T.
Socioeconomic Returns to Migration Among Married Women
Social Forces 62,2 (December 1983): 487-503.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578318
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Earnings, Wives; Migration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The aim of the present study is to: (1) examine the effect of migration on changes in earnings among a cohort of older married women; and (2) assess whether "returns" to migration vary systematically by the wife's educational and occupational resources in a manner consistent with the tenets of family resource theory. Using the Mature Women cohort of the NLS, we find that migration has a significant negative effect on earnings in the short-term, but that the longer- term effects are minimal. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, the negative effect of migration on married women's earnings is not diminished regardless of levels of educational and occupational resources. The implications of these results are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Lichter, Daniel T. "Socioeconomic Returns to Migration Among Married Women." Social Forces 62,2 (December 1983): 487-503.
43. Lloyd, Kim Marie
South, Scott J.
Contextual Influences on Young Men's Transition to First Marriage
Social Forces 74,3 (March 1996): 1097-1119.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580394
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Economics of Gender; Event History; Marriage; Modeling; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Competing theories of marriage formation are evaluated by merging several contextual variables, primarily marriage market characteristics from the 1980 census, with men's marital histories observed between 1979 and 1984 in the National Longitudinal Surrey of Youth. Discrete-time event history models reveal that, net of conventional individual level predictors. A shortage of prospective partners in the local marriage market impedes white men's transition to first marriage. Women's aggregate economic independence, measured in terms of the proportion of females in the local marriage market who are employed and in terms of the size of average AFDC payments, also diminishes men's marriage propensities. Although earnings and home ownership facilitate men's marital transitions, racial differences in socioeconomic and marriage market characteristics account for relatively little of the substantial racial difference in marriage rates.
Bibliography Citation
Lloyd, Kim Marie and Scott J. South. "Contextual Influences on Young Men's Transition to First Marriage." Social Forces 74,3 (March 1996): 1097-1119.
44. Lundquist, Jennifer Michelle Hickes
When Race Makes No Difference: Marriage and the Military
Social Forces 83,2 (December 2004): 731-758.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598346
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Divorce; Marriage; Military Personnel; Military Service; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While "retreat from marriage" rates have been on the rise for all Americans, there has been an increasing divergence in family patterns between blacks and whites, with the former experiencing markedly higher divorce, nonmarital childbearing and never-marrying rates. Explanations generally focus on theories ranging from economic class stratification to normative differences. I examine racial marriage trends when removed from society and placed in a structural context that minimizes racial and economic stratification. I compare nuptial patterns within the military, a total institution in the Goffmanian sense, which serves as a natural control for the arguments presented in the literature on the retreat from marriage. Through a combination of event history and propensity score matching analyses using the NLSY79, I find that black-white difference in marriage patterns disappears in the military.
Bibliography Citation
Lundquist, Jennifer Michelle Hickes. "When Race Makes No Difference: Marriage and the Military." Social Forces 83,2 (December 2004): 731-758.
45. Maroto, Michelle Lee
The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage Across Credit and Labor Markets
Social Forces, 91,1 (September 2012): 99-130.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/social_forces/v091/91.1.maroto.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Earnings; Labor Force Participation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect through the event of bankruptcy to disadvantage certain individuals over time. The transmission of bankruptcy’s stigma across markets occurs in a specific legal setting where, even though the current U.S. Bankruptcy Code grants bankrupters a fresh start through debt forgiveness, the Fair Credit Reporting Act limits bankrupters’ ability to begin anew because it permits employers to access credit reports. My findings highlight these ambiguities and show that, net of their previous labor market statuses, bankrupters spend less time working and have lower earnings than nonbankrupters. Thus, having become bankrupt exposes people to subsequent disadvantage in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage Across Credit and Labor Markets." Social Forces, 91,1 (September 2012): 99-130.
46. Massoglia, Michael
Remster, Brianna
King, Ryan D.
Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration-Divorce Relationship
Social Forces 90,1 (September 2011): 133-155.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/90/1/133.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Divorce; Incarceration/Jail; Marital Conflict; Marital Dissolution

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with “doing time” that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and the Survey of Officer and Enlisted Personnel to shed light on these questions. The findings generally support a separation explanation of the incarceration-divorce relationship. Specifically, the data show that exposure to incarceration has no effect on marital dissolution after duration of incarceration is taken into account. In addition, across both datasets we find that individuals who spend substantial time away from spouses are at higher risk of divorce. The findings point to the importance of spousal separation for understanding the incarceration-marital dissolution relationship. Moreover, and in contrast to settings in which stigma appears quite salient (e.g., labor markets), our results suggest that the shared history and degree of intimacy among married partners may weaken the salience of the stigma of incarceration. Findings are discussed in the context of a burgeoning body of work on the collateral consequences of incarceration and have implications for the growing pool of men in American society returning from prison.
