Search Results

Source: Sociological Quarterly
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. Baird, Chardie L.
Reynolds, John R.
Employee Awareness of Family Leave Benefits: The Effects of Family, Work, and Gender
Sociological Quarterly 45,2 (Spring 2004): 325-353.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2004.tb00015.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Benefits; Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA); Family Studies; Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) was intended to help employees meet short-term family demands, such as caring for children and elderly parents, without losing their jobs. However, recent evidence suggests that few women and even fewer men employees avail themselves of family leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act. This paper examines the organizational, worker status, and salience/need factors associated with knowledge of family leave benefits. We study employees covered by the FMLA using the 1996 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to ascertain what work and family factors influence knowledge of leave benefits. Overall, 91 percent of employed FMLA-eligible women report they have access to unpaid family leave, compared to 72 percent of men. Logistic regression analyses demonstrate that work situations more than family situations affect knowledge of family leave benefits and that gender shapes the impact of some work and family factors on awareness. Furthermore, work and family situations do not explain away the considerable gender difference in knowledge of family leave.
Bibliography Citation
Baird, Chardie L. and John R. Reynolds. "Employee Awareness of Family Leave Benefits: The Effects of Family, Work, and Gender." Sociological Quarterly 45,2 (Spring 2004): 325-353.
2. Beck, Scott Herman
Mobility from Pre-Retirement to Post-Retirement Job
Sociological Quarterly 27,4 (December 1986): 515-531.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1986.tb00275.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Dual Economic Theory; Mobility; Mobility, Labor Market; Pensions; Retirees; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While the normative pattern of retirement is complete cessation of labor force activity, about one-third of men work during their retirement. This research focuses on such "working retirees" by investigating the prevalence and patterns of occupational mobility from pre- to post-retirement job, as well as the impact that institutional constraints on (re)employment in later life may have on the chances of occupational mobility. Using data from the NLS Older Men's cohort, a sample of working retirees was extracted from men who retired between 1967 and 1978. Results showed a substantial amount of occupational mobility among the working retired. The structure of mobility was found to be similar to younger labor force participants in that most mobility consists of moves to adjacent occupational categories. Unlike career mobility of non-retired workers, however, the large majority of moves constituted downward mobility. Using the economic segmentation perspective, log-linear and logistic regression analyses indicated that working retirees whose pre-retirement jobs were in the core sector were more likely to experience occupational mobility. As a more specific indicator of bureaucratic control of the labor force, industry-level pension coverage rates were used in the logistic regressions and higher rates of pension coverage were found to result in a greater likelihood of mobility. These results indicate that the considerable occupational mobility experienced by working-retirees is partially the result of structural constraints on the employment of older men.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "Mobility from Pre-Retirement to Post-Retirement Job." Sociological Quarterly 27,4 (December 1986): 515-531.
3. Beck, Scott Herman
The Role of Other Family Members in Intergenerational Occupational Mobility
Sociological Quarterly 24,2 (Spring 1983): 273-285.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1983.tb00702.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Family, Extended; Fathers, Influence; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Aspirations; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The concept of "occupational origin" has traditionally been measured by father's occupation only, especially in studies of occupational mobility. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the occupations of other family members are additional components of men's occupational origins. Using data from the NLS of Older Men, the traditional father-son mobility table was expanded to include paternal grandfathers' occupations and mothers' occupations. Log-linear analyses of these expanded mobility tables showed that paternal grandfathers' and mothers' occupations have significant associations with sons' occupations, controlling for level of fathers' occupations. The association between grandfathers' and sons' occupations is stronger than that between mothers' and sons' occupations. It was concluded that, while father's occupation is the main component, it does not fully capture the impact of occupational origin. Consequently, intergenerational mobility may be less frequent than is indicated in traditional father-son mobility analyses.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "The Role of Other Family Members in Intergenerational Occupational Mobility." Sociological Quarterly 24,2 (Spring 1983): 273-285.
4. Blee, Kathleen M.
Tickamyer, Ann R.
