Search Results

Source: Social Science Research Network (SSRN)
Resulting in 21 citations.
1. Bonaparte, Yosef
Bazley, William J.
Korniotis, George M.
Kumar, Alok
Discrimination, Social Risk, and Portfolio Choice
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, November 2016.
Also: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2863351
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Financial Investments; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines whether social discrimination affects the risk perceptions and, subsequently, the investment decisions of individual investors. We conjecture that minority groups such as gays/lesbians, African Americans, and women, who are more likely to experience discrimination, over-estimate their risk exposures (i.e., they experience social risk) and invest more cautiously. Consistent with our conjecture, we find that minorities with high social risk participate less in the stock market and allocate a lower proportion of their wealth to risky assets. These results indicate that non-financial risks, such as social risk, influence financial risk-taking behavior of U.S. households.
Bibliography Citation
Bonaparte, Yosef, William J. Bazley, George M. Korniotis and Alok Kumar. "Discrimination, Social Risk, and Portfolio Choice." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, November 2016.
2. Brynjolfsson, Erik
Liu, Meng
Westerman, George F.
When Do Computers Reduce the Value of Worker Persistence?
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, December 10, 2018.
Also: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3286084
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Job Characteristics; Job Skills; Occupational Status; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Worker persistence -- the ability to perform tasks consistently for long periods of time -- is important in many occupations, particularly in routine occupations that value consistency of worker performance. However, computers are very persistent, potentially reducing the value of human persistence in occupations that are computerized. Using a well-defined measure of individual persistence across a nationally-representative 16-year sample of 4,235 individuals, we investigate the extent to which occupations value persistence in the presence of computers. In contrast to a broad replacement effect documented in other studies, we hypothesize and find evidence to support a distributional effect of computers and persistence. We find that, in routine jobs, the wage premium for human persistence diminishes with the degree of workplace computerization. Yet, in non-routine jobs, the premium does not diminish with computerization. Our findings add empirically-grounded nuance to the nature of workplace computerization, showing that persistent computers make persistent workers less valuable in routine occupations. These findings have important theoretical, policy and managerial implications for the future of work and workers.
Bibliography Citation
Brynjolfsson, Erik, Meng Liu and George F. Westerman. "When Do Computers Reduce the Value of Worker Persistence?" Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, December 10, 2018.
3. Cadena, Brian C.
Keys, Benjamin J.
Human Capital and the Lifetime Costs of Impatience
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), August 10, 2012; Revised May 2014.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1674068
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Behavioral Differences; Behavioral Problems; College Dropouts; Earnings; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Human Capital; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Noncognitive Skills; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we examine the role of impatience in the formation of human capital - arguably the most important investment decision individuals make during their lifetimes. We pay particular attention to a set of investment behaviors that cannot be explained solely by variation in exponential discount rates. Using data from the NLSY and a straightforward measure of impatience, we find that impatient people systematically acquire lower levels of multiple measures of human capital and that a substantial fraction of these differences arise from dynamically inconsistent behavior, such as starting an educational program but failing to complete it. The cumulative investment differences result in the impatient earning 18 percent less and expressing significantly more regret as this cohort reaches middle age.
Bibliography Citation
Cadena, Brian C. and Benjamin J. Keys. "Human Capital and the Lifetime Costs of Impatience." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), August 10, 2012; Revised May 2014.
4. Chaudhary, Latika
Cellini, Stephanie Riegg
The Labor Market Returns to a For-Profit College Education
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), June 17, 2012.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2111598
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Degree; College Enrollment; Colleges; Earnings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A lengthy literature estimating the returns to education has largely ignored the for-profit sector. In this paper, we offer some of the first causal estimates of the earnings gains to for-profit colleges. We rely on restricted-use data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to implement an individual fixed effects estimation strategy that allows us to control for time-invariant unobservable characteristics of students. We find that students who enroll in associate’s degree programs in for-profit colleges experience earnings gains between 6 and 8 percent, although a 95 percent confidence interval suggests a range from -2.7 to 17.6 percent. These gains cannot be shown to be different from those of students in public community colleges. Students who complete associate’s degrees in for-profit institutions earn around 22 percent, or 11 percent per year, and we find some evidence that this figure is higher than the returns experienced by public sector graduates. Our findings suggest that degree completion is an important determinant of for-profit quality and student success.
