Search Results

Source: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Crosnoe, Robert
Smith, Chelsea
Strohschein, Lisa
Human Capital in the Family and Early Transitions into Parenthood in the United States and Canada
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Cross-national Analysis; Educational Attainment; Human Capital; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Due to changing economic realities and evolving social norms, the age at which women and men transition in to parenthood is climbing in North America. Yet, despite this delayed parenthood, many men and women still become parents in their teens through early 20s, and these early transitions into parenthood are a window into both life course dynamics and societal inequality. Consider family human capital. The educational attainment of parents may factor into the timing of this transition because it is a marker of socioeconomic status, with all of the associated resources, opportunities, and norms, while the educational pathways of young people themselves may also matter because they shape current and future social and economic prospects. This multigenerational significance of human capital to the timing of parenthood, however, is likely structured by the broader institutional and cultural landscape. In Canada, the greater social safety net could blunt the degree to which human capital differentiates young people on early parenthood. At the same time, because of the greater prevalence of young parents in the U.S. (relative to Canada), early parenthood is less exceptional, possibly blunting the differentiating effects of human capital in that country. In this spirit, this study examines how transitions into parenthood are embedded in family histories within broader national contexts. We will apply event history analyses to the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-Young Adult Survey (U.S.), examining the timing of births before the age of 22 (for women and men), how the educational attainment of parents and young people themselves predict this timing, and how these links between family human capital and the timing of parenthood vary between countries. Doing so will offer insights into the ways that societies reinforce and break intergenerational transmissions of inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Crosnoe, Robert, Chelsea Smith and Lisa Strohschein. "Human Capital in the Family and Early Transitions into Parenthood in the United States and Canada." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
2. Fang, Muriel Z.
Parental Investment, Child Health Formation and Racial Differences
Presented: Paris, France, EUCCONET/Society For Longitudinal And Life Course Studies International Conference, October 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parental Investments; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Racial Differences; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent researchers across social and medical sciences suggest early life circumstances have long term consequences for adult physical, cognitive and emotional health. This has given rise to the theory of developmental plasticity that children are most sensitive to inputs received during their early years. Evaluation of this hypothesis demands a study that accounts for the dynamic and cumulative nature of health formation process, which is lacking in the literature. I contribute to this investigation by empirically testing the hypothesis: I estimate a value-added child health production function with time varying rates of return to investment. Using the Children of U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (CNLSY79), I employed a multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) model in which concurrent measurements act as instrumental variables. I find that investment rates of return during the prenatal and infancy periods are higher than those in subsequent periods of a child’s life. I also explore racial differences in the production function and find that rates of return to investment are lower for black children than for whites. This finding contributes to an understanding of how racial disparity in health at birth persists through childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Fang, Muriel Z. "Parental Investment, Child Health Formation and Racial Differences." Presented: Paris, France, EUCCONET/Society For Longitudinal And Life Course Studies International Conference, October 2012.
3. Kelly, Brian
Vuolo, Mike
Marijuana Use Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Social and Occupational Outcomes
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Life Course; Occupational Attainment; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Marijuana use is common as adolescent's transition into young adulthood; a majority of young Americans report lifetime use of marijuana by age 25. Yet, patterns of use vary considerably among youth as they make these life course transitions. We aim to identify types of marijuana use trajectories as well as assess the relationship of such trajectories to social and occupational outcomes at age 26. We utilize the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, an annual nationally representative survey of adolescents aged 12-16 during 1997 (n=8,984). We use data assessing each individual through age 26. Latent trajectory analyses identified 5 primary types of marijuana use across this period: non-users, occasional dabblers, consistent users, persistent heavy users, and early heavy users who quit.
Bibliography Citation
Kelly, Brian and Mike Vuolo. "Marijuana Use Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Social and Occupational Outcomes." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
4. McNamee, Catherine
White and Latino Remarriage Differences in the United States: A Case for Moving beyond the Catholic Assumption
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Hispanic Studies; Religious Influences; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the United States, Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites have similar first marriage and divorce rates, but Latinos remarry at lower rates than Whites. Although Latinos are disproportionately more Catholic than Whites and Latinos remarry less than Whites, assuming that religion is driving the remarriage difference could be a religious congruence fallacy, which occurs when religion is assumed to be the driving influence behind a behaviour actually shaped by other forces. The present study utilizes the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and discrete-time event history analysis to examine the influence of religious affiliation and attendance on ethnic remarriage differences. The findings suggest that Catholicism does not account for the lower rates of remarriage of Latinos compared to Whites. Taking into account religious affiliation had minimal to no effects on the odd ratios of 119 Latinos compared to Whites; furthermore, the odds remained significantly lower for Latinos compared to Whites, suggesting that Catholicism cannot explain White-Latino remarriage differences. These findings provide strong evidence for dispelling the previously untested but frequently assumed Catholic influence on ethnic differences in remarriage and emphasizes caution toward attaching religion to Latino family behaviour in the U.S.