Black-White Differences in Mother to Daughter Transmission of Sex-Role Attitudes
Sociological Quarterly 28,2 (June 1987): 205-222.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1987.tb00291.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Behavior; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers and Daughters; Pairs (also see Siblings); Racial Differences; Sex Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A model of sex-role transmission from mothers to daughters is constructed, using data from three survey years of the NLS of Mature Women and Young Women (number of cases not provided). A series of hypotheses are developed, specifying race differences on how mothers' sex-role attitudes and work behavior during daughters' adolescence influence daughters' adult work and sex-role attitudes. The major difference between blacks and whites does not lie in the relationship between attitudes and behavior within cohort, but rather in the manner in which these are transmitted across generations. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Blee, Kathleen M. and Ann R. Tickamyer. "Black-White Differences in Mother to Daughter Transmission of Sex-Role Attitudes." Sociological Quarterly 28,2 (June 1987): 205-222.
5. Bould, Sally
Black and White Families: Factors Affecting the Wife's Contribution to the Family Income Where the Husband's Income is Low to Moderate
Sociological Quarterly 18,4 (Autumn 1977): 536-547.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1977.tb01143.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Husbands, Attitudes; Poverty; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Wives, Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The economic role of the black wife in contrast to her husband's weak economic position is a key assumption in Moynihan's thesis of a black matriarchy. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of women, aged 30 to 44, in 1967, this paper examines the factors affecting the wife's contribution to the family income for both black and white families where the husband's income is below the median of all male-headed families. The results suggest that black wives and white wives respond similarly with respect to their overall contribution, the demand for female labor, and the effect of children. There is no support, moreover, for Moynihan's assumption that black wives are compensating for their husband's weak economic position. It appears, however, that the definition of the provider may differ among black families and white families.
Bibliography Citation
Bould, Sally. "Black and White Families: Factors Affecting the Wife's Contribution to the Family Income Where the Husband's Income is Low to Moderate." Sociological Quarterly 18,4 (Autumn 1977): 536-547.
6. Cotter, David A.
Hermsen, Joan M.
Vanneman, Reeve
The Effects of Occupational Gender Segregation Across Race
Sociological Quarterly 44,1 (Winter 2003): 17-36.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2003.tb02389.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Ethnic Studies; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Labor Market Segmentation; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Sex Roles; Sexual Division of Labor; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The general relationship between occupational gender segregation and earnings inequality is well documented, although few studies have examined the relationship separately by race/ethnicity. This article investigates occupational gender segregation effects across whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. In addition, we explore two ways in which segregation may affect earnings: (1) by lowering the earnings of workers in female-dominated occupations and (2) by lowering the earnings of all workers in highly segregated labor markets. Our central findings are that both segregation effects contribute to earnings inequality and that the effects are observed quite broadly across racial/ethnic groups, although they particularly impact the earnings of African American women.
Bibliography Citation
Cotter, David A., Joan M. Hermsen and Reeve Vanneman. "The Effects of Occupational Gender Segregation Across Race." Sociological Quarterly 44,1 (Winter 2003): 17-36.
7. Davies, Scott
Tanner, Julian
The Long Arm of the Law: Effects of Labeling on Employment
Sociological Quarterly 44,3 (Summer 2003): 385-405.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2003.tb00538.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Family Background; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Incarceration/Jail; Occupational Status; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; School Suspension/Expulsion; Schooling; Social Environment; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article offers a test of labeling theory by exploring whether contact with school and justice system authorities has long-term, negative, and independent effects on an individual's labor market success. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), a large and nationally representative sample, to examine whether experiences ranging from school suspension to incarceration during ages 15–23 can predict occupational status, income, and employment during ages 29–37. Unlike previous studies, we control for an exhaustive list of variables: social background, human capital, prior deviant behavior, family status, and local context. Our findings generally support labelling theory. Severe forms of labeling like sentencing and incaraceration have the strongest negative effects, though among females suspension or expulsion from school also has consistently negative effects. We conclude with a discussion of how labeling might reduce employment chances, with a focus on gender differences.
Bibliography Citation
Davies, Scott and Julian Tanner. "The Long Arm of the Law: Effects of Labeling on Employment." Sociological Quarterly 44,3 (Summer 2003): 385-405.