Bibliography Citation
Chaudhary, Latika and Stephanie Riegg Cellini. "The Labor Market Returns to a For-Profit College Education." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), June 17, 2012.
5. Chyi, Hau
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Welfare Reform and Children's Short-Run Attainments
Working Paper, Economics Department, Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, September 8, 2008.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1238212
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using PIAT Math test score as a measure of attainment, we find that both single mothers' work and welfare use in the first five years of their children's lives have a positive effect on children's outcomes, but this effect declines with initial ability. The higher the initial ability of a child, the lower the positive impact work and welfare have. In fact, in the case of welfare the effect is negative if a child has more than median initial ability. Furthermore, we find that the work requirement reduces a single mother's use of welfare. However, the net effect of the work requirement on a child's test score depends on whether the mother's work brings in enough labor income to compensate for the loss of welfare benefits. We also look at the implications of the welfare eligibility time limit and maternal leave policies on children's outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Chyi, Hau and Orgul Demet Ozturk. "Welfare Reform and Children's Short-Run Attainments." Working Paper, Economics Department, Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, September 8, 2008.
6. Courtemanche, Charles
McAlvanah, Patrick
Impatience, Incentives, and Obesity
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), March 23, 2011.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1793525
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Time Inconsistency; Time Preference; Time Use; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the relationship between time preference, food prices, and body mass index (BMI). We present a model predicting that impatient individuals should both weigh more than patient individuals and experience sharper increases in weight in response to falling food prices. We then provide evidence to support these predictions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth matched with local food prices from the Council for Community and Economic Research. Our findings suggest that the interaction of changing economic incentives with impatience can help to explain the shift to the right and thickening of the tails of the BMI distribution. Interestingly, we find no evidence of a relationship between time preference and weight loss attempts, suggesting that the observed effect on BMI represents rational inter-temporal substitution rather than self-control problems.
Bibliography Citation
Courtemanche, Charles and Patrick McAlvanah. "Impatience, Incentives, and Obesity." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), March 23, 2011.
7. Craigie, Terry-Ann
Ban the Box, Convictions, and Public Sector Employment
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), January 27, 2017.
Also: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2906893
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Public Sector; Racial Equality/Inequality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 2004, the grassroots civil rights organization All of Us or None, advocated for the implementation of Ban the Box (BTB) policies to improve the employment outcomes of the correctional population, especially within the public sector. However, scholars argue that young low-skilled minority males may be subject to employer use of statistical (racial) discrimination. The study employs quasi-experimental methods to identify the impact of public sector BTB policies on public sector employment. In general, the study finds that public sector BTB policies increase the odds of public sector employment for those with convictions by close to 40%; however, the study uncovers no evidence of statistical (racial) discrimination against young low-skilled minority males.
Bibliography Citation
Craigie, Terry-Ann. "Ban the Box, Convictions, and Public Sector Employment." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), January 27, 2017.
8. Cummings, Benjamin F.
Finke, Michael S.
James, Russell N. III
The Impact of Cognitive Ability on Roth IRA Ownership
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, October 2011.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1968984
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Assets; Cognitive Ability; Financial Investments; Pensions; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Achieving policy objectives through the tax code may be compromised by the complexity of tax minimization strategies. To take advantage of favorable tax policy, consumers must understand the tax code and the potential benefits. Calculating the financial benefits of a tax policy can be difficult, especially when comparing tax-deferral strategies because the benefits will not be realized immediately. Roth IRAs provide a prime example of a deferred tax minimization tool because the tax benefits of a Roth IRA are not realized until retirement. This study analyzes the impact that cognitive ability has on the adoption of favorable tax strategies by following the adoption of the Roth IRA after its creation. Using data from the 2004 and 2008 administrations of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we hypothesize that higher cognitive ability is positively related to owning a Roth IRA and to early Roth IRA adoption. Consistent with our hypothesis, we find that cognitive ability is positively related to Roth IRA ownership and early adoption, even when controlling for education, income, and net worth. Individuals with higher cognitive ability are better able to legally minimize their tax liability, thereby maximizing household utility. If households with higher cognitive ability are better able to recognize and implement beneficial changes in the tax code, then tax policy will yield unintended distributional consequences. The complexity of tax minimization strategies also limits the ability of policy to modify household behavior in the ways envisioned by policymakers.
Bibliography Citation
Cummings, Benjamin F., Michael S. Finke and Russell N. III James. "The Impact of Cognitive Ability on Roth IRA Ownership." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, October 2011.