Bibliography Citation
McNamee, Catherine. "White and Latino Remarriage Differences in the United States: A Case for Moving beyond the Catholic Assumption." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
5. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Caputo, Jennifer
Hardy, Melissa A.
Long-term Effects of Employment and Employment Discrimination on Women's Health and Mortality
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Discrimination, Age; Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Job; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mortality; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The short-term health effects of discrimination have been well documented, but we know much less about whether these health effects persist even after the risk of further discriminatory experiences is eliminated. In this paper we use long-term longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women and newly matched mortality records to examine whether the health effects of work discrimination persist into later life, when most women are no longer working, and whether they extend to mortality. We find that 8 percent of women report experiencing work discrimination over a 5 year period when they are between the ages of 47-66 and that the most commonly reported form of discrimination is age discrimination. After controlling for prior health, we find that women who reported experiencing workplace discrimination over this time also reported more depressive symptoms and more functional limitations at the end of the period than did women who were employed during the same period but did not report experiencing work discrimination. Women who were not employed during that same period also had more emotional and physical health problems than those who worked but did not experience discrimination. These health differences continue as women age and move into retirement even though the risk of work discrimination is eliminated, but they do not extend to all-cause mortality. Our findings suggest that the health effects of work discrimination are both broad and persistent as they impact both physical and emotional health and remain significant as women move into their retirement years. They also point to the long-term health benefits women gain from non-discriminatory employment experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K., Jennifer Caputo and Melissa A. Hardy. "Long-term Effects of Employment and Employment Discrimination on Women's Health and Mortality." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
6. Salsberry, Pamela J.
Reagan, Patricia Benton
Pajer, Kathleen
Gardner, William
Fang, Muriel Z.
Currie, Lisa
Choosing a Measure of Birth Size in Longitudinal Studies: How Do Various Measures Compare?
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Age at Menarche; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Methods/Methodology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As the fetal origins hypothesis has gained support over the past two decades, an increasing number of studies have used birth size as a predictor for later life health. Birth size is thought to matter because it is a marker of adverse intrauterine conditions that results in various structural, physiological and metabolic changes in the fetus. Empirical tests of the fetal origins hypothesis have generally provided support, but not all studies have found a relationship. This may be related to methodological differences across studies, with wide variation in how birth size is measured. For example, birth size has been captured using birth weight as a continuous measure as well as in categories of low and high weight; others capture gestational age or birth length as part of the measure. Little justification is generally provided regarding the choice of measure. But are these measures the same? Clinical research in maternal-fetal medicine indicates that different birth size measures provide different information about fetal development, thus suggesting that these measures may not be interchangeable. The purpose of this study is: i) to investigate how different birth size indexes predict young adult health outcomes, including age at menarche and BMI, outcomes that are related to adult health; and ii) whether different indexes identify the same group of high risk infants. The US based NLSY79 mother, child and young adult files are used in these analyses. Sample inclusion requires birth data and young adult outcomes on the participants. Regression analyses will be completed. Results from these analyses will help inform researchers about how various measures of birth size compare, providing empirical results to inform decisions regarding the choice of birth size measure in future studies.
Bibliography Citation
Salsberry, Pamela J., Patricia Benton Reagan, Kathleen Pajer, William Gardner, Muriel Z. Fang and Lisa Currie. "Choosing a Measure of Birth Size in Longitudinal Studies: How Do Various Measures Compare?" Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
7. Sassler, Sharon
Williams, Kristi
Addo, Fenaba
Frech, Adrianne
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?
Presented: Paris, France, EUCCONET/Society For Longitudinal And Life Course Studies International Conference, October 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at Birth; Cohabitation; Fertility; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 2008, 41% of all births in the United States occurred outside of marriage. Children born to unmarried mothers are often disadvantaged in young adulthood, including being less likely to graduate high school. In recent years, the age composition of mothers has changed; teen births declined substantially, and non-marital births are now most heavily concentrated among women in their twenties. This paper examines whether maternal age at birth differentiates the educational outcomes of children, and if this varies by maternal marital status. Data are from the linked Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). We find significant differences in the likelihood of high school graduation among youth born to a never-married versus a married mother. These disparities remain even after including controls for maternal age at birth, as well as social and economic characteristics of mothers prior to the birth. The marital status gap in the likelihood of graduating from high school among youth born to older mothers is far narrower than for youth whose mothers were either teenagers or in their early 20s when they were born, though this finding is limited to white youth. Impacts for racial educational disparities are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Sassler, Sharon, Kristi Williams, Fenaba Addo, Adrianne Frech and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?" Presented: Paris, France, EUCCONET/Society For Longitudinal And Life Course Studies International Conference, October 2012.