8. Falci, Christina
Family Structure, Closeness to Residential and Nonresidential Parents, and Psychological Distress in Early and Middle Adolescence
Sociological Quarterly 47,1 (Winter 2006): 123-146.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2006.00040.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Depression (see also CESD); Family Income; Family Structure; Household Composition; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

American adolescents currently live in a variety of different family structures, with the vast majority of adolescents living in intact, blended, divorced, and never-married families. Previous research shows that family structure correlates both with the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent psychological distress. The quality of parent-adolescent relationships also correlates with adolescent distress. This research hypothesizes that the observed differences in adolescent distress across family structure might result from differences in the quality of parent-adolescent relationships across family structure. Analyses, using data on 1,443 youth in early and middle adolescence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), indicate that when the variations in both the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and background characteristics across family structure are controlled, the association between family structure and adolescent psychological distress is significantly reduced. Further analyses revealed that the quality of residential parent adolescent relationships explained the most variation in adolescent psychological distress. The quality of relationships with nonresidential fathers only had a significant association with adolescent psychological distress for adolescents in blended families.
Bibliography Citation
Falci, Christina. "Family Structure, Closeness to Residential and Nonresidential Parents, and Psychological Distress in Early and Middle Adolescence." Sociological Quarterly 47,1 (Winter 2006): 123-146.
9. Howell, Frank M.
Bronson, Deborah Richey
The Journey to Work and Gender Inequality in Earnings: A Cross-Validation Study for the United States
The Sociological Quarterly 37,3 (June 1996): 429-447.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1996.tb00747.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Commuting/Type, Time, Method; Earnings; Gender Differences; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market, Secondary; Rural/Urban Differences; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It has been well-documented that women tend to not travel as far as men to work. One interpretation of this consistent finding has been that women face more spatially constrained labor markets than men and these constraints are thought to be a factor in the gender-gap in earnings. A recent study of Tel Aviv, Israel by Semyonov and Lewin-Epstein (1991) found that there is a clear tendency for working women to hold employment more in the vicinity of their homes than do men. Their observed deficits in earnings by employed women were thought to be exchanged for compliance with traditional gender role expectations. Our study cross-validates key portions of the Semyonov and Lewin-Epstein study for the U.S. by examining the location of labor markets and their relationship to gender inequality in earnings in the 1988 wave of the NLSY panel database. Using annual earnings as the dependent variable, we parallel their multiple regression analysis using similarly defined variables. The time-to-work reports of NLSY panel members are used to assess their commuting behavior and the results of this analysis are compared across four types of residential locations: rural, small urban, suburban, and large central city. We modestly confirm the gender inequalities in earnings produced by differential commuting behaviors for men and women but cannot fully generalize them to a broad set of residentially-defined labor market. For instance, women in suburban settings do have a higher return in earnings from time spent commuting but this effect is not significantly higher than the same returns for suburban men. A somewhat surprising negative effect of commuting time on the earnings of suburban women and men was also observed. Future research on this problem involving the "perceived constraint" hypothesis to explain the commuting gap between men and women is outlined.
Bibliography Citation
Howell, Frank M. and Deborah Richey Bronson. "The Journey to Work and Gender Inequality in Earnings: A Cross-Validation Study for the United States." The Sociological Quarterly 37,3 (June 1996): 429-447.
10. Lyon, Larry
Abell, Troy
Male Entry into the Labor Force: Estimates of Occupational Rewards and Labor Market Discrimination
Sociological Quarterly 21,1 (Winter 1980): 81-92.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1980.tb02200.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Family Influences; Mobility; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Causal models of initial occupational rewards for black and white males are developed from the responses of first-year workers in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience. A comparison of the black and white models shows that while blacks have experienced considerable upward mobility, their income and prestige remain far behind their white counterparts. Two explanations for this racial gap are indicated by the data: (1) blacks begin work with lower levels of key background variables, and (2) racial discrimination in the labor market. Our measurement of racial discrimination in labor market entry accounts for only a small proportion of the gap between black and white levels of rewards; and when compared with earlier research, the data indicate a national trend of decreasing racial discrimination in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Lyon, Larry and Troy Abell. "Male Entry into the Labor Force: Estimates of Occupational Rewards and Labor Market Discrimination." Sociological Quarterly 21,1 (Winter 1980): 81-92.
11. Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A.
