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Source: Social Science Journal
Resulting in 12 citations.
1. Burnett, Kristin
Farkas, George
Poverty and Family Structure Effects on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Estimates from Random and Fixed Effects Models
The Social Science Journal, 46,2 (June 2009): 297–318.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362331908001262
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Children, Academic Development; Children, Poverty; Cohabitation; Family Income; Family Structure; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Poverty; Stepfamilies; Variables, Independent - Covariate

As children grow up, they may encounter changing family structures and poverty status. Any attempt to measure the effects of these statuses on children's school achievement runs the risk of spurious effects due to child- and family-heterogeneity. An analytic strategy for avoiding these spurious effects is to use longitudinal data on families, children, and their academic achievement to estimate random coefficient growth-curve models in which a large number of causally prior control variables are allowed to impact both the intercept and slope of the child's achievement trajectory, while poverty and family structure at each point in time enter the model as time-varying covariates. An even more powerful strategy is to use Allison's [Allison, P. D. (2005). Fixed effects regression methods for longitudinal data using SAS. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.] "hybrid" version of this model, in which a fixed-effects specification differences away all unchanging child and family characteristics. We use CNLSY79 data to estimate both types of models for the effects of poverty status and family structure on children's mathematics achievement between ages 5 and 14.We find that poverty status exerts a modest, statistically significant negative effect on math achievement, but only among younger children. The correlation between family structure and children's mathematics achievement is largely spurious, due instead to child- and family-heterogeneity on causally prior variables.
Bibliography Citation
Burnett, Kristin and George Farkas. "Poverty and Family Structure Effects on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Estimates from Random and Fixed Effects Models." The Social Science Journal, 46,2 (June 2009): 297–318. A.
2. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Racial Disparity in Earnings and Earnings Growth: The Case of Young Men
Social Science Journal 31,3 (1994): 237-250.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0362331994900213
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Earnings; Education; Human Capital Theory; Life Cycle Research; Racial Differences; School Quality; Wage Growth

Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth indicates a vintage effect (lower black-white earnings ratios for older cohorts relative to younger cohorts), but an examination of longitudinal earnings ratios suggests such an effect can be attributed to intra-cohort deterioration of black earnings over the life cycle rather than to inter-cohort differences in school quality. Regression results indicate that the role of education in influencing continued wage growth on-the-job differs by race. More educated white males hold occupations with steeper experience-earnings profiles. The same can. be said of blacks only at a lower level of statistical confidence. This findings implies that either labor market discrimination limits the earnings potential of black human capital or residual differences in school quality persist such that the education received by blacks does not have the same effect over the life cycle as the higher quality education received by whites.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig. "Racial Disparity in Earnings and Earnings Growth: The Case of Young Men." Social Science Journal 31,3 (1994): 237-250.
3. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Prus, Mark J.
Starting Wages of Women in Female and Male Occupations: A Test of the Human Capital Explanation of Occupational Sex Segregation
Social Science Journal 29,4 (1992): 479-493.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0362331992900086
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Occupations; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Unions; Wage Differentials; Wages, Women

Debate regarding gender-based occupational segregation has been dominated by the view that segregation results from differences in the occupational choices made by men & women. An alternative test using the occupational choice explanation is presented, drawing on data derived from the 1967 National Longitudinal Survey for Mature Women, ages 30-44, to examine the human capital propositions that predominantly female (F) occupations are characterized by relatively higher starting wages & lower penalties for time spent out of the labor market. An examination of average hourly wage rates by level of work experience failed to indicate statistically significant starting wage differentials that would explain occupational segregation based on choice. Aggression analyses show that predominantly F occupations offer significantly lower starting wages & higher penalty rates relative to predominantly male occupations. Economic incentives suggested by human capital theory that would lead Fs to choose to work in traditionally F occupations are not found. It is suggested that future research should explore the roles of labor market discrimination & gender-role socialization in explaining occupational segregation. 3 Tables, 2 Figures. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1993, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig and Mark J. Prus. "Starting Wages of Women in Female and Male Occupations: A Test of the Human Capital Explanation of Occupational Sex Segregation." Social Science Journal 29,4 (1992): 479-493.
4. Gabriel, Paul E.
A Longitudinal Examination of Earnings Inequality and Mobility Among Young, Full-Time Workers in the United States
Social Science Journal 42,4 (2005): 603-607.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362331905000741
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Earnings; Mobility; Mobility, Economic; Wage Equations; Wage Gap