Bibliography Citation
Massoglia, Michael, Brianna Remster and Ryan D. King. "Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration-Divorce Relationship." Social Forces 90,1 (September 2011): 133-155.
47. McDonald, Steve
Benton, Richard A.
Warner, David F.
Dual Embeddedness: Informal Job Matching and Labor Market Institutions in the United States and Germany
Social Forces 91,1 (September 2012): 75-97.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/91/1/75.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Employment; Firms; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Job Characteristics; Job Search

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drawing on the embeddedness, varieties of capitalism and macrosociological life course perspectives, we examine how institutional arrangements affect network-based job finding behaviors in the United States and Germany. Analysis of cross-national survey data reveals that informal job matching is highly clustered among specific types of individuals and firms in the United States, whereas it is more ubiquitous in Germany. These differences are linked to (1. loosely regulated and hierarchical employment relations in the United States that facilitate network dominance in specific economic sectors and (2. coordinated market relations, tight employment regulations and extensive social insurance system in Germany that generate opportunities for informal matching but limit the influence of network behavior on employment characteristics. These findings illustrate how social institutions shape access to economic resources through network relations.
Bibliography Citation
McDonald, Steve, Richard A. Benton and David F. Warner. "Dual Embeddedness: Informal Job Matching and Labor Market Institutions in the United States and Germany." Social Forces 91,1 (September 2012): 75-97.
48. McDonald, Steve
Elder, Glen H., Jr.
When Does Social Capital Matter? Non-Searching for Jobs Across the Life Course
Social Forces 85,1 (September 2006): 522-549.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3844427
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Job Search; Life Course; Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Non-searchers - people who get their jobs without engaging in a job search - are often excluded from investigations of the role of personal relationships in job finding processes. This practice fails to capture the scope of informal job matching activity and underestimates the effectiveness of social capital. Moreover, studies typically obtain average estimates of social capital effectiveness across broad age ranges, obscuring variation across the life course. Analysis of early career and mid-career job matching shows that non-searching is associated with significant advantages over formal job searching. However, these benefits accrue only during mid-career and primarily among highly experienced male non-searchers. The results highlight the need to examine life course variations in social capital effectiveness and the role of non-searching as an important informal mechanism in the maintenance of gender inequality. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
McDonald, Steve and Glen H. Elder. "When Does Social Capital Matter? Non-Searching for Jobs Across the Life Course." Social Forces 85,1 (September 2006): 522-549.
49. McLeod, Jane D.
Edwards, Kevan
Contextual Determinants of Children's Responses to Poverty
Social Forces 73, 4 (June 1995): 1487-1516.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580456
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Poverty; Family Characteristics; Family Income; Health, Mental; Hispanics; Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Residence; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Urbanization/Urban Living

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evaluates the independent and joint contributions of family poverty and residential characteristics to children's mental health, using data from the 1988 Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,277 children). Findings reveal that family poverty and residential characteristics independently predict children's mental health. Family poverty also interacts with some residential characteristics when predicting mental health, although the interactions vary substantially by race/ethnicity: e.g., poor Hispanic children living with same- race peers are in better mental health than poor Hispanic children who are culturally isolated, but the same interaction is not observed in other groups. In general, the effects of poverty and residential characteristics are stronger for Hispanics and American Indians than they are for blacks and whites. 4 Tables, 1 Appendix, 94 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights r eserved.)
Bibliography Citation
McLeod, Jane D. and Kevan Edwards. "Contextual Determinants of Children's Responses to Poverty." Social Forces 73, 4 (June 1995): 1487-1516.
50. McLeod, Jane D.
Kruttschnitt, Candace
Dornfeld, Maude
Does Parenting Explain the Effects of Structural Conditions on Children's Antisocial Behavior? A Comparison of Blacks and Whites
Social Forces 73,2 (December 1994): 575-604.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579822
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Single; Poverty; Punishment, Corporal; Racial Differences; Scale Construction; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evaluated race differences in the processes that link poverty and single parenthood to antisocial behavior, drawing on conceptual models that link structural conditions to children's well-being through the mediating influences of parental distress and unsupportive parenting. On the basis of data from the 1988 Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set, it was found that the total effects of poverty and single parenthood on parenting practices, and of parenting practices on antisocial behavior, do not differ significantly by race. However, the processes that create those effects do vary by race. Parenting practices and antisocial behavior are reciprocally related for Whites, but parenting practices do not significantly predict antisocial behavior for Blacks. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
Bibliography Citation
McLeod, Jane D., Candace Kruttschnitt and Maude Dornfeld. "Does Parenting Explain the Effects of Structural Conditions on Children's Antisocial Behavior? A Comparison of Blacks and Whites." Social Forces 73,2 (December 1994): 575-604.
51. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Waite, Linda J.