Sex, Educational Differentiation, and Occupational Status: Analyzing Occupational Differences for Community and Four-Year College Entrants
Sociological Quarterly 24,3 (Summer 1983): 393-404.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1983.tb00709.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): College Education; Colleges; Gender Differences; Occupational Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on the Fames data, the author analyzes how the differentiation of higher education into sectors affects current occupational status among a homogeneous age population. The sample consists of young men and women ten years after high school graduation. Past studies analyzing correlations between educational level and occupational status virtually ignore the effects of community college attendance. Most earlier work defines school quality solely in terms of per-pupil expenditures, but these studies fail to account for the complexity of the higher educational system in the United States today. My research shows that the type of first college entered is a significant variable in analyzing differences in occupational status, even when holding constant variations in ability, socioeconomic background, and college goal. The average status of four-year college entrants' jobs is almost 12 points higher on the Duncan scale than the status of community college entrants' jobs. Community college entrants suffer an occupational penalty, compared to four-year college entrants, even when controlling for years of education.
Bibliography Citation
Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A. "Sex, Educational Differentiation, and Occupational Status: Analyzing Occupational Differences for Community and Four-Year College Entrants." Sociological Quarterly 24,3 (Summer 1983): 393-404.
12. Reeder, Amy L.
Conger, Rand D.
Differential Mother and Father Influences on the Educational Attainment of Black and White Women
Sociological Quarterly 25,2 (Spring 1984): 239-250.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1984.tb00185.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Fathers, Influence; Parental Influences; Racial Differences

This paper examines the effects of maternal and parental education, occupation, and encouragement on the educational attainment of women, and whether these influences operate similarly for blacks and whites. Data from the NLS of Young Women are used to examine the situations of 428 white and 145 black females. Findings indicate different patterns in the way mothers and fathers affect their daughters' educational attainments.For both groups of women, father's education was more important than that of the mother, but mother's occupation was more important than that of the father. Mother's occupation and parental expectation variables were important for black women, while parental education variables were more important for white women.
Bibliography Citation
Reeder, Amy L. and Rand D. Conger. "Differential Mother and Father Influences on the Educational Attainment of Black and White Women." Sociological Quarterly 25,2 (Spring 1984): 239-250.
13. Reid, Lori Lynn
Padavic, Irene
Employment Exits and the Race Gap in Young Women's Employment
Social Science Quarterly 86, Supplement s1 (December 2005): 1242-1260.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00344.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Employment; Event History; Exits; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Women

Objective. A race gap in employment that disadvantages young African-American women has emerged for the first time in U.S. history. This article addresses the extent to which race differences in employment entry, exits, or both are responsible for the gap. Methods. The article relies on event-history analysis using NLSY data. Results. Analyses show that differences in rates of exit, not entry, explain the race gap. Factors encouraging higher exit rates among African-American than white women include lower AFQT scores and greater numbers of children. Conclusion. These findings raise questions about the utility of focusing on employment processes at the point of employment entry, at least for processes involving young women. The importance of exits in understanding race differences in women's employment calls attention to processes within firms that present barriers to African-American women. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Reid, Lori Lynn and Irene Padavic. "Employment Exits and the Race Gap in Young Women's Employment." Social Science Quarterly 86, Supplement s1 (December 2005): 1242-1260.
14. Wilson, John
Musick, Marc
Doing Well by Doing Good: Volunteering and Occupational Achievement Among American Women
Sociological Quarterly 44,3 (Summer 2003) :433-450.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2003.tb00540.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Life Course; Occupational Attainment; Volunteer Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, the researchers build on an earlier body of research to verify any truth behind the assumption that volunteer work helps people get good jobs. A survey of related literature regarding volunteering and employment is presented. The analytical design of the research is discussed. The researchers use the National Longitudinal Survey of the Labor Market Experience of Young Women which provides the data to be applied for the theory. The young women in the experiment exhibit a fairly conventional life-course trajectory as they move from early adulthood to the middle ages. The social mechanisms linking voluntarism and employment is discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Wilson, John and Marc Musick. "Doing Well by Doing Good: Volunteering and Occupational Achievement Among American Women." Sociological Quarterly 44,3 (Summer 2003) :433-450.