9. Daouli, Joan
Davillas, Apostolos
Demoussis, MIchael
Giannakopoulos, Nicholas
Exploring Gender Specific Wage Differentials Between Obese and Non-Obese Adults: Evidence from the NLSY
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), January 29, 2010.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1544426
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Obesity; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we investigate obese/non-obese wage differentials using microdata for white individuals from the 2000 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using longitudinal information we estimated transition probability indices and synthetic mobility measures for moving in-and-out of the obese group. The results clearly show that obesity is a rather permanent characteristic. Then, we apply typical Oaxaca-Blinder wage decompositions to identify the proportion of the observed gender-specific wage differential between obese and non-obese. Based on numerous specifications and alternative sub-samples the results provide strong evidence for the existence of wage differentials in favor of non-obese individuals, which can be mostly explained by differences in early human capital investments and especially schooling investments.
Bibliography Citation
Daouli, Joan, Apostolos Davillas, MIchael Demoussis and Nicholas Giannakopoulos. "Exploring Gender Specific Wage Differentials Between Obese and Non-Obese Adults: Evidence from the NLSY." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), January 29, 2010.
10. Grossberg, Adam J.
The Effect of Formal Training on Employment Duration
SSRN Working Paper Series, Social Science Research Network, January 17, 2000.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=183408
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Employment; Human Capital; Statistical Analysis; Training; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the effects of formal training on employment duration. Using an approach meant to distinguish between training as an unconditional investment and training as an outcome conditional on the quality of the job match, I find that on-site training received early in an employment spell--before the quality of a job match is likely to have been fully revealed--results in significantly longer employment spells, particularly for men.
Bibliography Citation
Grossberg, Adam J. "The Effect of Formal Training on Employment Duration." SSRN Working Paper Series, Social Science Research Network, January 17, 2000.
11. Henry, Matthew
Cunningham, Scott
Do Statutory Rape Laws Work?
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, March 2009.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1443273##
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Crime; Sexual Behavior; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Every state in the United States has laws which prohibit sexual activity with individuals under a certain age. These laws are typically strict liability. Generally, they are justified under the auspice of protecting young women from 'predatory' older males. However, nobody has examined the effectiveness of these laws. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLSY), and exploiting the differences in the laws among states and over time, we examine whether the laws restricting the number of legal sexual partners delays the sexual debut of both males and females. We find that the laws are successful in accomplishing these goals. Overall, an additional 1 year of potential partners leads to about a 10% increase in the probability of sexual debut at any age.
Bibliography Citation
Henry, Matthew and Scott Cunningham. "Do Statutory Rape Laws Work?" Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, March 2009.
12. Hylan, Timothy R.
Lage, Maureen J.
Treglia, Michael
Labor Market Categorization: Theory and Evidence on Initial Wages from the NLSY
Working Paper Series, Social Science Research Network (SSRN) Electronic Library, April 2, 1997.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3851
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Modeling; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias; Wage Determination; Wage Dynamics; Wage Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A pre-employment assessment of potential workers is often used by firms to mitigate the costs of poor employee selection and job placement. This paper presents an adverse selection model of the labor market wherein firms first use observable characteristics of employees as a sorting device and then offer a menu of wage contracts to induce worker self-selection by type within categories. The model yields a prediction on initial wages distinct from models of human capital, learning, and search. A test of the prediction is conducted using the 1986-1993 panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and the main result provides evidence supporting the categorization model. Copyright © 2003 Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Bibliography Citation
Hylan, Timothy R., Maureen J. Lage and Michael Treglia. "Labor Market Categorization: Theory and Evidence on Initial Wages from the NLSY." Working Paper Series, Social Science Research Network (SSRN) Electronic Library, April 2, 1997.
13. Imberman, Scott Andrew
Are There Returns to Attending a Private College or University?
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, July 2006.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=975492
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); College Education; Earnings; Family Influences; Geographical Variation; High School; High School and Beyond (HSB); National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS72); School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Strains on the Federal budget have created worries that Federal funding of aid for higher education will fall in the future. If this happens, state governments will need to try to allocate their higher education spending more efficiently. One possible way to do this would be to shift funding away from public provision towards demand-side subsidies so that more students could attend private colleges. However, this will only work if private colleges provide benefits to students over public. I use highly detailed and rich data sets to assess whether there are benefits to attending private colleges over public ones. Taking my estimates to be upper bounds, while the returns for men are positive, I find little evidence of any wage returns for women. These results do not appear to be driven by differences between public and private students in labor force participation, or unemployment, although the estimate for bachelor degree completion is positive and significant for both genders. Thus, I find that women are no worse off at a public college than a private one.