Marital Dissolution, Early Motherhood and Early Marriage
Social Forces 60,1 (September 1981): 20-40.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2577930
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Children; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The age at which a young woman marries appears to be related strongly to the probability that the marriage remains intact: older couples tend to make more stable pairings than those who wed while quite young. But youthful marriages are often accompanied by youthful childbearing. The effects of the age at which the woman first wed and the age at which she bore her first child on the likelihood that the marriage dissolved during this period were assessed, net of each other and of the characteristics and circumstances of the woman. We found that, among young wives, teenage parenthood did not appear to increase the risk of divorce or separation, whereas teenage marriage significantly raised the probability of disruption. When the analysis was performed separately by race, this pattern held among white wives; however, for black wives, a first birth before the age of 20 was found to increase instability more than a first marriage before that age. The finding that age at first marriage but not age at first birth is significantly related to the probability of marital dissolution appears robust in the total sample: among subsamples of wives all married at about the same age, the age at which they had their first birth did not influence stability of marriages.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Linda J. Waite. "Marital Dissolution, Early Motherhood and Early Marriage." Social Forces 60,1 (September 1981): 20-40.
52. Mott, Frank L.
Mott, Susan H.
Prospective Life Style Congruence Among American Adolescents: Variations in the Association Between Fertility Expectations and Ideas Regarding Women's Roles
Social Forces 63,1 (September 1984): 184-208.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578865
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Fertility; Sex Roles; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the extent of congruence between the attitudes of young men and women concerning the appropriate roles for women and their own fertility expectations. It is hypothesized that women, whites, older youth, and youth expecting to complete higher education should show greater independent associations between their attitudes of women's roles and their fertility expectations. In addition, the hypotheses are consistent with the following notions: (1) youth for whom attitudes toward women's roles and fertility expectations have more direct relevance, particularly in the short run, display greater congruence between their values and expectations; and (2) youth who are less assimilated into the socioeconomic mainstream exhibit less congruence between their values and expectations.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and Susan H. Mott. "Prospective Life Style Congruence Among American Adolescents: Variations in the Association Between Fertility Expectations and Ideas Regarding Women's Roles." Social Forces 63,1 (September 1984): 184-208.
53. Musick, Kelly
England, Paula A.
Edgington, Sarah
Kangas, Nicole
Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility
Social Forces 88,2 (December 2009): 543-572.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/social_forces/summary/v088/88.2.musick.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Abortion; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Contraception; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Racial Differences; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a hazards framework and panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2004), we analyze the fertility patterns of a recent cohort of white and black women in the United States. We examine how completed fertility varies by women's education, differentiating between intended and unintended births. We find that the education gradient on fertility comes largely from unintended childbearing, and it is not explained by child-bearing desires or opportunity costs, the two most common explanations in previous research. Less-educated women want no more children than the more educated, so this factor explains none of their higher completed fertility. Less-educated women have lower wages, but wages have little of the negative effect on fertility predicted by economic theories of opportunity cost. We propose three other potential mechanisms linking low education and unintended childbearing, focusing on access to contraception and abortion, relational and economic uncertainty, and consistency in the behaviors necessary to avoid unintended pregnancies. Our work highlights the need to incorporate these mechanisms into future research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Musick, Kelly, Paula A. England, Sarah Edgington and Nicole Kangas. "Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility." Social Forces 88,2 (December 2009): 543-572.
54. Padilla, Yolanda Chavez
Boardman, Jason D.
Hummer, Robert A.
Espitia, Marilyn
Is the Mexican American "Epidemiologic Paradox" Advantage at Birth Maintained through Early Childhood?
Social Forces 80,3 (March 2002): 1101-1123.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3086467
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Development; Health Care; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Immigrants; Mothers, Education; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the influence of the relative good health at birth in the Mexican American population on their subsequent well-being. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Data (NLSY-CD), we conduct a comparative analysis of child development among Mexican American, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white children ages 3 and 4 (N = 3,710). We use the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) as our operationalization of child development. Descriptive results suggest that, unlike the relative similarity in the rates of low birth weight between the white and Mexican American populations, Mexican Americans have much lower developmental outcomes. Multivariate analysis shows that birth weight is not a powerful predictor of child development, nor does it explain pronounced racial and ethnic differences. Mother's education, poverty, and immigrant status of parents remain significantly more important in the developmental process of all children in our sample.
Bibliography Citation
Padilla, Yolanda Chavez, Jason D. Boardman, Robert A. Hummer and Marilyn Espitia. "Is the Mexican American "Epidemiologic Paradox" Advantage at Birth Maintained through Early Childhood?" Social Forces 80,3 (March 2002): 1101-1123.
55. Pampel, Fred C.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Status Maintenance and Change During Old Age
Social Forces 73,1 (September 1994): 289-314.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579927
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Educational Attainment; Educational Status; Family Income; Income; Occupational Status; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Residence; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men to compare the impact of status characteristics important during work careers--race, residence, education, occupation--on men's economic outcomes before and after the normal age of eligibility for retirement benefits. Results show only modest change in effects of background variables over time, across ages, or with hours worked, and suggest more continuity than change in the determinants of income.