This paper analyzes longitudinal data on earnings inequality and mobility for young, year-round full-time wage and salary workers in the United States. In general, we find that although real earnings across quintiles increased during the 1990s, earnings inequality continued to grow and upward earnings mobility declined slightly during the decade.
Bibliography Citation
Gabriel, Paul E. "A Longitudinal Examination of Earnings Inequality and Mobility Among Young, Full-Time Workers in the United States." Social Science Journal 42,4 (2005): 603-607.
5. Garcia, Federico
The Determinants of Substance Abuse in the Workplace
The Social Science Journal 33,1 (January 1996): 55-68.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362331996900051
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Gender Differences; Geographical Variation; Hispanics; Marital Status; Substance Use

Substance abuse in the workplace costs American business and industry billions of dollars each year in productivity losses. This article investigates the determinants of workplace substance abuse using the 1984 NLSY. The findings suggest that factors that increase the cost of job dismissal lower the probability of employee misconduct. In particular, workers in industries paying a wage premium and those in high-unemployment areas are less likely to use drugs on the job. In addition, the findings suggest that the following groups of workers have a lower probability of workplace drug consumption: employees in better paying occupations, and college-educated professionals and managers. Blacks and Hispanics, with all other factors held constant, are also less likely to consume drugs on the job. Men are more likely to consume drugs while at work, than women, and so are people involved in illicit activities. Concerning alcohol, individuals under the age of 21, and college-educated employees, are less likely to drink it on the job. In contrast, men and individuals who have never been married, are more likely to consume alcohol while at work.
Bibliography Citation
Garcia, Federico. "The Determinants of Substance Abuse in the Workplace ." The Social Science Journal 33,1 (January 1996): 55-68.
6. Gius, Mark Paul
An Estimate of the Effects of Age, Taxes, and Other Socioeconomic Variables on the Alcoholic Beverage Demand of Young Adults
Social Science Journal 42,1 (January 2005): 13-24.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362331904001041
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Alcohol Use; Geocoded Data; Socioeconomic Factors; Taxes

The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects that age, taxes and other socioeconomic variables have on the alcoholic beverage demand of young adults. OLS regression analysis, in combination with a Chow Test and a pooled data set, is used to determine the effects of age, taxes and other socioeconomic variables on alcohol consumption. NLSY-Geocode data is used in the analysis. Results suggest that taxes have minor effects on alcohol consumption, and the only factors that are statistically significant in all analyses are marital status, sex, race, and level of education. In addition, statistical tests indicate that the factors that affect alcohol consumption change as a person ages.
Bibliography Citation
Gius, Mark Paul. "An Estimate of the Effects of Age, Taxes, and Other Socioeconomic Variables on the Alcoholic Beverage Demand of Young Adults." Social Science Journal 42,1 (January 2005): 13-24.
7. Gius, Mark Paul
The Impact of Provider Availability and Legal Restrictions on the Demand for Abortions by Young Women
Social Science Journal 44,3 (July 2007): 495-506.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362331907000894
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Abortion; Contraception; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; State-Level Data/Policy

The purpose of the present study is to determine the factors that affect the abortion decision at the individual level. Using individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and state-level data on abortion providers and legal restrictions on abortions, results suggest that legal restrictions had no statistically significant effects on the abortion decision, but that the number of per capita abortion providers does affect the decision whether or not to abort a fetus. Socioeconomic characteristics, such as age and race, also have effects on the abortion decision. [Copyright 2007 Elsevier]

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Bibliography Citation
Gius, Mark Paul. "The Impact of Provider Availability and Legal Restrictions on the Demand for Abortions by Young Women." Social Science Journal 44,3 (July 2007): 495-506.
8. Hill, Elizabeth T.
Marital History, Later Training, and the Labor Market: Women's Experiences
Social Science Journal 31,2 (1994): 127-138.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0362331994900132
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Job Training; Labor Force Participation; Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Wages; Women