Bibliography Citation
Imberman, Scott Andrew. "Are There Returns to Attending a Private College or University?" Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, July 2006.
14. Kahn, Lisa B.
Long-Term Labor Market Consequences of Graduating from College in a Bad Economy
SSRN Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, September 12, 2006.
Also: http://ssrn.com/abstract=702463
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Graduates; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Prestige; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[First Draft: March, 2003].
This paper studies the labor market experiences of white male college graduates as a function of economic conditions at time of college graduation. I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth whose respondents graduated college between 1979 and 1988 and are followed for 14 to 23 years after college graduation. I use both national and state variation in economic conditions at time of college graduation to identify the effect. Because timing and location of college graduation could potentially be affected by economic conditions, I also instrument for these variables using age and state of residence at age 14. I find large, negative wage effects to graduating in a worse economy which persist for the entire period studied. I find that cohorts who graduate in worse economies are in lower level occupations and this explains a portion of the wage effect. There is slightly higher propensity to attain a graduate or professional degree among those who graduated in worse economies, while labor supply is unaffected. I analyze several theories predicting long-run wage effects and find that both occupational attainment differences and disparities in task-specific human capital investment are consistent with the data.
Bibliography Citation
Kahn, Lisa B. "Long-Term Labor Market Consequences of Graduating from College in a Bad Economy." SSRN Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, September 12, 2006.
15. Manso, Gustavo
Experimentation and the Returns to Entrepreneurship
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, October 2015.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2527034
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Earnings; Entrepreneurship; Life Course; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous studies have argued that entrepreneurs earn less and bear more risk than salaried workers with otherwise similar characteristics. In a simple model of entrepreneurship, I show that estimates of mean and variance of returns to entrepreneurship used by these previous studies are biased, as they are based on cross-sectional data and fail to account for the option value of experimenting with new ideas. Using longitudinal data, I find patterns that are consistent with entrepreneurship as experimentation and returns to entrepreneurship that are more attractive than established by previous research.
Bibliography Citation
Manso, Gustavo. "Experimentation and the Returns to Entrepreneurship." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, October 2015.
16. Mansour, Hani
McKinnish, Terra
Who Marries Differently-Aged Spouses? Earnings, Ability and Appearance
Working Paper Series, SSRN - Social Science Research Network, April 26, 2011.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1823746
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Census of Population; Cognitive Development; Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Differences; Marriage; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In direct contrast to conventional wisdom and most economic models of gender differences in age of marriage, we present robust evidence that men and women who are married to differently-aged spouses are negatively selected. Earnings analysis of married couples in the 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000 Decennial Censuses finds that male earnings decrease with within-couple age difference, regardless of whether the man is older or younger than his wife. In contrast, female earnings increase with within-couple age difference. We argue and present evidence that women in differently-aged couples have higher earnings not because of positive selection, but because their hours of work increase in response to partnering with a lower earning man. We test for negative selection into differently-aged couples using three measures: average earnings per hour in occupation using Census data, cognitive skills assessments from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79), and measures of physical appearance from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The point estimates indicate negative selection on all of these characteristics, although statistical significance varies by outcome and sample.
Bibliography Citation
Mansour, Hani and Terra McKinnish. "Who Marries Differently-Aged Spouses? Earnings, Ability and Appearance." Working Paper Series, SSRN - Social Science Research Network, April 26, 2011.
17. Mroz, Thomas
Li, Guo
A Monte Carlo Study of Migration and Child Educational Production: Aggregated vs. Disaggregated Resource Modeling
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), February 2013.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2225473
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Common Core of Data (CCD); Educational Outcomes; Endogeneity; Geocoded Data; Migration Patterns; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper studies the sensitivity of estimates on various assumptions about aggregation in modeling the school's effect in child educational production. Building a structural model to control the endogeneity of school qualities in the production function, the authors uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the performance of a "correct" aggregation educational production model versus simple aggregation educational production model in estimating school resources' effect on academic outcome. Comparion of both specifications to the benchmark model without aggregation shows that the simple aggregation of school resources over a geographic area causes serious specification errors, and thus generate biased estimates for the marginal contribution of the school resources to test scores. Fortunately, such biasedness can be minimized by using the "correct" aggregation specification.