Bibliography Citation
Pampel, Fred C. and Melissa A. Hardy. "Status Maintenance and Change During Old Age." Social Forces 73,1 (September 1994): 289-314.
56. Parcel, Toby L.
Dufur, Mikaela J.
Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement
Social Forces 79,3 (March 2001): 881-911.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2675612
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Child School Survey 1994-1995; Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Educational Attainment; Family Characteristics; Family Income; Family Influences; Schooling; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the effects of both family and school capital on student math and reading achievement. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) merged Child-Mother Data for 1992 and 1994, to which indicators of capital in the children's schools for 1993-94 and 1994-95 have recently been added. We study children who attended first through eighth grades in both 1992 and 1994, with samples of 2034 for math achievement and 2203 for reading recognition. Findings suggest that school capital effects are modest in size while family capital effects are stronger; combinations of school and family capital boost or modify additive findings. We sketch directions for future research and discuss the usefulness of analyzing school and family capital as parallel concepts.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Mikaela J. Dufur. "Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement." Social Forces 79,3 (March 2001): 881-911.
57. Parcel, Toby L.
Geschwender, Laura Ellen
Explaining Southern Disadvantage in Verbal Facility Among Young Children
Social Forces 73,3 (March 1995): 841-872.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580549
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Children, Home Environment; Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Mothers, Race; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Regions; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data on children from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) suggest that children aged 3 to 6 from the Deep South score lower than children in the north central states on PPVT-R, a standardized test of receptive vocabulary, while children in the Northeast and West and Border South score close to children in the north central states. We argue that regional variation in demographic composition/social class, and in patterns of family social capital as influenced by regional variations in subculture account for the findings. Descriptive analyses reveal regional differences in maternal characteristics and attitudes, family composition, parental working conditions, and children's home environments, most suggesting southern disadvantage. Multivariate analyses suggest that regional variation in maternal race and ethnicity account for the observed differences among girls. Among boys, these factors--in addition to maternal background, socialization, and very frequent church attendance; maternal working conditions; and children's home environments--contribute to explaining the differences.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Laura Ellen Geschwender. "Explaining Southern Disadvantage in Verbal Facility Among Young Children." Social Forces 73,3 (March 1995): 841-872.
58. Paternoster, Raymond
Bushway, Shawn D.
Brame, Robert
Apel, Robert John
The Effect of Teenage Employment on Delinquency and Problem Behaviors
Social Forces 82,1 (September 2003): 297-336.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598147
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Employment, In-School; High School Students; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

What happens to high school youths when they take on jobs during the school year, sometimes working long hours, while trying to maintain the role of student? There is a consensus in the empirical literature that teenage employment, particularly what is termed "intensive" employment, results in a constellation of detrimental consequences: lower school grades, diminished educational ambitions, and emotional alienation from parents. There is even more consensus that work and intensive work puts youths at great risk of committing delinquent acts and other problem behaviors such as smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and using marijuana and other drugs. In our view, the conclusion that either work or intensive work has a harmful net effect on youths is based on a thin empirical base. The problem is that previous empirical work has not adequately addressed the issue of possible selection effects. In this article, we reexamine the relationship between intensive employment and delinquency and problem behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We conduct two general types of analysis. First, we conduct what we term a traditional analysis wherein we employ observed covariates to capture the selection process. Here we find the same positive relationship between intensive employment and antisocial behavior that others before us have. Second, we conduct both a random and a fixed-effect analysis where we adjust for both observed and unobserved sources of population heterogeneity. In this second analysis, we find that the positive association between work and antisocial behavior observed in the traditional analysis disappears. We discuss the implications of these results both for analyses of the relationship between work and crime in general and for criminological theory. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Paternoster, Raymond, Shawn D. Bushway, Robert Brame and Robert John Apel. "The Effect of Teenage Employment on Delinquency and Problem Behaviors." Social Forces 82,1 (September 2003): 297-336.
59. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Smith, Brad
The Rhythm of Work: Health Effects of Women's Work Dynamics
Social Forces 77,3 (March 1999): 1141-1162.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3005974
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Benefits; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Theories on the health benefits of employment, health selection, and the stress of changes in work all suggest that work patterns should be important for women's health. Using a national longitudinal sample of women in their fifties and sixties, we examine how employment duration and transitions inform these theories of physical and emotional health. Women leave the labor force because of poor health, but longer employment also provides health benefits, and some work transitions have long-term negative effects on physical health. Our findings are consistent between physical and emotional health, but employment appears to be more strongly associated with physical limitations during this life stage. These results point to the value of work-life dynamics for understanding the work-health relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K. and Brad Smith. "The Rhythm of Work: Health Effects of Women's Work Dynamics." Social Forces 77,3 (March 1999): 1141-1162.