8. Snyder, Anastasia R.
Residential Differences in Non-marital Conception and Conception and Childbearing Outcomes in the U.S.
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Formation; Residence; Rural/Urban Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The rise in nonmarital childbearing is one of the most important changes in the family formation process in recent decades in the United States. Numerous studies have examined this trend and found significant patterns by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and education level. Few have studied geographic differences in nonmarital childbearing outcomes in the U.S., but those that do find that women from nonmetro counties have distinct behavioral outcomes related to nonmarital conceptions and childbearing. Nonmetro women have more conceptions occur within a marriage, more nonmarital conceptions that end in a live birth, and more nonmarital conceptions born in marital unions compared to either cohabiting unions or no union (Albretch & Albretch, 2004; Snyder, 2006). Unfortunately, the retrospective structure of the data and the measure of nonmetro residence in these studies are methodological problems that leave some uncertainty about these findings. This study proposes to re-examine residential differences in nonmarital conception and childbearing outcomes in the U.S. using prospective panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 and 1997 cohorts. Using both NLSY data sets will allow me to examine these outcomes across women's entire childbearing years (NLSY79) and also in a contemporary sample of young adults (NLSY97).
Bibliography Citation
Snyder, Anastasia R. "Residential Differences in Non-marital Conception and Conception and Childbearing Outcomes in the U.S." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
9. Vuolo, Mike
Kelly, Brian
Kadowaki, Joy
The Impact of Clean Air Policies on Smoking Among a National Longitudinal Panel of U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Life Course; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Restrictions on smoking in public places has become a major global public health initiative over the past decade. To assess their impact, we examine the effect of comprehensive clean air policies on the prob ability of young adult cigarette use from ages 19-32 across the U.S. We combine a database of every tobacco policy among states and cities with the geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, an annual nationally representative survey of adolescents aged 12-16 during 1997 (n=8,984). In this respect, we trace the impact of these clean-air policies from adolescence through young adulthood. Using a multilevel panel model, we find that comprehensive clean air policies lower the odds of any smoking (OR=0.788, p<.05) and smoking a pack per day (OR=0.652, p<.01) during the past 30 days, while controlling for numerous other factors at both the city and individual levels. Taking advantage of longitudinal policy data, we decompose policy into within-and between-person effects, finding that the effect on any smoking has a within-person effect; that is, a clean air policy affects a given person's odds of any smoking over time (OR=0.774, p<.05). By contrast, we see a between-person effect on daily pack smoking, such that policies distinguish between individuals who smoke at this level (OR=0.428, p<.01), but do not affect a specific person's use. We situate these findings within Bird and Rieker’s (2008) Constrained Choices framework, which states that decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts, including policy, community, and work and family, in which they are formulated. We demonstrate that policies restricting public smoking influence tobacco use over time even in the face of proximal constraints. Further, the results underscore the efficacy of clean air policies on young adult smoking behaviors throughout a critical point in the life course.
Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Brian Kelly and Joy Kadowaki. "The Impact of Clean Air Policies on Smoking Among a National Longitudinal Panel of U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
10. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Are Young Adults Losing Out on Sleep? Changes in Sleep Duration in a U.S. Population-based Study
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Labor Force Participation; Sleep; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chronic sleep problems are widespread in the U.S. population, affect an estimated 50 to 70 million U.S. adults, and are associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. We know relatively little about how sleep duration changes over time, and specifically how sleep duration changes over the course of early adulthood, a period marked by substantial transitions into and out of education, employment, and family roles. We use prospective data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a U.S. based representative sample of persons born between 1980 and 1984. Baseline interviews were conducted in 1997, with annual follow-ups through 2011. Sleep duration was assessed in 2002, 2007, 2009, 2010, and 2011. We estimated random-coefficient models to examine how sleep duration changes during early adulthood as a function of demographic characteristics, educational experiences, employment, and family roles. Results indicate that sleep duration declines from 18 to 30 years old, from approximately 7.25 hours to 6.6 hours on a typical weeknight. Men sleep an average of 1.25 hours longer than women at age 18, but this sleep advantage declines to 18 minutes by age 30. Young adults with less than a high school education sleep longer than those with more education with the exception of college-educated young adults, and this difference does not change over time. Part-time and full-time workers report shorter sleep than non-workers, but over time, this difference narrows slightly. Finally, young adults with children in the household sleep consistently less than young adults with no children in the household. Overall, U.S. young adults experience shorter sleep over the course of early adulthood, but changes in sleep duration vary widely by demographic factors, education, employment, and family roles. This study is the first to establish how sleep duration changes during this important life stage.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle and Jennifer A. Ailshire. "Are Young Adults Losing Out on Sleep? Changes in Sleep Duration in a U.S. Population-based Study." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.