Bibliography Citation
Mroz, Thomas and Guo Li. "A Monte Carlo Study of Migration and Child Educational Production: Aggregated vs. Disaggregated Resource Modeling." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), February 2013.
18. Park, Tae-Youn
Lee, Eun-Suk
Budd, John W.
What Do Unions Do for Mothers? Paid Maternity Leave Use and the Multifaceted Roles of Labor Unions
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), June 6, 2017.
Also: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2981956
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Unions; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The authors present a four-fold conceptual framework of union roles for enhancing workers' paid maternity leave use, consisting of availability, awareness, affordability, and assurance. Using a panel data set constructed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, workers represented by unions are found to be at least 16 percent more likely to use paid maternity leave than comparable non-union workers. Additional results suggest that availability, awareness, and affordability contribute to this differential leave-taking. The authors also document a post-leave wage growth penalty for paid leave-takers, but do not find a significant union-nonunion difference.
Bibliography Citation
Park, Tae-Youn, Eun-Suk Lee and John W. Budd. "What Do Unions Do for Mothers? Paid Maternity Leave Use and the Multifaceted Roles of Labor Unions." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), June 6, 2017.
19. Price, Curtis R.
Changing Promotion Standards - Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, October 2008.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2261203
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Promotion; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Few studies of promotion have focused on large panel data sets. Notable exceptions have focused on the popular data set from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY). Data from the NLSY have been utilized in at least four studies of promotion standards, with the finding that women are held to higher promotion standards than otherwise equally qualified men. All of these studies have utilized older data from the 1984-1990 survey years of the NLSY. During these years the subjects in the survey were between the ages of 19-33 years old. I explore the differences in promotion with data from the most recent survey years from 1996-2006, where subjects are now between the ages of 31 and 46. The findings indicate that although there was strong evidence of promotion disparity in the early years of subject’s working careers; these effects have lessened as they have entered the prime working years. Additionally, we explore the wage gains attached to promotions. While the data from the subject’s early working career show wage gains attached to promotion that favor women, the more recent data shows no discernable difference in wage gains attached to promotion.
Bibliography Citation
Price, Curtis R. "Changing Promotion Standards - Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, October 2008.
20. Shapiro, Joel D.
Wu, Stephen
Fatalism and Savings
Working Paper Series, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), July 23, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1673906
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Control; Risk Perception; Savings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the impact of fatalism, the belief that one has little or no control over future events, on the decision of whether or not to save. We develop a model that predicts that fatalism decreases savings for moderately risk averse individuals, increases savings for highly risk averse individuals, and otherwise has no impact. Furthermore, fatalism decreases effort in learning about savings and investment options. We use data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and find general support for the theoretical predictions of the model. The results are robust to the inclusion of a number of additional control variables.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, Joel D. and Stephen Wu. "Fatalism and Savings." Working Paper Series, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), July 23, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1673906.
21. Williams, Geoffrey
A Simple Threshold Model of Theft
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), November 14, 2011.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1978855
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Heterogeneity; Modeling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I propose a simple threshold strategy model of theft in which all individuals draw theft opportunities from the same random distribution, while individuals di ffer in terms of their actual or perceived costs of theft. I estimate the model using data from the NLSY 1997 Cohort for the years 1997-2003 with a number of specifi cations, including a bivariate structural model. Across all estimations covariates that measure or are closely correlated with time preferences and impatience are strong predictors of theft while measures such as opportunity cost show little or no explanatory power. The assumption of a common distribution of opportunities is not contradicted by the data. Structural and count estimations support the conclusion that unobserved heterogeneity across individuals plays a substantial role. I uncover a previously unnoticed pattern: theft is very spiky in that the median thief is active for only a brief period of less than a year in adolescence or early adulthood. Theft thus appears to be substantially a phenomenon of high impatience individuals entering a temporary period of intensi fied risk-taking in adolescence. Finally, and in contrast to the predictions of the literature, the two count data models favored in cases of unobserved heterogeneity perform very differently, suggesting that using count models in tandem with binary models o ffers more insight than using count models in isolation.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Geoffrey. "A Simple Threshold Model of Theft." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), November 14, 2011.