60. Peterson, Richard R.
Firm Size, Occupational Segregation, and the Effects of Family Status on Women's Wages
Social Forces 68,2 (December 1989): 397-414.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579253
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Sex; Family Influences; Firm Size; Firms; Marital Status; Occupational Segregation; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the impact of family and parental status on women's wages and tests the hypotheses that employers may prefer single and childless women over married women with children and that such preferences should be reflected more strongly within male-dominated occupations within large firms. Using data from the NLS of Mature Women, the author concluded that the wage advantage of single and childless women is stronger within large firms where employers are more able to offer promotions and wage increases and in male-dominated occupations where employers are more likely to value stable workers who will remain with the firm.
Bibliography Citation
Peterson, Richard R. "Firm Size, Occupational Segregation, and the Effects of Family Status on Women's Wages." Social Forces 68,2 (December 1989): 397-414.
61. Quadlin, Natasha Y.
Funding Sources, Family Income, and Fields of Study in College
Social Forces 96,1 (1 September 2017): 91-120.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/sf/sox042/3829205/Funding-Sources-Family-Income-and-Fields-of-Study
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): College Cost; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Family Income; Financial Assistance; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research shows that receiving loans, family contributions, and grants has implications for students both during and after college, but one key outcome has been overlooked: fields of study. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1997 cohort (NLSY-97), this study is the first to assess how college funding is associated with first-term majors and course selection throughout college. I posit that funding sources effectively constrain students' fields of study, such that students choose majors and courses that align with their broader financial circumstances. As funding from loans increases, students are more likely to major in applied non-STEM fields (e.g., business, nursing) and less likely to be undeclared during the first term--particularly if students are from low- or middle-income families. Conversely, as funding from family contributions increases, students are more likely to be undeclared and less likely to major or take courses in applied non-STEM fields. Receiving grants bears little relation to students' major or course fields. These patterns suggest that funding sources entail distinct costs and benefits that may influence college student decision-making, and that fields of study are the product of multiple sources of inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Quadlin, Natasha Y. "Funding Sources, Family Income, and Fields of Study in College." Social Forces 96,1 (1 September 2017): 91-120.
62. Roksa, Josipa
Levey, Tania Gabrielle
What Can You Do with That Degree? College Major and Occupational Status of College Graduates over Time
Social Forces 89,2 (December 2010): 389-415.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/2/389.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Graduates; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Status; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While Income inequality among college graduates is well documented, inequality in occupational status remains largely unexplored. We examine whether and how occupational specificity of college majors is related to college graduates' transition into the labor market and their subsequent occupational trajectories. Analyses of NLSY79 indicate that occupationally specific degrees are beneficial at the point of entry into the labor market but have the lowest growth in occupational status over time. Students earning credentials focusing on general skills, in contrast, begin in jobs with low occupational status but subsequently report the greatest growth. These findings illuminate specific ways in which educational and occupational systems interact and provide a novel approach for understanding inequality in labor market outcomes among college graduates.
Bibliography Citation
Roksa, Josipa and Tania Gabrielle Levey. "What Can You Do with That Degree? College Major and Occupational Status of College Graduates over Time." Social Forces 89,2 (December 2010): 389-415.
63. Roksa, Josipa
Velez, Melissa
A Late Start: Delayed Entry, Life Course Transitions and Bachelor's Degree Completion
Social Forces 90,3 (2012): 769-794.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/90/3/769
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Higher Education; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While a substantial proportion of students delay entry into higher education, sociologists are only beginning to understand the consequences of this phenomenon for educational attainment. Previous studies have reported a negative relationship between delayed entry and degree completion, but they have not been able to explain it with a range of students' background characteristics. Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 indicate that life course transitions, including work, marriage/cohabitation and parenthood, make a unique contribution to explaining this relationship. Adding life course transitions to the models that already control for a range of background characteristics helps to explain the negative relationship between delayed entry and degree completion. These findings have implications for studying educational success in higher education and understanding the process of educational attainment more broadly.
Bibliography Citation
Roksa, Josipa and Melissa Velez. "A Late Start: Delayed Entry, Life Course Transitions and Bachelor's Degree Completion." Social Forces 90,3 (2012): 769-794.
64. Rotolo, Thomas
Wilson, John
What Happened to the "Long Civic Generation"? Explaining Cohort Differences in Volunteerism
Social Forces 82,3 (March 2004): 1091-1121.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598367
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Volunteer Work; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Bowling Alone Robert Putnam argues that the passing of the "long civic generation," whose values were molded by the Depression and the Second World War, has resulted in a decline in civic engagement. In this analysis we test the generation hypothesis by comparing the volunteer behavior of two successive generations of women at the same age. No support for Putnam's thesis is found. Once appropriate controls for sociodemographic trends are imposed, generation differences disappear. However, there are cohort differences in the type of volunteer work performed.