Using data from the NLS Mature Women's cohort, this study compares the acquisition of education and training after the usual schooling age among women with differing marital histories and measures the effects of that training as well as marital history on labor force participation and wages. Results indicate that women whose marriages ended acquired further training more often than married women. Women without husbands worked full time more years, making human capital investment important for them. Certain types of training (professional, technical, and managerial) resulted in higher wages.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Elizabeth T. "Marital History, Later Training, and the Labor Market: Women's Experiences." Social Science Journal 31,2 (1994): 127-138.
9. Kim, Kyung-Nyun
Career Trajectory in High School Dropouts
Social Science Journal 50,3 (September 2013): 306-312.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362331913000347
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; High School Dropouts; Job Characteristics; Job Status

This study considers the career trajectories of high school dropouts, which has been given little attention to in the literature. Considering worker heterogeneity for individuals who do not complete high school, we estimate possible career trajectories and investigate the traits related with the decision to drop out. Using latent class growth analysis, three kinds of career trajectories are identified: dead-end, stepping-stone, and advancing careers. Although the majority of dropouts are in the dead-end careers, about 30% are in the process of escaping low-status jobs through acquiring work experience. Individual traits, such as gender, race, and cognitive ability, as well as home computer access are significantly related to the different types of career trajectories.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Kyung-Nyun. "Career Trajectory in High School Dropouts." Social Science Journal 50,3 (September 2013): 306-312.
10. Ricketts, Comfort F.
Rezek, Jon P.
Campbell, Randall C.
The Influence of Individual Health Outcomes on Individual Savings Behavior
Social Science Journal 50,4 (December 2013): 471-481.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362331913001225
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Savings

In this essay, data from the 2006 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79-2006), and the two stage least squares (2SLS) estimation technique are used to investigate the relationship between health outcomes and the willingness of individuals (age 41–50) to save. Health perception, physical component score, mental component score, depression score and the diagnosis of a variety of health problems are used as health measures for the analysis described in this essay. We find that health perception and physical component score are positively related to the willingness of individuals to save; while the diagnosis of major health problems is negatively related to the willingness of individuals to save. The effect of mental component score and depression score on individuals’ willingness to save differs significantly between males and females. A higher mental component score is found to be positively related to the willingness of females to save; while depression score is found to affect the willingness of females to save negatively. Both mental component score and depression score are not related to the willingness of male respondents to save.
Bibliography Citation
Ricketts, Comfort F., Jon P. Rezek and Randall C. Campbell. "The Influence of Individual Health Outcomes on Individual Savings Behavior." Social Science Journal 50,4 (December 2013): 471-481.
11. Theis, Clifford F.
Register, Charles A.
Decriminalization of Marijuana and the Demand for Alcohol, Marijuana and Cocaine
Social Science Journal 30,4 (1993): 385-399.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/036233199390016O
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Educational Attainment; Geographical Variation; Government Regulation; Marital Status; Religious Influences; Self-Reporting; Substance Use

This study examines whether the decriminalization of marijuana in the eleven states that have decriminalized has affected self-reported usage by kind or level of drug. Generally, decriminalization is not found to significantly impact reported usage of drugs. An implication is that the demand for drugs is highly inelastic with respect to incremental changes in the legal sanctions for possession of small amounts of marijuana.
Bibliography Citation
Theis, Clifford F. and Charles A. Register. "Decriminalization of Marijuana and the Demand for Alcohol, Marijuana and Cocaine." Social Science Journal 30,4 (1993): 385-399.
12. Zimmer, Martha Hill
Zimmer, Michael
Socioeconomic Determinants of Smoking Behavior During Pregnancy
The Social Science Journal 35,1 (1998): 133-142.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362331998900659
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Earnings; Health Factors; Modeling; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Medical researchers and public health experts contend that smoking by pregnant women leads to health risks for their offspring as well as themselves. Social science researchers have produced a number of useful studies concerning factors determining smoking choices during pregnancy. This study contributes to the literature by providing evidence based on the widely cited National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The purpose of the paper is to describe and estimate multivariate models that reveal socioeconomic patterns in smoking behavior. Our results indicate that factors influencing the choice to smoke include age, employment status, earnings, race, and the individual's propensity to seek prenatal care. These estimates provide guidance with respect to constituencies that might be suitable targets for public policies intended to curtail smoking during pregnancy. Social Science Abstracts: Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Bibliography Citation
Zimmer, Martha Hill and Michael Zimmer. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Smoking Behavior During Pregnancy." The Social Science Journal 35,1 (1998): 133-142.