Bibliography Citation
Rotolo, Thomas and John Wilson. "What Happened to the "Long Civic Generation"? Explaining Cohort Differences in Volunteerism." Social Forces 82,3 (March 2004): 1091-1121.
65. Rumberger, Russell W.
The Influence of Family Background on Education, Earnings, and Wealth
Social Forces 61,3 (March 1983): 755-773.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578133
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Fathers, Influence; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parental Influences; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Interview data from a national subsample of fathers & sons (N = 482, including 366 whites & 109 blacks, chosen from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, are used to examine the extent to which wealth explains the relationship between family background & adult economic status for white & black Ms. Wealth is treated both as a component of family background & as a measure of adult economic status. The findings reveal that parental wealth influences schooling independent of other, social components of family environment. For white Ms, parental wealth has a direct effect on earnings, even controlling for its effect on schooling. Also, for white Ms, parental wealth exerts a direct & stronger effect on son's wealth after controlling for its effects on schooling & earnings. 6 Tables. Modified HA
Bibliography Citation
Rumberger, Russell W. "The Influence of Family Background on Education, Earnings, and Wealth." Social Forces 61,3 (March 1983): 755-773.
66. Rybinska, Anna
Morgan, S. Philip
Childless Expectations and Childlessness Over the Life Course
Social Forces published online (11 October 2018): DOI: 10.1093/sf/soy098.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/sf/soy098/5126895
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using nineteen panels of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-79), we construct life-lines characterizing women's childless expectations and fertility behavior. One-quarter of women in the NLSY-79 cohort ever reported an expectation for childlessness but only 14.8 percent of women remain childless. Childless women follow two predominant life course paths: (1) repeated postponement of childbearing and the subsequent adoption of a childless expectation at older ages or (2) indecision about parenthood signaled through vacillating reports of childless expectations across various ages. We also find that more than one in ten women became a mother after considering childlessness: an understudied group in research on childlessness and childbearing preferences. These findings reaffirm that it is problematic to assign expected and unexpected childlessness labels to the reproductive experience of childless women. In addition, despite their variability over time, childless expectations strongly predict permanent childlessness, regardless of the age when respondents offer them. Longitudinal logistic regression analysis of these childless expectations indicates a strong effect of childbearing postponement among the increasingly selective group of childless women. However, net of this postponement, few variables commonly associated with childlessness are associated with reports of a childless expectation. We thus conclude that the effects of socio-demographic and situational factors on childless expectations are channeled predominantly through repeated childbearing postponement.
Bibliography Citation
Rybinska, Anna and S. Philip Morgan. "Childless Expectations and Childlessness Over the Life Course." Social Forces published online (11 October 2018): DOI: 10.1093/sf/soy098.
67. Sandefur, Gary D.
Cook, Steven T.
Permanent Exits from Public Assistance: The Impact of Duration, Family, and Work
Social Forces 77,2 (December 1998): 763-786.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3005546
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Exits; Marital Status; Welfare; Women's Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to answer two questions raised in the recent debate over welfare reform: (1) Is the length of time that a woman receives Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) associated with the likelihood of permanently leaving AFDC? (2) Are marital status, childbearing and qualifications for work associated with permanently leaving AFDC? We define a permanent exit as leaving the AFDC rolls and not returning within two years. The answer to the first question is that the likelihood of permanently leaving AFDC decreases with the length of time that women receive benefits after adjusting for other attributes of individuals and their families. This finding is robust across several, but not all, specifications of the model of permanent exits. The answer to the second question is that marital status, the number of children, and qualifications for work, as well as the availability of employment, are associated with the likelihood of leaving AFDC permanently. The effects of these characteristics are robust across all of the different specifications used in the analysis. Copyright: The University of North Carolina Press.
Bibliography Citation
Sandefur, Gary D. and Steven T. Cook. "Permanent Exits from Public Assistance: The Impact of Duration, Family, and Work." Social Forces 77,2 (December 1998): 763-786.
68. Sandefur, Gary D.
McLanahan, Sara S.
Wojtkiewicz, Roger A.
The Effects of Parental Marital Status During Adolescence on High School Graduation
Social Forces 71,1 (September 1992): 103-121.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579968
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Structure; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital Status; Marriage; Parental Influences; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 1979-1985 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (total N = 5246 respondents ages 14-17 when first interviewed) are used to investigate the effects of family type on high school graduation. Analysis reveals that: (1) not living with both parents at age 14 has negative consequences for graduation regardless of whether the child lives with a single parent a parent and stepparent or neither parent; (2) changes in family structure between ages 14 and 17 have negative consequences; and (3) the effects of family structure and changes in it on graduation persist after controlling for income and some social psychological attributes of the adolescents; income accounts for approximately 15% of the single-parent effect. References. (Copyright Sociological Abstracts Inc. All rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Sandefur, Gary D., Sara S. McLanahan and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz. "The Effects of Parental Marital Status During Adolescence on High School Graduation." Social Forces 71,1 (September 1992): 103-121.
69. Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons
Malhotra, Neil
The Effect of a Child’s Sex on Support for Traditional Gender Roles
Social Forces 90,1 (September 2011): 209-222.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/90/1/209.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Gender; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine whether sex of child affects parents' beliefs about traditional gender roles. Using an improved methodological approach that explicitly analyzes the natural experiment via differences in differences, we find that having a daughter (vs. having a son) causes men to reduce their support for traditional gender roles, but a female child has no such effect among women, representing less than 4 percent of the size of the standard deviation of the attitude scale.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons and Neil Malhotra. "The Effect of a Child’s Sex on Support for Traditional Gender Roles." Social Forces 90,1 (September 2011): 209-222.
70. Silver, Hilary
Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin
Flexible Work and Housework: Work and Family Constraints on Women's Domestic Labor
Social Forces 72,4 (June 1994): 1103-1119.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580294
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Earnings, Husbands; Gender Differences; Job Status; Sex Roles; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wages, Women; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper tests the theory of compensating differentials by examining whether working women trade earnings for temporal, spatial, or social flexibility on the job. Women with greater family responsibilities, less help with housework, more traditional gender attitudes, higher-earning husbands, and female-dominated occupations who also hold flexible jobs are no more likely to exhibit an earnings trade-off than women with fewer family or gender- related constraints. Based on an analysis of the National Longitudinal Surveys of young and mature women, the only support for compensating differentials is provided by the older cohort of women who trade off earnings for home work. Although the study supports some aspects of new structuralist theory, the best overall explanation for the findings is gender-related. Flexible gender ideology has incorporated women's need for flexible work as a justification for lower pay, regardless of whether women's family situations constrain the terms of their employment.
Bibliography Citation
Silver, Hilary and Frances Kobrin Goldscheider. "Flexible Work and Housework: Work and Family Constraints on Women's Domestic Labor." Social Forces 72,4 (June 1994): 1103-1119.
71. Smock, Pamela Jane
Gender and the Short-Run Economic Consequences of Marital Disruption
Social Forces 73,1 (September 1994): 243-262.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579925
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Divorce; Economic Well-Being; Economics of Gender; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Marital Instability; Parenthood; Women's Roles; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Analysis of national survey data found that, among young adult couples separating or divorcing during the 1980s, women's postdisruption economic welfare was significantly lower than men's within all racial-ethnic groups. This disparity stemmed, directly and indirectly, from women's roles as primary child caretakers and was not related to gender differences in education or work experience.
Bibliography Citation
Smock, Pamela Jane. "Gender and the Short-Run Economic Consequences of Marital Disruption." Social Forces 73,1 (September 1994): 243-262.
72. Spitze, Glenna D.
The Division of Task Responsibility in U.S. Households: Longitudinal Adjustments to Change
Social Forces 64,3 (March 1986): 689-701.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578819
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Earnings, Wives; Family Structure; Household Demand; Household Models; Wives, Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the NLS of Young and Mature Women are used to test both static and dynamic models of the division of household task responsibility. Static results provide weak support for the time availability and the power/earnings perspectives. Changes in wife's hours worked or earnings over a 2- or 3-year period led to adjustments in task division, although the unequal "starting point" for that division challenges the economists' view of its rationality.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "The Division of Task Responsibility in U.S. Households: Longitudinal Adjustments to Change." Social Forces 64,3 (March 1986): 689-701.
73. Tittle, Charles R.
Rotolo, Thomas
IQ and Stratification: An Empirical Evaluation of Herrnstein and Murray's Social Change Argument
Social Forces 79,1 (September 2000): 1-28.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2675563
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Evaluations; I.Q.; Income; Occupations; Skills; Stratification; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A state-level index of the conditions that Herrnstein and Murray suggest tightened the relationship between IQ and status in the past century as well as a measure of "credentialing by examination" are used to try to explain interstate variation in the association between IQ and status attainment circa 1990. The results contradict Herrnstein and Murray's interpretation and provide support for an alternative credentialing argument. The more a state uses written, IQ-like examinations as screening devices for occupational access, the stronger the relationship between IQ and income. Thus, rather than higher IQ leading to status attainment because it indicates skills needed in a modern society, IQ may reflect the same test-taking abilities used in artificial screening devices by which status groups protect their domains.
Bibliography Citation
Tittle, Charles R. and Thomas Rotolo. "IQ and Stratification: An Empirical Evaluation of Herrnstein and Murray's Social Change Argument." Social Forces 79,1 (September 2000): 1-28.
74. Vogel, Matt
Porter, Lauren C.
McCuddy, Timothy
Hypermobility, Destination Effects, and Delinquency: Specifying the Link between Residential Mobility and Offending
Social Forces 95,3 (March 2017): 1261-1284.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article/95/3/1261/2877691
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Mobility, Residential; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Neighborhood Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Residential mobility is often implicated as a risk factor for delinquency. While many scholars attribute this to causal processes spurred by moving, recent research suggests that much of the relationship is due to differences between mobile and non-mobile adolescents. However, studies in this area often operationalize mobility as a single move, limiting researchers to comparing outcomes between mobile and non-mobile adolescents. This approach is rather broad, considering heterogeneity in mobility frequency as well as variation in sending and receiving neighborhood characteristics. We propose a more nuanced framework to help anticipate how characteristics of mobility experiences may mitigate, exacerbate, or fail to influence adolescent behavior. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) and the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we demonstrate that "hypermobility" has detrimental behavioral consequences, increases in neighborhood disadvantage between sending and receiving neighborhoods are associated with reductions in self-reported offending, and long-distance moves reduce delinquency, but only among adolescents with prior behavioral problems. These results underscore the complex association between residential mobility and delinquency during adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Vogel, Matt, Lauren C. Porter and Timothy McCuddy. "Hypermobility, Destination Effects, and Delinquency: Specifying the Link between Residential Mobility and Offending." Social Forces 95,3 (March 2017): 1261-1284.
75. Waite, Linda J.
Harrison, Scott C.
Keeping in Touch: How Women in Mid-life Allocate Social Contacts among Kith and Kin
Social Forces 70,3 (March 1992): 637-654.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579747
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Structure; Geographical Variation; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Support Networks

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Among 3,677 surveyed women, aged 44-59, contacts with friends and family depended on the relationship and household structure, followed by distance, resources, and individual predisposition toward maintaining ties. Race, educational attainment, and residence in the South or rural areas affected certain types of contacts. Contains 36 references.
Bibliography Citation
Waite, Linda J. and Scott C. Harrison. "Keeping in Touch: How Women in Mid-life Allocate Social Contacts among Kith and Kin." Social Forces 70,3 (March 1992): 637-654.
76. Waite, Linda J.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
The Impact of an Early First Birth on Young Women's Educational Attainment
Social Forces 56,3 (March 1978): 845-865.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2577222
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Children; Educational Attainment; Family Background; First Birth; Motherhood; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Women's Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Women who become mothers at an early age tend to accumulate fewer years of schooling than those who delay entry into motherhood. In this paper, the impact of age at first birth on the process of educational attainment of young women is examined using data from the NLS of Young Women for the period 1968 to 1972. The results of this analysis indicate that: (1) the younger the age at first birth, the fewer years of schooling completed, other things equal; (2) the effect of most determinants of educational attainment depends on age at first birth; and (3) the educational decrement caused by an early birth is about half as large for young black women as for their white counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Waite, Linda J. and Kristin Anderson Moore. "The Impact of an Early First Birth on Young Women's Educational Attainment." Social Forces 56,3 (March 1978): 845-865.
77. Willson, Andrea E.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Racial Disparities in Income Security for a Cohort of Aging American Women
Social Forces 80,4 (June 2002): 1283-1306.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3086508
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Employment; Income; Marriage; Racial Differences; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this analysis we examine how women's family and employment choices are linked to differences in financial security as they age. Previous research has tested theories of growing inequality, decreasing inequality, or maintained inequality as cohorts transition into old age. We assess these hypotheses for older women and emphasize the heterogeneity in women's experiences, particularly differences in income security among women by race. Our findings indicate that, although marriage offers women considerable financial protection, their own employment was also a key to their security and reduced the rate at which income security decayed as they entered old age. This increased the variation in outcomes relative to initial positions. Whereas marriage provided more security for white women, employment gave a greater boost to black women.
Bibliography Citation
Willson, Andrea E. and Melissa A. Hardy. "Racial Disparities in Income Security for a Cohort of Aging American Women." Social Forces 80,4 (June 2002): 1283-1306.
78. Wojtkiewicz, Roger A.
Donato, Katharine M.
Hispanic Educational Attainment: The Effects of Family Background and Nativity
Social Forces 74,2 (December 1995): 559-574.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580492
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups; Family Background; Family Structure; Heterogeneity; Hispanics; Parental Influences; Sex Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 1979-1990 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are drawn on to examine the degree to which foreign birth explains the lower educational attainment of Mexicans & Puerto Ricans compared to whites in the US. Although foreign birth is a partial explanation of group differences, family structure & parental education are more important. However, when considering how the effects of nativity vary across Hispanic groups, it is found that US- born Puerto Ricans are no better off than foreign-born Puerto Ricans. There is also evidence of heterogeneity in the educational experiences of US-born Mexicans: those with foreign-born parents have higher educational attainment than those with US-born parents. 5 Tables, 30 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Wojtkiewicz, Roger A. and Katharine M. Donato. "Hispanic Educational Attainment: The Effects of Family Background and Nativity." Social Forces 74,2 (December 1995): 559-574.